E N S U R I N G T H E F U T U R E O F AU S T R A L I Aʼ S DY N A M I C P I P E L I N E I N D U S T RY

CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE

O N SHO RE P I P ELI N ES
March 2009

AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION

Published by Australian Pipeline Industry Association Ltd Original document prepared by Ecos Consulting (Aust) and updated by members of the APIA Working Group on the Environment. First Published: 1998 “Part A” (Construction) 2000 “Part B” (Operations) 2005 “Part C” (Decommissioning) Revised: Revision 1 October 2005 Revision 2 March 2009 © Australian Pipeline Industry Association Ltd. This work is copyright. Apart from use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from APIA. This publication is provided on the understanding that: 1. The authors and editors are not responsible for any errors or omissions nor the results of any actions taken on the basis of information in this work 2. The publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services.

The publisher, and the authors and editors, expressly deny all and any liability to any person, however this publication was obtained by them, in respect of anything done or omitted to be done by any such person in reliance, wholes or partial, upon the whole or any part of the contents of this publication. Australian Pipeline Industry Association Ltd. PO Box 5416 KINGSTON ACT 2604 Phone: (02) 6273 0577 Fax: (02) 6273 0588 Email: apia@apia.asn.au Web: www.apia.net.au

CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE

– ONSHORE PIPELINES

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .......................................... V  PREFACE .................................................................. VI  1  1.1  1.2  2  2.1  2.2  2.3  INTRODUCTION .............................................. 1  Purpose and Scope of the Code ...................... 1  How to Use the Code ....................................... 2  ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ........................................................ 3  Commitment and Policy ................................... 5  Planning ........................................................... 5  Implementation of the EMS .............................. 6  2.3.1  Resources ............................................. 6  2.3.2  Structure and Responsibilities .............. 6  2.3.3  Procedures ........................................... 8  2.3.4  Training ................................................. 8  Measurement and Evaluation .......................... 9  EMS Review and Improvement ...................... 10  PIPELINE PLANNING AND APPROVALS PROCESS ...................................................... 11  Legislative Framework ................................... 11  3.1.1  Australian Standards for Onshore Pipelines ............................................. 11  Pipeline Route Selection and Design ............. 13  Environmental Assessment ............................ 14  Stakeholder Consultation ............................... 15  Safety and Emergency Planning .................... 15  Project Review and Approval ......................... 16  Sustainability .................................................. 17  ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES CONSTRUCTION .......................................... 18  Access ............................................................ 20  Clearing .......................................................... 23  Grading........................................................... 26  Pipe Stringing and Welding ............................ 29  Trenching ....................................................... 31  4.5.1  Blasting ............................................... 33  4.5.2  Boring 34  4.5.3  Directional Drilling ............................... 34  4.6  4.7  Pipelaying and Backfilling .............................. 36  Pipeline Testing and Commissioning ............. 38  4.7.1  Hydrostatic Testing ............................. 38  4.7.2  Pipeline Purging.................................. 39  Reinstatement and Rehabilitation .................. 41  Borrow Pits ..................................................... 44  4.15  Noise Control ..................................................59  4.16  Dust & other Air Emmisions Control ...............60  4.17  Weed Control .................................................62  4.18  Pest and Disease Control...............................63  4.19  Bushfire Prevention ........................................65  5  5.1  ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES OPERATIONS ................................................67  Pipeline easement Management ....................69  5.1.1  Access ................................................69  5.1.2  Soil and Ground Stability ....................71  5.1.3  Vegetation Management .....................72  5.1.4  Weed Control ......................................74  5.1.5  Control of Diseases ............................76  5.1.6  Earthworks ..........................................77  5.1.7  Land Use.............................................78  5.2  5.3  5.4  5.5  5.6  5.1.8  fire Prevention .....................................79  Air Emissions..................................................80  Noise Emissions .............................................82  Heritage – Natural and Built Environments ....83  Water Management ........................................84  Management of Pipeline Facilities..................86 

2.4  2.5  3  3.1 

3.2  3.3  3.4  3.5  3.6  3.7  4  4.1  4.2  4.3  4.4  4.5 

5.7  Waste Management .......................................87  5.8  Pipeline Spill Prevention and Response ........89  Fuel and Chemical Storage .......................................90  6  6.1  6.2  PIPELINE DECOMMISSIONING ...................91  Legislative Requirements ...............................91  6.1.1  Pipeline Design Life ............................91  Decommissioning Options..............................91  6.2.1  Suspension .........................................92  6.2.2  Abandonment in place ........................92  6.2.3  Removal ..............................................92  7  7.1  7.2  7.3  7.4  7.5  7.6  7.7  7.8  7.9  ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES DECOMMISSIONING ....................................93  Planning .........................................................94  Consultation ...................................................96  Product Removal and Pipe Cleaning .............97  Removal of Pipeline .......................................99  Removal of Above Ground Infrastructure .....100  Rehabilitation of Pipeline Corridor ................101  Roads, Access Tracks and Hardstand Remediation .................................................102  Waste Management .....................................103  Easement Tenement ....................................105 

4.8  4.9 

7.10  Monitoring & Auditing ...................................106  GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS .107  FURTHER READING ..............................................110  APPENDICES .........................................................112  Appendix 1: About APIA ..........................................113 

4.10  Construction Camps and Worksites ............... 46  4.11  Waste Management ....................................... 49  4.12  Watercourse Crossings .................................. 51  4.13  drainage, Erosion and Sediment Control ....... 55  4.14  Heritage – Natural and Built Environments .... 58 

Revision 2 – March October 2008

iii

114  Appendix 3: Legislation ..October 2008 .............. 120  Appendix 6: Fauna Management Pro-Forma .......AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION Appendix 2: APIA Environment Policy .................................... 119  Appendix 5: Pipeline Inspection Checklist . 126  iv Revision 2 ............ 115  Appendix 4: Relevant Codes & Standards .................................... 125  Appendix 7: Future Directions Considerations ....

Lloyd NichollsGoffey. Colin Mason. Grant Bowley. Michael Quirk. Robert Coughlin. Julie Mitchell. Allen Beasley.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Code of Environmental Practice has been prepared on behalf of the Australian Pipeline Industry Association (APIA) by Ecos Consulting (Aust) Pty Ltd. APIA’s CoEP Working group also acknowledges the Code’s preliminary review participants. Kim Hardy. membership of the APIA Environmental Affairs Committee included: Jim McDonald. Kathy Hill. and includes Dan Morgan. Zoë Bowen. Craig Bonar. Ken Berry. Jasper Hennekens. Aidan Cresser and Andrew Groenwoldt Revision 2 – March October 2008 v . APIA’s working group on the Code of Environmental Practice is convened and chaired by Cheryl Cartwright and Steve Davies. particularly legislative and Australian Standards currency. Leonie Chapman. Ross Calvert. Adam Pullen. Garry Davis. standardising industry terminologies. Richard McDonough. practices and control measures. John Balint. Oleg Morozow. Belinda Close and Terry Aust. Lindsay Goodwin. Craig Bonar. Bob Day. Tom Lyon. Bruce Ride. Steve Tunstill. with recognition of water and other product transmission pipelines as adding to the adequacy of the above mentioned practice and process for pipeline industry. Mike Sotak and Mark Watson. Megan Lawson. Sam Haddad. under the direction of APIA’s working group on the environment. Westcoast Energy Australia. In particular APIA would like to thank the following people: Susie Smith. Ian Haddow. APIA gratefully acknowledges the support and technical input of its members and the many individuals and Government agencies throughout Australia who have provided invaluable input to both the original and the first revision of the Code. Bob Otjen. During the development of the original Code. Kent Scott. Stephen Milne. Phil Morrell. Philip Toyne. Steve Milne. Jodi Bond. Ada Cinaglia. Wendy Mathieson. Lisa Carson and Jim Nikolareas. This second revision and update specifically focused on currency issues within the industry.

This Code is intended to encapsulate the best techniques and methods presently available to mitigate or to eliminate the environmental impact of our activities and is based on the collective knowledge and experience of pipeline industry participants. Rather.October 2008 .AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION PREFACE The pipeline industry has a vital role in the economic and environmental wellbeing of Australia. the Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association and pipeline regulating authorities in each Australian State and Territory. technology and regulation.asn. together. we believe our industry will maintain its position at the leading edge of environment protection in Australia. It is from these tool kits that the planners and the construction teams in the field will select the options best suited to their needs. APIA Members are encouraged to adopt this Code and to provide feedback on its application. and as such. evolving document. consequently. which. we have assembled options for action.apia. Over many decades it has evolved techniques which now place it at the forefront of best practice in the construction.au vi Revision 2 . By this continuing process of improvement. The Code demonstrates the industry’s commitment to be a leaders in the move to ecologically sustainable development and to be an active contributor to the national goals in relation to biodiversity protection and greenhouse mitigation. to ensure that it reflects the best practice available at the time. The Code is a living. This enviable reputation is now recognised internationally and our experience is increasingly sought in many countries. operation and decommissioning of pipelines. form a ‘tool kit’. Comments may be forwarded to APIA at: Australian Pipeline Industry Association Ltd PO Box 5416 KINGSTON ACT 2604 Phone: (02) 6273 0577 Fax: (02) 6273 0588 Email: apia@apia. This Code has been developed by APIA in consultation with its membership. Companies using these guidelines can be sure of achieving the highest standards of protection. Community members are also invited to provide feedback to APIA on this initiative.net. the former Australian Gas Association. All pipeline construction is different and. will be reviewed frequently in light of new science. it is not possible to set prescriptions on any particular course of action.au Web: www.

pipelines play a vital role in Australia.Most pipelines in Australia are buried below ground and their presence is usually unnoticed. operation and decommissioning. This makes pipelines the preferred transport medium.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES INTRODUCTION 1 INTRODUCTION Supplying energy. The key benefits of pipeline transportation are: Safety . In so doing. directly to end users. The Code provides guidance on the development and implementation of internationally recognised Environmental Management System standards and provides comprehensive environmental management guidance for onshore pipeline construction. Unobtrusiveness . Low Environmental Impact . pipelines are used for a range of transportation purposes including: domestic and industrial water supply including recycle water gas transportation and distribution including LNG and potentially CO2 petroleum and petrochemical liquids transportation minerals and sand slurry transportation sewage and wastewater removal powerline and cable conduits. 1. In Australia. Australia would have to rely upon expensive and impractical modes of transport. Consequently. crude oil and natural gas. This Code aims to assist the industry by establishing uniform standards that encourage a consistent approach in the onshore pipeline construction. increased greenhouse gas emissions and greater safety and environmental risks.Pipeline operations in Australia have displayed a high level of reliability in delivering their cargo with minimal lost transportation hours. directly contributing to national economic growth.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE CODE The Australian pipeline industry’s excellent environmental management record has been achieved through the implementation of project specific Environmental Management Plans and procedures.Alternative transportation infrastructure requires permanent modification of the landscape. it forms the basis for the environmental management guidelines required for project approvals. however. The purpose of the Code is to provide minimum environmental management standards for the Australian onshore pipeline industry. Advances in pipeline engineering. confirms that pipelines provide significantly lower risks and hazards.Pipelines offer a significantly cheaper alternative for the transport of bulk cargoes such as water. such as road. contributing to the improved efficiency of regulatory approvals processes. when compared with alternative means of transportation. rail and shipping. water and mineral resources to communities and industry. the Code allows Environmental Management Plans to focus on project specific management issues. Pipelines. Reliability . In the absence of pipelines. to move these products. This in turn would result in higher fuel consumption. materials manufacture and construction methods have made possible the transportation of a large range and volume of products across land and under the sea. as the area of disturbance is encouraged to regenerate. are generally undetectable within a few years of construction. encouraging the adoption and integration of appropriate environmental management systems and procedures. operation and decommissioning phases. Revision 2 – March 2009 1 .The safety record of Australian pipeline operations. Cost Effectiveness .

construction. For minor pipelines it is anticipated that this section of the Code may be adopted in its current form. This section was referred to as “Part B” in the first edition of the Code. and the Code may therefore find application in many differing pipeline projects regardless of their specific purpose.g. modified for incorporation into the Environmental Management Plan of a major pipeline development project or supplemented by additional site/project specific procedures. consistent with the internationally recognised AS/NZS ISO 14001:1996 Environmental Management Systems – Specifications with guidance for use. Section 6 – Pipeline Decommissioning identifies the issues and considerations associated with pipeline decommissioning. The Code can be used as a framework on which to develop environmental management plans and procedures for a variety of pipelines. The procedures identified can be used as a reference in the preparation of environmental management plans or manuals for major pipelines.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION The Code applies to the Australian pipeline industry (refer to Appendix 1). as required. operation and decommissioning. design.Construction provides guidance on the application of best practice pipeline construction techniques. Section 3 – Pipeline Planning and Approvals Processes identifies and discusses the key elements of pipeline development planning and approvals. legislative changes and currency of environmental control measures to industry best practice standards. To date the demand for pipeline decommissioning in Australia has not been great as the majority of pipelines remain in operation or have been ‘mothballed’ for potential future re-commissioning. updated on a regular basis with no more than three years between reviews in order to incorporate advances in technology. as well as a resource for all stages of pipeline design. Section 4 – Environmental Guidelines . Section 7 – Environmental Guidelines – Decommissioning provides guidance on the application of best practice techniques for decommissioning of pipelines.2 HOW TO USE THE CODE This Code aims to provide guidance and direction in the management of the environmental aspects of pipeline planning and design. construction. 1. pipeline planning. construction. for application on minor onshore pipelines). Sections 6 and 7 were referred to as “Part C” in the first edition of the Code. This section was referred to as “Part A” in the first edition of the Code. The procedures identified in this section may be adopted directly in their current form (e. including legal requirements and the three main decommissioning options (suspension. The Code is intended to complement the principles of Australian Standards pertaining to pipelines. Although its primary focus is major cross country gas and petroleum pipelines. Section 5 – Environmental Guidelines . all pipelines including water and other infrastructure pipelines experience similar environmental issues to varying degrees. such as Environmental Management Plans. operation and decommissioning.Operations provides guidance on the application of best practice pipeline operating procedures. For minor pipeline developments the Operations section of the Code may be adopted directly in its current form. operation (maintenance) and decommissioning phases. abandonment or removal). This section: discusses general regulatory controls for pipelines in Australia outlines the process of pipeline route selection and design provides guidance on undertaking environmental impact assessments for pipelines discusses the importance of stakeholder consultation and emergency and safety procedures. Activity or project specific procedures. form a component of the overall EMS. 2 Revision 2 – March 2009 . in particular. The Code will be reviewed and. Environmental Management Systems (EMS) are developed at the corporate level to guide and control an organisation’s environmental management efforts. The procedures identified should be used as a reference in the preparation of an Operations Manual for major pipelines. Section 2 – Environmental Management Systems provides guidance on the development of Environmental Management Systems. approvals.

This section describes the elements of an EMS and provides guidance for the development of a company specific system. An EMS is a comprehensive and systematic approach to the environmental management of an organisation’s activities. The development and implementation of an integrated Environmental Management System (EMS) is a key step towards achieving this goal through the control and management of environmental aspects and impacts. The key elements of an effective EMS include: Commitment and Policy Planning Implementation and Operation Measurement and Evaluation Review and Improvement. Revision 2 – March 2009 3 . Figure 1 provides diagrammatic detail of the relationship and order of the EMS elements based on AS/NZS ISO 14001. forming part of the overall business management process and covering all levels. APIA encourages its member companies to develop and maintain an appropriate EMS which is tailored to suit their operations and is based on recognised international standards such as AS/NZS ISO 14001 Environmental management systems – Specification with guidance for use.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES EMS 2 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS APIA places a strong emphasis on effective environmental management through self-regulation and encourages its member companies to maintain a high standard of environmental performance.

AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION Figure 1: Environmental Management System Model (Adapted from AS/NZS ISO 14001) 4 Revision 2 – March 2009 .

leading to the identification of potential issues. the setting of objectives and measurement criteria and the development of strategies by which issues are addressed and objectives are achieved. Guidance on risk assessment is provided in Australian Standards AS 2885 and AS/NZS 4360 The identification of relevant Commonwealth. A corporate environmental policy is a public statement of commitment to environmental protection. Further detail on the planning process for pipeline development is presented in section 3 (Pipeline Planning and Approvals Processes). maintained and communicated to all employees be available to the public. The identification of environmental aspects. The APIA Environmental Policy is a statement of the Association’s intentions and principles regarding environmental performance. and with other requirements to which the organisation subscribes provide the framework for setting and reviewing environmental objectives and measurement criteria be documented. land management agencies. An environmental policy should: be appropriate to the nature. Project specific measurement criteria will need to be developed to enable assessment and evaluation of the achievement of objectives. including finance.1 COMMITMENT AND POLICY The success of an EMS requires commitment and positive action at all organisational levels. commercial interests. training. they may require expansion and/or adaptation on a project specific basis. potential impacts. scale and environmental impacts of an organisation’s activities. A copy of the APIA Environmental Policy is presented in Appendix 2. Revision 2 – March 2009 5 .2 PLANNING Planning is essential to any management process. 2. from the Board of Directors to the general workforce.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES EMS 2. materials. landholders and community representatives. implemented. personnel and expertise. However. The Policy provides a framework for action and for the setting of environmental objectives and measurement criteria. 2. It is also dependent upon the allocation of the necessary resources. Environmental management planning involves three key elements: 1. 3. products or services include an obligation to continual improvement and pollution prevention include a commitment to comply with relevant legislation and regulations. and management measures. Issue specific environmental objectives have been incorporated into the construction and operations procedures of this Code to provide guidance. services and documented procedures. State and local regulatory requirements The identification of relevant stakeholders including regulatory authorities. Setting measurable environmental objectives and establishing assessment criteria is fundamental to the planning process and should be undertaken in consultation with relevant stakeholders.

In addition to the general line management responsibilities. irrespective of other responsibilities. As with safety. the development of procedures and the training of personnel.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 2.3. this role may be filled by an Environmental Manager. its development stage (i. reporting to an executive manager and company Directors. the nature of the environment it traverses and the company’s environmental management structure.3. monitoring. control. will have responsibility for the implementation and maintenance of the EMS. In large companies.e. environmental resources will include appropriately qualified environmental personnel. The resources required for environmental management of a pipeline will vary according to the scale of the project. Generally. The Environmental Manager may be supported by qualified environmental practitioners who provide specialist technical support to the project team during planning and design.3 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EMS Achievement of environmental objectives requires resource allocation. 2. all personnel and the contract services have environmental accountability.1 RESOURCES Management should provide resources essential to the implementation and control of the Environmental Management System. the company should appoint specific management representatives who. auditing and reporting. which should be reflected in employment and service contracts. 2. environmental management is a line management responsibility. and in the field during construction and operation. construction or operating phase). 6 Revision 2 – March 2009 . in that each individual is responsible for ensuring that their work and the work of those reporting to them is conducted in accordance with required procedures.2 STRUCTURE AND RESPONSIBILITIES Ultimate responsibility for environmental management of a pipeline lies with the pipeline proponent. Figure 2 provides an indicative personnel resources and reporting structure for a major pipeline construction project. the definition of project structure and responsibilities. however. equipment. technology and financial resources to enable effective impact assessment. respectively.

CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES EMS Figure 2: Indicative Environmental Resourcing and Reporting Structure for Construction of a Major Pipeline Note: The roles shown may be filled by either the proponent or the construction contractor. Revision 2 – March 2009 7 . These roles are often duplicated by representatives from both these parties. depending on the contractual structure of the project.

an environmental training program should include inductions and job specific training. Training attendance records should be maintained to assist program review. waste management. rather than documented separately. Specific training requirements should be identified during the development of site procedures and conducted on an ‘as needs’ basis. training should be conducted in the field with sessions tailored to be task oriented addressing the environmental issues relative to a particular trade or activity. hydrotesting and rehabilitation crews. Where possible.4 TRAINING Training is essential to the successful implementation of an EMS.3 PROCEDURES Procedures are essential in providing guidance to the workforce and should include all activities that have the potential to impact on the environment. identify timing for each activity.3. Environmental procedures may be integrated into an organisation’s operations through Procedures Manuals. Generally. including: erosion and sediment control topsoil and soil management 8 Revision 2 – March 2009 . 2. identify objectives. such as clear and grade equipment operators. supported by ongoing awareness measures.3. vehicle access). General environmental inductions should be conducted as part of an organisation’s overall induction program. Procedures should be documented and should define tasks. environmental management issues should be integrated into the general work procedures for a particular activity or task. Job Specific Training Job specific environmental training is designed to target particular personnel whose duties have a greater potential to result in environmental impacts. This Code details environmental management procedures for pipeline construction. Appropriate expertise should be acquired for the development and implementation of training programs. It leads to increased environmental awareness in the workforce and provides personnel with the necessary skills and knowledge to fulfil their environmental responsibilities and meet the organisation’s environmental objectives. 5 and 7) thereby providing uniform Industry standards which may be adapted to suit project needs. assign responsibilities and. Environmental Induction Training Inductions should be conducted to provide environmental management information including: the organisation’s environmental and related policies the organisation’s EMS and its operations the organisation’s statutory. operation and decommissioning activities (refer sections 4. Where appropriate. An effective environmental training program should be developed and implemented covering the full range of environmental management issues relevant to an organisation’s activities and should target all relevant personnel.g. Site Management Plans or project Environmental Management Plans. industry and community obligations the individual’s general work related obligations work procedures relevant to that site or project (e.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 2. EMS procedures should be made available to all relevant personnel and should be periodically reviewed to ensure they remain current. watercourse crossing. as far as practicable. assessment and subsequent modification.

legislation. A company should undertake internal audits.4 MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION To permit continual improvement. The training should also identify the required performance measures and assessment criteria. audit results and incident reports. Environmental Improvement/Rectification Plans which allow the organisation to set priorities. industry and internal obligations. In this way. This is primarily achieved by assessing: compliance with statutory requirements (e. which in turn enables them to better understand and address ongoing issues and to deal with new situations. targeting shareholders and the general public. licence conditions) success in achieving stated objectives environmental outcomes and their significance the effectiveness of the EMS. they will focus on topics relevant to the organisation. public complaints. Disclosure of environmental performance in a company’s annual report or in specific environmental reports.g.g. and examine and assess the effectiveness of the Environmental Management System.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES EMS weed control and quarantine requirements sensitive site management rehabilitation techniques. Generally. emission levels). which aim to identify impacts and risks. A Records Management System which governs storage and tracking of monitoring data. is recognised as an important aspect of a credible environmental management regime. Measurement and evaluation of environmental performance should consist of the following components. spills. which may be supplemented by external audits by regulators. liabilities. An Environmental Monitoring Program that qualitatively and quantitatively measures performance against stated objectives. Environmental Awareness Environmental awareness programs maintain and enhance the environmental ethic of the organisation’s corporate culture. individuals enhance their knowledge and learn new skills. 2. EMP compliance. An Environmental Audit Program that evaluates environmental performance as well as management system success. compliance. incidents and audit findings). evaluate compliance with regulatory. Revision 2 – March 2009 9 . Environmental Reporting Procedures that provide for internal communication of environment related issues (e.g. and external reporting to authorities in accordance with regulatory requirements (e. including: changing legislation current environmental issues relevant to the organisation an understanding of how specific company activities impact on the environment industry best practices. schedules and budgets for corrective action and facilitate continual improvement. environmental performance must be measured and evaluated.

5 EMS REVIEW AND IMPROVEMENT The EMS should be reviewed at appropriate intervals to ensure its continuing suitability.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 2. 10 Revision 2 – March 2009 . This review process should be documented. adequacy and effectiveness. legislative changes and industry advances. incident reports and corrective actions. monitoring results. relevance. and should be carried out by the level of management that defined them. policies or practices. APIA encourages its member companies to develop and maintain an appropriate EMS which is tailored to suit their operations and is based on recognised international standards such as AS/NZS ISO 14001 Environmental management systems – Specification with guidance for use. The review should address the possible need for changes to policy. audit findings. The review should consider workforce feedback. objectives and other elements of the EMS. and to maintain continual improvement. community attitudes and changes to company operations.

1 AUSTRALIAN STANDARDS FOR ONSHORE PIPELINES The AS 2885 series of Australian Standards specify requirements for steel pipelines and associated piping components that are used to transmit single phase and multiphase hydrocarbon fluids. Due to varying requirements and the often complex nature of pipeline approvals processes.1 LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK Regulatory authority for the construction and operation of onshore pipelines in Australia is held by each State and Territory jurisdiction under various pipeline or transport infrastructure legislation.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES PLANNING 3 PIPELINE PLANNING AND APPROVALS PROCESS Pipeline development planning is a detailed process requiring diverse specialist resources. as requirements between the various jurisdictions may vary significantly. This section discusses typical pipeline development planning processes. It is a generic model which should only be used as an indicative guide. planners. This Act authorises the granting of a pipeline licence. through the Council of Australian Governments. land use advisers and community relations specialists. social and engineering considerations. The legislative procedures for land access. legal advisers. providing an outline of the regulatory. but is primarily governed by the requirement to obtain a pipeline licence. State or Territory regulatory authorities. and where additional codes or guidelines may be required. particularly under State Acts and Regulations. particularly the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 and Native Title Act 1993. environmental. Offshore pipelines outside State/Territory waters and within Commonwealth waters are regulated by Joint Authorities (consisting of the relevant State/Territory and Commonwealth ministers) under the Commonwealth Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967.5–2002 Pipelines – Gas and liquid petroleum – Field pressure testing In 1994 all Australian Governments. Subsequent environmental approvals and licences may also be required.3–2001 Pipelines – Gas and liquid petroleum – Operation and maintenance AS/NZS 2885. Figure 3 illustrates the basic elements of the approvals process for a major pipeline. 3.1. It is strongly recommended that this code is read (and applied) with close reference to AS 2885. construction and operation of high pressure gas transmission pipelines in this country. The Standards currently in this series are: AS 2885. including engineers. practices and practical guidelines for use by competent persons and organisations involved with high-pressure gas and petroleum pipelines. The basis of the series of Standards is to provide important principles. The scope of this Code of Practice shall only be applicable where a Pipeline Licence exists or the pipeline system is designed to AS 2885. drafters. surveyors. Commonwealth approvals and legislative procedures may also be applicable. environmental practitioners. 3. easement acquisition and approval for the construction and operation of pipelines varies between the States and Territories. and the terms and conditions of that licence.2–2002 Pipelines – Gas and liquid petroleum – Welding AS 2885. A list of relevant legislation is provided in Appendix 3. Project assessment also involves government and community stakeholders. For pipelines other than for hydrocarbon transmission. adopted AS 2885 as the single national standard to guide issues pertaining to the design. APIA advises its members to seek clarification on the required approvals processes from personnel with experience in these processes and relevant Commonwealth. Revision 2 – March 2009 11 . refer to Appendix 4 (p 125).1–1997/Amdt 1–2001 Pipelines – Gas and liquid petroleum – Design and construction AS 2885. marketers.

AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION Figure 3: Key Stages in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Process 12 Revision 2 – March 2009 .

existing land uses and infrastructure zoning requirements protection of landscape values Legislation and policy in some States (e. where the pipeline follows a proposed or existing easement used for a range of purposes such as energy. economic. pipelines. Appendix 3 can provide guidance for the relevant legislation. the South Australian Native Vegetation Regulations 2003.g. flooding. engineering and environmental objectives are met. Revision 2 – March 2009 13 . the potential for interference with adjacent utilities (e. The selection of an appropriate pipeline route requires the balancing of all of these factors whilst ensuring that the project’s safety.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES PLANNING 3. Shared corridors do however. commercial. based on consideration of the criteria outlined in Table 1 below. seismic and geotechnical constraints and hazards climatic implications (cyclones. Ultimately a preferred pipeline route will be defined. incremental alienation of freehold land through additional easements and potential impacts to environmentally sensitive areas within or adjacent to the corridor. pose a series of constraints which must be overcome. Sometimes multiple use corridors may be utilised. Table 1: Pipeline Route Selection Criteria Safety relevant safety standards assessment of safety risks Commercial current market requirements the ability to meet future consumer needs construction and operating costs Engineering relevant engineering.g. The selection may be narrowed and refined at any stage following consideration of a range of safety. tidal and storm surges) access requirements for construction and operation Environmental (including social aspects) conservation of terrestrial and aquatic flora and fauna protection of habitat and ecosystem integrity protection of surface and ground water quality maintenance of surface stability potential for successful rehabilitation air and noise pollution management of historical and cultural heritage values impacts on local residents. All pipeline route selection assessments should consider the relevant legislative requirement for that state or territory.2 PIPELINE ROUTE SELECTION AND DESIGN Initial pipeline planning involves the identification of possible routes between the point of supply and delivery. engineering and environmental factors. in order to achieve a ‘net gain’ in native vegetation. These may include construction hazards associated with existing infrastructure (e. traditional owners. construction and operation standards terrain.g. This can result in a significant cost that should also be considered during route selection. fibre optic cable). Victorian Native Vegetation Management Framework) require that native vegetation clearance during pipeline construction is offset by protecting or replanting a larger area than cleared. overhead powerlines). communications and transport.

This involves an environmental assessment which meets the statutory requirements of each jurisdiction. usually in the form of an Environmental Management Plan or similar. Commonwealth marine areas and nuclear actions (including uranium mines). Pipeline approval procedures require the proponent to identify and assess potential environmental impacts and risks and to provide details of proposed management measures. The basic elements required to enable an assessment include: a detailed project description justification for the project proceeding an evaluation of project alternatives a description of the existing environment identification and assessment of potential environmental impacts a statement of environmental objectives and measurement criteria identification of environmental impact mitigation measures assessing sustainability and a program to manage and monitor sustainability environmental management program. If there is any likelihood that EPBC approval will be required. This will avoid the possibility of being required to undertake two separate processes.3 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT The environmental assessment process for proposed pipeline projects varies between the States and Territories. that if approved will be determined “Not a controlled action if undertaken in a particular manner”. this should be determined before commencing state processes with the aim of ensuring that the commonwealth accepts the state processes (as either a one off or under a bilateral agreement). wetlands of international importance. A pipeline environmental aspect and impact risk assessment may consider a range of issues. however the review of the project’s potential environmental impacts is the common ultimate outcome. Commonwealth involvement in the review of proposed pipelines within the States or Territories may be initiated where the project involves Commonwealth land or issues of national environmental significance. The assessment process requires consideration of environmental aspect and impact risks and leads to the formulation of management measures. terrain and seismic risk water resources noise 1 The seven Matters of National Environmental Significance under the EPBC Act 1999 include. fauna and ecology (including weeds and pathogens) soils. The required level and scope of environmental assessment is determined by the relevant State or Territory Minister (and the relevant Commonwealth Minister if required) following consideration of a range of factors including the scale of the project and the potential environmental impacts.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 3. National Heritage places. Generally. listed threatened species and ecological communities. Commonwealth approval under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC) will also be required if the project is likely to have significant impact on listed matters of national environmental significance . geology. If such impacts are likely. the proponent must refer the project to the Commonwealth for a decision on whether the activity is a “controlled action” and therefore requires Commonwealth approval under the Act. This enables the proposed pipeline project to be considered by the relevant State or Territory authorities. including: flora. 1 14 Revision 2 – March 2009 . an assessment of expected benefits is also required. World Heritage properties. migratory species protected under international agreements. A proposed pipeline which crosses more than one jurisdiction requires a coordinated approvals process.

