You are on page 1of 95

The State Education Office, Perak Darul Ridzuan would like to thank the following for their contribution

in the production of the module for writing.

Module write it-right PMr 2009 Panel members


No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Name TN. HJ MOHD YASIN B. MOHAMOD EN MOHD SALLEH B. MOHD ARSHAD CIK. NUR HAMIDAH BT RADZALI PN. ZULAIKHA BT MOHAMAD ALI PN. PUTRI RAZLEEN BT ABD RAZAK PN. TEH SIAN YONG EN. HAMIDI B. ISHAR EN. PRAKASH SUBRAMANIAM school JPN PERAK JPN PERAK SMK BATU 4, GERIK SMK CLIFFORD, K.KANGSAR SMK TASEK DAMAI, TASEK SMK KAMPAR, JLN KUALA DIPANG SMK DATO AHMAD, LENGGONG SMK TOK MUDA ABDUL AZIZ, SG. SIPUT (U)

Contents Section A (Guided Writing) contents 1. Analysis of past year questions 1.0 Articles 1.1 Guidelines 1.2 Techniques of writing 1.3 Model Question 1.4 Sample Model Answer 1.5 Practice Question 1.6 Model Answer 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Speech Guidelines Techniques of writing Model Question Sample Model Answer Practice Question Model Answer Informal letter Guidelines Format Model Question Sample Model Answer Practice Question Model Answer pages
7

8 9 11 14 15 18

19 19 20 23 24 28

29 30 31 33 34 37

4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6

Narrative Writing Guidelines Writing Approach Model Question Sample Model Answer Practice Question Model Answer

38 39 41 42 43 46

Section B (Summary Writing) 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Guidelines Practice 1 Practice 2 Practice 3 Practice 4 Practice 5 Practice 6 Model Answers 47 48 54 60 66 72 78 84

Section C (Novel)
1. Analysis of past year questions 88

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9

Guidelines Sample Question Techniques of Answering Sample Model Answer Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Question 4 Question 5 Model Answers

89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98
6

Analysis of Guided Writing Questions PMR YEAR 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Informal Letter Giving opinion Speech Report based on pictures Informal Letter based on notes given Story based on pictures Story based on pictures SECTION A

1. Determine your topic. Exactly what are you going to write about? 2. Brainstorm for ideas if you have to. 3. Figure out who your audience is. Are you writing for a beginner, an intermediate, or an advanced audience? 4. Decide on the length of the article. 5. Write an outline of your article. This will help bring the concept of the article into sharper focus. 6. Write the rough draft of the article. 7. Check over your piece for presentation. i) ii) iii) iv) v) Check for faulty information. Double-check your facts? Delete any unnecessary or contradictory information. Eliminate anything that is just taking up space. Check for grammar and spelling errors. Read it aloud to yourself to make sure the text flows smoothly.

8. Rewrite the article as often as it takes. 9. Turn in your completed article.

MIND MAPPING
Mind Mapping is a way of creating pictures that show ideas in the same way that they are represented in your brain. You see your brain uses words, pictures, numbers, logic, rhythm, color and spatial awareness to build up unique pictures of information. The ideas are linked together in a way that makes it easy to understand and remember.

HOW TO CREATE A MIND MAP?


You start with a central topic that you are going to be examining, and add branches radiating from the center, and then sub-branches as required to represent your ideas. You create your Mind Maps in a natural way by using your own words and connections that make sense to you. It is best to stick to one or two keywords on the branches and use the branches to show the connections between the ideas. Generate a topic. What will be the focus of your thinking? Your topic should be no more than a few words. By keeping your topic simple, you will be able to understand more aspects of it through the map. Place that topic in the center of the page. Write it in bold letters. Circle or place a square around the topic. Start writing what comes to mind. As you generate thoughts, draw a branch from the main topic. Keep it to as few words as possible. Print clearly. Begin branching. Try to extend your thoughts from one idea to the next. Draw lines between thoughts to create lateral thinking. Number your ideas to create organization.

10

SECTION A
You are advised to spend about 40 minutes on this question. Study the pictures below and answer the question that follows.

doors and windows are locked

valuables are not left in the car

keep valuables out of sight

always travel with friends

You attended a seminar on crime prevention. Write an article for the school magazine. In your article, write on How to Prevent Crime. When writing your article: use all the notes given elaborate on the given notes to make it more interesting make sure it is not less than 120 words. (30 marks)

11

doors and windows locked

be cautious all of the time

Break in

Snatch theft

HOW TO PREVENT CRIME

Car theft

beware while you are alone

Safety for children

keep valuables out of sight travel with friends

dont leave valuables

park car at safe place

always be cautious of who are around them

12

How to Prevent __________ (the title)


Introduction: Crime rate in our country has increased dramatically. Many cases are being reported daily. . Para 1: The main crime which hunts many people is break-ins. It normally happens during night hours or early morning. Para 2: Another type of crime which has become a phobia among women is snatch theft. Para 3: Cars are also being targeted by thieves as the owners sometimes leave their valuable belongings in them. Car thefts have increased in big cities, towns and even in rural areas. Para 4: Another type of crime involves safety of children is also being reported daily. Many cases are being reported of lost child, child murder and child rape. Parents have to play an important role Conclusion : .

