Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of


Submitted by


(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & affiliated to JNTU Kakinada)

1-378, ADB Road, Surampalem, Near Peddapuram, E.G. District


(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & affiliated to JNTU Kakinada)


1-378, ADB Road, Surampalem, Near Peddapuram, E.G. District Andhra Pradesh, pin-533 437 ph: 08852 252233,34,35

This is to certify that the Mini-project titled as “LOW POWER TELIVISION TRANSMITTER”, that is being submitted by
In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of

Technology in ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATONENGINEERING of PRAGATI ENGINEERING COLLEGE is record of bonafide work carried out by them.



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are thankful to Mr. V. Prasanth, Associate professor, Head of the Department, Electronics and communication engineering, Pragati Engineering College, Surampalem, for his co-operation and facilities giving in the department, his constant encouragement and invaluable support throughout the course of our project.


My profound thanks to Dr. A. KailasaRao, Director, Prof . K. Ananda Mohan, Director ,Dr. G. Raghuram, Director Pragati Engineering College for their support. We hereby express our sincere gratitude to,Dr.P.Sambhuprasad Principal of Pragati Engineering College, Surampalem who rendered us his constant encouragement and suggestions to complete our project work successfully. We are also thankful to supporting staff of ECE Department and the management of PRAGATI for their valuable suggestions to improve the quality of work and we are also thankful to friends for their co-operation and valuable help for completion of this project.

Project in-charge

CONTENTS 1.INTRODUCTION 2 Basic Transmission systems A.Cable Transmission B. Direct To Home(DTH) Transmitter Service 3 Block schematic of LPT 4 VHF &UHF Transmitters 5 Receiving and Transmitter section


14 19 23

Low power transmitter in Kakinada is very high frequency (VHF) and ultra-high frequency (UHF) Transmitters. transmitting rack. generator power supply . In LPT we are studying Receiving section. 4 .6 Antenna section 7 Conclusion 25 33 ABSTRACT The title of the project is “LOW POWER TV TRANSMITTER”. Studying low power TV transmitter in Doordarshan relay station. input rack. Transmitter section. In this transmission of signals are possible from cable TV and DTH service. work shop. and some specifications. The report mainly covers the different types of blocks involved in the LPT are monitoring rack. parabolic dish area. The project aims at studying the various units at Doordarshan Relay station Kakinada. VHF transmitter is used within channel 11 for DD1. Antenna section. UHF transmitter is used within channel 33 for DD news.

Doordarshan celebrated its 50th anniversary. Recently it has also started digital terrestrial transmitters. It is one of the largest broadcasting organizations in the world in terms of the infrastructure of studios and transmitters. On September 15 2009. 5 . and the VHF transmitter is manufactured by Gujarat Communication Limited (GCL) and UHF Transmitter is manufactured by Bharat Electronics Limited(BEL). The reports cover the procedure of transmission and reception of signals.The LOW POWER TV TRANSMITTER is having the transmitted power of 100W500W covering a distance of nearly 21 km . and strengthen of signals and retransmit the signals into space for the broadcast around the range of propagation CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION Doordarshan is the public television broadcaster of India and a division of prasara barathi a public service broadcaster nominated by the government of India.

a sports channel and two channels (DD-RS& DD-LS) for live broadcast of parliamentary proceedings. On DD national (DD-1). DD-sports channel is exclusively devoted to the broadcasting of sporting events of national and international importance. Doordarshan as a national broadcaster came into existence. 11 regional languages satellite channels (RLSC). which replaced the DDmetro entertainment channel. The regional languages satellite channels have two components. something which private broadcasters will not attempt to telecast as it will not attract any revenues. This is the only sports channels which telecast rural sports like Kho-Kho. an international channel.Beginning: Doordarshan had the modest beginning with the experimental telecast starting in Delhi on 15 September 1959 with a small transmitter and a makeshift studio. DD-news channel. Channels: Presently. Each office of all India radio and Doordarshan were placed under the management of two separate director generals in New Delhi. provides 24-hour news service. Television services were separated from radio in 1976. Till 1975 seven Indian cities had television service and Doordarshan remained the only television channel in India. regional programs and local programs are carried on timesharing basis.The regional service for the particular state relayed by all terrestrial transmitters in the state and additional programs in the regional language in prime time and non-prime time available only through cable operators. Finally. 6 . The television service was extended to Bombay and Amritsar in 1972. Doordarshan operates 19 channels-two all India channels-DD national and DD news. The regular daily transmission started as a part of all India radio. launched on 3 November 2003. four state networks (SN). Kabaddi etc….

