DESIGN OF 250 A- HR SEALED LEAD ACID BATTERY CHARGER Cyril Aloysius Quinto Industrial Electronics, EE242 University of the

Philippines - Diliman

Abstract: This paper aims to come up with a sealed lead acid battery charger for a 250 Ampere-Hour, 96V Series Battery Bank System comprised of 48 cells with a flat voltage of 1.7V/cell, 2V/cell nominal and a boost voltage at 2.4 V/cell. Imaxdc will be 25A resulting to a 10-12.5-hour charging time. It is expected to go on a trickle charging mode of 2A at the boost voltage. Protection circuit against shorted batteries is to be employed.

OVERVIEW The basic lead acid battery is an old type of battery and has seen different charging methods over the years. The lead acid chemistry is fairly tolerant of overcharging which prompts for cheap chargers. Unregulated transformer‐based chargers consists of a wall mount transformer and a diode which normally delivers 13 to 14 Volts over a reasonable current range which can charge a 6‐cell 12 V battery. However, as the current tapers off, its voltage rises to 15 to 18V commencing the electrolysis of the water in the battery. This is tolerable with sealed lead acid batteries since they can recycle the generated gasses as long as they are being overcharged at less than 1/3 of its capacity. However, leaving the battery at an overcharged state for a week at even 1/10 of its capacity will result to corroded plates. At times, taper chargers like this are made to operate on either a constant current or constant voltage. Regulating the taper charger is a better and cheaper alternative. The voltage is not allowed to climb higher than the trickle charge voltage. A lead acid battery charger’s added challenge is to have some kind of protection from shorted batteries. A shorted battery has the potential to deliver a extremely high current in a short amount of time (5 to 15 ms). The absence of protection may lead to the battery becoming a fuse. Furthermore, the battery’s state of charge and temperature offer modifying effects on the internal resistance of SLAs. As they age, their internal resistances rise due to corrosion of the positive grid, changes in active material structure and electrolyte dry out. In deciding on the amount of charging current, the total internal resistance is to be considered. The total resistance of a series battery bank is the sum of their internal resistances plus external resistances such as interconnection hardware and circuit protection circuits.

With these requirements in mind, this paper looks into a plausible design without regard for cost. PRINCIPLE / THEORY OF OPERATION Topology Used The requirement of 25A max charging current for a 96V series lead acid battery bank prompted the use of a buck‐fed open‐loop interleaved full bridge resonant converter. This is to guarantee lesser output voltage ripple, and a smaller size for the magnetics. Resonant switching was considered to minimize the switching losses for the charger. Fig. 1 below shows the process of the blocks of the charger. 96V SEALED LEAD ACID BATTERY BANK

BRIDGE RECTIFIER

BUCK

INTERLEAVED FULL BRIDGE

Power factor correction was not considered in the design. As an input to the buck, two wein‐bridge rectifiers were wired in parallel. This is to properly handle the input current. The rectifiers turn the 220Vac – 264Vac into a DC voltage with a 10% ripple. The buck regulates the input to the open‐loop interleaved full bridge resonant converter. The resonant converter results into a nearly sinusoidal current waveform. Battery Setup Instead of putting the 96V series battery bank into a single pack, the bank is comprised of eight 12V 6‐cell batteries. A series battery system will normally have both weaker and stronger cells. One of these cells will be fully discharged before the rest of them. For a 3‐cell battery, the total voltage will then be less than 1/3 of the expected voltage, making it easy to determine. However, for a 10‐cell battery, this will only amount to 10% drop from the expected voltage. Each of the eight 12V 6‐cell battery’s voltage is monitored. The table below indicates the expected voltages. Boost Voltage Nominal Voltage Flat Voltage 14.4V 12V 10.2V

However, there maybe cases wherein 5 cells are already in their boost voltage while one is already dead. This will register a 2.4V/cell* 5cells = 12V

