Generator Excitation System & AVR

4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 1

Presentation outline
  Understanding basic principle Types of excitation


Components of excitation system
Brief Description of most commonly used Excitation systems in power generating plants:


  AVR

Static Excitation system
Brushless Excitation System


Experience sharing
Conclusion
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What is Excitation system?
• Creating and strengthening the magnetic field of the generator by passing DC through the filed winding.

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excitation plays a vital role in the management of voltage profile and reactive power in the grid thus ensuring ‘Stability’ 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 4 .Why Excitation system? • With large alternators in the power system.

EXCITATION PRINCIPLE ROTOR STATOR 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 5 .

EXCITATION PRINCIPLE ROTOR 4 August 2011 N STATOR PMI Revision 00 S 6 .

dΦ/ dt K = constant L = length exposed to flux dΦ/ dt = rate of change of flux Frequency of induced Voltage F = NP / 120 Magnitude of flux decides generated voltage and speed of rotation decides frequency of generated voltage 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 7 .EXCITATION PRINCIPLE Stator induced Voltage E = K. L.

270 0 90 180 360 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 8 .

control and monitoring of this DC supply is called the Excitation system 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 9 . thus forming a 2 pole magnet of rotor The Equipment for supply.G Flux in the generator rotor is produced by feeding DC supply in the field coils.

EXCITATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENT • Regulate terminal voltage of the machine •Meet excitation power requirements under all normal operating conditions •Enable maximum utilisation of machine capability •Guards the machine against inadvertent tripping during transients •Improve dynamic & transient stability thereby increasing availability 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 10 .

EXCITATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENT • Reliability • Sensitivity and fast response • Stability • Ability to meet abnormal conditions • Monitoring and annunciation of parameters • User friendliness 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 11 .

TYPES OF EXCITATION EXCITATION SYSTEM ROTATING SYSTEM STATIC SYSTEM Conventional Rotating machines High frequency excitation Brushless Excitation System 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 12 .

4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 13 .COMPONENTS OF TYPICAL EXCITATION SYSTEM • Input and output interface . PSS. Monitoring and alarm / trip initiation • Specific requirements : Field Flashing. power supply. Stroboscope. FB • AVR: At least two independent channels • Follow up control and changeover • Excitation build up and Field Discharging system • Cooling / heat dissipation components •Limiters • Protective relays • Testing . Aux.

75 kV FB FF FDR 415 v AC 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 14 .STATIC EXCITATION SYSTEM ( 200 MW) 575 v AVR AUTO MAN 15.

Load angle limiter etc.Static excitation system • Excitation power from generator via excitation transformer. Two channels : Auto & manual. Rotor current limiter. Protective relays for excitation transformer Field forcing provided through 415 v aux supply Converter divided in to no of parallel (typically4 ) paths. Alternate supply for testing • • • • 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 15 . Each one having separate pulse output stage and air flow monitoring. provision for change over from Auto to Manual Limiters : Stator current limiter.

C Field discharge Resistor Pre Excitation 415/40V.10KVA 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 16 .Static excitation system GT Field Breaker FIELD THYRISOR BRIDGE EXC TRFR 18KV/700V 1500KVA voltage regulator GENERATOR Crow Bar Non linear resistor From TGMCC.

• Filed flashing is used to build up voltage up to 30 %. • From 30 to 70 % both flashing and regulation remains in circuit. • 70 % above flashing gets cut-off 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 17 .Field flashing • For start up DC excitation is fed to the field from external source like station battery or rectified AC from station Ac supply .

BRUSH GEAR 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 18 .

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Brushless excitation FIELD BREAKER ARMATURE ROTATING DIODES R Y B FIELD (PM) PILOT EXCITER MAIN EXCITER GENERATOR 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 20 .

•Three Phase Pilot Exciter.Components of Brush less Excitation System •Three Phase Main Exciter. •Regulation cubicle •Rectifier Wheels •Exciter Coolers •Metering and supervisory equipment. 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 21 .

BRUSHLESS EXCITATION SYSTEM (500 MW) AVR 21 KV 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 22 .