13

The crime rate in our country has increased dramatically. Lately, there had been many cases being reported all over the country. The top-listed crimes are break-ins, snatch thefts, car thefts and various crimes on children. Recently, there were a lot of complaints by house owners that their houses were broken into. This happened not only at night and early morning but also most often in daylight when house owners were out at work. To prevent this from happening, house owners are advised to make sure that all doors and windows are locked before they retire at night as well as before they go out to work. They should be cautious all the time. Another type of crime which has become a phobia among women is snatch thefts. It happens mainly to women who walk alone especially in dark alleys and on quiet roads. Lately snatch thefts do happen in broad daylight in the middle of busy walkways. A way of preventing this is to make sure that you keep your valuables out of sight. You should also walk against the traffic flow so that you can see what is coming in front of you because snatch thieves mostly do their crimes riding a motorbike. Cars are also being targeted by thieves as the owners sometimes leave their valuable belongings in them. Car thefts have increased in big cities, towns and even in rural areas. This is especially rampant in cities like Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh and Johor Bahru. The car thieves operate at shopping mall car parks and they normally do not work alone. Car owners are advised not to leave their valuables in the car like laptops, cameras and wallets. They should also park their car at safe places. Another type of crime which involves safety of children is also being reported daily. Many cases are being reported of lost child, child murder and child rape. Parents have to play an important role in making sure that their children are safe whenever they are out of the house. They must make sure their children always travel with friends and they must always call them from time to time to know their whereabouts. Children ought to be taught not to speak to any strangers and not to accept any gifts from people they do not know. They should always be cautious of who are around them and keep a distance from people they are suspicious of. In conclusion, it is better to be safe than sorry and prevention is better than cure. We need to be well prepared and protect ourselves and our children from becoming crime victims.

14

SECTION A
You are advised to spend about 40 minutes on this question. Study the pictures below and answer the question that follows. With the help of the notes below, write an article for your school magazine. Your article is entitled How to Curb Unhealthy Eating Habits.

Awareness Campaign Posters Talk

Canteen Food No junk food Clean food

Competitions Essay writing Quiz

Field Trip Hospital Food Institute of Malaysia

When writing the article, you should:

use all the notes given elaborate on the notes to make it more interesting make sure it is not less than 120 words. (30 marks)

15

16

....

17

HOW TO CURB UNHEALTHY EATING HABITS

Recently, there are many advertisements in the television advertising junk food which lure teenagers to eat unhealthily. They get easily attracted by the colourful and misinformation in the advertisement and make such food as their daily meal. This leads to a lot of health problems such as kidney failure and indigestion. It has become our duty to inform these children of the danger of taking unhealthy food and to inform them about the importance of taking nutritional food that will promote the development of their body. There are many ways of informing the children on how to curb unhealthy eating habits. One of it is through awareness campaigns. This can be done through posters and giving talks to teenagers in the school on nutritional food and how these food help to keep them healthy.

Another way is by making sure that the canteen do not sell junk food such as instant noodles, snacks and sweets. The canteen operator need to be given guidelines on what food they can or cannot sell by the school authority. The teacher-in-charge should always and check that the food sold are clean and healthy. The Health Club should organize competitions like essay writing and quiz. This can be done during Health Week in conjunction with Health Campaign which is held annually nationwide. Students are asked to write essays on how to curb unhealthy eating habits and best essay writer should be given a free lunch of healthy food for a week. Schools can also organize field trips to hospitals and Food Institute of Malaysia. This will help them to learn the importance of having good and healthy food after seeing patients suffering from chronic diseases which are incurable due to their unhealthy food intake. Going to the Food Institute of Malaysia will increase the students knowledge on the variety of healthy food available in market and that these food are as tasty as junk food. In a nutshell, students should be aware on ways to curb unhealthy eating habit and it is our duty to create awareness among them.

18

1. Speeches are made during special occasions like school assemblies, students gatherings and other social occasions like weddings, anniversaries, dinners and farewell parties. When making speeches, you should follow these steps: Greet your audience Introduce yourself Introduce your topic Make your speech, elaborate on your points Thank your audience 2. You must understand the occasion and know the audience so that you can choose the style that is interesting enough to get their attention. 3. Be precise and clear. Use simple language and short sentences. Long sentences tend to incur grammatical mistakes. MODEL SENTENCES FOR SPEECHES 1. Opening address (Greeting audience, introducing speaker) i) ii) iii) A very good morning to the principal, teachers and fellow students. It gives me great pleasure to stand here and give speech. Good evening ladies and gentlemen. Thank you for giving me this opportunity to give a speech. Good morning everyone. First of all, before I begin my speech today, I would like to take this opportunity to thank the school for inviting me to give a talk.

2. Introducing the topic i) ii) iii) I would like to introduce my topic for today and that is How to Prepare for Exams. Today, I am going to talk on the topic How to Keep Our Teeth Clean and Healthy. My talk for today is entitled Preventing Road Accidents.

19

SECTION A
You are advised to spend about 40 minutes on this question. Study the pictures below and answer the question that follows. You have been selected to represent your school in a speech competition. You are asked to prepare a speech on the topic, Protecting the Earth. Write the speech using the notes below. Do not litter use dustbins do not throw rubbish into the rivers and drains

Plant more trees for ecosystem soil erosion

Reduce air pollution sharing transportation enforce law on open burning

Recycle used items do not throw away used items decorate goods to make money

When writing your speech: you may use all the notes elaborate on the given notes to make it more interesting add any other relevant information make sure it is not less than 120 words

(30 marks)

20

DO NOT LITTER
Responsible Flash floods Dustbins Clogged Diseases Contribute Spread Throw Save Rubbish environment

Plant more trees


Improve Release Uncontrolled Quality Oxygen Development Environment Carbon dioxide Protect Health Prevent Expose Fresher Soil erosion Harmful

Reduce air pollution


Reduce Car pool Smokes Save Open burning Money Bad effect Petrol Smoking Traffic jams

Recycle used items


Efficient Make money Save Decorating Natural Recyclable items Resources Handicrafts Creative products