reading. A lot of possible scenarios may present a misreading which necessitates for the charger to monitor the current in the battery bank. This scheme is shown in the schematics (battery monitoring and setup). Protection Circuits/ Trickle Charging In DC systems, a shorted battery can deliver an extremely high current in a short amount of time. This current may be equal to the battery’s open circuit voltage/internal resistance. The total internal resistance of a string of batteries is given by the sum of the individual internal resistance of the battery and the wire connection between the batteries. For new batteries, both the state of charge and temperature have modifying effects on the battery’s internal resistance. Battery Charge Charge Voltage for a Gassing Temperature Voltage per 12 Volt battery Voltage cell per cell ‐20 °C * ‐10 °C * 0°C* 10 °C 20 °C 25 °C 30 °C 40 °C 50 °C 2.67 to 2.76 16.02 to 16.56 2.61 to 2.70 15.66 to 16.2 2.55 to 2.65 15.3 to 15.9 2.49 to 2.59 14.94 to 15.54 2.43 to 2.53 14.58 to 15.18 2.40 to 2.50 14.40 to 15.00 2.37 to 2.47 14.22 to 14.82 2.31 to 2.41 13.86 to 14.46 2.25 to 2.35 13.5 to 14.10 2.97 2.65 2.54 2.47 2.415 2.39 2.365 2.33 2.3 Gassing Voltage for a 12V battery 17.82 15.9 15.24 14.82 14.49 14.34 14.19 13.98 13.8

The charger design takes into account the temperature of each of the eight 12V battery. Making use of the table from Powerstream shown above, the temperatures of each of the eight 12V battery are monitored. Both the thermal, current and voltage monitors can be used to determine how much output voltage is to be offered on the battery bank. In case one of the cells in a 12V battery is shorted, besides the voltage monitor, the temperature monitor will enable the short circuit protection to isolate the 12V battery from the system. An SCR is to be triggered to shunt the current away from the 12V 6cell battery.In the event that a shorted battery is detected, the DSP FB Disable from the DSP is asserted. This time, the regulation of the output is to be controlled by the DSP by regulating via the duty of the buck and, hence, the output of

the open‐loop full bridge depending on the reading of the battery voltage monitors and current monitor. Trickle charging commences as soon as the voltage monitors read a total of 8*6cell*2.4V/cell= 115.2 V. At trickle charging mode, only 2A of current is to be supplied to the battery by adjusting Voutput of charger. Software Requirements Definition The digital part of the project is not shown even in the schematics. But the brief descriptions of the necessary drives, input and outputs to the controller are described.
Pin Name OUT A OUT B OUT C OUT D Battery Current Monitor Battery Voltage Monitors Duty Control/Fault Sec Duty Synchronization Bulk_Detect Input to MUX DSP Temp Sensing Configuration Output Output Output Output Input Input Output Input Input Output Input Pin to be Used Gen Purpose I/O Gen Purpose I/O Gen Purpose I/O Gen Purpose I/O ADC ADC Gen Purpose I/O Gen Purpose I/O Gen Purpose I/O Gen Purpose I/O Gen Purpose I/O

Out A,B,C and D are inputs to the gate drive IC that will drive the interleaved full bridge. Fig 2 below shows how the drives will look like. A dead time of 5% will prevent the shorting of the bus voltage. The phase difference of the drive lowers the output ripple current. Since the other rail begins to supply the current while the other rail’s current is going down. Battery current monitor is a feed from the sense resistor in series with the battery bank. This is read by the DSP to decide when to cut off the output. The Battery Voltage Monitors consists of 8 feeds from the eight 12V batteries in series. This monitors the duty needed by the buck to supply the full charging current of 25A or do a trickle charging in the event that the boost voltage of every cell is reached.

Fig. 2 Full Bridge Drives – A,B,C and D. Duty Control/ Sec Fault Control feeds the Isense pin of the buck controller to properly control the duty of the buck. When high asserted, the buck converter is disabled. Duty Synchronization gets the feedback from the buck duty to synchronize the DSP duty control in the event of trickle charging or shorting of one of the cells. This is normally high. When the buck duty is high, this pin gets pulled to ground. DSP Feedback Disable disables the hardwired voltage regulation that regulates the Vo of the charger at around 103.2V which corresponds to a charging voltage of 2.15V/cell. The need to disable this arises whenever the output voltage needs adjustment to do a short circuit protection of one of the battery cells, trickle charging or secondary fault. This is normally low. When asserted high, the duty control FB disable is pulled low. Bulk_Detect detects if bulk voltage (input to the buck) is already around 340V. This will signal the turning on of the open loop full bridge. This ensures that the full bridge will not overload the buck while the bulk voltage is not yet set at power up or during operating conditions wherein the AC voltage has dropped considerably. This is a normally low pin. When the bulk is around the desired level, this gets pulled up to the DSP supply. The DSPGND and the OutputGND are the same. They are named differently so as to be carefully laid out as the DSPGND, being the control ground, should be carefully wired. Input to MUX dedicates 3 DSP pins to select which 12V battery system to isolate.