Direct to home 3.1CABLE TRANSMISSION: In addition to wireless transmission by broadcast stations. Cable transmission 2. 1.CHAPTER-2 BASIC TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS There are three types of Basic transmission Systems. It is similar to a wired telephone system but it is used for TV programs. the cable TV system provides a distribution system with co-axial cable. The RF carrier signals ate supplied 7 . Transmitter service 2.

the frequencies in between channels 6 and7 can be used without interfacing with other services. Core is the inner most layer which plays a vital role in transmitting the data and from the above it can be shown. either because of distance or shadow areas in which the signal was too weak. radiation can be prevented by using the proper shielding.so that a tuner can be used to select the desired channel cable TV has become very popular because more channels are provided and strong signals can be supplied for areas on which the antenna signal is not good enough cable television started as a means by providing signals to communities that could not receive broadcast stations. Those VHF channels not assigned in a given area. From the above figure the wire mainly contains three layers are core. Sheath is top most layer which gives the protection from the losses. Cable channels: Each cable channel is 6MHz wide for the AM picture signal and the FM sound signal. These mid band cable channels range from 88 to 176 MHz also all the low band VHF channels (7 to 13) are used for cable TV. It offers up to 36 channels so many programs that not available on broadcast television reach the cable operator via satellite transmission. sheath. 8 . cladding. However the cable signals are not radiated therefore. Today cable TV has developed far beyond that into huge systems that cover huge areas. even for locations having food reception the reason is that cable TV does not have the restriction of channel allocations for broadcasting.

This signal is decoded by a set-top box which is provided by the broadcaster and connects to the dish antenna directly with a cable. Maximum demand/capacity: 30KW 2. in order to extend the line-of-sight distance. Monthly average consumption : 6000 units 3. From the trunk branch lines extend out for groups of subscribes the line for each subscriber is called a drop.Cable distribution: The head end provides the program signal for all channels.2DIRECT TO HOME(D. The RF losses in co-axial cable are high especially in the 36 channel system that operates in the cable TV super band in the distribution system the main line the trunk. power outages.H): Satellite TV. Local and distant broadcasts are picked up by an antenna which is mounted on a very high tower. not getting your favorite channels and channels shifting their channel number position‟s WORKING OF DTH: In DTH you receive the signal from satellite to a small dish antenna installed at the roof top of your house.T.Band X. So you become the master of your entertainment and watch the channel you wish and pay for only those channels which you wish to watch. Bands: Frequency band up link down link C.Band Ku-Band 6 GHz 8 GHz 14 GHz 9 4 GHz 7 GHz 11 GHz . a direct to home (DTH) from the satellite through set-top box that means there is no middle man (cable operator). The set-top box in turn connects to your TV. So DTH puts an end to all the problems like unreasonable charges. Power Supply: 1. cable operator‟s strike. Monthly average expenditure‟s 40000/month 2.

000 MHz) tend to be directive i. which needs smaller size antenna in individual homes to facilitate ease of mounting etc. military applications etc. Uplinked frequency from the satellite (geo satellite) is down linked using a parabolic antenna which is used as a receiving antenna here (also called as dish antenna). high gain and narrow beam.e. airtel Videocon. As the frequency increases. Sun dish follows the ku band transmission of their services. the bands are mainly useful in the set the Parameters of the channel for receiving. One of the properties (increase in antenna gain) of higher frequency (Ku-band) in satellite communication is that for a given power. Due to this.Ka-Band 30 GHz 20 GHz The above mentioned are the some of the bands which are useful in satellite communications. it enables use of a smaller size antenna compared to lower frequency (C-band). The transmitting and receiving antennas for use in the micro wave spectrum (1000-100. The parabolic antenna is micro wav antenna.5 to 18 GHz  Smaller dish (60 – 90 cms) needed for reception  Most useful for DTH application  Coverage limited as compared to C-band due to narrow beam  Reception susceptible to failure during heavy rains Now days the present DTH services of different companies like Tata sky. and which therefore can be made to have greater 10 . the wave length decreases and thus it becomes easier to construct an antenna system that are large in terms of wave lengths. Satellite transmission: C-Band:  Frequency band 4000 to 8000 MHz  Large sized dish required for reception  Useful to system providers / cable operators  Mainly used for contribution and distribution Satellite transmission: Ku-Band:  Frequency band 12.width in both horizontal and vertical planes. Ku-band is preferred in DTH service.