21

Use dustbins

Do not throw rubbish into the rivers and drains they will be clogged cause flash floods spread dangerous diseases

prevent soil erosion * caused by uncontrolled development

for ecosystem and fresh air * trees will release oxygen * protect from being exposed to harmful uv-rays

enforce law on open burning, smoking

sharing transportation

not throw away used items

decorate goods to make money

22

A very good morning to the Principal, Puan Rassiah Bt Nawi, our Senior Assistant, Mr. Rajan Gomez, teachers and my fellow friends. I am very glad to be given this opportunity this morning to a talk about one important issue, Protecting the Earth. On this beautiful and blessed day, we can see the beauty that nature has for us to enjoy. But, uncontrolled development has horribly affected this beauty and created an imbalanced environment. The question is, how long can earth take this irresponsible act and what can we do as people of the world? There are many simple ways to save the environment. First, we should not litter. As a responsible citizen, we should help our country and surroundings by using the dustbin. We know that, littering is a bad habit which can contribute to a lot of problems. If we throw the rubbish into the rivers and drains, they will be clogged and this may lead to flash floods especially during heavy rains. Apart from that, many dangerous diseases such as diarrhoea, dengue, and malaria can spread easily. Secondly, we should also plant more trees. Planting trees is a good way to improve the quality of our environment and health. Our air will be fresher because trees will release oxygen that we need and absorb carbon dioxide that we release. Trees can protect us from being exposed to harmful ultra violet-light especially on a hot blazing day. Furthermore, it can also help to prevent soil erosion which is caused by uncontrolled development. Thirdly, we should do our part in maintaining the quality of the air. We can reduce air pollution by not carrying out activities such as open burning and smoking. The smoke will give a bad effect not only to the environment but also to our health as well. We can report any open burning to the Department of Environment. In addition, we can practice car pool or use public transportation. By doing that, not only do we save our money and petrol, but we also help to reduce traffic jams and air pollution. Lastly, we must make an effort to recycle used items. Recycling is the most effective way to save our natural resources. If we are creative, we can make money from decorating recyclable goods and then sell our handicrafts products. In conclusion, I really hope that all of us will play our part in protecting our earth. We each have an important role in saving Mother Nature. We should also be more proactive in this noble effort. With that, I thank you for your kind attention.

23

SECTION A
You are advised to spend about 40 minutes on this question. Study the pictures below and answer the question that follows. You have been reading books about keeping pets. You have been asked to give a speech to members of the Pet Club. Using the notes given below, write a speech on Keeping Pets.

When writing your speech: you may use all the notes elaborate on the given notes to make it more interesting add any other relevant information make sure it is not less than 120 words

(30 marks)

24

pets - good companions

what pet you want

within your budget

type of home and food

training

25

26

....

27

Good morning to our teacher adviser, Puan Aminah and all members of the Pet Club. I am Zulfikri from Form 3A. Im delighted to share with you on keeping pets. First of all, Im sure you all agree with me that pets are good companions. If you have a cat or a dog, you can play with it. You can also share your problems or complaints with your pet. It will be a good listener. Im sure you have heard that people who are handicapped have pets to help them in their daily activities. So if you are thinking of having a pet, find out what pet you want. Would you want one who comes to you when you return home from school? Then you could get a cat or a dog. Or do you like to have one which you can look at when you need peace? The graceful goldfish could be your pet. Make sure the pet that you get is within your budget. You need to calculate the cost of keeping your pet. Think of the type of home and food that your pet would need. A bird would need a strong cage and birdseed. Fishes need an aquarium, an electric motor and special food. If you can afford all the necessary items, then you can have your pet. When you have your pet, you can carry out some training so that it will do the right things. For example, your dog can fetch your newspaper from outside your house. You can train your parrot to speak blessing words. Finally, I hope you will enjoy looking for your pet. Remember to take good care of your pets. Thank you for your kind attention.

28

Greeting / Salutation
Dear is most often used. You can use for everyone, from your mother to a new pen-pal. My dear - is used if you have a close relationship with someone, like your family or best friend. Dearest and My dearest - are usually used only for people you love.

Opening Remarks
How are you? I hope you are fine. What a surprise to hear from you. I received your letter yesterday / a few days ago How are you? I am sorry I couldnt write earlier.

Closing Remarks
That will be for now. I hope to hear from you soon. Please send my warmest regards to your family. Do write soon. I shall write again when I have time.

29

493, Jalan Bukit 25, Bukit Jana Heights, 34000 Taiping, Perak Darul Ridzuan. 2 July 2009
Salutation

Writers Address

Date

Dear Fadzle, It was a wonderful surprise to hear from you ...................................................................... ............................................................................... .......................................................................... ............................................................................... ... ........................................................................ ............................................................................... ............................................................................... ............................................................................... Do write to me again after your examinations. Until then, good luck in the exam!
Opening Remarks

The Content

Closing Remarks

Your friend, Ammy

Ending & Signature

30

SECTION A
You are advised to spend about 40 minutes on this question. Study the information below and answer the question that follows. Your school celebrated Teachers Day last week. You are writing a letter to a friend to describe this special occasion. Use these notes in your letter: Activities started at 9.00 a.m. with morning assembly Speech by principal Reminded students to study hard and develop good qualities Show appreciation to our teachers for their hard work Head prefect read out Teachers Day message Class parties eating, sang, danced and played games After 12 noon, telematches were played

When writing your letter : you may use all the notes elaborate on the given notes to make it more interesting add any other relevant information make sure it is not less than 120 words

(30 marks)

31

BEFORE WRITING, always remind your students to ask a few WH-questions to get a clear scenario on the event they are going to write.

No 1

Statement / Points given Activities started at 9.00 a.m. with morning assembly

WH Question * Where did the assembly take place? * Who attended the assembly? * Who was the guest-of-honour?

Speech by principal

* What was the main idea of the speech? * What was the speech all about?

Reminded students to study hard and develop good qualities Head prefect read out Teachers Day message Class parties eating, sang, danced and played games

* Why do students have to study hard and develop good qualities? * What was the content of the message?

* What was the food prepared? * What games did the students enjoy?

