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A salt in the neutralization reaction between a strong acid and a strong base wi ll dissolve in water to give a solution that

has a pH of 7. The salt of a strong acid and a weak base yields an acidic solution in water, while the salt of a we ak acid and a strong base gives a basic solution. In this experiment, unboiled distilled water is added into each of the five test tubes. Then, three drops of different indicators that are methyl orange, methyl red, bromothymol blue, phenolphthalein and alizarin yellow-R is added into each test tubes. The pH value is get from the colour changes that need us to refer t o indicator chart. In part A, the colour indicator showed not consistent with some of the substance s. Some indicators give a reading that is higher than the pH limit of acid or ba se. The resultant colour is important for pH determination and there are few rea sons why the indicator give different colour. First, the test tubes were not pro perly rinsed using boiled distilled water as the boiled distilled water was not prepare firsthand and it is too hot to pour into the test tubes. To prevent this problem, the boiled distilled water must prepare before the experiment to allow it to cool down to room temperature so that it won t be too hot to pour into the te st tubes. Secondly, the test tubes are not rinse clearly before another substanc e are put into it. This caused the substances to mix with the previous substance and will affect the colour change of the indicator. To overcome this problem, s tudents need to rinse the test tubes thoroughly with boiled distilled water for at least three times to remove any remaining substances thus give a better resul t. The third problem is putting too much colour indicator into the test tubes. T his will lead the colour of indicator to overcome the resultant colour of the pH scale. To avoid this problem, students need to put the indicator with the amoun t mentioned in the manual which is 3 drops and mix the solutions well so that th e colour can be seen clearly and obtain a consistent result. In part B, After calculate the value of pH by using formula, we get that the the oretical value and the actual value is differ after added with HCl and NaOH in t he experiment. This is cause by several error during the experiment. First, the error may occur during taking the reading of solution when preparing the buffer solution. The error also must be when taking the reading of pH. The analytical balance may not clean completely and been immerse many times simultaneously whic h may make the buffer solution from another group mixed together and may effect the reading. Theoretically, buffer solution is a weak acid or base and its salt and both components are present. The solution has ability to resist changes in p H due to the addition of small amount of either acid or base. In this experiment , acetic acid is added to the NaC2H3O2.3H2O to form acetic acid-sodium acetate b uffer. The pH that we get from this buffer solution is 5.842. This show that the pH value of prepared buffer solution obtained from experiment is higher than th e pH value of theoretical. After the addition of 3.0 M HCl, the pH decrease to 5 .363. This pH value is valid because the solution become more acidic, thus decre asing the pH value. After the addition of 3.0 M NaOH, the pH increase to 6.7. Th is pH value is valid because the solution becomes more alkaline