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Numerical Simulation of Unidirectional Chaotic Synchronization of Non-Autonomous Circuit and its Application for Secure Communication

Mustafa Mamat1, Zabidin Salleh1, Mada Sanjaya WS1,4, Noor Maizura Mohamad Noor2 and Mohd Fadhli Ahmad3 Department of Mathematics Department of Computer Sciences 3 Department of Maritime Technology Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia 4 Department of Physics, Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung, Indonesia

2 1

Abstract. The nonlinear chaotic non-autonomous fourth order system is algebraically simple but can generate complex chaotic attractors. In this paper, non-autonomous fourth order chaotic oscillator circuits were designed and simulated. Also chaotic non-autonomous attractor is addressed suitable for chaotic masking communication circuits using Matlab® and MultiSIM® programs. We have demonstrated in simulations that chaos can be synchronized and applied to signal masking communications. We suggest that this phenomenon of chaos synchronism may serve as the basis for little known chaotic non-autonomous attractor to achieve signal masking communication applications. Simulation results are used to visualize and illustrate the effectiveness of non-autonomous chaotic system in signal masking. All simulations results performed on non-autonomous chaotic system are verify the applicable of secure communication. Keywords: Chaotic synchronization, unidirectional coupling, double bell attractor, non-autonomous chaotic circuit, secure communication

Introduction There are two types of chaotic systems, autonomous and non-autonomous.

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Although there are many known autonomous chaotic oscillators very few non-autonomous have been introduced in the literature. Non-autonomous chaotic circuits form a class of systems which produce chaos while being driven by an external time varying source. The amplitude and frequency of the sinusoidal signal both contribute to the chaotic dynamics of the system. Chaos behavior can occur everywhere, even in very simple and low-dimensional nonlinear systems. The well known Poincare’-Bendixon theorem [1,2], requires an autonomous continuous time state space model to be at least three-dimensional in order to have bounded chaotic solutions. On the other hand, for non-autonomous systems, chaos can appear in two-dimensional models. There are many examples, such as Lorenz [3], Rössler [4] systems that have been widely studied. Electronic circuits that consist of two nonlinear elements can be used to verify theoretical predictions. As an example, nonlinear Duffing forced oscillators have been experimentally studied [5]. Chaotic and chaotic synchronization in ecological and biological neural networks have been numerically studied [6-9]. Another popular example is the nonlinear chua's circuit, built and experimentally examined [10,11]. Chaos and chaotic systems have many fields of applications. One of the popular practical application is secure communication. Synchronization of chaotic systems and chaos based secure communications have become an area of active research in recent years[12-16]. Different approaches are proposed and being pursued. Chaotic signals depend very sensitively on initial conditions, have unpredictable features and noise like wideband spread spectrum. So, it can be used in various communication applications because of their features of masking and immunizing information against noise. The fundamental of chaos communication are the synchronization of two chaotic systems under suitable conditions if one of the systems is driven by the other. Since Pecora and Carrol [17,18] have demonstrated that chaotic systems can be synchronized, the research in synchronization of couple chaotic circuits is carried out intensively and some interesting applications such as communications with chaos have come out of that research. This paper focuses on design of non-autonomous chaotic oscillator and signal masking circuits. The brief is organized as follows. In Section II, mathematical models of the non-autonomous chaotic oscillator system are studied. In Section III, numerical simulation and MultiSIM® circuit design and their simulations of the non-autonomous chaotic oscillator system are obtained. In Section IV, the unidirectional coupling method is applied to synchronize non-autonomous chaotic oscillator system. In Section V, chaotic masking communication circuits and their simulations of the non-autonomous chaotic oscillator system are realized also Matlab® and MultiSIM®. Section VI contains conclusions.

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Figure 1: 4th order non-autonomous chaotic circuit models[19].

