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Introduction to Spread-Spectrum Communications

By Roger L. Peterson (Motorola), Rodger E. Ziemer (University of Co. at Colorado Springs), and David E.
Borth (Motorola)
Prentice Hall, 1995
(Navtech order #2430)

Table of Contents
Preface
Acknowledgments
Prologue

........................................................................................................XIII
...................................................................................................... XVII
............................................................................................................ 1

Chapter 1
1.1
1.2

Basic Digital Communications Concepts ....................................................................... 6


Introduction
............................................................................................................ 6
Detection of binary signals in additive white Gaussian noise .......................................... 6
1.2.1 Coherent modulation schemes ........................................................................... 6
1.2.2 Noncoherent modulation schemes.................................................................... 12
1.3
Signal detection in geometric terms ............................................................................. 15
1.3.1 Gram-Schmidt procedure................................................................................. 15
1.3.2 Geometric view of signal detection .................................................................. 16
1.3.3 M-ary phase shift keying ................................................................................. 18
1.3.4 Coherent M-ary frequency shift keying ............................................................ 20
1.3.5 M-ary quadrature amplitude shift keying.......................................................... 21
1.3.6 Differentially coherent phase-shift keying........................................................ 22
1.3.7 Noncoherent M-ary FSK.................................................................................. 23
1.3.8 Hybrid modulation schemes............................................................................. 23
1.4
Comparison of modulation schemes............................................................................. 31
1.4.1 Bandwidth efficiency....................................................................................... 31
1.4.2 Power efficiency.............................................................................................. 32
1.5
Signaling through fading channels ............................................................................... 33
1.6
Summary
.......................................................................................................... 41
References
.......................................................................................................... 41
Problems
.......................................................................................................... 43

Chapter 2: Introduction to Spread Spectrum Systems........................................................................ 47


2.1
Introduction
.......................................................................................................... 47
2.2
Two communications problems ................................................................................... 48
2.2.1 Pulse-noise jamming ....................................................................................... 48
2.2.2 Low probability of detection............................................................................ 50
2.3
Direct sequence spread spectrum ................................................................................. 64
2.4
Frequency hop spread spectrum................................................................................... 68
2.4.1 Coherent slow frequency hop spread spectrum................................................. 68
2.4.2 Noncoherent slow frequency hop spread spectrum ........................................... 73
2.4.3 Noncoherent fast frequency hop spread spectrum............................................. 75
2.5
Hybrid direct sequence/frequency hop spread spectrum ............................................... 75
2.6
Complex envelope representation of spread spectrum systems...................................... 78
2.7
Summary
.......................................................................................................... 83
References
.......................................................................................................... 83
Problems
.......................................................................................................... 84
Chapter 3: Binary Shift Register Sequences for Spread Spectrum Systems........................................ 89
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3.1
3.2

Introduction
.......................................................................................................... 89
Definitions, mathematical background and sequence generator fundamentals ............... 90
3.2.1 Definitions ...................................................................................................... 90
3.2.2 Finite field arithmetic ...................................................................................... 91
3.2.3 Sequence generator fundamentals .................................................................... 99
3.2.4 State machine representation of shift register generators..................................109
3.3
Maximal length sequences..........................................................................................113
3.3.1 Properties of m-sequences...............................................................................113
3.3.2 Power spectrum of m-sequences .....................................................................115
3.3.3 Tables of polynomials yielding m-sequences...................................................117
3.3.4 Partial autocorrelation properties of m-sequences ............................................121
3.3.5 Power spectrum of c(t)c(t+H) ..........................................................................125
3.3.6 Generation of specific delays of an m-sequence...............................................128
3.4
Gold codes
.........................................................................................................135
3.5
Nonlinear code generators ..........................................................................................138
3.6
Summary
.........................................................................................................142
References
.........................................................................................................143
Problems
.........................................................................................................144
Chapter 4: Code Tracking Loops.....................................................................................................149
4.1
Introduction
.........................................................................................................149
4.2
Optimum tracking of wideband signals .......................................................................150
4.3
Baseband delay lock tracking loop..............................................................................153
4.4
Noncoherent delay lock tracking loop .........................................................................164
4.5
Tau-dither noncoherent tracking loop..........................................................................179
4.6
Double-dither noncoherent tracking loop ....................................................................189
4.7
Noncoherent delay lock tracking loop with arbitrary data and
Spreading modulation.................................................................................................192
4.8
Code tracking loops for frequency hop systems...........................................................201
4.9
Summary
.........................................................................................................213
References
.........................................................................................................215
Problems
.........................................................................................................216
Chapter 5: Initial Synchronization of the Receiver Spreading Code..................................................221
5.1
Introduction
.........................................................................................................221
5.2
Problem definition and the optimum synchronizer ......................................................223
5.3
Serial search synchronization techniques ....................................................................225
5.3.1 Calculation of the mean and variance of synchronization time.........................225
5.3.2 Modified sweep strategies ..............................................................................230
5.3.3 Continuous linear sweep of the uncertainty region ..........................................233
5.3.4 Detection of a signal in additive white Gaussian noise.....................................240
5.4
Generalized analysis of average synchronization time .................................................283
5.5
Synchronization using a matched filter .......................................................................291
5.6
Synchronization by estimating the received spreading code.........................................301
5.7
Tracking loop pull-in..................................................................................................303
5.8
Summary
.........................................................................................................308
References
.........................................................................................................311
Problems
.........................................................................................................315
Chapter 6: Performance of Spread Spectrum Systems in Jamming Environments.............................319
6.1
Introduction
.........................................................................................................319
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6.2
6.3