After 12 noon, telematches were played

* What games were played? * What were the prizes for the winners?

32

5 Sesame Street, 45700,Gerik Perak. 20 May 2009 Dear Maslinda, How are you? I hope you are fine. My family and I are doing just fine. My school celebrated Teachers Day last week. Activities on that day started at 9.00 a.m. First we had an assembly in the school hall. The principal and all the teachers were seated on a colourful and nicely decorated stage. The school principal gave a speech. He reminded students to study hard and develop good qualities. This is our way of showing our appreciation to our teachers for their hard work. At the end of the speech, we clapped loudly to show our appreciation to our teachers. Then the Head Prefect read out the Teachers Day message. He thanked the teachers for their endurance and compassion all this while. He also recited a poem entitled KASIH GURU. This was followed by our class parties. At the parties, we ate, sang, danced and played games. I enjoyed playing the Musical Chairs game After 12 noon, the telematches were played. That was the most exciting event of the day. Teachers and students played various interesting games like sack race, throwing balloons and other relay games. The students won most of the games. By then, we were all tired but happy. It certainly had been a very enjoyable day. How about the Teachers Day celebration in your school? Do tell me about it in your next letter. Take care and bye.

Your friend; Ammy

33

SECTION A
You are advised to spend about 40 minutes on this question. Study the information below and answer the question that follows. You and your family are planning to go camping for the coming school holidays. You have found a suitable campsite. Write a letter to your uncle and invite him and his family to join you. Use the notes below to write the letter. 1. Campsite Clean Shady Peaceful Safe 2. Location Near a town 20-minute bus-ride Mini market 3. Facilities Tent for rent Childrens playground Toilets Shower rooms 4. Activities Barbecue Games Swimming Trekking

When writing your letter: you may use all the notes elaborate on the given notes to make it more interesting add any other relevant information make sure it is not less than 120 words

(30 marks)

34

No Statement / Points given 1 Campsite 2 Clean Shady Peaceful Safe

WH Question

Location Near a town 20-minute bus-ride Mini market

Facilities Tent for rent Childrens playground Toilets Shower rooms

Activities Barbecue Games Swimming Trekking

35

36

20 Jalan Sentosa, Taman Bahagia, 31900 Kampar. 2 July 2009 Dear Uncle Tan, How are you and everyone at home? I trust you are doing fine. My father asked me to write to invite you and your family to join us on a camping trip during the coming holidays. He has found a suitable campsite. It is situated in the Kuala Woh Recreational Park. He found the place clean and peaceful. There are big trees around the campsite so it will be shady. The place is also safe from wild animals and trespassers. The campsite is near a town. There is a bus service from the town to the campsite. It is only a twenty minute ride to town. Not only can we buy things from the town, but we can also get what we need from a mini market which is located within the park. The campsite is well-equipped. We can rent tents. There are toilets and shower rooms. Then there is the childrens playground. Im sure Jo Jo and Gigi will enjoy playing there. We can go jungle trekking during the day. There are guides who can lead us. We can also go swimming in the river nearby. Besides that, we can play ball games with one another. We intend to have barbecue on the last night of our camping trip. We really hope you can join us. We would like to have the camping on the first weekend of the holidays. Im looking forward to your favourable reply.

Your loving niece, Sia Ling

37

1. Every story has a beginning, middle and ending. 2. In the beginning, write about who is in the story and where the story took place. 3. In the middle, write about a problem or problems faced by the characters. 4. For the ending, write about how the characters solve the problem(s). 5. Give names to the characters. 6. Write in some dialogue to make your story interesting. 7. Use adjectives and adverbs also to make your story interesting.

38

Beginning 1. travelling attended wedding 2. overtook bullock cart made faces

Middle 3. tyre punctured panicked lost control 4. opened car boot no tools disappointed

Ending 5. offered ride- were ashamed 6. ?

39

Story Map A story map can help you plot out just what happens in a story. Fill in each part of the story map. Use the story map to guide your writing. Johans embarrassing experience

Title Main Characters Other Characters Conflict Setting Rising Action Event 1 Event 2 Event 3 Climax Resolution

Two children, a farmer

Father, mother

Children rude Family with two children travelling to attend wedding

Saw man on bullock cart overtook - made faces Man ignored, naughty children

tyre punctured panicked lost control

Opened car boot -no tools disappointed Man on bullock cart came by offered ride Man brought family on bullock cart to attend wedding- were ashamed

40

SECTION A
You are advised to spend about 40 minutes on this question. Study the pictures below and answer the question that follows. Write a story about Johans experience. You must provide an ending for the story.

1. travelling attended wedding 2. overtook bullock cart made faces 3. tyre punctured panicked lost control 4. opened car boot no tools disappointed 5. offered ride- were ashamed

When writing your story, you should : Use all the notes given. Elaborate on the given notes to make it more interesting. Make sure it is not less than 120 words. [30 marks]

41

Sample answer 1 : Johans Embarrassing Experience Johan and his family were travelling in their car. They wanted to attend a wedding. Then Johan saw a man on a bullock cart in front of them. His father overtook the man. Johan and his little sister made faces at the man. The man ignored the children. Suddenly, the tyre of their car punctured. Johans father panicked as he lost control of the car. He held on to the steering wheel and applied his brakes. Johans father got down from the car. He opened the boot of the car. There were no tools. He was disappointed. Not long after, the man on the bullock cart came by. He offered Johans family a ride on his bullock cart. Johan and his sister were ashamed. They apologized to the man for being rude. (132 words) Sample Answer 2 : Johans Embarrassing Experience Johan and his family were travelling in their car. They wanted to attend a wedding in Malacca. Then Johan saw a man on a bullock cart in front of them. He was moving slowly along the road. Johans father overtook the man. Johan and his little sister made cheeky faces at the man. The man looked at them. He just ignored the children. Suddenly, one of the back tyres of their car punctured. Johans father panicked as he lost control of the car for a moment. He quickly held on to the steering wheel tightly and applied his brakes. The car screeched to a halt. Johan and his family got down from the car. His father opened the boot of the car. There were no tools to repair the punctured tyre Johans father was utterly disappointed. They would not be able to attend the wedding now. Not long after, the man on the bullock cart came by. He asked Johans father what had happened. After knowing their problem, he offered Johans family a ride on his bullock cart to the venue of the wedding. Johans father accepted his offer. Johan and his sister were ashamed for having made faces at the man. They apologized to him. The man forgave them. (209 words)