because rays are perpendicular to a wave front.50. The open mouth (D) of the parabola is known as the aperture. Alternatively. In fact.25 to 0.directivity. The ratio of focal length to aperture size (i. Since all the rays are in the phase. so a very strong and concentrated beam radiation is there along the parabolic axis. Therefore. Putting in another way where there is path length difference between the two rays cancellation action will take place. This implies that the entire wave thus. This is minimized by partially shielding the source. they will be focused at a point i. This shows that a wave front. The principle of equality of path length is maintained between all rays of two wave fronts. Hence the geometrical properties of parabola provide excellent microwave reflectors that lead to the production of concentrated beam of radiation. The part of radiation from the focus which is not striking the parabolic curve as spherical wave appears as minor lobes. Obviously there is waste of power. parabola converts spherical wave front coming from the focus into a plane wave front at the mouth of the parabola. A parabola with focus F and vertex O is a two dimensional plane curve. the rays are parallel to the parabolic axis. This parabolic reflector is directional for reception case 11 . A parabola may be defined as the locus of a point which moves in such way that its distance from the fixed point( called focus) plus its distance from a straight line (called directrix) is constant.e. The equation of parabola curve in terms of its coordinate is given by y^2 = 4fx.e. The most important practical antenna in micro wave frequency range parabolic reflector or paraboloid or micro wave dish. f/D) known as f over D ratio is an important characteristics of parabolic reflector and its value usually varies between 0. reaching at the aperture plane is in phase.a surface of constant phase-is created in the aperture plane. Further if a beam of parallel rays is incident on the parabolic surface. This is in effect due to the principle of reciprocity theorem already discussed which says that properties of antenna are independent whether it is for transmission or reception. all the emanating from the source at focus and reflected by parabola are traveling the same distance in same time in reaching the directrix and hence they are in phase. Focus.

2. The signal from LNB is received by the sophisticated receiving units that are separately used for different frequencies they received. Low power transmitter (LPT): 12 .3TRANSMITTER SERVICE: 1. A parabola is two dimensional plane curves.also as only rays coming perpendicular to directrix will be focused at the focus and not others due to path length difference. 3. We can also set remainders for program‟s we wish to watch and get synopses of the program. The surface so generated is known as paraboloid which often known as microwave dish or parabolic reflector. connect it to your set-top box we will get better sound effects. Therefore a practical reflector is formed by rotating a parabola about its axis. Parallel rays are known as collimated. Electronic program Guide(EGP): It‟s an on-screen guide that shows the program schedule or listing of all channels. So we can find out what‟s playing on any channel. Now a low noise block converter usually known as LNB is used at the focus point of paraboloid to receive the down linked frequency. A practical reflector is a three dimensional curved surface. Advantages of DTH TV: 1. So if we have got a home theatre. Digital audio: We get the stereo phonic sound. Digital picture: The picture quality in DTH is much better. High power transmitter (HPT):   Transmitter power 10KW Distance covered by above transmitter is 60km-100km Eg: located in Rajahmundry 2. 2. The quality of the picture is uniform across all channels.

Very low power transmitter (VLPT):   Transmitted power – 10w Distance covered is around 5-10Km Eg: located in Yanam 13 .  Transmitted power 100w-500w Local area transmitter covers distance around 21kms Eg: located in Kakinada 3.