DESIGN PROPER Assumptions The following are the assumptions for the design of the power circuit: 1. Switches were considered ideal. 2. It is assumed that the best fan cooling is made available. 3. It is assumed that the switches are attached to heat sinks that were designed properly as per estimated losses on the switches. 4. The design was done without regard for cost and form factor. 5. Auxiliary windings PVCC = 12V and the SVCC = 18V(master) is assumed. 6. Use fuse to protect the circuits when all else fails. The calculation sheets are presented per stage. The buck control design shows a temperature rise of around 150degC while the full bridge magnetics (calculations made per interleave – supplies 12.5A) shows a 120degC temp rise. The formula used to calculate these temp rise holds the assumption of operating the power supply in convection. The switching loss calculations were based on the following.

Fig 3. Turn on T2 interval

Fig 4. Turn on T3 interval

Fig 5. Turn off T2 interval

Fig 6. Turn off T3 interval. These were obtained from Switching Power Supplies A to Z written by Sanjaya Maniktala. The magnetics sheet shows cores and choke tried to improve the temp rise of the full bridge transformer and buck choke. Miscellaneous sheet include the gain calculations for the comparator design used for battery voltage and current monitoring, ladder design. Results and Simulations Simulations were done on a Simetrix environment. Fig. 7 shows the simetrix circuit used. Simetrix 4.2 and the e‐DVT ASTEC modeled parts were used. The interleaved open loop full bridge is modeled as E1 shown in Fig.7. The E1 value is calculated from the Nsec/Npri = 6turns/ 17 turns = 352m of the full bridge transformer. The output capacitor’s ESR is assumed to be 43mohm each. For the circuit’s gain phase plot, the gain can’t be increased any longer as the simulator does not allow changing the R4(in the simulation schematic). The gain of the closed loop circuit is given to be OptoGain* R4/R2. Looking at the duty cycle, they are equally spaced. The slope compensation was employed because at more than 50% duty, harmonic instability may occur.

Fig 8. Shows the ripple current per output capacitor to be 162.7mA

Fig 9. Shows the Buck Duty in Green, Triangular Green graph is the Buck current Vocharger(after FB) is in Red, Vinbuck in Purple and Vobuck in blue.

Output Cap Ripple Current Vocharger Buck Drive Duty Buck Current

167.5 109.6 92 1.88 8.8191

mArms V % Apk‐pk Arms V Vpk‐pk V

Vobuck

311.2 5.542

Vinbuck

340

Tabulated above are the measured values of the circuit.

Fig. 10. Shows the Gain and Phase Plot of the Circuit.

Lead Acid Battery Charger Bill of Materials Power Circuit Circuit Code Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 FET-N 25A 600V IPP60R125CP FET-N 25A 600V IPP60R125CP FET-N 25A 600V IPP60R125CP FET-N 25A 600V IPP60R125CP FET-N 25A 600V IPP60R125CP FET-N 25A 600V IPP60R125CP FET-N 25A 600V IPP60R125CP FET-N 25A 600V IPP60R125CP CAP-MP 82N J 400V PHE450 CAP-MP 82N J 400V PHE450 CAP-MP 82N J 400V PHE450 CAP-MP 82N J 400V PHE450 CAP-E M33 M 450V GU CAP-E M33 M 450V GU CAP-E M33 M 200V AXW CAP-E M33 M 200V AXW CAP-E M33 M 200V AXW CAP-E M33 M 200V AXW CAP-E M33 M 200V AXW CAP-E M33 M 200V AXW CAP-E M33 M 200V AXW CAP-E M33 M 200V AXW CAP-E M33 M 200V AXW CAP-E M33 M 200V AXW RECT-UF 30A 200V FEP30DP RECT-UF 30A 200V FEP30DP RECT-UF 30A 200V FEP30DP RECT-UF 30A 200V FEP30DP RECT-UF 30A 200V FEP30DP RECT-UF 30A 200V FEP30DP

D7 D8 D9 DB1 DB2 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 TX1 TX2 L1 Drive Circuit R201 R202 R203