Brushgear and all problems associated with transfer of current via sliding contacts •Simple. Ideally suited for large sets •Minimum operating and maintenance cost •Self generating excitation unaffected by system fault/disturbances because of shaft mounted pilot exciter Multi contact electrical connections between exciter and generator field Stroboscope for fuse failure detection Rotor Earth fault monitoring system 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 23 .Brushless Excitation System •Eliminates Slip Rings. Reliable and increasingly popular system the world over.

or generator volts actual value problem 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 26 . thyristor set problem. ) • Auto channel thyristor current monitor • For monitoring of thyristor bridge current . • ‘Auto’ to ‘Manual’ changeover in case of Auto channel power supply.Brushless Excitation system • Rotor E/F monitoring system • alarm 80 KΏ. and initiating change over to manual. Trip 5 KΏ • Stroboscope for thyristor fuse monitoring (one fuse for each pair of diodes.

Excitation Power Requirement Unit capacity MW Excitation Current at Full Load Excitation Voltage at full load Ceiling Volts 200/ 210 2600 310 610 500 6300 600 1000 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 27 .

PMG 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 28 .

5 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 29 . 4 Requirement of additional bearing and increase of turbo generator shaft length. One additional bearing and an increase in the shaft length are required. Brushless Excitation Brushless system gets activated with pilot exciter.DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BRUSHLESS AND STATIC EXCITATION SYSTEMS S. Static Excitation Static excitation system uses thyristors & taking supply from output of the generator Field flashing supply required for excitation build up. 2 Dependency on external supply. main exciter and rotating diodes. No external source requirement since pilot exciter has permanent magnet field. No additional bearing and increase in shaft length are required. Maintenance. Less since slip rings and brushes are avoided. Slower than static type since control is indirect (on the field of main exciter) and magnetic components involved. More since slip rings and brushes are required. due to the direct control and solid state devices employed. 3 Response of the excitation system.NO 1 Description Type of system. Very fast response in the order of 40 ms. Also over hang vibrations are very high resulting in faster wear and tear.

MAIN EXCITER 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 30 .

EXCITER ROTOR 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 31 .

EXCITER COOLING VAPOUR EXHAUST COOLER 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 32 .

XG + VT EF VT Equivalent circuit of Generator 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 33 .GENERATOR I XG EF = I .

GENERATOR Phasor diagram of the Generator Ef IL.Xd  ф IL VT 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 34 .

Ckt.GCB G GT GENERATOR Xd XT G Ef VT Vbus Generator + Generator Transformer Eq. 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 35 .

GENERATOR Vector Diagram of Generator and GT connected to an infinite bus EF IL.XT Vbus IL 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 36 .Xd  ф VT IL.

Reactance Transformer reactance Load Current Phase angle Torque Angle (rotor/load angle) PMI Revision 00 37 Xd : XT IL Ф  4 August 2011 : : : : .GENERATOR In the equivalent Circuit and Phasor diagram. Reactance assumed same as quadrature axis sync. the notations used have the following description: Vbus VT EF : : : Infinite bus voltage Generator Terminal Voltage Induced Voltage (behind synchronous Impedance) of Generator. proportional to excitation. Direct axis sync.

GENERATOR POWER ANGLE EQUATION Referring to the phasor diagram on slide no. (EF .14.{Xd+XT} = Sin (90+ Ф) / EF Putting Xd+XT =X. V / X = P Note that the Electrical Power Output varies as the Sin of Load angle PMI Revision 00 38 . and multiplying both sides by VIL. Sin  / IL. V Sin  /X = VIL Cos Ф / EF {Sin (90+ Ф) = Cos Ф} or. V / X) Sin  Pmax 4 August 2011 = = VIL Cos Ф EF .

2 0 0 Torque angle diagram Power in pu Sin delta 0 30 60 90 0 0 12 15 Angle in degrees Angle in degrees 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 39 18 0 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 .2 1 1.6 0.2 0.4 0.Torque angle diagram 1.2 0.8 1 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.

axis Rotor mag.Physical significance of load angle red N ROTOR δ S Stator mag. axis yellow N S blue 4 August 2011 STATOR PMI Revision 00 40 .

•Steam flow increased •Power output P1 to P2 EF1 EF2 P2 P1 O 2 ф1 1 ф2 I2 I1 Vbus Locus of Constant Excitation ACTIVE POWER CHANGE 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 41 .•Excitation constant.