Stakeholders may include Governments. This process may lead to modifications in project design and management. Ministerial Council on Mineral and Petroleum Resources (2005) Draft Principles for Engagement with Communities and Stakeholders).Having established an effective communication process it is possible to identify.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES PLANNING air quality (where significant emissions may result) climatic factors (particularly in regions which experience extremes) social issues (land use. evaluate and respond to issues.All relevant stakeholders should be identified during the project inception phase to ensure that the full range of potential issues is considered at the earliest possible stage. outlining appropriate incident prevention and response measures.g. 3. Such publications should be consulted for guidance on consulting and distributing information to landholders and stakeholders. or the provision of evidence and assurances that such issues can be adequately addressed. pipeline legislation requires that landholders are provided with information documents that have been submitted for review and/or approved by the regulatory agency. stakeholder meetings and/or toll-free information hotlines. A key component of the SMP should be guidelines for the response to emergencies. Identification and Addressing of Issues . landholders. Development of a Consultation Process . such as a spill or fire. Consultation allows the proponent to maintain an open approach to project development and operation by identifying and addressing potential environmental issues. Aboriginal communities. 3.The consultation process should actively seek community views and ensure that adequate means of communication are provided. commercial interests. Revision 2 – March 2009 15 . Public Interest Groups and other community representatives.5 SAFETY AND EMERGENCY PLANNING Safety and emergency response have both social and environmental implications and for this reason they are often considered during the approvals process. AS/NZS 4360: Risk Management is applicable to all transmission pipelines and AS2885 can also be acknowledged for use in water and other high pressure pipelines. press releases. Additionally. In some States (e. South Australia and Victoria). Native Title groups. A number of guidelines have been produced to assist in the consultation process and provide information on issues such as landholder rights during land access negotiations (e. APIA / Victorian Farmers Federation (2004) Pipeline Easement Guidelines. The key elements in an effective consultation process are: Identification of Stakeholders . Preliminary investigations during the project feasibility stage and consultation with all relevant stakeholders will assist in determining appropriate studies for inclusion in the assessment. assess. economics.4 STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATION Stakeholder consultation should continue throughout the life of a pipeline project to ensure that the community and the proponent are adequately aware of the issues. The SMP should address all relevant safety issues. Consultation may involve distribution of regular newsletters or fact sheets. social change) public risk heritage (indigenous and historical) visual amenity. AS 2885 and AS/NZS 4360 provide guidance on the conduct of a safety risk assessment and subsequent development of a Safety Management Plan (SMP) for high pressure gas and liquid petroleum pipelines. giving consideration to environmental as well as safety issues. public information displays.g. A Safety Management Plan should be developed for pipeline construction and operation based on the findings of the risk assessment and prior to the commencement of construction.

Public comments are considered by government prior to deciding on whether the project may proceed. The impact assessment prepared will be considered by relevant government authorities. This process allows members of the public to comment on the acceptability. public review of the assessment report may be required. Typical pipeline construction corridor for a small transmission pipeline (200 mm diameter). of the proposed pipeline project. MacDow 16 Revision 2 – March 2009 . or otherwise. prior to a decision being made regarding the granting of permits and licences. there should be consideration of the potential for sabotage or terrorism and the risk of disruption where the economics of a region relies on the production or use of oil and gas or the supply of basic human needs such as water.6 PROJECT REVIEW AND APPROVAL Legislative planning procedures for pipeline developments require government review and approval. Ecos Typical pipeline construction corridor for a large transmission pipeline (>800 mm diameter). 3. For major projects.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION In addition to construction and operational risks.

With increasing community concern for the environment. national and moral imperative influencing Australia’s construction industry.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES PLANNING 3. the construction industry will need to take steps to ensure the development of sustainable facilities and operations. Revision 2 – March 2009 17 . Embracing Corporate Sustainability principles within pipeline projects will contribute to achieving a more financially sustainable project and operation whilst achieving established social and environmental objectives and accords with International Agreements. global warming and increased focus on energy consumption in a carbon regulated world. The appropriate time for considering the sustainability of Pipeline facilities or operations is within the Planning and Approvals phase which can then be activated and implemented within the pipeline Design and Construction phases. social impacts. Corporate Sustainability (environmental. economic and social) is a key focus among most business operations and the positive approach to achieving sustainability can comfortably be adopted into the Pipeline construction or operational undertaking of a company.7 SUSTAINABILITY Sustainability is a powerful global. National Legislation and standard codes of practice.

which are generally undertaken by pipeline construction companies and specialist service companies. Another important factor is maintaining a high rate of progress of construction. Additional site specific guidelines may be required to address those issues which may be unique to a particular pipeline. Although the contents may vary between jurisdictions.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 4 ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES CONSTRUCTION Onshore pipeline construction involves a range of specialist tasks. which sorts sites with specific environmental management requirements by position along the pipeline. These guidelines may be used directly to guide a company’s operations or as a basis for the development of project 2 specific or company specific pipeline procedures. the risk of soil erosion and sedimentation is greatly reduced by the length of the exposure period and is proportional to the time required to complete construction to the rehabilitation stage. Similarly. This section addresses the many construction activities and environmental management issues that may be relevant to a particular pipeline project and it presents a range of environmental management guidelines which represent good industry practice. as far as reasonably practicable. at a time when environmental impacts will be lower. roles and responsibilities. environmental. 18 Revision 2 – March 2009 . 2 Most States and Territories require the preparation and approval of an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) prior to construction. Ultimate environmental responsibility lies with the pipeline licensee. auditing and reporting. An important factor in reducing environmental impact is the planning of pipeline construction so that it occurs. engineering and economic factors. as well as detailed guidelines for specific construction activities. construction in wetland areas during dry months would result in reduced impacts. The guidelines have been developed in consideration of the full range of project objectives including safety. Often the least environmental impact during the construction of watercourse crossings is achieved by open cut trenching techniques as they can be completed in one third of the time of the dam and pump alternatives. It is therefore imperative that the licensee has in place management systems which ensure contractor performance complies with licence obligations. monitoring. and occur in a defined construction corridor (Figure 4). such as presented in this Code. Site specific guidelines may be captured in an environmental “line list”. For example. an EMP typically includes descriptions of legislative requirements. the environmental management system.

CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION Figure 4: Typical construction corridor layout for small diameter pipeline construction Figure 5: Typical construction corridor layout for large diameter pipeline construction Revision 2 – March 2009 19 .

where practical. disease/weed free). The location and design of new access tracks and roads to avoid high risk sites or sensitive receptors such as: areas of significant natural heritage (e. 3. access to project areas. contaminated soil. construction and inspection personnel. quarantine provisions. certified area provisions (e. Utilisation of existing roads and tracks where practicable.g. weeds. and the selection of new access routes and the subsequent development of an appropriate Traffic Management Plan. 4.1 ACCESS During construction. acid sulphate or contaminated soils Potential modification to surface water flows (drainage lines and streams) Disturbance of significant flora and wildlife habitat Incursion of disease.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 4.g. such as pipeline easements. remnant vegetation. ACCESS – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Increased safety hazard resulting from increases in traffic volume Access track proliferation Soil compaction. foreshore dunes. To minimise disturbance to native flora To minimise impacts on fauna To minimise impacts on soil and water To avoid adverse impacts on cultural and historic heritage sites To minimise impacts on visual amenity To minimise disruption to landholders and third parties (sensitive receptors) To achieve satisfactory road and site rehabilitation ACCESS – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning and Design Management Measures Access planning shall include: Consultation with relevant landholders and regulatory authorities regarding the utilisation of existing roads or tracks. dispersive clay. wildlife habitat) indigenous and historic heritage sites homesteads or residential urban areas sensitive or problem soil/geotechnical areas (e. organic. 20 Revision 2 – March 2009 . 5. 2. steep unstable slopes. 7. noise and dust) Degradation of existing road infrastructure Unauthorised third party access to previously inaccessible areas ACCESS – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. Acid Sulphate Soil. 6.). work and camp sites is required on a regular basis by transport. This section details the environmental management measures which shall be considered in obtaining access to the pipeline corridor in addition to the safety requirements stipulated by legislation and Safety Management Plans.g. erosion and sediment release to land and water Disturbance of problematic soils such as dispersive. vermin or destructive influences to the site Temporary disruption to landholders (access. Consultation with relevant landholders and regulatory authorities regarding any special management measures required for an area or property such as weed or disease management provisions.

and within defined a pipeline construction area and associated work/camp sites (e. Property fences and gates shall be installed.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION areas of serious weed infestation or known diseases (e. Appropriate management actions include: storage of topsoil and spoil away from areas of surface water flow installation of erosion and sediment control structures as required (e.13 Erosion and Sediment Control) avoiding watercourse crossings where practicable. or installing appropriate structures where crossings are unavoidable . i.e. silt fences and sediment basins .g. Parking under trees shall be discouraged to prevent root zone soil compaction causing root damage and impairing water infiltration into the soil. phylloxera) creating visual impacts in sensitive areas. in problem areas to prevent spreading. and temporary fencing to control livestock. fibre optic cables) protective measures such as berming or bridging may be necessary. signs. if necessary. trees avoided or trimmed as an alternative to clearing. Vehicles shall travel at safe speeds that minimise environmental risks. Vehicle parking shall be restricted to the pipeline construction area and other designated areas. Revision 2 – March 2009 21 . Topsoil shall be removed prior to road surface preparation and either stockpiled in windrows adjacent to temporary access for respreading during reinstatement or stockpiled for use at other locations where permanent access will remain.g. Appropriate actions shall be employed to manage the potential effects of Acid Sulphate Soils.refer to section 4. workforce education. Cleared vegetation shall be stockpiled in windrows adjacent to temporary access for respreading during reinstatement. particularly on above ground utilities. Consideration shall be given to employing access measures which minimise impacts to landholders such as the installation of gates and cattle grids to permit access to and along pipeline easements. In sensitive environmental areas. table drains. site specific environmental management procedures shall be adopted to minimise environmental impacts (e.8 Reinstatement and Rehabilitation. pipeline construction activities should be scheduled to minimise potential impacts on land holders.g.g.g. Mitigation may include concealed entrances and doglegs to minimise line of sight. maintained and reinstated to a condition equal or better than the pre-existing condition.g.12 Watercourse Crossings (Vehicle Access). pipelines. Where practicable. rolling of access tracks on land with high erosion potential). or managed in accordance with measures detailed in section 4. Appropriate measures shall be employed to prevent surface damage to public roads (e. dieback. Appropriate weed and pathogen hygiene measures shall be applied.refer to section 4. boundary markers and fences). The creation of access tracks shall not result in erosion or sediment release to land or water. Where vehicles are required to cross existing utilities (e. erosion berms. such as avoidance or undertaking treatment in affected areas. Access Management Appropriate measures shall be applied to ensure vehicles remain on designated access roads and tracks. Access Construction Vegetation clearance shall be minimised. limiting dirt track access during wet weather and protecting bitumen surfaces where tracked machinery is required to cross roads). Application of relevant legislative and design requirements where appropriate. Pipeline access shall be designed and maintained to accommodate the intended traffic volume.

taking into consideration site specific characteristics which may affect regrowth and stabilisation success installation of erosion and sediment control measures (e. geotextiles. fences. with suitable materials (e.8 Reinstatement and Rehabilitation implementing appropriate regeneration/revegetation measures in accordance with section 4. or other physical barriers such as rocks or cleared vegetation. Similarly. temporary access tracks shall be closed and rehabilitated to a condition compatible with the surrounding land use. Rehabilitation procedures shall include: removing all waterway crossing structures and stabilising stream banks and beds. access infrastructure shall be maintained to appropriate standards. gates shall be left as they are found or as sign posted. During construction.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION As a general rule. Figure eight or zigzag rip lines may be appropriate in flat to low gradients to prevent rilling along the road respreading stockpiled topsoil over the rehabilitation area weed management where required – refer to section 4. erosion berms and silt fences) as required.g.g. access along the easement during wet weather shall be undertaken in consultation with the relevant landholder. where access on private roads will lead to road degradation. it shall be undertaken in consultation with the relevant landholder. rock rip-rap.8 Reinstatement and Rehabilitation (Regeneration and Revegetation).13 Erosion and Sediment Control) appropriate measures which discourage access to restored tracks such as signs. Where there is a potential for land degradation.17 Weed Control managing cleared vegetation in accordance with measures outlined in section 4. hydromulch) removal of excess rock or fill material recontouring the road to match the profile of the adjacent landscape and stabilising drainage and road cut and fill ripping along the contours to relieve compaction and promote regeneration. Public and private access tracks utilised during construction shall be reinstated to their pre-construction condition or as otherwise agreed with the relevant landholder or authority. earth mounds or ditches. Reinstatement of Access Upon completion of pipeline construction. particularly on moderate to steep grades (refer section 4. These may be temporary or permanent measures. convoy passage) they shall not be left unattended unless otherwise agreed with the landholder. If closed gates are required to be opened for extended periods (e.g. as required. 22 Revision 2 – March 2009 .