Mathematical Models of Non-Autonomous Chaotic Circuit The low frequency response of a 4th order non autonomous, nonlinear electronic circuit has been studied. The electronic circuit consists of two active elements, one linear negative conductance and one nonlinear resistor exhibiting a symmetrical piecewise linear v-i characteristic of N-type. The circuit contains also two capacitances C1 and C2, two inductances L1 and L2 and a sinusoidal input source Vs(t) [19]. Applying Kirchoff’s law, the non-autonomous circuit is described by four differential equations:

dv C 1 ⎫ = i L1 − i N ⎪ dt ⎪ dv C 2 C 2 = − g n v C 2 + i L 2 − i L1 ⎪ ⎪ dt ⎬ di L1 ⎪ = vC 2 − vC 1 − i L1r1 L1 ⎪ dt ⎪ di L 2 = − vC 2 − i L 2 r2 + VS (t ) ⎪ L2 dt ⎭ C1

(1)

where VS (t ) = vm sin 2πft is the input sinusoidal signal with amplitude vm and frequency f, while R2 denotes the internal resistance of the source with the function g(vC1) is defined

iN = g (vC 1 ) = m0 vC 1 + 1 ( m1 − m0 )[ vC 1 + BP − vC 1 − BP 2

]

(2)

where m1 and m0 are the slopes in the inner and outer regions, respectively, and ± BP denote the breakpoints.

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Figure 2: Nonlinear resistor function iN [19]. Numerical Simulation and Circuit Implementation We present numerical simulation to illustrate the dynamical behavior of non-autonomous chaotic circuit from system (1). For numerical simulation of chaotic systems defined by a set of differential equations such as non-autonomous chaotic circuit, different integration techniques can be used in simulation tools. In the Matlab® numerical simulations, ODE45 solver yielding a fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration solution has been used. According to these numerical simulations, the circuit’s chaotic dynamics and double-bell attractors are shown in Figure 3. For showing the dynamics of the system (1), the parameter set given as fixed parameters, see Table 1. We have studied system’s response in low frequencies range. Particularly, the numerical simulation and experimental simulation of phase portraits vC2 vs. vC1 for the frequency f = 50 Hz and the amplitude vm= 2 volt of input sinusoidal signal VS (t) are shown in this section. Table 1: Circuit parameters. Element Description Value Tolerance L1 Inductor 100mH ± 10% L2 Inductor 300mH ± 10% C1 Capacitor 33nF ± 5% C2 Capacitor 75nF ± 5% R1 Resistor 1kΩ ± 5% R2 Resistor 1Ω ± 5% R3 Resistor 2k Ω ± 5% R4 Resistor 2k Ω ± 5% R5 Resistor 2k Ω ± 5% R6 Resistor 1k Ω ± 5% 15.5k R7 ± 5% Resistor Ω R8 Resistor 4.1k Ω ± 5% R9 Resistor 297k Ω ± 5% U1,2 TL082CD

Numerical simulation of unidirectional chaotic synchronization -0.475 ms 5 ms -0.35 Gradient ms Breakpoint 1.2 voltage volt Negative Resistor Gradient

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gn m0 m1 BP

Now we shall prove that the strange attractor shown in Figure 3. is actually chaotic in nature [20]. For this we will first calculate all the Lyapunov exponents associated with the strange attractor shown in Figure 3(a). The spectrum of Lyapunov exponent is shown in Figure 3(b). One can see that the largest Lyapunov exponent thus calculated is positive, showing that the strange attractor is chaotic in nature.

Phase portrait non-autonomous chaotic circuit 6

20 Dynamics of Lyapunov exponents

4

10

Lyapunov exponents

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0

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**(a) Phase (b) Spectrum Lyapunov Exponent
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Time series non-autonomous chaotic circuit 4 3 2 1 Vc1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 Vc 2 0 10

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Time series non-autonomous chaotic circuit

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-10 0 0.02 0.04 Times 0.06 0.08 0.1 0 0.02 0.04 Times 0.06 0.08 0.1

(d) Time series vC2

(c) Time series vC1

Figure 3: Numerical simulation results for f = 50 Hz and vm = 2 volt.