CHAPTER-3 BLOCK SCHEMATIC OF LPT Generator power supply Receiver dish area Work shop P. Receiver Dish Area: 14 .1 : Block schematic of LPT DG ROOM: The generator generates 35KVA power supply.D.A Monitoring Rack transmitter rackrack input Mast antenna FIG 3.

So that at focal point the receiver information by the dish is the exact replica of transmitted information by the satellite.R SWITCHER EXCITER DRIVER AMPLIFIER DIVIDER P. the rays incident on parabolic surfaces reflects back by the cross the focal point.A‟s 15 .C.D. Transmitting section 3. Receiving section 2.V WAVE FROM MONITORING DEMODULATION RECEIVER-1 RECEIVER-2 RECEIVER-3 V. So that receiving capability increases.A receives information from satellites which are located in geostationary orbits.A:    Passive receiver It receives signal from satellite If the size of the dish increases gain is also increases. P.D.D. The following are the point lobe considered while placing P.A) are used.G.In receiver dish area parabolic dipole antennas (P. COMBINER For case of understanding we can divide the functioning of input rack in to three blocks 1. The shape of the dish mist be parabola because the parabola has specific focal point. MONITORING RACKINPUT RACKTRANSMITTER RACK T. When the information from satellites through space is incident on parabolic dishes it reflects back and for parabolic surfaces by the principle of foci.D. Mast and antenna RECEIVING SECTION: P.

5 Vp-p and +10dBm 16 .    Look angle Azimuthally angle Elevation angle Latitudes and longitudes PARKING ANGLE: The angle at which the satellite placed in geostationary satellite is called parking angle.A is placed on earth with respect to latitudes and longitudes is called look angle.A in geometrical plane TRANSMITTER RACK: AUDIO VIDEO SWITCHER EXCITER DRIVER AMPLIFIER DIVIDER COMBINER Fig3.D.Video switcher: This unit performs the function of selecting one of the four sets audio and video inputs. LOOK ANGLE: The angle at which the P. Azimuthally angle determines the look angle in horizontal direction.D.5 – 1. Latitudes and longitudes steels about the situation of P.2: Transmitter Rack 1.     To fix the look angle. azimuthally angle and elevation angle should be fixed. Elevation angle determine the look angle in vertical direction. Audio. The video input levels to the unit are 0.

The modulated signals are combined and then up converted to the desired transmitted channel frequency. A separate exhaust fan operating at 230V AC is provided for blowing off air in the driver unit to control the temperature raise for operation of driver amplifier. The audio input is fed directly to the aural modulator while the video signal is passed through a low pass filter before being fed to its respective modulator. This unit as an associated power supply to derive +15v. One of the programme sources (video or audio) can be selected using „PUSH‟ button switches available on the front panel. The output of the amplifier is fed to the directional coupler where in samples of transmitted and reflected power is obtained and fed to metering unit which defects the signal and feds suitable voltage to a DC meter placed at the front panel.S. power. The availability of the input power “28V” to the unit is indicated through a green L.respectively.D on the front panel „DC Check‟ 17 . Exciter: The audio and video outputs from audio-video switcher unit are fed to exciter unit.U. The three position switch on the front panel selects the parameters to be monitored viz. The overall gain of the amplifier can be adjusted by the front panel attenuator control to be about 33db. aural power and reflected power.9 MHz IF.4MHz IF. The power supply need +16V and +28V for the unit is supplied by P. 3. Readings are to be read with black picture aural power indication is valid for black picture only. While video signal is amplitude modulated using 38. The audio is frequency modulated using 33. +5v and -15v required for its sub units from 230V AC. A portion of output power is taken to the back panel of the driver unit for monitoring purposes.A stages to keep the overall transmitter power output constant. The signal is amplified using class A driver stages. 2. Driver Unit: The up.convertor signal from the exciter is fed to an attenuator which is placed at the front panel and adjusting the input levels suitably. vision.E. The video output power level after vestigial sideband filter and mixer is 10MW synchronous peak while audio is 1mW ALC (automatic level control) input is available on VSBF mixer unit which can be fed from P. The front panel output constant called „Ale‟ can be fed to the exciter ALC in to the driver output constant at the set level.