Disturbance to native vegetation and wildlife habitat is avoided or minimised to the greatest extent practicable through careful route selection and the application of appropriate management procedures.2 CLEARING Clearing of the pipeline construction area involves the removal of trees. 6. Ecos CLEARING – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Soil erosion Sediment release to land or water Removal of significant flora and wildlife habitat Fragmentation of wildlife habitat and dislocation of wildlife corridors Increased potential for feral animal movement along new corridors Increased potential for weed species introduction (edge effect) Disturbance to heritage sites Potential impacts to visual amenity Unauthorised third party access to previously inaccessible areas Rehabilitation of cleared areas CLEARING – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. Trimming overhanging vegetation on a pipeline corridor as part of clearing activities. 3. however this may vary depending upon project or site specific considerations and should be minimised where practical. To minimise disturbance to flora To minimise impacts on fauna To minimise impacts on soil and water To minimise impacts on visual amenity To minimise impacts on sites of cultural and historic heritage significance To minimise disruption of landholders To optimise rehabilitation success Revision 2 – March 2009 23 . The working space required or permitted for pipeline construction is generally dependent upon: maintaining appropriate safety standards construction equipment and vehicle movement environmental sensitivities terrain and geotechnical constraints pipeline diameter and trench depth the number of pipelines being installed proximity to existing infrastructure such as roads maximising construction productivity The normal working width in Australia for a major pipeline is approximately 20-30 metres. shrubs. 5. 7. 2. 4. stumps and other obstacles to provide access for pipeline construction.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION 4.

natural and cultural heritage).g. Clearing is a last resort – retention of vegetation. corners. This may vary at different locations. shall not be used for environmental flagging. Where a pipeline passes through sensitive environmental areas. chainsaws should be used to trim branches and the width of clearing minimised). turn-arounds and working areas (especially near watercourses) may need to be in the order of 50m on the right of way. making it difficult to see red flagging from a distance on green backgrounds (e. where there are significant natural. One in 12 men have a colour vision deficiency (or colour blindness). particularly in sown pastures or at water courses. the 3 vegetation shall be marked with yellow flagging or marker tape to indicate that it should be avoided. deep crossings). heritage or visual amenity values to protect Clearing activities shall be scheduled to minimise the time between initial clearing and rehabilitation. Install habitat nest boxes prior to clearing works. 24 Revision 2 – March 2009 . vegetation).AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION CLEARING – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning Management Measures The pipeline proponent shall specify the pipeline construction working width for the entire length of the pipeline. 3 To standardise procedures within the pipeline industry.30m. particularly at watercourses (e. Avoid disturbing roots or compacting soil in the drip zone of other vegetation to be retained. trimming and fauna spotting is the first priority. Note: while the main clearing area is 20 . the most common being red/green. yellow flagging (not paint) should be used to identify environmentally sensitive ‘no go’ areas and features (i. where there is significant natural. until construction of the crossing is imminent. or alternative measures are employed to prevent and/or minimise erosion and sedimentation risk.e. selective clearing. Red. In the case of protected or retained vegetation within the pipeline construction area. particularly at watercourses and roadside remnants. heritage or visual amenity values to protect. bell holes. Consideration shall be given to the control of feral animal movements along newly cleared corridors which provide new access to sensitive environments. Relevant stakeholders and landholders shall be consulted to assist in minimising impacts on property management and loss of amenity. where practicable.g.g. Additional space may be required to accommodate soil and spoil stockpiles at locations where additional spoil will be generated (e. Clearing shall aim to retain the maximum amount of root stock within the pipeline construction area. Marker paint shall not be used. Slashing may be undertaken as a means of vegetation clearing. or red based colours such as orange or pink. Wildlife habitat fragmentation effects can be minimised by maintaining tree canopy connectivity where practicable. Clearing slopes leading to watercourses shall be delayed. Consideration should be given to retention of significant patches or individual trees within the approved corridor. such as power lines. etc. site specific environmental management procedures shall be adopted to minimise environmental impacts. Measures shall be employed which identify. Vegetation Clearing Vegetation clearance shall be minimised as far as practicable. make safe and protect other infrastructure. Clearing boundaries shall be delineated on project drawings and/or in the field to define the extent of authorised clearing.

refer section 4. use at another location as rip-rap or disposal as appropriate. either for respreading. Revision 2 – March 2009 25 . trees shall be felled onto the easement away from standing timber).CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION Cleared vegetation shall be stockpiled separately in a manner which: facilitates respreading or salvaging . stock or wildlife avoids damage to adjacent live vegetation (e. Surface rock removed from the easement shall be stockpiled in an adjacent area.8 Reinstatement and Rehabilitation does not impede vehicles.g.

Generally. it shall be removed down to the next soil horizon (i. in consultation with landholders and relevant regulatory authorities as appropriate. dispersive soil or contaminated soil and consequent release of acid or contaminated leachate Removal of wildlife habitat and Rehabilitation success Disturbance to Cultural Heritage Increased potential for the spread of weeds and pathogens Potential impacts to visual amenity Unauthorised third party access to previously inaccessible areas Potential temporary disruption to existing land uses GRADING – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. sub-soil from the pipeline construction area and associated work and camp sites. the topography does not permit safe and practical access to and along the pipeline construction area or work sites.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 4. compaction and topsoil loss Disturbance of Problematic Soils such as Acid Sulphate Soil. 2. is the surface soil horizon of mixed organic and mineral composition. W. In other instances. In some instances.e. Mathieson / Ecos GRADING – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Soil erosion and sediment release to land or water Degradation of soil structure through soil mixing. sub-soil).3 GRADING Grading involves the removal of topsoil and. Grading is required where: construction is likely to unduly damage topsoil and inhibit regeneration or primary production activities.g. in some instances. 3. 4. The extent and depth of topsoil removal from the pipeline construction area (e. full stripping or partial stripping) shall be determined on the basis of best practice for the specific site. so as not to expose highly erodible subsoils. particularly topsoil To minimise sedimentation and acidification of land and water To minimise disturbance to native flora To minimise impacts on fauna To minimise impacts on sites of cultural and historic heritage significance 26 Revision 2 – March 2009 . Grading of pipeline corridors. To minimise soil degradation. best practice will involve the removal of topsoil from the entire pipeline construction area to protect it from degradation due to traffic. 5. where topsoil removal is required. also referred to as the A horizon. or the soil conditions cannot accommodate construction activities. topsoil stripping shall be restricted to the trench line. Topsoil.

Grading of watercourse beds and banks shall be minimised. vegetation).refer to Table 2 below) shall be determined by a qualified land management adviser. Grading and stockpiling of soil shall not. Topsoil stripping measures commonly applied in pipeline construction are listed in Table 2. Grading Graded soil shall be stockpiled separately from other materials (e. drains and sediment barriers shall be installed as necessary and maintained until final construction reinstatement is completed).refer section 4. 8. It may be necessary to adapt these techniques based on site specific requirements. where it can be readily recovered for respreading and where it will not be lost through wind or water erosion or other means. cut and fill excavation shall be shaped to maintain slope stability and temporary erosion control berms. berms and sediment fencing) shall be used as necessary. Prior to the commencement of grading activities appropriate topsoil management techniques shall be determined in consultation with affected landholders and relevant regulatory authorities. Stockpile breaks shall coincide with designated access roads or tracks. or delayed until construction of the crossing is imminent.g.e.g. Soil and surface stability shall be maintained at all times (e.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION 6. leaving an undisturbed organic mat within the riparian zone. Topsoil containment measures (e. width and depth of topsoil stripping . as far as practicable. To minimise impacts on visual amenity To minimise disruption of landholders and third parties To optimise rehabilitation success To minimise the time between clearing and rehabilitation through progressive clearing GRADING – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning Management Measures The period of time between clearing and grading shall be minimised to prevent soil erosion. thus preventing sediment input into watercourses .g. 7. Acid Sulphate Soils should be identified and stockpiled within bunding to prevent mixing with other soils. fence lines and gaps in stockpiled vegetation.g. The period of time between grading and reinstatement shall be minimised to prevent soil erosion and allow commencement of rehabilitation works. impede surface drainage or waterfowls. the appropriate soils management applications (i. 9. Graded soil shall not be stockpiled where it has the potential to result in sedimentation or acidification of land or surface water (e.12 Watercourse Crossings for detail. on slopes which drain immediately to a watercourse). Revision 2 – March 2009 27 . Stockpiled soil shall not impede the movement of stock and vehicles across the pipeline construction area. Prior to grading.

Topsoil is graded over the trench and spoil side only. Topsoil is graded over the trench and work side only.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION Table 2: Common Topsoil Stripping Measures Topsoil Management Technique Trench line Description Topsoil is graded to a blade width over the trench line only and the soil stockpiled in windrows adjacent to the pipeline construction area. Topsoil is graded over the full width of the pipeline construction area Direct trench excavation with no topsoil stripping Trench And Work Side Trench And Spoil Side Full Stripping No Stripping 28 Revision 2 – March 2009 .

To minimise disruption to landholders and third parties To avoid the risk of bushfire associated with construction activities To avoid damage to existing road networks PIPE STRINGING AND WELDING – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning Management Measures Consultation shall be undertaken with relevant landholders and regulatory authorities with regard to locating pipe storage and worksites . allowing gaps for vehicle. and shall be located in consultation with relevant landholders.4 PIPE STRINGING AND WELDING Following clear and grade activities.1 Access. The surface at the joint is then cleaned by grit blasting or wire brushing and coated with a tape wrapping. Pipe Welding All welding. plastic sleeve or protective coating to inhibit corrosion.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION 4. 3. Pipe transport routes shall be determined in consultation with relevant regulatory authorities. the use of welding consumables. 2. road damage and adverse impacts.refer sect 4. e.10 Construction Camps and Worksites.g. stock and wildlife trails. boundary fences and gaps in stockpiled vegetation. Revision 2 – March 2009 29 .refer section 4. and the removal of weld defects shall conform to relevant Australian Standards. Each weld is inspected using x-ray or ultrasonic equipment. Pipe shall be strung. Precautions shall be taken to minimise fire risk in accordance with the requirements of relevant fire protection legislation and regulations . The term pipe stringing is used to describe the delivery of pipe to the pipeline construction area in preparation for welding into continuous lengths (typically up to 1 km long) known as pipe strings. Pipe Stringing Refer also to section 4.19 Bushfire Prevention. with a view to minimising hazards. pipe materials are delivered to site. Ecos PIPE STRINGING AND WELDING – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Dust and noise emissions resulting from pipe transport Temporary obstruction of other land uses Damage to existing road networks and infrastructure Potential fire hazard associated with construction welding and grinding Appropriate management of waste materials Pipe stringing impeding landholder access or fauna movements including stock PIPE STRINGING AND WELDING – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. Gaps shall coincide with access roads or tracks. government and traffic authorities and landholders. welder qualifications. Appropriate measures shall be taken as required to minimise pipe transport traffic related dust and noise. welding procedures. Pipe stringing. stock and wildlife access across the line of pipe.

should also be undertaken. Pipe welding. primer and dangerous goods shall be suitably stored. sand bags. Gaps shall be left which coincide with the gaps in the topsoil and vegetation stockpiles. packaging) shall be managed in accordance with section 4. wildlife or other objects into welded pipe sections. designated access tracks/roads and fence lines. Associated waste materials (e. Ecos Joint coating.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION Consultation with relevant local fire and emergency service authorities . shall be prevented by appropriate means such as ‘night caps’ placed over open pipe string ends.11 Waste Management. welding stubs. Welded pipe sections (pipe strings) shall not impede vehicle. The ingress of dust. stock or wildlife passage.g. radiography chemicals. and shall be located in consultation with relevant landholders. Ecos 30 Revision 2 – March 2009 . wooden pipe skids. Associated consumables such as cleaning solvents. Radiography of pipeline welds shall be performed in a manner which ensures that chemicals and other associated wastes are contained and appropriately disposed of in accordance with regulatory requirements. particularly at night.

Third party infrastructure. potential or known acid sulphate soil areas).5 TRENCHING Trenching may be undertaken either prior to. fibre optic cable) Trenching machine excavating trenchline. 2. appropriate site specific management guidelines shall be developed in consultation with relevant regulatory authorities.g. in particular. Ecos land use and the potential risk of third party interference (e.g.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION 4. depending upon project schedules. Backfill to commence immediately following pipelay. Minimise length of time trench is open or pipe exposed. open pasture. 3. 5. discharge waters) Acid Sulphate Soil or contaminated soil disturbance Potential for stock and wildlife entering the open trench Disturbance to sub-surface heritage sites Temporary obstruction of other land uses TRENCHING – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1.g. such as pipelines and fibre optic cables. roads. TRENCHING – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Soil erosion and sedimentation of land and water (inc. petroleum liquids. The trench for buried pipelines is excavated to varying depths depending upon: the product being transported (e. water) the maximum operating pressure of the pipeline the nature of the terrain through which the pipeline passes (e. gas. rock. Use of trench shoring or other alternative as practical. 6. To minimise adverse impacts on soil.g. 4. during or after pipe stringing. Trenching Minimise trench width and depth to reduce spoil generation where possible.g. Where trenching is required in contaminated soils (e. hazardous chemical disposal sites. rivers) the proximity to infrastructure and buried utilities (e. rupture during excavation) Trench depths may be specified in the relevant legislation and Australian Standards. terrain and other such logistical factors. shall be identified and appropriate protection measures applied. topsoil loss through mixing or burial To minimise adverse impacts on water To minimise adverse impacts on stock and wildlife To minimise impacts on sites of cultural and historic heritage significance To minimise disruption of landholders and third parties To minimise environmental risk associated with third party interference TRENCHING – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning Management Measures The period of time between grading of the pipeline construction area and trenching shall be minimised to reduce the potential for erosion of exposed soils. Revision 2 – March 2009 31 .

Measures shall be adopted to prevent fauna entrapment within the pipeline trench. Where the pipeline crosses sensitive coastlines. Appropriate management measures shall be adopted when trenching in problem soil areas. Spoil stockpiles shall not impede natural or constructed surface drainage channels or access tracks. appropriate water quality management and erosion control measures shall be adopted for discharge water. ramped gangplanks or similar to be used to create ‘ladders’ to enable fauna to exit the trench surveillance of the open trench in sensitive areas and the removal of wildlife from the trench by appropriately trained personnel.also see section 4. such as silt fencing and stockpile berms. hessian sacks.g. o 32 Revision 2 – March 2009 . Trench spoil shall not be permitted to mix with stockpiled topsoil and vegetation. geotextiles or straw bales .13 Erosion and Sediment Control. or sensitive areas. such as rock rip-rap. stock and wildlife across the open trench (and permit wildlife to exit the open trench). particularly for works adjacent to watercourses and other potentially sensitive environments. bitumen highways. may be necessary.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION Where well point de-watering is necessary to stabilise saturated soils (e. e. Erosion within the trench shall be prevented utilising trench plugs at appropriate intervals.g. native forest areas) branches.g. active railways. particularly in fauna habitat areas constructing trench plugs with slopes less than 45 to provide exit ramps for fauna installing additional trench plugs at greater than normal frequencies in areas identified as known or potential wildlife habitat (e. and shall coincide with gaps in stockpiled soil and vegetation material. alternative crossing methods such as boring or horizontal directional drilling may be undertaken. Trench plugs will also permit the movement of vehicles. major watercourses. dryland salinity affected areas or Acid Sulphate Soils. Erosion protection may include water discharge flow dissipaters. Spoil stockpiles shall be located so as to minimise loss of material from water and wind erosion and avoid subsequent sediment release. such as: minimising the period of time the trench is open. Sediment control measures. high watertable areas such as floodplains).

Blasting program design shall aim to be within the appropriate noise comfort and vibration criteria. and utilised for alternative purposes (e.16 Noise and Dust Revision 2 – March 2009 33 . wildlife habitat creation) or appropriately disposed of. To minimise adverse impacts on fauna and significant habitat areas To minimise resulting noise impacts To safely contain blast debris To avoid damage to adjacent infrastructure BLASTING – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning and Design Management Measures A Blasting Operations Plan shall be prepared. including safety. Blasting refuse. cartridges. charges.g. storage and use of explosives is governed by prescriptive State and Territory legislation and Australian Standards. For example. adjacent utility operators) in accordance with regulatory requirements.g. blasting should be scheduled to avoid sensitive lifecycle periods of fauna species (e. detailing the proposed method of blasting. debris control. 2.15 & 4. Smaller and/or staggered charges shall be used where practicable. migration).g. Prior notice shall be given to adjacent residents. utilities and sensitive habitat/fauna. such as containers. this may not be allowed and the waste may need to be burnt at the camp site if it is not permitted to be transported to or disposed of at the local waste depot). Refer to Sect 4. blanketing and collaring. BLASTING – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Impacts on terrestrial and aquatic fauna Noise disturbance Appropriate management of debris Infrastructure damage BLASTING – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. Environmental Monitoring of Noise. detonation methods. shall be retrieved for disposal at an approved waste depot. drill pattern. erosion control riprap at stream banks or water discharge areas. Rock that is not required for backfill shall be retrieved.1 BLASTING In rock terrain where the use of conventional excavation or ripping equipment is not feasible it may be necessary to use controlled blasting. Blasting Operations Blasting procedures shall be strictly monitored and controlled for compliance with relevant State or Territory legislation and Australian Standards. 4. breeding. shall be employed to prevent possible damage to nearby structures. where possible. where it is incongruous with the surrounding environment. such as appropriate blast design. vibration and dust resulting from controlled blasts in areas where sensitive receptors are impacted. caps and wire. nearby work crews and other potentially affected parties (e. etc.5.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION 4. The handling. (Note: in some States. explosives. Blasting in ecologically sensitive areas shall incorporate appropriate precautions to protect ecological resources. 3. Measures. nesting.