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L1 L2

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Figure 4: Implementation of non-autonomous chaotic circuit.

(a) (b) Time series vC1

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(c) Time series vC2 Figure 5: MultiSIM simulation results for f = 50 Hz and vm = 2 volt. The complete implementation of the non-autonomous chaotic circuit design using MultiSIM® software is shown in Figure 4. The function of nonlinear resistor as see in Figure 2, are implemented with the analog operational amplifier. By comparing Figure 3, and Figure 5, it can be concluded that a good qualitative agreement between the numerical integration of (1) using Matlab®, and the circuits simulation using MultiSIM®.

®

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Unidirectional Chaotic Synchronization Synchronization between chaotic systems has received considerable attention and led to communication applications. With coupling and synchronizing identical chaotic systems methods, a message signal sent by a transmitter system can be reproduced at a receiver under the influence of a single chaotic signal through synchronization. This work presents the study of numerical simulation of chaos synchronization for non-autonomous chaotic circuit. Synchronization of chaotic motions among coupled dynamical systems is an important generalization from the phenomenon of the synchronization of linear system, which is useful and indispensable in communications. The idea of the methods is to reproduce all the signals at the receiver under the influence of a single chaotic signal from the driver. Therefore, chaos synchronization provides potential applications to communications and signal processing. However, to build secure communications system, some other important factors, need to be considered [21]. Numerical Simulation We use the same parameters as in Table 1, all parameters are identical except for their control value vm, in which the transmitter system vm1 is 2.001 V and the receiver system vm2 is 2.000 V. The following master-slave (unidirectional coupling) configuration, as described in [21], is used:

dvC11 ⎫ = iL11 − i N 1 ⎪ dt ⎪ dv ⎪ C 21 C 21 = − g n1vC 21 + iL 21 − iL11 ⎪ dt ⎪ di ⎪ L11 L11 = vC 21 − vC11 − iL11r11 ⎪ dt ⎪ di L21 L 21 = − vC 2 − iL 2 r2 + vm1 sin( 2πf1t ) ⎪ ⎪ dt ⎬ dvC 12 C12 = iL12 − i N 2 + g C (vC11 − vC12 ) ⎪ ⎪ dt ⎪ dv ⎪ C 22 C 22 = − g n 2 vC 22 + iL 22 − iL12 dt ⎪ ⎪ di L12 L12 = vC 22 − vC 12 − iL12 r12 ⎪ dt ⎪ ⎪ di L 22 = − vC 22 − iL 22 r22 + vm 2 sin (2πf 2t )⎪ L22 dt ⎭ C11

(3)

with gC =1/ RC the coupling strength and Rc are variable resistors, see Figure 7. The asymptotic synchronized situation is defined as

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limt →∞ vC11 (t ) − vC12 (t ) = 0

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First synchronization between identical systems is considered. We consider coupling through gC =1/ RC . It can be seen in Figure 6 that synchronization occurs if Rc does not exceed 1 KΩ. .

2 1.5

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**Unidirectional Chaotic Synchronization
**

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Unidirectional Chaotic Synchronization

1 0.5 Vc12 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2

-2 1 e = Vc11-Vc12

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Unidirectional Chaotic Synchronization 2 1.5 1

Unidirectional Chaotic Synchronization 0.3 0.2 0.1 e = Vc11-Vc12 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4

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Unidirectional Chaotic Synchronization 2 1.5 1

Unidirectional Chaotic Synchronization 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 e = Vc 11-Vc 12 0.05 0 -0.05 -0.1 -0.15 -0.2 -0.25