6 & 10dB for channel 9. There are two types of transmitters: 1. 20A). transmitter are discussed in the next chapters 18 . The control unit also obtains the temperature of heavy sink assembly through a thermistor.facility is provided to monitor currents of 4 stages of power amplifiers by patching a „chord‟ meter on combiner /divider unit. 12 respectively.F.this output is fed to a directional coupler for obtaining samples of forward & reflected power (30 dB coupling) for monitoring purposes for the control unit. V. This can be monitored on the current meter provided on divider combiner unit through suitable patch cord provided separately. The R.H.0W power amplifiers. The power supplies are placed at the bottom portion of chassis assembly. 4. A DC voltage proportional to current drawn by each of the transistor in power amplifier is available from “bias unit “on DC check connector placed over the front panel.F transmitter 2.. U.F power output from the driver unit is divided in to two parts using the divider in the divider/combiner unit and fed to each 5.H. Separate power supply is made available for each power amplifier (28V. Each power amplifier is fed with power input which is amplified to SOW(Sync peak) by four class A paralleled power amplifier stages with a gain of approx. Power Amplifier Unit: The power amplifier unit comprises of two similar 60W power amplifier modules.10 &11.


Vision modulator 5. Video processor 4. Driver 12. IF oscillator 6. Aural modulator 8. Video Amplifier: It amplifies the video signal to level sufficient to modulate the vision carrier in the visual modulator unit. +12V regulated power supply Video signal: The video signal is limited to 5 MHz by the low pass filter and group delay by its corrected group delay introduced by it is corrected by the active group delay equalizer. The video input to this unit is at level of 1Vp-p clamp pulse. Control oscillator 7. Low pass filter 3.EXCITER: Exciter provides amplitude modulated visual drive of 10MW. Vestigial side band filter 11. It consists of the following individual units: 1. Audio signal 9. Sync peak and a frequency modulated all drive of 1mW required for the power amplifier stages of 100W TV transmitter at the designated channel frequencies. Low pass filter: The LPF is used to limit the video frequency to 5MHz only. Power combiner 10. and it attenuates the video signal more than 20dB above 5. 20 .5 MHz is corrected using 5-6 active group delay equalizer LPF unit consists of single PCB consisting of a video amplifier section and clamp pulse generator section.5MHz the group delay introduced by steep falling characteristic at 5. Video signal 2.

Splitter: The linearity corrector output is dividing into four equal amplitude and phase outputs to fed four PA to get the required output power. Up. it requires 500W power. This transmitter is manufactured by Bharat Electronics (BEL) BLOCK DIAGRAM OF UHF TRANSMITTER: Video signal splitter & PA Linearity corrector Base band corrector Exciter Up convertor FIG: Block Diagram of UHF Transmitter Linearity corrector: Linearity corrector operates in the UHF TV band of 470-600MHz and its function is to correct the non-linearity‟s that occur in power amplifiers operated in this band.corrects the above mentioned distortion so as to reduce them at the power amplifier output. The status and fault information are displayed on front panel of the unit. The four ways splitter doesn‟t have any achieve components for 21 . a four way splitter by terminating unused parts. The linearity corrector is a predistorter circuit that is placed ahead of the power amplifier and pre.convertor: The up-convertor unit combines modulated vision IF an aural IF signals and translates to respective channels frequency suitable for transmission.UHF TRANSMITTER In this transmitter the frequency range is from 564-574MHz. DD news is broadcasted in channel 33. To achieve this connection. Non linearity in TV amplifiers are measured in terms of 3-tone IMD and differential gain . The unit has in-built power supply.