42

SECTION A
You are advised to spend about 40 minutes on this question. Study the pictures below and answer the question that follows. Bob and his father spend their time gardening every Sunday morning. Last Sunday, an accident involving a car and a van happened just across their house. Based on the pictures below, write a composition about the accident.

43

Title

A Road Accident

Main
Bob and his father

Characters

Other Characters

Conflict

Setting

Rising Action Event 1

Event 2

Event 3

Climax

Resolution

44

....

45

Last Sunday morning, Bob and his father were looking at the

plants in their garden. They were talking about how well their sunflower plant was blooming when they suddenly heard a loud bang. They looked at the road where the noise of the bang had come from and saw that a car had crashed against a van.

Bob and his father ran out of the gate. They saw that the car drivers head was bleeding. He had knocked his head against the windscreen, which was smashed. The driver of the van was unhurt. He had got out of his van to check on the car driver. Bob immediately used his mobile phone to phone to the police. By now, a big crowd had gathered at the scene of the accident.

Five minutes later, the police arrived. By then, an ambulance had come too to take the injured man away. The police then cleared the traffic and requested the crowd to disperse. The driver of the van was asked to follow behind the police car to go to the police station for an enquiry session.

46

Step 1 - Read a chapter or section from a story to your students. It should be something at or slightly below their reading level. Step 2 - As a class, discuss the main things that happened in the chapter. The section should be short enough so that there are only a few at first. Step 3 - With every chapter, have a different student summarize what happened. Make sure that they include all plot details, character development and new information that the reader receives. Step 4 - Have students bring in articles. They can be newspaper, magazine or Internet articles as long as they are reporting on something. Bring in some articles yourself. Step 5 - Go through an article together as a class and underline the most important information. Step 6 - Assign the students to do the same and write out a summary. Each article summary should explain the topic, key facts and any important background details. Step 7 -Have them practise. The more types of writing your students summarize, the better they will get at it. Include narrative and persuasive essays, short stories and even movies.

Read the passage below and answer the question that follows.

47

The internet is a very useful tool for children but out there in cyberspace, there are lots of dangers that await an unwitting Internet user. Hence, there are rules that children should observe for their own good. Firstly, they should not give out personal information such as their address, telephone number, parents workplace and contact and also the location of their school to strangers they come across in the internet. The next important rule is to tell their parents when they have to handle situations or messages that make them feel uncomfortable. And parents need to tell the children that it is not their fault if they get messages that make them feel that way. Children must also be warned about going out to meet their cyber contacts in person based on arrangements made online. Lastly, they should also be warned about sending out any pictures of themselves or their families online because once they are sent, those pictures can become public property. If kids follow these rules with the guiding hands of their parents, both parties can have fun and learn a lot about the computer from each other. Write a summary on the guidelines for young Internet users. Your summary must : not be more than 60 words, including the 10 words given below. be in continuous writing (not note form). be written in ONE paragraph.

Use your own words as far as possible without changing its original meaning. Begin your summary as follows : Young Internet users should firstly, not give out their own

(10 marks)

48

Find synonyms of the following words

No 1 2 3 4 5

Words unwitting important handle arrangement property

Synonym

49

Shorten these sentences

1. There are lots of dangers that await an unwitting Internet user.

2. Firstly, they should not give out personal information such as their address,
telephone number, parents workplace and contact and also the location of their school to strangers they come across in the internet. ...

3. The next vital rule is to tell their parents when they have to handle situations or
messages that make them feel uncomfortable. ..

50

List down the main points

51

Rewrite the points in the grid below Number of Words 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

52

Rewrite the points in one paragraph

Draft 1 Draft 2

53

Draft 3

Final draft

Read the passage below and answer the question that follows.

54

Scuba diving is a complex sport and needs many lessons to master. Just about anyone can become a diver. Scuba diving is an equal opportunity sport open to men, women and children. However, there are few limitations on age and health for safety purposes. Anyone at fifteen can become an Open Water Diver. Children between the ages of ten and fifteen can receive a Junior Open Water Diver certification. At the age of fifteen, they can receive regular Open Water Diver certification. In general, anyone in good average health and meets the age requirements can participate. As a safety measure, a routine medical questionnaire must be completed. If anything on the questionnaire indicates a risky condition, you should get a medical checkup to make sure it is safe to dive. Some conditions to watch out for include cardiovascular, metabolic, pregnancy, behavioral health issues, ear and sinus problems. Any time of the year is a good time to dive. Even during winter, one can still dive. You can take special courses to prepare you for cold water diving. If you are a warm water fan, take a vacation to a tropical island and enjoy diving. Scuba diving can be broken down into four groups: recreational, commercial, scientific, and military

Write a summary on the sport of scuba diving: Your summary must : not be more than 60 words, including the 10 words given below. be in continuous writing (not note form). be written in ONE paragraph.

Use your own words as far as possible without changing its original meaning. Begin your summary as follows : Scuba diving, a complex sport, needs many lessons. It is (10 marks) Find the synonym of the following word

55

Find synonym of the following words No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Words complex equal opportunity participate requirements broken down watch out Synonym

Shorten these sentences

1. Scuba diving is a complex sport and needs lessons to master. ... 2. Scuba diving is an equal opportunity sport open to men, women and children. 3. In general, anyone in good average health who meets the age requirements can participate. ... 4. Some conditions to watch out for include cardiovascular, metabolic, pregnancy, behavioral health issues, ear and sinus problems.