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(c) RC = 1 kΩ Figure 6: Unidirectional chaotic synchronization phase portrait and error vC11-vC12 numerical results. Synchronization numerically appears for a coupling strength RC ≤ 1 kΩ as shown in Figure 6. For different initial condition, if the resistance coupling strength RC > 1 kΩ, the synchronization cannot occur as shown in Figure 6(a),

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and Figure 6(b); Figure 6(b) shown that it takes longer time to achieve the synchronization. The synchronization occurs when RC ≤ 1 kΩ with errors e = vC11 − vC12 → 0 imply the complete synchronization for this resistance coupling strength as shown in Figure 6(c). Analog Circuit Simulation Figure 7 shows the circuit schematic for implementing the unidirectional synchronization of non-autonomous chaotic circuit system. We use TL082CD op-amps, appropriate valued resistors, inductor and capacitors for MultiSIM® simulations. Figure 8 also shows MultiSIM® simulation results of this circuit.

Unidirectional Chaotic Synchronization L1 L2

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Figure 7: Unidirectional chaotic synchronization non-autonomous circuit.

(a) RC = 10 kΩ

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(b) RC = 5 kΩ

(c) RC = 1 kΩ Figure 8: Unidirectional chaotic synchronization phase portrait and time series results. Synchronization with MultiSIM® simulation appears for a coupling strength RC ≤1 kΩ as shown in Figure 8. For different initial condition, if the resistance coupling strength RC > 1 kΩ, the synchronization cannot occur as shown in Figure 8(a) and Figure 8(b); the synchronization occurs when RC ≤1 kΩ with errors e = vC11 − vC12 → 0 imply the complete synchronization for this resistance coupling strength as shown in Figure 8(c). Application for Secure Communication Systems Due to the fact that output signal can recover input signal, it indicates that it is possible to create secure communication for a chaotic system. The presence of the chaotic signal between the transmitter and receiver has proposed the use of chaos in secure communication systems. The design of these systems depends as we explained earlier on the self synchronization property of the chaotic non-autonomous attractor. Transmitter and receiver systems are identical except for their control value vm, in which the transmitter system is 2.001 V and the receiver system is 2.000 V as shown in Figure 9. It is necessary to make sure the parameters of transmitter and receiver are

Numerical simulation of unidirectional chaotic synchronization

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identical for implementing the chaotic masking communication [12-16]. In this masking scheme, the square wave signals of amplitude 2V and frequency 0.5 kHz is added to the synchronizing driving chaotic signal in order to regenerate a clean driving signal at the receiver. Thus, the message has been perfectly recovered by using the signal masking approach through synchronization in the chaotic non-autonomous attractor. Computer simulation results have shown that the performance of chaotic non-autonomous attractor in chaotic masking and message recovery. The square wave signal is added to the generated chaotic x signal, and the S(t) = x + i(t) is feed into the receiver. The chaotic x signal is regenerated allowing a single subtraction to retrieve the transmitted signal, [x+i(t)]-xr = i’(t), If x = xr. Figure 9 shows the circuit schematic for implementing the chaotic non-autonomous attractor’s Chaotic Masking Communication. Figure 10 shows MultiSIM® simulation results of this Chaotic Masking Circuit.

L1 L2

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**

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Figure 9: Non-autonomous chaotic attractor masking communication circuit.

(a)

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(b) (c) Figure 10: MultiSIM® outputs of non-autonomous chaotic attractor Masking Communication Circuit: (a) Information signal i(t); (b) chaotic masking transmitted signal S(t); (c) retrieved signal i’(t). Conclusions This paper focuses on the chaotic oscillator circuit and the identical synchronization of the Fourth order non-autonomous chaotic attractor and its applications in signal masking communications. In this paper, non-autonomous chaotic circuit system is studied in detail, the system has rich chaotic dynamics behaviors. We have demonstrated in simulations that chaos can be synchronized and applied to secure communications. We suggest that this phenomenon of chaos synchronism may serve as the basis for little known non-autonomous chaotic attractor to achieve secure communication. Chaos synchronization and chaos masking were realized using MultiSIM® programs. Acknowledgement. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia under the FRGS Vot 59173.