The combiner is realized as a micro strip line on a PCB substrate with an isolation resistor for isolating all the ports.isolation resistor. Combiner: The two way power combiner is a sub unit in the 500W transmitter there are such units. For the first level combining pairs of amplifiers are combined output or pairs of amplifiers is combined in a second level of combining resulting in 600W peak sync output power. It is a micro strip circuit design based on Wilkinson‟s power divided principles. Two way combiner is used to combine the outputs of four amplifiers. It is based on the Wilkinson‟s power combiner principle. All units are identical electrically and mechanically and are interchangeable. 22 .

and apart from that at a distance a feed arm is held with support in air to which a low noise amplifier in addition to the low noise block convertor and the internal relay station there is a digital broadcast receiver in for monitoring and later on re-transmission of the signal is done in the transmitting section.2 TRANSMITTER SECTION Antenna V1 V2 V3 AUDIO & VIDEO SWITCH EXCITER DRIVER AMPLIFIER POWER AMPLIFIER A1 A2 A3 Fig: Block Diagram of Transmitter Section 23 .CHAPTER-5 RECEIVING &TRANSMITTING SECTION 5.1 RECEIVING SECTION: Parabolic dish antenna Low noise amplifier Low noise block convertor Digital video broadcast receiver Fig: Block Diagram of Receiving Section The parabolic dish antenna is metal structure with a shape of half circle. 5.

the resultant pattern as power pattern. This is predicted mathematically by the Maxwell equations.hr/ʎd2 milli volt/meter P=Transmitted Power in KW Ht=height of transmitted antenna in meters 24 . Formula for calculation of field strength: Field Strength= 2.CHAPTER-6 ANTENNA SECTION 6. A proportion of the electric and magnetic field is capable of leaving the current-carrying wire.85 √P ht. If the magnetic field is changing. How much of it leaves the conductor depends on the relation of its length to the wavelength of the current. A power pattern is a proportional to the square of the field strength pattern. If the radiation pattern is expressed is term of power per unit solid angle. as it does with alternating current. Or An antenna is a metallic object which used to convert high frequency current into electromagnetic waves and vice versa.1 ANTENNA BASICS: What is an antenna? An Antenna is a transducer which transmits or receives electromagnetic waves. the radiation pattern is a field strength pattern. What is radiation?  Antennas radiate electromagnetic waves radiation will result from the flow of highfrequency current in a suitable circuit. When the radiation is expressed as field strength EVolt per meter. Radiation pattern: The radiation pattern of an antenna is a graphical representation of the radiation of the antenna a function of direction. an electric field will also be present. which show that current flowing in a wire is accompanied by a magnetic field around it.

 Directive gain is a ratio of power density and is therefore a power ratio. If power densities are measured at the same distance & both antenna radiate the same power. Directivity: Directivity is defined as a maximum directive gain i.  The practical power is that power which must be fed to the directive antenna to develop the same field strength at the same distance in its direction of maximum radiation. the gain in the direction of one of the major lobes of radiation pattern compare to isotropic radiation. Directive gain:  Directive gain is defined in a particular direction.e.S in milli volt per meter) Isotropic antenna:  An Isotropic antenna is a standard reference antenna radiating equally in all direction so that its radiation pattern is spherical. Power gain:  It is the ratio of the power that must be radiated by an isotropic antenna to develop certain field strength at a certain distance and divided by practical power.Hr=height of the receiving antenna D=the distance from transmitting antenna in Meters/I. as the ratio of the power density radiated in that direction by the antenna to the power density that would be radiated by an isotropic antenna. A= nD A=Power Gain D = Directivity (maximum directivity) 25 . This is very useful property and very easy to visualize but practically such antenna does not exist.wave length of signal Field Strength in DBV/m = 20 log (F. Power density: Power density of an antenna is defined as radiated power per unit area.

Circular polarization: When an antenna produces vertically and horizontally polarized fields with equal amplitude and with a phase difference of exactly 90 degrees. it is a characteristic of most antennas that the radiation they emit is linearly polarized. It is also. Band width:  It refers to the frequency range over which operation of antenna is satisfactory and is generally taken between the half-power points. In fact. a vertical antenna will radiate waves whose electric vectors will be vertical and will remain so in free space. Waves are said to be polarized (actually linearly polarized) if they all have the same alignment in space. in the direction of maximum radiation. Null filling: There are three methods of introducing null fill in a panel array: 26 .  Thus vertical antennas radiate vertically polarized waves. the angular separation between the two 3-dB down points on the field strength radiation pattern of an antenna and is illustrated in Figure. of course. For example. and similarly horizontal antennas produce waves whose polarization is horizontal. Beam width: The beam width of an antenna is the angular separation between the two half-power points on the power density radiation pattern.  The radiation pattern bandwidth is equal to the difference between the frequencies at which the received power falls to one-half of maximum. the resulting signal is circularly polarized.N = Antenna efficiency =1 for loss less antenna Polarization:  Polarization refers to the physical orientation of the radiated waves in space.