5. Scuba diving can be broken down into four groups: recreational, commercial, scientific, and military. ....

56

List down the main points

57

Rewrite the points in the grid below Number of Words 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

58

Rewrite the points in one paragraph

Draft 1 Draft 2

59

Draft 3

Final draft

Read the passage below and answer the question that follows.

60

It is easy to prepare honey chicken wings. It is a good dish for a party. Not only is it a tasty snack, but it is also very easy to serve. All you have to do is to pile up the chicken wings on a big plate. The party guest can eat them with their hands. That is why this dish is called finger licking good First, you have to season the chicken wings. This is done by rubbing salt, pepper and honey on the meat. Do not use too much honey or the wings will taste too sweet. Keep them aside for an hour. This is to make them tastier. When they are ready to be fried, heat up the frying pan. Pour a cup of cooking oil into it over a strong fire. When the oil is hot, add in the chicken wings. Fry them for about ten minutes till they are golden brown. Then, turn down the flame and continue frying over a slow fire. Make sure you fry both sides of the wings. When they are cooked, scoop out the wings and spread them on a big plate. You can add slices of cucumber or tomato all around the plate.

Write on preparing honey chicken wings: Your summary must : not be more than 60 words, including the 10 words given below. be in continuous writing (not note form). be written in ONE paragraph.

Use your own words as far as possible without changing its original meaning. Begin your summary as follows : Honey chicken wing is a good dish for a party

(10 marks)

Find synonym of the following words

61

No 1 2 3 4 5

Words prepare tasty rubbing season scoop

Synonym

Shorten these sentences 1. Not only is it a tasty snack, but it is also very easy to serve. .. 2. First, you have to season the chicken wings. This is done by rubbing salt, pepper and honey on the meat. .. 3. When they are ready to be fried, heat up the frying pan. Pour a cup of cooking oil into it over a strong fire. When the oil is hot, add in the chicken wings. Fry them for about ten minutes till they are golden brown. Then, turn down the flame and continue frying over a slow fire. Make sure you fry both sides of the wings. ... ... ...

62

List down the main points

63

Rewrite the points in the grid below Number of Words 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

64

Rewrite the points in one paragraph

Draft 1 Draft 2

65

Draft 3

Final draft

66

Read the passage below and answer the question that follows.

Life today is interesting. We are living in an electronic age with the wonders of the computers. Computers certainly make life fast-moving. The computer is used in business and as a source of information. The world is getting smaller because of this. We just have to click on our mouse and all the information is there for us to read. In todays world, the mass media makes life better and more interesting. This is especially so as compared to the past when newspapers and television were the only means of communication. Todays entertainment is sophisticated and high-tech. Traveling is much faster with better means of transportation. Within a few hours, we find ourselves in another continent. With more industries, there are more jobs. Young graduates have a wide selection of jobs to choose from. No wonder, they have become very choosy. People are better paid today but of course, the costs of living have gone up too. And with more advanced medical facilities, we can live longer and enjoy better health. Whatever it is, life today is much better than during our grandfathers time. Write a summary on life today:

Your summary must : not be more than 60 words, including the 10 words given below. be in continuous writing (not note form). be written in ONE paragraph.

Use your own words as far as possible without changing its original meaning. Begin your summary as follows : Life today centres on computers. They make life fast-moving. The (10 marks)

67

Find synonyms of the following words No 1 2 3 4 5 Words interesting source sophisticated jobs wide Synonym

Shorten these sentences 1. The computer is used in business and as a source of information. The world is getting smaller because of this. 2. In todays world, the mass media makes life better and more interesting. This is especially so when compared to the past when only the newspapers and television were only the means. Todays entertainment is sophisticated and high-tech. Traveling is much faster with better means of transportation. Within a few hours, we find ourselves in another continent. ... ... .. 3. With more industries, there are more jobs. Young graduates have a wide selection of jobs to choose from. No wonder, they have become very choosy. People are better paid today but of course, costs of living have gone up too.

68

List down the main points

69

Rewrite the points in the grid below Number of Words 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

70

Rewrite the points in one paragraph

Draft 1 Draft 2

71

Draft 3

Final draft

72

Read the passage below and answer the question that follows.

In camping, follow these golden rules. Camp on bare ground where possible. The campsite should be away from trails and dead trees. Avoid slopes, high ridges and wet sites. Do not choose campsites that are below flood level or are highly frequented by wildlife. Set up camp as early as possible and familiarize yourself with the surroundings. This helps to prevent injuries from moving about in the dark at night. Make sure that you bring enough food to last the trip. The food can be fresh, dried or canned. Avoid bringing any food with a strong smell. You will need at least two litres of water per person per day. Use water from a natural source such as a spring. Make sure all water is boiled to eliminate bacteria and contamination .Build your fire away from the tent. Do not cook inside the tent, even if you are using a gas canister. Never burn rubbish, especially plastic, as the fumes are toxic. Make sure the fire is completely put out before you break camp. Do remember your camp etiquette. The campsite is part of nature. In areas of sensitive environments, vegetation takes a long time to recover, so no holes should be dug around there at all.

Write a summary on the rules of camping.

Your summary must : not be more than 60 words, including the 10 words given below. be in continuous writing (not note form). be written in ONE paragraph.

Use your own words as far as possible without changing its original meaning. Begin your summary as follows : The rules of camping would include not choosing campsites that (10 marks)

73

Find synonyms of the following words

No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Words frequented enough break camp completely set up

Synonym

Shorten these sentences

1. You must set up the camp early. .. 2. In areas of sensitive environments, vegetation takes long time to recover, so no holes should be dug around there at all. 3. Make sure that you bring enough food to last the trip. You will need at least two litres of water per person. .