The feasibility of using HDD is strongly limited by site conditions such as soil stability.5. A variety of associated equipment and infrastructure is required. 34 Revision 2 – March 2009 . operated by a specialist contractor. The size of the HDD rig and its associated footprint depends upon the size of the pipe. on the back of a semi-trailer). Bell holes are required on each side of the road or railway (or watercourse). The installation of the pipeline by HDD involves drilling a hole at a shallow angle beneath the surface. The feasibility of a bore is limited by site conditions. available workspace and the nature of subsurface rock. landform and soil type and depth and width of the watercourse crossing. railways. 4. It is a low impact technique involving the drilling of short distances from below ground within an enlarged trench area. or bell hole.5. The bell hole that accommodates the thrust bore rig is typically 25m or more long and 4-5m wide to allow it to hold the rig plus a full length of pipe. It may also be used for road or railway crossings or to facilitate coastal crossings where a pipeline crosses beneath the intertidal or shoreline region (i. This includes ensuring that there is sufficient space at the bell hole site to accommodate the excavated spoil and prevent its encroachment onto adjacent vegetation and topsoil. in some circumstances. subsurface geology and the length of the drill. Drilling is conducted by a specially designed drill rig. and aim to prevent sediment release to land and water and achieve appropriate management of waste materials.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 4.g. whilst waste management guidelines are presented in section 4. and these are often self-contained (e. particularly for short drills such as road crossings.2 BORING The technique of boring is commonly applied in construction to install pipelines beneath infrastructure such as roads. Spoil stockpiles shall be managed in accordance with the guidelines detailed for trenching activities (refer section 4.11 Waste Management). then pulling the welded pipe string back through the drill hole (Figure 6). slope. The receiving bell hole is typically 4-5m long and 3m wide. Excavations are typically required for a cuttings settlement pit and drilling mud containment pits at the drill entry and exit points.12 Watercourse Crossings) or at sites where standard open cut methods are not feasible or are environmentally unsuitable.5 Trenching). located within the pipeline construction area (see Figure 5). ‘land to water’ crossings). Figure 5: Schematic profile of a bored crossing Associated environmental issues are limited to the management of excavated bell hole spoil.3 DIRECTIONAL DRILLING Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) is generally used to cross major watercourses (refer section 4. access. including geology. buried utilities (e. Smaller rigs are often used.e. for watercourse crossings.g. fibre optic cable) and.

4. noise and increased duration of construction and workforce numbers. waste management.15 Noise Control. Ecos Revision 2 – March 2009 35 . site specific management procedures are usually prepared for a HDD site prior to drilling. the technique introduces additional environmental considerations such as drill site sediment control (including drilling fluids). These issues are addressed in sections 4.11 Waste Management and 4. Small horizontal directional drilling rig.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION Figure 6: Schematic profile of Horizontal Directional Drilling Although horizontal directional drilling may reduce above ground impacts.10 Construction Camps and Worksites. Ecos Large horizontal directional drilling rig on pad. To address these issues.

6 PIPELAYING AND BACKFILLING The welded pipe string is lowered into the excavated trench using side-boom tractors. appropriate measures shall be undertaken to protect water quality which may include: Obtaining permission from the relevant landholder/authority to discharge Assessing water prior to disposal to determine if it meets the relevant EPA standards and ANZEC criteria Containing and treating water onsite or removing water off-site for treatment/disposal if it does not meet criteria for disposal on-site Dewatering to stabilised ground via the use of sprays or onto geofabric lined structures to prevent erosion Prevention of discharge of run-off entering surface water bodies unless permitted by relevant authority Use of sediment traps where required Bunding of dewatering pumps to prevent fuel spill contamination. very rocky soils) imported sand or foam pillows may be used for padding. appropriate site specific management guidelines shall be developed in consultation with relevant regulatory authorities. Water quality shall be monitored and appropriate discharge options adopted. it may be necessary to dewater the trench if rain water or groundwater has accumulated. To minimise adverse impacts on soil and water To minimise adverse impacts on stock and wildlife To minimise disruption of landholders and third parties PIPELAYING AND BACKFILLING – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning Management Measures Where backfill is required in contaminated soils (e.g. 36 Revision 2 – March 2009 . contaminated or acid sulphate affected water) being released to land or water. Pipe being lowered into the trench Ecos PIPELAYING AND BACKFILLING – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Soil erosion and sedimentation of land and water Management of potentially contaminated trench water discharge Entrapment of stock and wildlife in the open trench Temporary obstruction of other land uses PIPELAYING AND BACKFILLING – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. Where trench de-watering is required.g.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 4. Padding machines are often used to sift the excavated subsoil in order to provide fine material to pad beneath and on top of the buried pipe and protect the pipe coating. saline. 2. In some instances (e. Pipelaying The removal and subsequent discharge of water from the trench shall not result in erosion or pollutants (such as sediment. potential or known acid sulphate soil areas). Prior to pipelaying. 3. hazardous chemical disposal sites.

Where practicable. trench/sack breakers) and compaction of backfilled soils. they must not come into contact with the pipeline.g.g.e. During final re-profiling of the pipeline construction area. e.8 Reinstatement and Rehabilitation. the use of protective fabrics or the application of concrete coating over the pipe corrosion coating. Where acidic subsoils are encountered and they are backfilled. Plastic warning tape. natural seepage zones) across the trench.g. Backfilling The open trench shall be checked for fauna prior to backfill.refer section 4. trench blocks (i. Appropriate measures shall be employed to prevent obstruction of sub-surface water flows in side slopes (e. Ecos Revision 2 – March 2009 37 . used to alert third parties to the presence of a buried pipeline. Appropriate measures shall be adopted for managing problem soils. such as the installation of permeable zones within the backfill adjacent to the seepage. Backfill soils shall be compacted to a level consistent with surrounding soils. soils shall be replaced in order of excavation. The period of time between trenching and backfilling shall be minimised to prevent erosion of exposed soils as well as trench collapse and to minimise risk and inconvenience to third parties associated with the open trench.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION Appropriate measures shall be taken to protect the pipe coating from damage when in the trench. Subsurface water flows and erosion along the backfilled trench shall be prevented by appropriate means such as. with the aim of preventing trench subsidence. a low crown of soil mounded over the trench may be necessary to compensate for potential subsidence . and any trapped animals removed. and concrete slabs may be laid within the trench above the pipeline as a precaution in order to prevent damage during future excavation. such as trench bedding and padding material (e. or other forms of subsoil drainage. Padding machine returning spoil to the trench. saline or acid sulphate soils. sand or screened trench soil placed around the pipe).

or another suitable test medium. 4 AS 2885. particularly in the case of hydrocarbon pipelines. 4. to verify pipeline strength and to detect leaks.1 HYDROSTATIC TESTING Hydrostatic testing (hydrotesting) involves the pressure testing of pipelines with water. Pipeline commissioning will take place after the pipeline has undergone a series of safety and operational tests and is declared to be operational by the relevant pipeline regulatory authority. gauging and drying. 2. Permits for such activities may be required from relevant regulatory authorities. a hydrostatic testing program / procedure shall be prepared.5: 2002 Pipelines – Gas and Liquid Petroleum – Field Pressure Testing. 38 Revision 2 – March 2009 .7 PIPELINE TESTING AND COMMISSIONING Hydrotesting is normally undertaken on hydrocarbon pipelines at the completion of backfill operations. The gas line process involves the temporary installation of test manifolds onto sections of the newly constructed pipeline and filling the pipeline with the testing medium. To minimise water use To minimise impacts on flora and fauna To minimise impacts on soil and water To minimise disruption to landholders and third parties HYDROSTATIC TESTING – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning and Design Management Measures Hydrotesting operations shall conform with the requirements of relevant legislation and 4 AS 2885. Following hydrostatic testing. corrosion inhibitors. Water pipelines also require completion of air and scour valves for the defined test sections. erosion and sedimentation resulting from hydrotest water discharge HYDROSTATIC TESTING – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. which is then pressurised enabling possible pipeline leak and weakness detection. usually water. the pipeline will require final cleaning.g. 3.5 . Consultation with landholders and/or relevant regulatory authorities shall be conducted prior to sourcing and disposing of water. 4. Hydrostatic testing a section of pipeline. Prior to the commencement of hydrotesting activities. biocides) Wastewater management Soil contamination.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 4. Ecos HYDROSTATIC TESTING – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Potential impacts on aquatic fauna Modification of water quality Temporary third party deprivation of water resources Use of chemical additives (e. welding slag and sediment. This is achieved using air pressure to push cleaning and drying pigs through the pipeline to remove residual water.7.

Holding dams.5. PIPELINE PURGING AND GAS VENTING – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Creation of a safety hazard by venting gas Potential release of greenhouse gases Noise associated with gas release PIPELINE PURGING AND GAS VENTING – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1.3 Directional Drilling. screening water uptake hoses with small gauge mesh or the use of alternative water resources. The use of environmentally harmful chemical additives in the hydrotest water. 4.refer section 4. test water shall be used for multiple test sections. if required.7.g. a ‘slug’ of inert gas such as nitrogen may be pushed through the pipeline by low pressure natural gas. This process may result in gas being vented from the pipeline as air is purged. Potential impacts on other users of the water resource shall be minimised by maintaining adequate flow rates and water levels or by coordinating water usage to minimise potential interference.refer section 4. To minimise the creation of safety hazards To minimise atmospheric emissions To minimise noise disturbance Revision 2 – March 2009 39 . such as avoiding significant aquatic habitat areas. such as forest dieback.13 Erosion and Sediment Control. shall be avoided where practicable. Procedures for drilling water bores shall be developed based on the principles for Directional Drilling operations (e. gas release is minimised as far as possible for both environmental and economic reasons. shall be located. constructed and restored in accordance with the principles outlined for construction work sites .CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION Hydrostatic Testing Measures which prevent hydrotest water discharge resulting in soil erosion or sedimentation of land and water shall be adopted . outlined in section 4.10 Construction Camps and Worksites. Measures which minimise potential impacts on aquatic fauna shall be adopted. within the hydrotest water may be required where such problems are known to exist. 3. such as corrosion inhibitors and biocides. maintaining adequate flow rates and water levels. 2. Measures which prevent the spread of declared weed seeds and plant pathogens. drill site and waste management). however. does not occur. shall only be undertaken where water quality is within relevant statutory water quality guidelines. Where practicable.2 PIPELINE PURGING At the commissioning stage of a gas pipeline it is necessary to purge the pipeline of air to ensure safe operation and that the gas meets the required market specifications. Planning is also required to ensure that the transfer of pest species of fish or other aquatic fauna from one catchment to another. Hydrotest water discharge or recycling for secondary uses. such as pasture irrigation or livestock watering. The air and nitrogen mix is purged out of the system through valve controlled outlet pipes. To achieve this.

use of a pig). Controlled disposal of hydrostatic testing water. Ecos 40 Revision 2 – March 2009 . Purging or venting shall be minimised by using methods that prevent or reduce the mixing of air.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION PIPELINE PURGING AND GAS VENTING – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning Management Measures Gas vents shall be located at an appropriate distance from residential areas and infrastructure. Adjacent residents shall be advised of the pending venting operation prior to undertaking the activity. inert gas and product gas (e.g. in accordance with relevant regulatory requirements. Purging or venting gas from the pipeline shall be conducted under favourable local meteorological conditions that facilitate rapid atmospheric dispersion of the gas.

vermin or pathogen invasion To restore and enhance the environment. The pipeline construction area shall be re-profiled to original or stable contours. The period of time between backfilling and rehabilitation of the pipeline construction area shall be minimised to prevent degradation and loss of exposed soils. culverts) Revegetation & rehabilitation of disturbed construction areas Potential for restoration of disturbed construction sites. REINSTATEMENT AND REHABILITATION – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. re- Revision 2 – March 2009 41 .g.refer section 4. 3. 5. these may need to be adapted to suit site specific conditions.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION 4. Mathieson REINSTATEMENT AND REHABILITATION – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Erosion and sediment control Reinstatement of habitat components (rocks logs and debris) Reinstatement of infrastructure (fences. significant habitat or species and regulatory permit conditions). post rehabilitation. 2. and other legal or project obligations such as specific revegetation requirements. Reinstatement Waste materials and equipment shall be removed from the pipeline construction area once backfilling and tie-ins are completed . depending upon site conditions or legal requirements (e. Rehabilitated pipeline corridor W. temporary access roads and turn-arounds. however. 7. including wildlife habitat where practical To minimise negative visual impact and enhance visual amenity To minimise adverse impacts on other land users REINSTATEMENT AND REHABILITATION – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning Management Measures Pre-construction environmental assessments for benchmarking or analogue sites for comparison. landholder and client requirements. Figure eight or zigzag rip lines may be appropriate in flat to low gradients to prevent rilling. Compaction relief shall be undertaken as required by ripping or scarifying soils along the contours. and camp and work sites. This section details the standard environmental management considerations for pipeline construction area rehabilitation. particularly on heavily trafficked areas such as the pipeline construction work side. 4. problematic soils. Site specific rehabilitation plans may be necessary. To minimise soil erosion potential and maximise vegetative cover To minimise the potential for sedimentation or acidification of land and water To minimise modification to drainage patterns To minimise weed.11 Waste Management. 6.8 REINSTATEMENT AND REHABILITATION Reinstatement and rehabilitation are the final major stages in pipeline construction. gates.