RECT-UF 30A 200V FEP30DP RECT-UF 30A 200V FEP30DP RECT-SIC SK 10A 600V C3D10060A RECT-BR 25A 600V GSIB2560 RECT-BR 25A 600V GSIB2560 10 mohm HECNUM RES-TKF 15R F W25 RN412 RES-TFC 10K J 0W1 0603WA RES-TKF 15R F W25 RN412 RES-TFC 10K J 0W1 0603WA RES-TKF 15R F W25 RN412 RES-TFC 10K J 0W1 0603WA RES-TKF 15R F W25 RN412 RES-TFC 10K J 0W1 0603WA RES-TKF 15R F W25 RN412 RES-TFC 10K J 0W1 0603WA RES-TKF 15R F W25 RN412 RES-TFC 10K J 0W1 0603WA RES-TKF 15R F W25 RN412 RES-TFC 10K J 0W1 0603WA RES-TKF 15R F W25 RN412 RES-TFC 10K J 0W1 0603WA RES-TKF 10K J 0W1 RC21 RES-TKF 33R F 0.25W RN412ES RES-TKF 10K J 0W1 RC21 RES-TKF 33R F 0.25W RN412ES 17T pri:6T sec FEE64/21/51 Cores 17T pri:6T sec FEE64/21/51 Cores 55T HiFlux OD330 Core

RES-TFC 10K F 0W1 RK73H1JT RES-TFC 10K F 0W1 RK73H1JT RES-TFC 10K F 0W1 RK73H1JT

R204 C201 C202 C203 C204 C205 C206 T201 T202 IC201 IC202 Control Circuit R301 R302 R303 R304 R305 R306 R307 R308 R309 R310 R311 R312 R313 R314 R315 R316 R317 R318 R319 C301 C302

RES-TFC 10K F 0W1 RK73H1JT CAP-MCC U22 K 16V X7R CAP-MCC U22 K 16V X7R CAP-MCC 1U0 K 16V X7R CAP-MCC U22 K 16V X7R CAP-MCC U22 K 16V X7R CAP-MCC 1U0 K 16V X7R 15T each winding,TDG-T12.7X7.8X5-TLS 15T each winding,TDG-T12.7X7.8X5-TLS IC-SM DRIVER AP239TR IC-SM DRIVER AP239TR

1.3kohms 39kohms 1kohms 75kohms 30kohms 10kohms 91kohms 30kohms 3.3kohms 10kohms 30 ohms 100ohms 10kohms 360000ohms 1000ohms 1000ohms 10000ohms 1000ohms 10000ohms 1U 10V 330pF

C303 C304 C305 C306 C301 IC301 IC302 IC303 IC304 IC305 IC306 IC307 Q301 Q302 Q303 Z301 Miscellaneous Circuit IC401 D402 R401 R402 C401 C402 C403 C404 T1-T8 R403(a-g) R404(a-g) SCR1-8 IC Thermistor R405 Battery Setup

4.4nF 1pF 1uF 470pF 1U 10V IC-SM PWM AS3843D-8 OPTO-CPL SFH6156-2 IC-SM DRIVER AP239TR TL431 CLPR OPTO-CPL SFH6156-2 OPTO-CPL SFH6156-2 OPTO-CPL SFH6156-2 BC817-25 (NPN) NMOS FET rated 2A BC817-25 (NPN) 9V zener diode

IC-SM REG AZ1117H-3.3E DIODE-C 0A2 75V BAS16HT1G 47ohms RES-TFC 2R2 F W063 RK73H CAP-MCC 0U1 K 25V X7R CAP-MCC 10U K 16V X7R CAP-MCC 10U K 16V X7R CAP-MCC 10U K 16V X7R 15T each winding,TDG-T12.7X7.8X5-TLS 30kohms 100ohms 25A rated 3 input multiplexer THMTR-C 10K J 0W21 TSM1A 10kohms For all eight of the circuits

Ra Rb Rc Rd Re Ca X1-4 X5-8 X9 2-DSPs

1000ohms 1000ohms 200ohms 100ohms 200ohms 100nF IC-SM QUAD OPAMP LM2902KPWR IC-SM QUAD OPAMP LM2902KPWR IC-SM QUAD OPAMP LM2902KPWR IC-SM DSP MC56F8037VLH

REFERENCES Maniktala, Sanjaya. Switching Power Supplies A to Z, Newnes, USA,2006. Butler, Dan. Lead Acid Battery Charger Using PIC14C00, Microchip Technologies, USA. Lenk, Ron. Practical Design of Power Supplies. John Wiley & Sons, 2005. www.powerstream.com. Martinez, R and Formenti,J., Design Tradeoffs for SMPS Battery Chargers. Texas Instruments Notes.

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