74

List down the main points

75

Rewrite the points in the grid below Number of Words 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

76

Rewrite the points in one paragraph

Draft 1 Draft 2

77

Draft 3

Final draft

Read the passage below and answer the question that follows.

78

Essential oils embody the essence and scent of plants and flowers and are extracted by a variety of processes including distillation, and pressing. The benefits of essential oils in skin and hair care are well-documented. Use of essential oils in

shampoos has been proven to not only strengthen the hair roots and the hair shaft but also to add vitality and shine. Essential oils can be used in a variety of ways the most common being massage, although benefits from oils can be obtained by simply burning incense sticks, or heating oils in a diffuser. Oils can also be added to hot and cold compresses. Hot compresses are usually used for muscular pains whereas cold compresses are used for headaches and swellings. Apart from the effect on the body, essential oils have the power to calm, uplift and restore. The use of products containing essential oils has been shown to aid the healing.

Write on the benefits of using essential oils.

Your summary must : not be more than 60 words, including the 10 words given below. be in continuous writing (not note form). be written in ONE paragraph.

Use your own words as far as possible without changing its original meaning. Begin your summary as follows : The benefits of essential oils in skin and hair care

(10 marks)

Find synonyms of the following words

79

No 1 2 3 4 5

Words embody benefits variety obtained effect

Synonym

Shorten these sentences 1. Use of essential oils in shampoos has been proven to not only strengthen the hair roots and the hair shaft but also to add vitality and shine. 2. Oils can also be added to hot and cold compresses. Hot compresses are usually used for muscular pains whereas cold compresses are used for headaches and swellings. 3. Apart from the effect on the body, essential oils have the power to calm, uplift and restore. The uses of products containing essential oils have been shown to aid the healing.

80

List down the main points

81

Rewrite the points in the grid below Number of Words 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

82

Rewrite the points in one paragraph

Draft 1 Draft 2

83

Draft 3

Final draft

84

Practice 1

Scuba diving, a complex sport, needs many lessons. It is open to men, women and Young internet users should firstly, not give out their age personal information to children. Anyone in good average health who meets the ownrequirement can participate. strangers not advisable They should cardiovascular, behavioural health However, it isin the internet. for those with tell their parents when they are in issues, ear anddifficulties while parents diving is broken down into four groups namely recreational, sinus problems. Scuba should not make them feel guilty about it. They must be warned about goingand military. their words) commercial, scientific, out to meet (58 cyber contacts in person and sending out
any pictures of themselves online. (59 words)

Practice 2

Scuba diving, a complex sport, needs many lessons. It is open to men, women and children. Anyone in good average health and meets the age requirement can participate. However, it is not advisable for those with cardiovascular, behavioural health issues, ear and sinus problems. Scuba diving is broken down into four groups namely recreational, commercial, scientific, and military. (58 words)

Practice 3

Honey chicken wings is a good dish for a party. To prepare it, firstly, you need to marinate the chicken wings and leave them for an hour. Next, heat up a cup of cooking oil and fry the chicken wings till they are brown. Fry both sides of the chicken wings. Lastly, serve them with slices of cucumber and tomato. (59 words)

85

Practice 4

Life today centres on computers. They make life fast-moving. The world is getting smaller because of this. The mass media today makes life more interesting. Entertainment today is sophisticated and high-tech. Travelling is faster with better means of transportation. With more industries, there are more jobs. Salaries are higher today and so is the quality of life. (57 words)

Practice 5

The rules of camping would include not choosing campsites that are near risky places. Set up camp early, bring enough food and water for the camping trip. Make sure you build your fire away from the tent. Furthermore, never burn rubbish and put off the fire completely before you leave. Lastly, do not dig holes in sensitive environments. (58 words)

Practice 6 The benefits of essential oils in skin and hair care are many. They strengthen the hair roots, add vitality and can be used for massage. Benefits can be obtained by heating oils in a diffuser. Oil can be added to hot and cold compresses for muscular pains, headaches and swelling. Essential oils can rejuvenate and has healing power. (58 words)

86

Analysis of Literature Questions PMR YEAR 2002 POEM The Dead Crow S.STORY Of Bunga Telur and Bally Shoes 2003 The Lake Isle Of Innisfree 2004 Lifes Brief Candle How Dalat Got Its Name The Pencil NOVEL Interesting Character Interesting Incident Theme

2005

The Dead Crow

Of Bunga Telur and Bally Shoes

Moral Values

2006

The Lake Isle Of Innisfree Lifes Brief Candle Lifes Brief Candle

How Dalat Got Its Name Of Bunga Telur and Belly Shoes

Ending Of The Story Characters

2007

2008

The Pencil

Important Incident

2009

87

1. The question on the novel is asked in Section C of Paper 2. 2. Students are to read and understand their prescribed novel. 3. Students should know the characters and theme of the story. 4. Students are to read the questions on the novel carefully. 5. Students are to choose one novel that they have studied and write their answer based on that particular novel. 6. Marks allocated for this section is 10 marks.

88

SECTION C
You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on this question. NOVELS 1. Potato People Angela Wright 2. Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe 3. The Phantom of the Opera Gaston Leroux 4. The Prisoner of Zenda Anthony Hope Hawkins 5. Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde R.L.Stevenson

Choose one of the novels above. Based on one of the novels above, write about its theme of compassion. Provide textual evidence to support your answer. Your answer should be more than 50 words.