windbreaks. due to its value in creating wildlife corridors.g. Regular breaks in the crown will prevent the impediment or channelling of surface drainage and shall coincide with drainage and erosion control features. Respreading stockpiled vegetation. Consideration shall be given to habitat element requirements of significant local fauna and the vegetation of the areas adjacent to the pipeline construction area where practicable. reduced erosion. drought resistant shade trees and weed species suppression). Regular inspections shall be undertaken during the pipeline construction maintenance period and operations phases to monitor for trench subsidence. straw bales. Stockpiles shall be managed in accordance with the requirements of section 4. Third party and stock and wildlife access to above ground infrastructure.g. geotextile matting. Unauthorised easement access shall be discouraged by installing signs. considering the application of vegetation regeneration and/or revegetation techniques as appropriate. Erosion and sediment control measures (e. topsoil replacement.g. Site specific stabilisation measures may be necessary to prevent slumping or erosion. Revegetation refers to actively re-establishing vegetation through seeding or planting techniques in accordance with site specific management plans.refer section 4. reducing fragmentation. and not utilised as trench crown. will be required to cover subsoil used for easement repairs and shall only be used with landholder approval.g. of an appropriate quality and weed free. conservation of water. Imported topsoil. A low crown of soil mounded over the trench may be necessary to compensate for potential subsidence of trench soil (except in cultivation areas). either whole or mulched. shall be controlled by installing barriers (e. weed control. earth mounds or ditches.13 Erosion and Sediment Control. improved soil structure. weed control. Permanent pipeline warning signs shall be erected along the easement. fauna habitat. may be stockpiled in locations approved by landholders or regulatory authorities for use during operations. respreading vegetation to act as mulch will provide soil nutrients. Flagging used to identify sensitive environmental features (e.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION establishing surface drainage lines and other land features. trap for water and seeds. It may be assisted by creating conditions which increase the potential for success (e. seed traps). easement access control and visual impact mitigation. natural and cultural heritage). such as valve and scraper stations. the following principles shall be considered: seed mixtures shall be formulated for the conditions of the area.13 Erosion and Sediment Control. Where seeding is adopted to facilitate prompt revegetation and soil stabilisation. Minor surface roughness is encouraged when spreading topsoil in order to trap water and seed. fences. Rehabilitation measures shall be developed. fencing). diversion berms.g. and sediment basins) shall be installed as necessary . Subsoil displaced by the pipe. or by placing rock piles and cleared vegetation as barriers. Rehabilitation Regeneration is the natural process of vegetation re-establishing itself. habitat and also farm management benefits (e. shall be removed and disposed of at the completion of construction in order to avoid drawing attention to sites. Stockpiled topsoil and seed stock shall be respread on graded surfaces in an even layer to assist natural regeneration. native seed shall be collected on site if approval is granted by relevant authorities 42 Revision 2 – March 2009 . silt fences. over the pipeline construction area and other disturbed areas enhances regeneration potential. Pipeline construction area rehabilitation shall consider revegetation and regeneration using native species where appropriate.

but shall only be applied with approval from relevant regulatory authorities and/or landholders. shall take advantage of the most appropriate season. Where appropriate. some road crossings or above ground pipeline facilities such as scraper stations).g. such as timber and rocks. Rehabilitation on a Large Diameter Pipeline RoW . seed shall be evenly dispersed over the entire disturbed area seeding shall take place as soon as practicable after reinstatement and. Where appropriate. Where appropriate. as the application could encourage weed species. recycle nutrients and to provide surface protection from erosion or access barriers salvage in consultation with the relevant land management agency (e.g. habitat structural elements. rehabilitated areas may need to be fenced in order to prevent access until site stability is established. where possible.MACDOW Revision 2 – March 2009 43 . Where practicable. Cleared vegetation management options include (but are not limited to): distribution over the pipeline construction area during rehabilitation to reduce fire hazards. Reapplication of seed may be required in some areas fertilisers and soil supplements may be necessary to aid germination. trees may be permitted to regrow on the pipeline construction area within an acceptable distance of the pipeline. timber. Site specific screening plantings may be necessary at critical viewing locations where unacceptable visual impacts are evident (e. Cleared Vegetation Management The management of cleared vegetation shall be undertaken in a manner approved by the relevant land management agency and in consultation with relevant landholders. native groundcover and shrubs shall be encouraged to regenerate over the entire pipeline construction area in order to minimise negative habitat barrier effects in significant habitat areas.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION sterile grass seed stock may be used in problem areas to provide environmentally acceptable short term surface stability where applied. pulp wood or firewood) stockpiling for use at other rehabilitation sites if suitable retention of cleared vegetation on site as habitat. shall be replaced on the pipeline construction area.

BORROW PITS – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Soil erosion. may be required during pipeline construction to source: soft earth or sand for pipeline padding during trench backfilling road base material for constructing or upgrading roads rubble material for the construction of above ground pipeline infrastructure.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 4. access tracks 44 Revision 2 – March 2009 . 6. Borrow pits shall be located in a manner which minimises aesthetic impacts (e.g. Borrow pits sites shall be located away from problem soil areas. 3. vegetation and spoil storage areas. To minimise disturbance to flora To minimise impacts on fauna To minimise adverse impacts on soil and water To minimise impacts on cultural and historical heritage To minimise impacts on visual amenity To achieve satisfactory rehabilitation To minimise disruption of landholders and third parties BORROW PITS – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Borrow Pit Site Selection Management Measures Borrow pit sites shall be selected in consultation with relevant regulatory authorities and landholders.9 BORROW PITS Borrow pits. 7. fauna. saline or Acid Sulphate Soils. e. shielded by vegetation or landforms. hard stands and lined fuel/chemical storage bunding rip-rap for stream bank stabilisation if not otherwise available.g. borrow material will be sourced from existing sites. scientific. or situated away from public areas). Site layout plans identifying topsoil. operated and restored in accordance with the management measures detailed below and will be subject to cultural heritage clearance measures. or small quarry sites. Proposed borrow pit sites shall be assessed for potential environmental impacts relative to flora. and the necessary regulatory approvals obtained prior to site work commencing. 4. or heritage significance.g. landform and heritage. 2. sediment release to land and water Removal of significant flora and wildlife habitat Disturbance to heritage sites Dust and noise emissions resulting from borrow material excavation and transport Potential impacts on visual amenity Temporary obstruction of other land uses Proliferation of borrow sites Site rehabilitation BORROW PITS – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. such as commercial or council operated sites. 5. Borrow Pits to be located away from recharge zones (hydraulic conditions) to prevent flooding and or inundation Borrow pits shall avoid known sites of natural. they shall be located. Where practicable. In the event that new source pits are required. e.

Revision 2 – March 2009 45 . shall be undertaken in accordance with the requirements of section 4. Where significant quantities of padding or rubble material are required from a single borrow pit.8 Reinstatement and Rehabilitation. constructed. Where strip mining techniques are applied or large pits opened.10 Construction Camps and Worksites.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION and excavation boundaries shall be prepared prior to commencement of borrow pit operations. Where present. Seeding and the use of geotextile materials may be appropriate erosion control and site stabilisation measures such as. Respreading cleared vegetation over the site is the preferred option. if required. On site fuel storage shall comply with the requirements of section 4. Borrow Pit Operation Borrow pit operations shall comply with the requirements of relevant licensing and approvals. A minimum 2horizontal:1vertical batter on side slopes is considered suitable to assist stabilisation respreading stockpiled topsoil.1 Blasting. Site access shall be designed. a progressive shallow strip mining technique may be adopted as appropriate. they shall be progressively restored during extraction operations. erosion berms and contour ripping on the borrow pit side slopes to create terracing rehabilitation of access tracks in accordance with the guidelines in section 4.1 Access. taking into consideration site specific characteristics which may affect regrowth and stabilisation success. operated and restored in accordance with the guidelines detailed in section 4. over the rehabilitation area managing cleared vegetation in accordance with measures outlined in section 4. such as water storage dams. Borrow Pit Rehabilitation Site rehabilitation shall be undertaken as soon as possible following completion of extraction. particularly covering the pit slopes implementing appropriate regeneration/revegetation measures in accordance with section 4. where present.e. Blasting. Ripping should aim to permit the site to drain freely unless it has been otherwise specified for use as a dam re-profiling of the site to achieve soil stability and congruity with the surrounding landscape. Subject to approval from the relevant statutory authorities and at the request of landholders.8 Reinstatement and Rehabilitation (Regeneration and Revegetation).1 Access. Site rehabilitation shall include: soil compaction relief in trafficked areas as necessary (i.5. topsoil and vegetation shall be removed from the excavation site and stockpiled separately in an adjacent area. borrow pits may be left in a condition suitable for appropriate alternative uses. ripping along the contours).

4. 6. To minimise disturbance to flora To minimise impacts on fauna To minimise adverse impacts on soil and water To minimise impacts on cultural and historical heritage To minimise impacts on visual amenity To minimise disruption to landholders and third parties To minimise the area of disturbance 46 Revision 2 – March 2009 . specialised watercourse crossings. may also be required. 7.g. 2. This workforce may be accommodated in hotels. CONSTRUCTION CAMPS AND WORKSITES – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Soil erosion.g.g. 5. sediment release to land and water Removal of significant flora and wildlife habitat Dust and noise emissions Potential impacts on visual amenity Temporary obstruction of other land uses Site rehabilitation Waste Management and disposal CONSTRUCTION CAMPS AND WORKSITES – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. The size of a construction crew varies according to: the size of the pipeline project (e. with 250 personnel being typical for a single spread medium length pipeline of around 300km. The procedures for the location. 3. Ecos Construction crew sizes in Australia generally range from about 50 to 1. preparation. surveyors and field engineers.000 personnel.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 4. and many more individuals and groups. temporary construction camps will be established where necessary. directional drilling). or alternatively. such as directional drilling sites and pipe storage yards.10 CONSTRUCTION CAMPS AND WORKSITES Pipeline construction crews are an amalgamation of specialist tradespeople. onshore and offshore sections) the required construction techniques (e. operation and rehabilitation of construction camps. supervisors and inspectors. safety and paramedical staff. such as welders. a short infield flowline versus a major cross country transmission line divided into several ‘construction spreads’) the nature of the environment traversed (e. worksites and pipe-yards are detailed in the following table. machinery operators. catering staff. These sites are generally treated in a manner similar to campsites and are therefore also addressed in this section. cultural heritage clearance. Temporary storage of fuel and oils at a yard/campsite. Construction worksites. motels and caravan parks in the vicinity of the pipeline route.

sites shall be located in areas near the pipeline easement and adjacent to access tracks or roads. Fuels. dams. bunded areas. Site Management Waste management shall be undertaken in accordance with the procedures outlined in section 4. Site levelling spoil from the site shall be removed separately and stockpiled separately in an adjacent area. Layout of new sites shall be designed to minimise the area of disturbance. Where practicable. Erosion and sediment control measures shall be installed as required to prevent site run-off leading to erosion and sedimentation (e. Revision 2 – March 2009 47 .11 Waste Management. or at existing construction sites (e. Where practicable. sites shall be located in a manner which minimises visual impact. pipe-yards or other worksites. leak proof trays) designed to prevent the release of spilt substances to the environment. Pets. public utilities and farm infrastructure. Trees and tall shrubs shall remain on site. as necessary. with cleared vegetation being stockpiled separately for respreading during reinstatement. Sites shall avoid disturbance to features of natural. silt fences to contain and filter site run-off) . retaining/diversion berms.g.13 Erosion and Sediment Control.g.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION CAMPS AND WORKSITES – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Site Planning and Design Management Measures The necessary planning and other statutory approvals shall be obtained prior to establishing construction camps. lakes). to protect topsoil and enhance rehabilitation potential. firearms and other hunting equipment shall be prohibited from the project. canals. Where practicable. Fuel/Chemical Storage and Handling The storage and handling of fuels and chemicals shall comply with all relevant legislation and Australian Standards. camps and worksites (excluding Horizontal Directional Drilling sites and other water crossing construction sites) shall be located away from major water courses. streams. and infrastructure arranged to avoid them. fuels and chemicals shall not be stored or handled in the vicinity of natural or built waterways or water storage areas (e. where practicable. Sustainability of operations (inclusion in EMS or other) to be considered dependent upon scale or longevity of the operation or camp site. laydown areas. The extent of a site shall be clearly defined on project plans and at the site. Vehicle parking shall be restricted to designated areas. Where practicable. creeks or other surface water bodies. it shall be minimised as far as practicable. Parking under trees shall be discouraged to prevent root zone soil compaction causing root damage and impairing water infiltration into the soil. scientific.refer section 4. particularly AS1940. handled within containment facilities (e.g.g. local work areas). Topsoil shall be graded from work and traffic areas. Vehicles and equipment shall remain within the designated areas and access roads. New sites shall be located at existing clearings or disturbed areas where practicable. where practicable. indigenous or historical heritage significance. Where vegetation clearance is necessary. and on well drained land with suitable access in all weather conditions. operated and restored in accordance with the guidelines detailed in section 4. lubricants and chemicals shall be stored and. constructed. Site Construction Site access shall be designed. Adequate and properly maintained fire fighting equipment shall be provided at camps and worksites.1 Access.

1 Access. EPA and Local Government) re-profiling of the site in a manner which ensures soil stability and which is as near as practicable to pre-existing contours soil compaction relief in trafficked areas as necessary (i. Respreading cleared vegetation over the site is the preferred option implementing appropriate regeneration/revegetation measures in accordance with section 4. Site reinstatement shall include: removal of temporary infrastructure and wastes from site. Detailed spill response procedures shall be formulated and workforce training conducted in land and water spill responses. use of spill mats) and workforce training undertaken. Seeding and the use of geotextile materials may be appropriate erosion and sediment control measures shall be applied as required (e. Appropriate spill response equipment. shall be available on site. worksites.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION Appropriate fuel and chemical handling procedures shall be adopted. taking into consideration site specific characteristics which may affect regrowth and stabilisation success.g. including containment and recovery equipment. diversion berms. partial site rehabilitation may be required.e. ripping along the contours) respreading stockpiled topsoil over the rehabilitation area managing cleared vegetation in accordance with measures outlined in section 4. aiming to avoid spills onto land or into water (e.g. Site Reinstatement and rehabilitation The requirement to restore camps. in which case. landholders and/or regulatory authorities may choose to maintain the site for future purposes. 48 Revision 2 – March 2009 .g. Contaminated soils may require analysis and appropriate disposal options determined with approval from relevant regulatory authorities (e. In some instances. laydown areas and pipe-yards shall be determined in consultation with relevant regulatory authorities and landholders.8 Reinstatement and Rehabilitation. geotextiles and silt fences) access tracks shall be restored in accordance with the guidelines in section 4.8 Reinstatement and Rehabilitation.

CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION 4. timber skids. Stockpiling reusable and recyclable wastes. waste management plans shall be developed. Reduce wastes at the point of use 3. Recycle wastes where practicable 5. Supplying designated collection bins at camps and work sites for aluminium cans. detailing the required waste procedures. WASTE MANAGEMENT – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Protection of soil and water quality Waste minimisation and appropriate disposal Maintenance of visual amenity Impact on post construction land use WASTE MANAGEMENT – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. Re-use Hydrotest water along test sections of pipeline where possible Drilling muds shall consist of approved water based products or synthetic lubricants. The management of all wastes is regulated by statutory authorities in each State and Territory. Appropriate solid waste management shall be applied during construction and may include: Consider Life Cycle Assessment of Pipeline and facility items at procurement Purchasing Policy and encouraging suppliers to reduce and/or collect packaging. 2. Development of on-site disposal areas conforming to regulatory authority requirements. plastic. Liquid Inert Wastes Hydrotest and pigging water discharge used for recycling for secondary uses. scrap metals.7. domestic and industrial wastes such as.11 WASTE MANAGEMENT During the construction of a pipeline. pipe transport spacers. and Revision 2 – March 2009 49 . Dispose of wastes appropriately and responsibly. To minimise health risks associated with waste management To minimise environmental impacts related to waste management WASTE MANAGEMENT – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning Management Measures Prior to the commencement of construction. tyres. for salvage.1 Hydrostatic Testing for more detail. Waste management plans shall meet all necessary regulatory requirements and shall be based on the following principles listed in order of priority: 1. metals. such as pasture irrigation or livestock watering.refer section 4. glass. bricks. There shall be a strong emphasis placed on housekeeping and cleanliness at all sites in order to promote safety and minimise environmental impact. concrete. used lube oils and general refuse will be generated. drums.Avoid receiving potential wastes at point of purchase 2. Solid Inert Wastes Solid inert wastes associated with pipeline construction may include building rubble. pallets. glass and paper recycling. Opportunities for using local recycling facilities shall be investigated. timber. sewage. such as timber skids. Collecting and transporting general refuse to local Municipal Council approved disposal sites. bitumen and tyres. Reuse materials where possible 4. shall only be undertaken where water designated for release into the environment is of a quality is within relevant statutory water quality guidelines .

treatment or disposal at approved locations. disposed at municipal sewage treatment plants. are required to be managed according to the location. shall be collected for safe transport off-site for reuse. Radiography of pipeline welds shall be performed in a manner which ensures that chemicals and other associated wastes are contained and appropriately disposed of.g. oil/fuel spills). Appropriate measures shall be taken to ensure litter accumulation is avoided. which are relevant to pipeline construction. their tendency to leach and the extent of area affected. waste inventories. 50 Revision 2 – March 2009 . Such wastes. may include: radiography or cleaning chemicals. including lube oils and oily sludge’s. Appropriate putrescible waste management shall be applied during construction and may include: Collection and transportation to a landfill approved by the relevant regulatory authority (this may include local government approval). Putrescible Wastes Putrescible wastes are those wastes able to be decomposed by bacterial action and may include discarded food. drill point bell holes and drilling orifice) during drilling. or disposed of in accordance with regulatory requirements. Appropriate disposal options shall be determined in consultation with the relevant environment protection authorities.e. as long as water release does not lead to soil contamination (unless permitted). recycling.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION shall be contained within the fluid circulation system (i. medical wastes or sewage. bunded in accordance with statutory requirements). Hydrocarbon wastes. alternatively. mobile chemical treatment systems or.g. fluid pump system. Management measures include: Purchasing supplies in bulk containers. Many hazardous wastes may also be declared as prescribed wastes under State or Territory legislation for which specific management requirements may be imposed (e. Drilling muds shall be recycled for use where practicable. treatment or disposal at locations approved by relevant regulatory authorities. tracking systems and permitting). commercial wastes and garden clippings. All waste chemicals and other toxic materials shall be stored and collected for safe transport off-site for reuse. work and storage sites shall be maintained to an orderly and hygienic standard. their concentration of contaminants.g. Hazardous waste storage areas must be suitably designed to adequately contain any spills & leaks (e. Housekeeping The pipeline construction area and associated camp. to minimise packaging. Managing hazardous wastes in accordance with all relevant regulatory requirements. recycling. Sewage and sullage disposal via approved septic systems. waste oils. loading bay drain/pig trap contents. domestic garbage. On-site disposal at camp or work sites shall only be undertaken in remote areas where storage and transportation to a registered landfill depot may lead to the creation of unacceptable health risks. mud tanks. Contaminated soils (e. such as the provision of litter bins on-site and regular site maintenance duties. Hazardous Wastes Hazardous wastes are those which pose an immediate potential risk to human health and/or the environment. Recycled wastewater may be utilised for planting irrigation at permanent pipeline facilities. where practicable.

social or engineering reasons. aquatic and water dependent flora and fauna To minimise erosion and sedimentation impacts To maintain water quality and water flow requirements To minimise impacts on heritage sites Revision 2 – March 2009 51 . watercourse profile and substrate permeability. Ecos Aerial Crossings are commonly applied on water pipelines and have been successfully applied on hydrocarbon pipelines. Water flow is maintained by pumping the water around the dammed crossing site (i. 4. however it can be limited by geotechnical or physical constraints. This method is often applied in dry or shallow low flow watercourses. Horizontal Directional Drilling involves drilling a hole at a shallow angle under the watercourse through which the pipeline is threaded. lowered in and the trench backfilled immediately. 3. environmental sensitivities and engineering feasibility.e. or the below ground option achieved through standard trenching. but may also be applied in sensitive watercourses where rapid construction is considered the best means of minimising environmental impacts. stream and other watercourse crossings. Naturally. WATER COURSE CROSSINGS – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Soil erosion and sedimentation of land and water Bank degradation Impacts on riparian and aquatic flora and fauna Disturbance to heritage sites Temporary obstruction of other land users WATERCOURSE CROSSINGS – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. watercourse substrate and geology. Watercourse Flow Diversion techniques involve the construction of temporary dams upstream and downstream of the crossing and the diversion of water around the site. To minimise impacts on riparian. This method is generally applied at crossings where water flow is required to be maintained for ecological. Directional drilling is a costly technique. Dam and Pump) or by diverting the water flow through a flume pipe installed between the dams (i. Temporary vehicle crossing across watercourse. The prefabricated pipe is placed across the waterway. Excavators or backhoes are generally used for this technique enabling trench spoil to be stockpiled away from the stream bed.12 WATERCOURSE CROSSINGS A range of pipeline construction methods is available to facilitate river. including safety risk. where the pipeline is suspended across the waterway by existing or purpose built bridges. such as trenching. thus creating a dry construction area between the dams. Standard Trenching involves in-stream excavation of a trench in the standard manner. discharge velocity and rate. which may be used for major river crossings. Whilst directional drilling can reduce above ground impacts. 2. This involves strapping the pipeline to existing or purpose built bridge infrastructure.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION 4. are undertaken. watercourse flow diversion or horizontal directional drilling (HDD). Fluming). hydrology. These include the above ground or aerial options. The preferred crossing technique is determined following the consideration of a number of site specific factors.e. A key engineering and environmental consideration is the risk associated with the pipeline being exposed to potential floodwaters. it introduces additional environmental considerations such as drill site sediment control and waste management. Both methods have limitations depending upon site specific factors such as. where the risk is unacceptable other crossing options.

where practicable.17 Weed Control.2 Clearing. thus minimising erosion and sedimentation risk.refer section 4.refer section 4. Alternatively. Where practicable. to vehicles and equipment essential to construction at the site. Where necessary. 52 Revision 2 – March 2009 . To maximise rehabilitation success of achieving long term site stability WATERCOURSE CROSSINGS – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning and Design Management Measures Watercourse crossings shall be minimised. Schedulers shall remain vigilant regarding flood warnings. water course crossings shall be: via existing crossings through the stream bed within the pipeline construction area corridor at dry waterway crossings (e. Vehicle Access In addition to the guidelines detailed in section 4. However. receiving daily weather reports and subscribing to flood warning services where relevant. bridges or other such crossing structures. where practicable. Clearing at Watercourses In addition to the guidelines detailed in section 4. Cleared vegetation shall be stockpiled away from watercourses and shall not be stored or. straight sections with pipeline orientated as near to perpendicular to water flow as practicable).g. the following measures shall be applied: Where practicable. Site specific watercourse crossing techniques shall be determined by the pipeline proponent in consultation with relevant regulatory authorities following consideration of environmental sensitivities (natural and social). other soil protection methods shall be applied . during pipeline route selection. Crossings shall be designed and constructed in a manner which minimises sediment release into waterways. Site specific management plans or engineering drawings shall be developed for significant waterway crossings detailing construction and environmental management requirements. avoid crossing waterways. Construction machinery shall be certified weed free prior to allowing access to the watercourse . access shall be limited. or via culvert causeways. where practicable. At ecologically sensitive watercourse crossings mechanical slashers shall be considered for use in clearing activities. the following measures shall be applied: All equipment required for the crossing shall be on-site and in good working order prior to work commencing on the crossing.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 5. fuel and lubricating systems of machinery used in the watercourse crossing shall be in good repair in order to avoid water pollution. clearing slopes leading to watercourses shall be delayed until construction of the crossing is imminent. ephemeral streams). Access tracks/roads shall. Crossings shall be completed promptly in order to minimise impacts. felled so as to land in watercourses. All hydraulic. where practicable.g.13 Erosion and Sediment Control. Consideration of tidally influenced waters shall also be required. watercourse crossings shall be scheduled during dry or low flow periods and shall avoid periods of fauna sensitivity.1 Access. the crossing location shall be at low velocity. Utilise relevant erosion and sediment control guidelines and ensure appropriate monitoring to determine adequacy of controls Watercourse crossings shall be designed in a manner which minimises scour potential (e. does not prevent water flows and is capable of accommodating locally significant rainfall events.

Unprotected earthen dams shall be avoided. land use. Such measures shall be determined on a site specific basis following consideration of local influencing factors such as stream hydrology. sediment basins and erosion berms) on watercourse approaches and banks ceasing trenching on approaches to wet watercourses leaving hard trench plugs in place for the maximum period possible pending pipelaying. Where the stream bed consists of rocks. Reinstatement of Watercourses In addition to the guidelines detailed in section 4.g. thus allowing the undisturbed organic mat to remain in situ delay grading of banks and slopes leading to watercourses until construction of the crossing is imminent. soil type. down the slope to prevent turbid water from directly entering waterways . thus minimising erosion and sedimentation risk grading soil away from the watercourse stockpiling soil at an appropriate distance from the watercourse or behind adequate stockpile berms. Erosion and sedimentation resulting from trenching adjacent to watercourses shall be avoided by: stockpiling excavated bank material at an appropriate distance from the watercourse or behind adequate stockpile berms stockpiling Acid Sulphate Soils separately.5 Trenching and 4. Trench plugs shall be excavated and replaced with trench blocks or sack breakers above the slope and. such as steel plates. silt fences.5 Trenching. Stabilisation measures shall be applied based on site specific requirements. this material shall be removed and stockpiled separately for replacement during reinstatement. not grading topsoil from the pipeline construction area on watercourse approaches. rainfall.6 Pipelaying and Backfilling. as required. concrete coated pipe or bolt-on weights. the following measures shall be applied: Appropriate stabilisation measures will be required on both the banks and bed of watercourses.3 Grading. TM Pipelaying in Watercourses The pipe section designated for the crossing shall be fabricated prior to trenching or directional drill completion to enable rapid installation.8 Reinstatement and Rehabilitation. These include: restoring watercourse banks to their original profiles respreading topsoil over the area from which it was removed and seeding areas of disturbance Revision 2 – March 2009 53 .refer sections 4. the following measures shall be applied: Diversion dams shall be constructed of appropriate materials which will minimise watercourse sedimentation. the following measures shall be applied: Erosion and sedimentation resulting from grading adjacent to watercourses shall be avoided by: where practicable. and at an appropriate distance from the watercourse or behind adequate stockpile berms in order to prevent acid leachate run-off installing sediment and erosion control measures (e. pebbles or coarse gravel overlaying finer material. such as. vegetation regeneration potential.g. Aquadam ). etc. shall be employed to weight the pipeline down in the trench as necessary.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION Grading at Watercourses In addition to the guidelines detailed in section 4. sand bags or inflatable dams (e. Appropriate measures. Trenching at Watercourses In addition to the guidelines detailed in section 4.

Additional erosion and sediment control measures shall be applied. coarse gravel or rock over disturbed areas as rip-rap. These include: the application of terracing and surface water diversion berms along the top and at intermediate points down the bank slope. e.g. Run-off water discharge shall be used to stable (e. fencing or barriers. jute matting or other suitable geotextile materials the application of appropriate Acid Sulphate Soil management measures. 54 Revision 2 – March 2009 .AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION replacing or introducing a surface layer of cobbles.g. to assist site recovery. Particular care shall be taken to ensure that the material is replaced on the river bed to a depth equivalent to the original conditions and so that it is not likely to act as a barrier to the passage of aquatic fauna stockpiled timber from pipeline construction clearing activities may also be utilised by spreading the timber randomly over the pipeline construction area leading down to the watercourse crossing sandbag. vegetated) areas or directed via sediment settling basins and not allowed direct into the watercourse the installation of silt and sediment fences on slopes to filter surface run-off water the reseeding or replanting of disturbed banks the application of stabilising materials such as. based on site specific requirements. hydromulch. as appropriate. gabion or other means of scour protection may be applied and shall be placed to conform with existing natural contours. with topsoil respread over the sandbags or gabions preventing access to sites. avoiding vehicle tracks up slopes on rehabilitation areas. such as the spreading of lime or other neutralising agents.

with soils susceptible to erosion caused by wind or the movement of water. EROSION AND SEDIMENT CONTROL – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. The period for which the soil is left exposed to erosion shall be minimised. Ground disturbance and vegetation clearing shall be minimised as far as practicable to maintain soil stability. Drainage. erosion and sediment on the pipeline construction area (including above ground infrastructure sites). required capacity and coordination of control structures Revision 2 – March 2009 55 . work and camp sites as required. Consideration should be given to scheduling works outside known wet periods. Appropriate measures shall be developed to address wet weather considerations including access and the minimisation of soil erosion and sedimentation.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION 4. 2. W. therefore. both on and off construction areas To prevent adverse impacts on water quality DRAINAGE EROSION AND SEDIMENT CONTROL – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning Management Measures Where practicable. Appropriate measures shall be applied during all phases of construction to control drainage. pipeline route selection shall minimise the traversing of soils and waterways highly prone to erosion. erosion and sediment control measures shall consider site conditions including: natural and constructed drainage patterns soil type and erodability potential slope rainfall frequency and intensity catchment size and. To minimise potential for soil loss and degradation. Erosion controls (berms and sediment fences) at a watercourse crossing. Construction activities involving earthworks increase erosion risks by exposing soils through the removal of protective features such as vegetation cover.13 DRAINAGE. EROSION AND SEDIMENT CONTROL – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Loss of topsoil and sub-soils Siltation and sedimentation of land and water Reduced potential for rehabilitation success Long term stability of disturbed areas The requirement for costly rectification measures DRAINAGE. This section provides additional guidelines for the application of erosion and sediment control measures. EROSION AND SEDIMENT CONTROL Much of the Australian landscape is fragile. Installation of drainage. Mathieson DRAINAGE. erosion and sediment control considerations have been presented throughout this document where these issues pertain to a particular construction issue or activity.

AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION

vegetation cover proximity to sensitive environments, particularly sedimentation leading to impact on water quality land use impacts (e.g. cultivation and grazing). Reference to Erosion Sediment Control Guidelines (Sect. 5) should also be utilised in site assessments and the preparation of site plans. Rehabilitation of the pipeline construction area shall be undertaken in a manner which best suits local conditions. Erosion Control Design and Construction The first consideration when managing potential erosion is to adequately manage drainage, then to focus on erosion and sedimentation controls. Erosion control berms shall be designed and constructed in a manner which ensures discharge run-off water does not lead to erosion or sedimentation by: extending erosion berms beyond the pipeline construction area to discharge run-off water to stable, preferably vegetated lands. Where vegetation is absent, energy dissipation measures, such as rock rip-rap, shall be installed as necessary erosion control berm gradients shall closely follow land contours to ensure low velocity discharge away from the exposed soils run-off water from erosion control berms shall be directed to the downslope side of the pipeline to prevent discharge water from crossing the pipeline construction area again where necessary, the installation of erosion control berms shall coincide with the location of Trench Blocks to enable more effective water diversion. Erosion control berms and drains shall be constructed so as to permit traffic to move over them safely without destroying them. During Rehabilitation, cleared vegetation may be spread over the pipeline construction area or in filter strips, as an alternative or addition to erosion control berms. Access track drains shall discharge run-off water in a manner which does not lead to sedimentation or erosion, i.e. low gradient run-off, broad dish shaped outlets to appropriately stable areas (e.g. vegetated or rip-rap stabilised). Erosion control structures shall be routinely inspected and maintained to ensure they remain effective (i.e. removal of silt build up, reinforcing or re-establishing failed structures). Where the pipeline is likely to affect or be affected by gully erosion, stabilisation works including diversion structures may be required. These may involve geotextiles, rock stabilisation, concrete lining, localised drainage modification or other site specific measures as appropriate. Sediment Control Design and Construction The first consideration to manage potential sedimentation is to adequately manage drainage then to focus on erosion and sedimentation controls. Sediment control structures may include: sediment or silt barriers generally constructed from geotextile silt fence or filter fabric secured in place with star pickets or sand bags, concrete saddle weights or culverts sediment basins or ponds which are constructed downslope and are designed to catch and retain run-off water allowing sediment to settle out. Sediment control structures shall be regularly inspected and maintained to ensure they remain effective (i.e. removal of silt build up, replacement/re-installation of failed components such as straw bales and fencing), particularly after high intensity rainfall or run-off events. Where the pipeline is likely to affect or be affected by gully erosion, stabilisation works including diversion structures may be required. These may involve geotextiles, rock riprap, concrete lining, localised drainage and other site specific measures as appropriate.