References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Alligood, K.T., Sauer, T.D., & Yorke, J.A. 1996. Chaos: An Introduction to Dynamical Systems. Springer-Verlag, New York. Hilborn, H.C. 1994. Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics. Oxford University Press, New York. Lorenz, E.N. 1963. Deterministic non-periodic flow. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 20, pp. 130–141. Rossler, O.E. 1976. An equation for continuous chaos. Phys. Lett. A 57, 397-398. Volos, C.K., Kyprianidis, I.M., & Stouboulos, I.N. 2007. Synchronization of two Mutually Coupled Duffing – type Circuits, International Journal of Circuit, Systems and Signal processing, 1(3), 274-281.

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Mada, S.W.S., Mamat, M., Salleh, Z., & Mohd, I. 2011. Bidirectional Chaotic Synchronization of Hindmarsh-Rose Neuron Model. Applied Mathematical Sciences, 5(54), 2685 – 2695. Mada, S.W.S., Mamat, M., Salleh, Z., Mohd, I., & Muhammad Noor, N.M. 2011. Numerical Simulation Dynamical Model of Three Species Food Chain with Holling Type-II Functional Response. Malaysian Journal of Mathematical Sciences 5(1),1-12. Mamat, M., Mada, S.W.S., Salleh, Z., & Ahmad, M.F. 2011. Numerical Simulation Dynamical Model of Three Species Food Chain with Lotka-Volterra Linear Functional Response, Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, 6(1), 44-50. Salleh, Z., Mada, S.W.S., Mamat, M., & Noor, N.M.M., 2011. The Dynamics of a Three Species Food Chain Interaction Model with Michaelis-Menten Type Functional Response, Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, 6(2), 215-223. Matsumoto, T. 1984. A chaotic attractor from Chua's circuit, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., CAS 31(12),1055-1058. Kennedy, M.P. 1992. Robust Op Amp Implementation of Chua’s Circuit. Frequenz, 46(3-4), 66-80. Cuomo, K.M., & Oppenheim, A.V. 1993. Circuit implementation of synchronized chaos with applications to communications, Physical Review Letters, 71(1), 65–68. Feng, J.C., & Tse, C.K. 2007. Reconstruction of Chaotic Signals with Applications to Chaos-Based Communications. Tsinghua University Press and World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Lee, T.H., & Park, J.H. 2010. Generalized functional projective synchronization of Chen-Lee chaotic systems and its circuit implementation. International Journal of the Physical Sciences, 5(7), 1183-1190. Pehlivan, I., Uyaroglu, Y., & Yogun, M. 2010. Chaotic oscillator design and realizations of the Rucklidge attractor and its synchronization and masking simulations. Scientific Research and Essays, 5(16), 2210-2219. Mada, S.W.S., Maulana, D.S., Mamat, M., & Salleh, Z. 2011. Nonlinear Dynamics of Chaotic Attractor of Chua Circuit and Its Application for Secure Communication. J.Oto.Ktrl.Inst (J.Auto.Ctrl.Inst), 3 (1),1-16. Pecora, L., & Carroll, T. 1990. Synchronization in Chaotic Systems. Physical Review Letters, 64, 821-823. Pecora, L., & Carroll, T. 1991. Driving systems With Chaotic Signals. Physical Review Letters, 44, 2374-2383. Papadopoulou, M.S., Kyprianidis, I.M., & Stouboulos, I.N. 2008. Complex Chaotic Dynamics of the Double-Bell Attractor, WSEAS Transactions on Circuit and Systems, 7, 13-21. Wolf, A., Swift, J.B., Swinney, H.L., Vastano, J.A. 1985. Determining Lyapunov Exponents From a Time Series. Physica D, 16, 285-317. Kapitaniak, T. 2000. Chaos for engineers. 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

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