89

Step 1 : Read and understand the question What is the meaning of compassion? Based on your experience, give examples. Step 2 : Choose the novel that you want to write on. A. Potato People B. Robinson Crusoe C. The Phantom of the Opera D. The Prisoner of Zenda E. Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde Step 3 : List down 5 important ideas to answer the question. ROBINSON CRUSOE 1. When Robinson Crusoe escaped from the pirates, he took Xury with him. 2. He saved Friday from the cannibals. 3. He helped a sea captain recapturing the captains ship from mutineers. PRISONER OF ZENDA 1. Colonel Sapt and Fritz tried to wake King Rudolf up to attend the coronation. 2. Rassendyll agreed to impersonate the King to save the kings throne. 3. Colonel Sapt, Fritz and Rudolf attempted to rescue the king who was imprisoned in Zenda Castle.

Step 4: Draft your answer using the ideas above. Step 5 : Edit your draft on spelling, punctuation, sentence structure and etc.

90

The Prisoner Of Zenda The Prisoner of Zenda brings attention to the value of compassion. When King Rudolf is found drunk on the day he is to be crowned as king, Colonel Sapt and Fritz try their best to make him sober to go through the coronation but to no avail. They then persuade Rudolf Rassendyll who looks exactly like the king to impersonate him and to go through the coronation to save the kings throne. After the successful impersonating of the king, all three of them attempt to rescue the king who is imprisoned in the Zenda Castle by his evil brother, Duke Michael who wants badly to be king. This is done at the risk of death. These three characters portray the value of compassion to someone in trouble. Robinson Crusoe Robinson Crusoe brings attention to the value of compassion. Robinson came across a few situations that showed his compassion towards those in trouble. When their ship was attacked by Turkish pirates at the Mediterranean, Crusoe was kept as a prisoner together with a young boy named Xury. He then became the chiefs trusted man, and at the same time he planned to escape. Finally after some time, he managed to get on a passing ship and he took Xury with him in his escapade. Later, when he was stranded alone on the Caribbean island, he rescued Friday from being killed and eaten by his tribe, the cannibals. Towards the end of his life at the Caribbean Island, he showed compassion to the sea captain by recapturing his ship from the mutineers. All the evidence showed that he was a compassionate man.

91

You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on this question. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Potato People Angela Wright Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe The Phantom of the Opera Gaston Leroux The Prisoner of Zenda Anthony Hope Hawkins Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde R.L.Stevenson

Based on one of the novels above, write about two moral values in the novel. Give evidence from the novel to support your answer. Your answer should be more than 50 words.

92

You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on this question. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Potato People Angela Wright Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe The Phantom of the Opera Gaston Leroux The Prisoner of Zenda Anthony Hope Hawkins Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde R.L.Stevenson

Based on one of the novels above, describe the most exciting event in the story. Give evidence from the novel to support your answer. Your answer should be more than 50 words.

93

You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on this question. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Potato People Angela Wright Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe The Phantom of the Opera Gaston Leroux The Prisoner of Zenda Anthony Hope Hawkins Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde R.L.Stevenson

Based on one of the novels above, show how it portrays the message of honour. Give reasons for your choice. Your answer should be more than 50 words.

94

You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on this question. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Potato People Angela Wright Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe The Phantom of the Opera Gaston Leroux The Prisoner of Zenda Anthony Hope Hawkins Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde R.L.Stevenson

Based on one of the novels above, write about a character that you think was helpful? Give reasons for your choice. Your answer should be more than 50 words.

95

You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on this question. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Potato People Angela Wright Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe The Phantom of the Opera Gaston Leroux The Prisoner of Zenda Anthony Hope Hawkins Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde R.L.Stevenson

Based on one of the novels above, describe the climax of the story. Give reasons for your choice. Your answer should be more than 50 words.

96

Question 1

The two moral values in the novel Robinson Crusoe are not to give up easily and no one can live without a friend. In the story, Robinson is a symbol of determination. He does not give up easily. When he first arrives on the island, the place is covered with thick jungle and filled with wild animals. However, he builds up his life by finding a place to build his home. He uses the materials found in the jungle to make his furniture. If he is a person who gives up easily, he would have let himself die on the shore. As the saying goes, No man is an island, no one can live without friends. Friday becomes Robinsons friend and Robinson teaches him English and tells him about the existence of God. Hence, this shows that friendship is important and we should appreciate our friends.

Question 2

The most exciting event is when Rudolf rescued the king. He was in the moat, waiting for the Zenda Castle to open. When it was, he rushed to the part of the castle where the king was imprisoned. Meanwhile, the Duke and Rupert Hentzau were fighting. The Duke was killed by Hentzau. Rudolf found the king who was very weak. When the drawbridge was up, Rudolf waited for Sapt and the other men to come and carry the king. So the king was finally rescued.

Question 3

The Prisoner of Zenda has the message of honour for its readers. Rudolf falls in love with Princess Flavia. However, he does an honourable act by keeping the secret of his identity from Princess Flavia who is betrothed to the King. The princess too has fallen in love with him. Their sense of honour makes them decide to sacrifice their love for the sake of the King, people and country of Ruritania. Like them, we must put honour before our feelings and desire.

Question 4

97

Question 4

The character in The Prisoner of Zenda who was helpful is Fritz. When Rudolf impersonated the king, he was very helpful. He was constantly at Rudolfs side to guide him in the role of the king. After King Rudolf V had been rescued, Rudolf went to see the king for the last time. Then, Fritz secretly took him to Princess Flavia for their last meeting. When Rudolf was back in England, Fritz would meet him every year outside of Ruritania to bring him news of the Queen of Ruritania.

Question 5

To me, the climax of the story is where Robinson Crusoe rescued Friday from being killed and eaten by his tribe, the cannibals. To me, this is the climax of the story because it is here that Robinson shows his first heroic act. He shows how his character has developed from being a miserable young man stranded on a deserted island to a man full of courage and guts saving another man in danger. Later on Robinson also saves Fridays father, a Spaniard and a European. He even helped a ship captain regained his ship from the mutinees. All these begin with the climax of the story where Robinson turns out to be a new person who is brave and wise. He is respected by these people for his wisdom.

98