Spread spectrum communication system model ..........................................................320


Performance of spread spectrum systems without coding ............................................326
6.3.1 Performance in AWGN or barrage noise jamming ..........................................327
6.3.2 Performance in partial band jamming..............................................................337
6.3.3 Performance in pulsed noise jamming.............................................................350
6.3.4 Performance in single tone jamming ...............................................................354
6.3.5 Performance in multiple tone jamming ...........................................................368
6.3.6 Conclusions ...................................................................................................373
6.4
Summary
.........................................................................................................374
References
.........................................................................................................375
Problems
.........................................................................................................378
Chapter 7:
7.1
7.2

Performance of Spread Spectrum Systems with Forward Error Correction...................381


Introduction
.........................................................................................................381
Elementary block coding concepts..............................................................................382
7.2.1 Basic concepts................................................................................................403
7.2.2 Optimum decoding rule ..................................................................................385
7.2.3 Calculation of error probability.......................................................................391
7.3
Elementary convolutional coding concepts .................................................................403
7.3.1 Basic concepts................................................................................................403
7.3.2 Definition of a convolutional code ..................................................................404
7.3.3 Decoding convolutional codes ........................................................................408
7.3.4 Viterbi algorithm............................................................................................413
7.3.5 Decoding and bit error probability ..................................................................427
7.3.6 Other topics 429
7.4
Results for specific error correction codes...................................................................431
7.4.1 BCH codes .....................................................................................................431
7.4.2 Reed-Solomon codes ......................................................................................433
7.4.3 Maximum free distance convolutional codes ...................................................434
7.4.4 Repeat coding for the hard decision FH/MFSK channel ..................................435
7.5
Interleaving
.........................................................................................................447
7.6
Coding bounds .........................................................................................................449
7.6.1 Error probability bounds using the channel parameter D..................................449
7.6.2 Computational cutoff rate Ro..........................................................................453
7.7
Summary
.........................................................................................................454
References
.........................................................................................................455
Problems
.........................................................................................................458
Chapter 8: Introduction to Fading Channels.....................................................................................460
8.1
Introduction
.........................................................................................................460
8.2
Statistical model of fading ..........................................................................................460
8.2.1 General fading channel model.........................................................................462
8.2.2 WSSUS fading channels.................................................................................467
8.2.3 Doubly spread channels..................................................................................468
8.2.4 Time selective fading channels .......................................................................471
8.2.5 Frequency selective fading channels ...............................................................475
8.2.6 Nondispersive fading channels........................................................................480
8.3
Characterization of the mobile radio channel ..............................................................482
8.3.1 time selective fading.......................................................................................483
8.3.2 Frequency selective fading .............................................................................486
8.3.3 Mobile radio path loss ....................................................................................488
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8.3.4 Shadowing .....................................................................................................490