Locus of P = const. •Excitation increased •Power output Constant EF1 EF2 O 2 1 ф2 I2 I1 Vbus Locus of Constant Excitation ф1 I Cos ф = Constant 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 EXCITATION CHANGE 42 . •Steam Flow constant.

6 0.Excitation Control Power Angle Diagrams for Different Excitation Levels 1.4 1. in degrees 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 43 .8 0.4 0.2 1 0.2 0 Power in per unit P1 P2 P3 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 Power Angle (delta).

AVR 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 44 .

TYPES OF AVR SYSTEMS • Single channel AVR system • Dual channel AVR system • Twin channel AVR system 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 45 .

which are amplified and sent to the circuit components The gate controller is used to vary the firing angle in order to control the field current for excitation In case of any fault in the automatic voltage regulator the control can be switched on to the manual controller. 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 46 .Single channel AVR system Here we have two controllers one is automatic and the other is manual and both the controllers are fed from the same supply The AVR senses the circuit parameters through current transformers and voltage transformers and initiates the control action by initiating control pulses .

one automatic voltage controller and one manual controller But here in contrary to the previous case we have different power supply.Dual channel AVR system Here also we have two controllers in the same manner as the previous case i.e. 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 47 . but in dual channel AVR this can be avoided by switching to another channel. gate control and pulse amplifier units for each of the controllers Reliability is more in this case than previous one since a fault in either gate control unit or pulse amplifier or power supply in single channel AVR will cause failure of whole unit.

Twin channel AVR system This system almost resembles the dual channel AVR but the only difference is that here we have two automatic voltage regulators instead of one automatic voltage regulator and one manual Voltage regulator This system has an edge over the previous one in the fact that in case of failure in the AVR of the Dual voltage regulator the manual system is switched on and it should be adjusted manually for the required change in the system and if the fault in AVR is not rectified in reasonable time it will be tedious to adjust the manual voltage regulator 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 48 .

Twin channel AVR system In Twin channel AVR both the AVRs sense the circuit parameters separately and switching to other regulator incase of fault is much easier and hence the system is more flexible than the other types. Generally switching to manual regulator is only exceptional cases like faulty operation of AVR or commissioning and maintenance work and hence we can easily manage with one AVR and one manual regulator than two AVRs. 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 49 . So Twin channel AVR is only used in very few cases and generally Dual channel AVR is preferred.

c.AVR There are two independent control systems 1. Auto control 2. input to the main exciter The feedback of voltage and current output of the generator is fed to avr where it is compared with the set point generator volts se from the control room 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 50 . Manual control The control is effected on the 3 phase output of the pilot exciter and provides a variable d.

AVR The main components of the voltage Regulator are two closed – loop control systems each followed by separate gate control unit and thyristor set and de excitation equipment Control system 1 for automatic generator voltage control (AUTO) comprises the following 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 51 .

AVR Generator voltage control The output quantity of this control is the set point for a following. Excitation current regulator. controlling the field current of the main exciter Circuits for automatic excitation build-up during start –up and field suppression during shut-down 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 52 .

limiting the set point for the above excitation current regulator. Delayed limiter for the overexcited range (over excitation limiter) 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 53 . The stationary value of this limitation determines the maximum possible excitation current set-point (field forcing limitation). Limiter for the under-excited range (under excitation limiter). control.AVR This equipment acts on to the output of the generator voltage.

AVR In the under excitation range. the under excitation ensures that the minimum excitation required for stable parallel operation of the generator with the system is available and that the under -excited reactive power is limited accordingly 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 54 .

in the event of faults. 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 55 .AVR The set-point adjuster of the excitation current regulator for manual is tracked automatically (followup control) so that. This instrument can also be used for manual matching. change over to the manual control system is possible without delay Automatic change over is initiated by some special fault condition. Correct operation of the follow-up control circuit is monitored and can be observed on a matching instrument in the control room.

AVR
FAULT INDICATIONS The following alarms are issued from the voltage regulator to the control room. • AVR fault



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AVR automatic change over to MANUAL
AVR loss of voltage alarm
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AVR
The current feedback is utilized for active and reactive power compensation and for limiters

There are 3 limiters
1.Under excitation limiter 2.Over excitation limiter

3. V/F limiter
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Excitation Interlocks
Preconditions for Excitation ON
Excitation ON command N>90% Protection Off FCB Off feedback 5s delay Excitation ON

External trip
GCB is OFF

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OFF from Field flashing Exc OFF command GCB OFF N>90% GCB OFF External trip Delay 1sec Exc OFF 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 59 .Excitation OFF Interlocks Exc.