SWR is an indicator of reflected waves bouncing back and forth within the transmission line. Mismatched impedances give high SWR and reduced power transfer. and increased current increases resistive losses.  Using an unequal power split between bays.5 dB.  Using a non-linear phase taper between bays. Matched impedances give ideal power transfer. power loss increase with SWR and so a low value of standing Wave-ratio is always sought.  Since some energy is taken from the main beam to fill the null. which causes it to heat up. Standing wave ratio:  The ratio of maximum current to minimum current along a transmission line is called the standing-wave ratio. When the line is terminated in a purely resistive load. Practical implications of SWR: SWR has a number of implications that are directly applicable to broadcast use. Higher power in the transmission line also leaks back into the line. when null fills is introduced. The SWR is a measure of the mismatch between the load and the line.  The higher the SWR. the SWR is defined as   SWR = Zo/Rl Where Rl is the load resistance. This increased power will increase RF losses. which is equal to the current ratio. typically 0. The higher voltages associated with a sufficiently high SWR could damage the transmitter which have a lower tolerance for high voltages may automatically reduce output power to 27 . the maximum gain of the antenna system will be reduced. an increase in SWR corresponds to an increase in power in the line beyond the actual transmitted power.5 to 1. and as such. Mechanically tilting some panels downward. as increased voltage increases dielectric losses. and is the first and most important quantity calculated for a particular load. as is the ratio of maximum to minimum voltage. the greater the mismatch between the line and load.  The SWR is equal to unity when the load is perfectly matched.

VSWR measurements may be taken to ensure that a waveguide is contiguous and has no leaks or sharp bends. The VSWR of antenna may be measured at 7-port patch panels. Arcing may occur if there is a hole. The Yagi-Uda antenna does not have high gain. usually 200 watts or more. If such bends or holes are present in the waveguide surface. partially or almost completely lost in the cable run. The high voltages may also cause transmission line dielectric to break down and/or burn. if reflected power shown on through line power meter is more than 1% of total output power of transmitter than it is a serious concern. It has one reflector and several directors which are either of equal length or decreasing slightly away from the driven element 28 . as shown in Figure. The VSWR may be measured by Site Master available at all HPT‟s.  VSWR measurement should be taken and reason of high reflected power should be find out. if transmitting at high power. relatively broadband because of the folded dipole used and has quite a good unidirectional radiation pattern. The measurement should be done invariably once in quarter. A very long run of coaxial cable especially at a frequency where the cable itself is loss can appear to a radio as a matched load. How can we measure SWR?    We measure SWR in the form of VSWR. The power coming back is in these cases. as the radiation pattern shows and has a moderate gain in the vicinity of 7dB. It is also employed at higher frequencies. Yagi-uda antenna:  A Yagi-Uda antenna is an array consisting of a driven element and one or more parasitic elements. VSWR measurement should be done for individual feeder cable and combined feeder cables.prevent damage. but it is very compact. They are arranged collinearly and close together. the Yagi-Uda antenna is used as an HF transmitting antenna.  Since it is relatively unidirectional. particularly as a VHF television receiving antenna. they may diminish the performance of transmitter and receiver equipment strings.

Panel antenna system:  Minimum influence from tower    Full band operation Flexible pattern shaping High power application We generally use turnstile antenna here for the purpose of high power transmission. The turnstile antenna is the earliest and most popular resonant antenna for VHF broadcasting. It is made up of four batwing shaped elements mounted on a vertical pole in a manner resembling a turnstile.2Details of antennas used in TV Transmission/Reception: Single dipole antenna system:      Vertical polarization Horizontal polarization dependent on tower structure Quasi Omni HRP possible Extremely cost effective Dipoles may be stacked for higher gain / high transmission power applications. Turnstile antenna: Turnstile antenna is generally used for television transmission.6. Four 29 .