8.3.5 Coverage reliability ........................................................................................491
8.4
Requirement for diversity in fading channels ..............................................................493
8.4.1 Diversity approaches ......................................................................................497
8.4.2 Diversity combining methods .........................................................................500
8.4.3 Performance of maximal ratio combining........................................................502
8.4.4 Other diversity combining methods.................................................................506
8.4.5 The Rake receiver...........................................................................................507
8.4.6 Summary: The benefits of diversity.................................................................512
8.5
Summary
.........................................................................................................513
References
.........................................................................................................513
Problems
.........................................................................................................517
Chapter 9: Code Division Multiple Access Digital Cellular Systems ................................................520
9.1
Introduction
.........................................................................................................520
9.2
Cellular radio concept.................................................................................................520
9.2.1 Fundamentals of cellular radio systems ...........................................................521
9.2.2 Co-channel interference protection prediction .................................................526
9.2.3 Cellular concept revisited ..............................................................................528
9.3
CDMA digital cellular systems ...................................................................................530
9.3.1 General aspects of CDMA digital cellular systems ..........................................535
9.3.2 Special aspects of CDMA digital cellular systems ...........................................535
9.4
Specific examples of CDMA digital cellular systems ..................................................535
9.4.1 North American DS-CDM digital cellular system (IS-95)................................536
9.4.2 Cooper and Nettleton DPSK-FHMA system ...................................................550
9.4.3 Bell Labs multilevel FSK frequency hop system .............................................553
9.4.4 SFH900 system ..............................................................................................559
9.4.5 GSM-SFH digital cellular system ...................................................................561
9.4.6 Hybrid SFH TDMA/CDMA system for PCS applications ...............................566
9.5
Summary
.........................................................................................................572
References
.........................................................................................................574
Problems
.........................................................................................................581
Chapter 10: Low Probability-of-Intercept Methods..........................................................................584
10.1 Introduction
.........................................................................................................584
10.2 Nature of covert communications ...............................................................................584
10.3 Energy detection in AWGN........................................................................................586
10.4 Optimum intercept receivers for spread spectrum signals ............................................591
10.4.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................591
10.4.2 Optimum intercept receiver for direct sequence spread spectrum .....................591
10.4.3 Intercept receivers for frequency hop spread spectrum ....................................599
10.5 The OR/BMWD: Approximately optimum spread spectrum signal detector ................602
10.6 Estimation of spread spectrum signal parameters ........................................................605
References
.........................................................................................................611
Problems
.........................................................................................................613
Appendix A: Summary of Phase-Locked Theory.............................................................................615
A-1
Introduction
.........................................................................................................615
A-2
Phase-locked loop models and characteristics of operation ..........................................615
A-2.1 Synchronized mode: linear operation ..............................................................615
A-2.2 Effects of noise...............................................................................................619
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A-2.3 Phase-locked loop tracking of oscillators with phase noise ..............................625


A-2.4 Phase jitter plus noise effects ..........................................................................625
A-2.5 Transient response..........................................................................................628
A-2.6 Phase-locked loop acquisition.........................................................................631
A-2.7 Effects of transport delay................................................................................635
A-3
Frequency Synthesis...................................................................................................636
A-3.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................636
A-3.2 Digital synthesizer..........................................................................................636
A-3.3 Direct synthesis..............................................................................................638
A-3.4 Phase-locked frequency synthesizers ..............................................................641
References
.........................................................................................................643
Appendix B: Gaussian Probability Function ...................................................................................644
Reference
.........................................................................................................645
Appendix C: Power Spectral Densities for sequences of Random Binary Digits
and Random Tones ....................................................................................................646
Reference
.........................................................................................................650
Appendix D: Calculation of the Power Spectrum of the Product of Two M-Sequences ....................651
Reference
.........................................................................................................659
Appendix E: Evaluation of Phase Discriminator Output Autocorrelation Functions
and Power Spectra......................................................................................................660
E-1
Noncoherent delay lock tacking loop ..........................................................................660
E-2
Tau-dither noncoherent tracking loop..........................................................................665
References
.........................................................................................................671
Appendix F: Numerical Approximations for the Chi-Squared Probability Distribution
and Marcums Q-Function..........................................................................................672
F-1
Introduction
.........................................................................................................672
F-2
Computation of the (Central) Chi-squared distribution ................................................672
F-3
Generalized Marcums Q-Function .............................................................................676
F-4
Noncentral Chi-squared distribution ...........................................................................678
References
.........................................................................................................681
Appendix G: Mathematical Tables ..................................................................................................682
Index

.........................................................................................................689

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