• Boundaries of the Curve within with the machine will operate safely Lagging Power Factor/Overexcited region Top Section Relates to Field Heating in Rotor Winding • Right Section Relates to Stator current Limit • Straight line relates to Prime Mover Output Leading Power Factor/ Underexicted region • Lower Side relates to Stator end ring Limit • Further down relates to Pole slipping 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 60 .Capability Curve • Capability Curve relates to the limits in which a generator can Operate safely.

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LIMITERS • • • • • Over excitation limiter Under excitation limiter Rotor angle limiter Stator current limiter V/F limiter 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 62 .

Over excitation limiter • Line voltage drops due to more reactive power requirement . so as to permit the generator to perform the grid stabilization in response to short drops in line voltage • When IF >110% of Ifn . the OEL and Field forcing limiter are active 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 63 . switching operations or faults • AVR increases generator excitation to hold the voltage constant • Line voltage drops . thermal over loading of generator can result • OEL is automatic limitation of generator excitation by lowering the generator voltage (otherwise the set point of generator voltage is reduced in time or the transformation ratio of the GT is to be adjusted ) • OEL permits excitation values above the normal excitation and extended to max excitation (for field forcing) for a limited time.

amplifier.Under Excitation limiter • Function is to correct the reactive power when the excitation current falls below minimum excitation current value required for stable operation of generator • Activation of UEL takes over the control from the closed loop voltage control. When the value drops below the characteristic the amplified diff signal causes the field current to increase • For commissioning purpose provision is made to mirror the characteristic in the inductive range. the error is fed to P. acting via a max selection • The limit characteristic is adjustable (shifted parallel) • I reactive ref is compared with the measured I reactive . this allowing both the direction in which the control signal acts and the blocking of the set point generators is to be changed 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 64 .

for higher degree of stability a further margin of 10-12% is normally provided • RAL gives the o/p as permissible I reactive =F ( I active) • Characteristic is shifted linearly as a function of generator voltage • Permissible I reactive is compared with the measured value and is fed to the limit controller when the I reactive achieved value drops below the permissible value then the limiter comes in action and I reactive 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 65 .Rotor Angle Limiter • Stable operation rotor angle <900.

Stator current limiter • During operation at high active power P and / low voltage the stator current of the generator tends to rise beyond its rated value and can cause the thermal overloading of stator. in spite of the action of the UEL • An additional stator current limiting controller acting on the generator excitation is provided as a safe guard against such states of operation • SCL always monitors the stator current measured value for crossing the rated stator current • SCL permits small time over load but comes in action thereafter and influences the effective generator voltage set point.to reduce the Q till the stator current is brought down below the rated value • Change in generator voltage set point is not blocked when SCL active • SCL does not operate near the unity PF because near this value any limiter would cause oscillations 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 66 .

the upper limit as the effective AVR set point is reduced as a function of V/F ratio • This limiter is used when it is required to keep the unit operating even in case of substantial frequency drops . a V/F limiter is used to lower the voltage proportional with frequency drop 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 67 . for instance in order to prevent complete breakdown of the system. the local eddy current causes thermal over loading of GT • In DVR mode V/F ratio is continuously monitors the limit violation • In case V/F ratio crosses the limit characteristic.V/F limiter • Also known as over fluxing limiter • It is the protection function for the GT • V/F ratio . eddy current .

PRIORITY STRUCTURE OF AVR 1st priority Rotor current limiter UN1024 Stator current li miter inductive UN0027 2 nd priority Load angle limiter UN1043 Stator current limiter Capacitive UN0027 3 rd priority Voltage regulator UN-2010 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 68 .

Failure of brush gear. 2. 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 69 .Field failure protection • Loss of generator field excitation under normal running conditions may arise due to any of the following condition. When generator on load loses it’s excitation . running above synchronous speed. 1. because they don't have damper windings able to carry the induced currents. it starts to operate as an induction generator.cylindrical rotor generators are not suited to such operation .unintentional opening of the field circuit breaker. Failure of AVR. consequently this type of rotor will overheat rather quickly. 3.

THANK YOU 4 August 2011 PMI Revision 00 70 .

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