This is done by antenna section and the different types of propagation are explained below as 1. two dipoles fed in quadrature phase. medium waves and short waves. It is not suitable for side mounting. Using the sky wave propagation a long distance point to point communication is possible and hence it is also called point to point propagation or point to point communication. This part is called ionosphere and it is located above earth‟s surface at about 70km to 400km height.batwings are in effect. It is made up of several layers. 30 .e. As the sky wave propagation is useful for the frequencies between 2MHz to 30MHz only this mode of propagation is also called short wave propagation. The ionosphere acts as the reflecting surface and reflects the EM wave back to the earth if the frequency is between 2 t0 30 MHz. In this mode the EM waves transmitted by the transmitting antenna reach the receiving antenna at very long distance away from transmitting antenna after the reflection from the ionized region in the upper part of the atmosphere of the earth. usually six for channel six for channels 2-6 and 12 for 7-13.Sky wave or Ionospheric wave propagation [between 2 to 30MHz] The sky wanes are of practical importance for every long radio communications at medium and high frequencies i. except for stand by applications in which coverage degradation can be tolerated. As the waves propagate due to the reflection by the ionosphere the mode of propagation is also called ionosphere propagation using the sky wave propagation is also called ionosphere propagation. The pattern is usually within 10-15% of true circle. Features:    Omni directional horizontal polarization Horizontal polarization Suitable for mount For the propagation the electrical energy is converted into electro-magnetic wave. The azimuth field pattern is a function of diameter of support mast.

31 . Where the VHF and UHF transmissions are different.Space wave propagation[above 30MHz] When the frequency of the EM wave is between 30MHz to 300MHz the space wave propagation mode is of importance. Both ionosphere scatter and troposphere scatter produce undesirable noise and fading which can be taken with diversity reception. The EM waves in the space wave propagation mode reach the receiving antenna either directly from the transmitting antenna or after reflection from the atmosphere above the earth‟s surface around 16km of height called troposphere. 3.e.2. This mode uses the properties of the troposphere. direct wave and indirect wave. Ground wave propagation.plane wave earth reflection: When the transmitting and receiving antennas are elevated the useful propagation can be achieved by means of the space wave propagation. 4. As the two antennas are within the line of sight of each other the propagation of such space wave is also called line of sight propagation. This type of scatter propagation also needs to the ionosphere scatter propagation for frequencies in the lower range. This mode of propagation is of practical significance at UHF and microwave frequency ranges. Here the antennas are of two types where the propagation of the signal is done.Troposphere scatter propagation or forward scatter propagation [above 30MHz i. Space wave consists of two components i. The space wave propagation is mainly used in VHF band as both previous modes namely ground wave propagation and sky wave propagation both fail at very high frequencies. Hence it is also known as troposphere scatter propagation. Basically for the line of sight propagation the resultant signal obtained is the combination of the space wave and the surface wave. UHF and micro wave range]: The UHF and microwave signals are propagated beyond line of sight propagation through the forward scattering in the troposphere regulations. The word mast means that a supporting structure.e.

1. Guided wire mast: The mast here is suspended from the ground and it is supported by some wires so that it would with stand to the climatic conditions. 32 . 2. Self-supporting mast: It is a general broadcasting purpose antenna here the antenna is held at height so that the transmission of the signals would be without any obstacles. It is generally almost used in all media using sectors.

We also learned about the procedure of transmission.northcountryradio.in/ 33 .ddindia.ddindia.com http://www.gov.CHAPTER-7 CONCLUSION We would like to conclude this training as a very great and enriching the experience to learn about the low power TV transmitter.com/Kitpages/lptvx. BIBILOGRAPHY i) ii) iii) iv) www.htm http://www. The transmitter service involves great equipment that deals with monitoring section exciting system and we learn about the above equipment of the Doordarshan relay Centre and its working. reception.gov.google.in/Kendra/Delhi/Program+Column+3/delhi.htm http://www. And strengthening of the signal and retransmitting the signal into space for the broadcast around the range of propagation.

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