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– ONSHORE PIPELINES

CONSTRUCTION

Discharge Water Erosion and Sediment Control

Wastewater discharge from construction activities (e.g. hydrotesting, trench de-watering or well-point de-watering) shall be managed in accordance with the following principles: Where necessary, discharge water quality shall be monitored against relevant water quality standards and appropriate disposal options determined in consultation with relevant regulatory authorities. Soil erosion and sedimentation of land and water shall be prevented by: applying inlet filters or screens on water uptake hoses supporting the inlet hose above the sediment layer in the water avoiding discharge directly to waterways where discharge water sediment loads significantly exceed that of the receiving waters and is likely to result in detrimental impacts discharging water in a manner which does not result in flooding of land both on and off the pipeline construction area or run-off beyond the intended receiving area or to waterways discharging diverted watercourse water (i.e. flume and dam & pump crossings) directly back into the watercourse over rip-rap protection downstream of the crossing discharging trench and hydrotest water through sediment filters (e.g. hose outlet filters, geotextiles or straw bales) to remove solids discharging water to holding or settling ponds to avoid erosion and permit sediment to settle out of the water column discharging trench and hydrotest water to stable land through flow diffusers (e.g. spray bars) and energy dissipaters (e.g. rock rip-rap or geotextile filters/fabrics).

Erosion controls at a trench de-watering site. Ecos

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4.14

HERITAGE – NATURAL AND BUILT ENVIRONMENTS

Significant heritage features, of natural or anthropological origin, are protected by a range of Commonwealth, State and Heritage laws. For the purpose of this Code natural and built heritage includes: natural features or places which are considered to possess significant value such as fossils, unique landforms, significant flora and fauna; features or places possessing significant European historical values such as buildings, infrastructure and commemorative locations; and features or places possessing significant cultural and pre-European history values such as indigenous occupation and ceremonial sites, and artefacts such as tools, hunting implements and scar trees.

Indigenous heritage artefact site temporarily flagged off on a pipeline construction corridor. Ecos

During the impact assessment stage, ecological and cultural and historical heritage surveys are likely to be necessary along the proposed pipeline corridor or route to identify areas of potential sensitivity (refer section 3.3 Environmental Assessment). Where significant cultural heritage features are identified, a range of management options, which aim to minimise impacts, may be implemented during the pipeline planning and construction phases. These may include pipeline route re-alignment around a feature, excavation and salvage of heritage artefacts, or site specific measures which permit the pipeline to be placed in close proximity to heritage sites whilst avoiding any disturbance. In achieving the latter, heritage sites may require fencing and flagging of the features to be avoided. It should also be noted that Cross cultural training for construction personnel is a useful tool to increase knowledge, awareness and respect for the Indigenous and European artefacts and sites. As a pipeline construction industry standard, yellow flagging will be used to identify sensitive ‘no go’ areas and features of heritage significance, both natural and built environments. Features marked in this manner shall not be disturbed unless authorised by relevant regulatory authorities and, in the case of indigenous community heritage sites, authorised representatives of the relevant community. Flagging shall be removed at the completion of construction to avoid drawing attention to sites. During construction there is potential for construction activities, such as earthmoving to uncover previously unrecorded heritage sites. In the event that this occurs, procedures agreed to by all relevant stakeholders, shall be followed. An example of an indicative procedure for pipeline construction is provided below. In the case of indigenous heritage these agreed procedures may be documented in project specific Environmental Management Plans or Cultural Heritage Plans which may include relevant cultural representatives and include a record or notice of heritage finds and actions required.

RECOMMENDED PROCEDURE FOR HERITAGE DISCOVERY DURING CONSTRUCTION 1. Activities which may lead to damage of a newly discovered heritage item/feature (natural or built), such as, earthmoving and traffic at the site, shall be temporarily discontinued. Work may continue at an appropriate, predetermined distance from the discovery. The construction crew shall notify project management of the potential find and appropriate archaeological, anthropological and/or environmental specialists shall be brought to the site to identify and assess its significance. This may require a works notice to commence and a sign off form/clearance certificate to allow works to recommence. If it is believed that human skeletal remains or burial sites have been discovered, the project management shall also notify local Police. 3. In the event that the discovery is determined to be of heritage significance (natural or built), project management for the pipeline proponent shall, as soon as reasonably practicable, notify all relevant regulatory authorities (e.g. heritage and wildlife agencies) and relevant community representatives (as determined prior to construction), of the discovery. 4. Following verification and documentation of the site, an appropriate management option will be pursued by the pipeline proponent in consultation with relevant community representatives, environmental and/or heritage specialists and relevant regulatory authorities (e.g. heritage and wildlife agencies).

2.

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Revision 2 – March 2009

NOISE CONTROL – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Temporary potential impacts on local residents Temporary potential impacts on stock and wildlife NOISE CONTROL – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1.g. This section outlines management measures to avoid or attenuate construction noise were there is a potential for it to result in impacts on sensitive receptors. generators) shall be located at appropriate distances from residences and/or within noise enclosures if necessary. however the progression of the construction crew along a linear construction site results in noise impacts being short lived at any one location. 5 State or Local government requirements. Noise generating equipment (e.g. such as the Qld EPA. mufflers). noisy construction activities shall be undertaken within standard construction hours. 2. excessively noisy construction activities shall be scheduled for periods which are less likely to result in a noise nuisance Local residents shall receive adequate notice of potential noise incursions prior to the commencement of construction activities. Affected residents shall be 5 advised when unavoidable out-of-hours work. will occur . may also apply Revision 2 – March 2009 59 . and equipment and noise abatement devices shall be maintained in good working order. Noise attenuation screens shall be provided where appropriate. Where construction is adjacent to residences. Construction equipment shall be equipped with appropriate noise abatement devices (e. except where unavoidable for practical reasons or agreement is obtained from affected residents.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION 4. resulting in noise nuisance. To minimise construction noise impacts on adjacent residents To minimise construction noise impacts on wildlife and livestock NOISE CONTROL – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning Management Measures Where practicable.15 NOISE CONTROL Construction activities will generally cause temporary increases in local noise levels. Construction Operations Construction activities shall comply with all relevant regulatory requirements and guidelines pertaining to noise control.

In problem areas it may be appropriate to remove additional soil layers down to the harder subsoils. Dusty conditions result from the exposure of soils. ‘Dust Mag’). Identify appropriate water supplies for dust suppression purposes. This may be slashed and maintained on vehicle access points or on the travelling side of the pipeline corridor. 60 Revision 2 – March 2009 . In heavily trafficked areas. work and camp sites. therefore many control measures relevant to erosion and sediment control are also relevant to dust control (refer to section 4. Construction Operations Known sources of air emissions leading to impact or inconvenience shall be isolated and treated by an appropriate measure (e. To minimise impacts on local residents and construction workforce To minimise impacts on land. or where water resources are scarce.g. AIR EMMISSIONS CONTROL – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Soil erosion and sedimentation of land and water Depletion of water resources Impacts on sensitive flora and fauna Inconvenience to sensitive receptors such as residents and construction workforce Generation of greenhouse gases and other potentially reportable emissions AIR EMMISSIONS CONTROL – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. 2. and the pipeline construction area shall be restricted to minimise dust. rather than plan for dust suppression measures Investigate ground engineering products (eg. water and air quality To minimise impacts on flora and fauna To reduce water use as much as possible To improve level of emissions and reduce amounts of reportable emissions AIR EMMISSIONS CONTROL – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning Management Measures Plan to prevent air emissions in the first instance through Aspect and Impact identification and implementation of appropriate control measures. Minimise ground disturbance through retaining existing groundcover vegetation. This section details air emission and dust prevention and suppression measures which aim to minimise air emission levels to within acceptable limits. Multiple plant or equipment close to sensitive receptors may need to be monitored for exhaust emissions. 3.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 4. saline groundwater or contaminated waste water). Plan to prevent dust generation in the first instance.13 Drainage. dust emissions. particularly if frequently trafficked and adjacent to residences. Plant and equipment to be regularly maintained and monitored (mobile and fixed) Road surfaces shall be constructed of appropriate materials in order to minimise dust emissions. Water shall be applied to exposed soils as required to prevent dust generation. 4.g. 5.16 DUST & OTHER AIR EMMISIONS CONTROL Due to the nature of pipeline construction activities involving earthworks. – Liquid and solid waste producing air emissions located away from sensitive receptors or prevailing wind conditions) Vehicle speeds on cleared tracks. Water supplies shall be of an appropriate water quality and should not lead to soil contamination (e. dust stabilisers may be used. plant and equipment exhaust emissions and hazardous materials vapour emissions may result. Erosion and Sediment Control).

tarpaulins). hessian. covering stockpiles with protective materials (e. If all available methods of dust stabilisation fail to suppress dust and it continues to result in unacceptable impacts. construction activities may need to be temporarily halted until dust generating conditions subside or are rectified. applying water.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION Dust generated from soil stockpiles shall be minimised by ensuring exposure time is minimised. applying polymers or applying sterile grass as a longer term stabiliser on stockpiles or exposed slope batters.g. Revision 2 – March 2009 61 . Special care (and avoidance if at all possible) will be required if bulldust is encountered.

such as topsoil and organic revegetation matting is guaranteed to be weed free by the supplier. in areas of significant noxious weed infestation wash down / blow down of all vehicles. such as spraying with non-residual herbicide. Numerous problem weed species are known to exist in Australia. 3. Weed Management Appropriate weed control measures applied prior to and during construction include: consideration of engagement of a licensed and suitably qualified or experienced weed control sub contractor weed eradication measures. as the opportunistic weed species thrive in disturbed soils. WEED CONTROL – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Spread of weed species Potential for unsustainable rehabilitation Competition from weed species and displacement of native flora Reduced primary industry productivity and produce quality WEED CONTROL – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. This section presents guidelines for the prevention and control of the spread of noxious weeds during the construction phase. 62 Revision 2 – March 2009 . Vehicles entering and leaving such areas may need to be rewashed ensuring imported construction materials.g. This is compounded by the longevity of seed viability of many weed species. To prevent the spread of weed species To avoid impacts on flora and fauna To avoid impacts on primary industry WEED CONTROL – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning Management Measures An inventory of noxious or declared weed species occurring along the easement shall be compiled and appropriate weed control procedures shall be developed. Weed control activities involving the use of chemicals shall be undertaken in consultation with the relevant landholders and regulatory authorities giving due consideration to sensitive land uses (e. based on regulatory pest plant control guidelines. chemical free and biodynamic farming. The construction of a linear pipeline development presents the potential risk of spreading weeds significant distances along the easement as construction progresses. regional weed control programs and an assessment of weed risk. mechanical removal such as wash down or blow down bays. equipment and portable infrastructure to remove all soil and organic matter prior to arriving at the construction site. 2.17 WEED CONTROL Weeds can be a significant problem in Australia in terms of agriculture and the conservation of native flora and fauna. This classification may also dictate the required management actions for a particular problem weed species.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 4. Construction activities may provide conditions for weeds to invade. Each State and Territory has specific legislation which bestows responsibility for the prevention and control of the spread of weeds upon individuals and organisations whose activities may result in such spread. reservoir water sheds and flora and fauna sensitivities). all of which are classified according to their potential threat to agriculture and/or the environment. Weed wash down wastewater or sediment may require treatment by physical or chemical means to ensure weeds do not occur at discharge locations restricting access of vehicles and personnel to areas of known noxious weed infestation. which can remain dormant in soil until the soil is disturbed.

An appropriately detailed pest and disease control program should be incorporated into the pipeline construction environmental management plan. diseases and pathogens. Machinery and vehicles should be washed down with sterilized high-pressure water. equipment and personnel. This section presents guidelines for the prevention and control of the spread of pests and diseases during the construction phase. footrot. PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Management Measures Pest and/or disease infected areas on the pipeline corridor requiring special hygiene management should be identified.g. Regular inspection of measures and infected/infested sites also required. 2. in potentially affected areas the entire pipeline corridor should be considered at risk and managed accordingly. Phylloxera. Unless adequately managed. To minimise the spread of pests. Bovine or Ovine Johne’s Disease. Mundulla Yellows. each State and Territory has specific legislation which bestows responsibility for the prevention and control of the spread of pests and diseases upon individuals and organisations whose activities may result in such spread. Wash down points should be located close to infected/infested areas along the pipeline corridor to reduce the risk of spreading infected/infected material. To prevent the introduction of pests. The construction of a lineal pipeline development presents the potential risk of spreading diseases along the easement as construction progresses. Red Imported Fire Ant.18 PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL Several plant and animal diseases are emerging as significant issues in some areas of Australia in terms of agriculture and the conservation of native flora and fauna (e.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION 4. The transportation of soil along the pipeline corridor should be avoided where practicable. Equine Influenza ). To avoid impacts on primary industry. dieback/Phytophthra. the engagement of a suitably qualified or experienced pest and disease professional (integrated pest management) sub contractor. Alternatively. appropriate cleaning solution or other method appropriate for the particular pest or disease. 6 PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Reduction in agricultural productivity Adverse effects on the health of livestock or other fauna Damage to or loss of native vegetation Loss of biodiversity Poor regeneration Impaired visual amenity PEST AND DISEASE CONTROL – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. 3. Nationally. as required. Areas of high conservation value requiring special protection should be identified. diseases and pathogens into new areas. Construction activities may provide conditions for the spread of diseases between properties or areas via the disturbance of soil or the transportation of contaminated plant or equipment from other parts of Australia or the world. Consider. construction activities may facilitate the spread of a disease through the movement of vehicles. Q-Fever. Revision 2 – March 2009 63 . specific landholders and the environment.

mechanical or chemical means. This may include removal by physical. 64 Revision 2 – March 2009 . appropriate to pests and diseases known to occur on site. Construction personnel should be trained adequately in pest and disease management and hygiene procedures. removing all soil and vegetative material from cabins. thorough removal of soil and vegetative matter should be carried out prior to removal of buildings from infected/infested area. trays. vehicles and machinery that are washed down should be included in a Vehicle Wash down Register. To assist weed control. and under carriages. Where demountable buildings are used in infected/infested areas along the pipeline corridor proper.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION In areas of confirmed infection/infestation. stringent wash down must be completed before leaving the area. Facilities should be provided for employees to wash down boots prior to moving out of infected/infested areas.

and shall be linked to the Project’s safety and emergency response procedures. Bushfire risk in relation to pipeline construction is considered low. The strategy shall detail bushfire prevention. or loss of. Bushfire Prevention and Preparedness Regular and timely consultation shall be undertaken with all relevant regulatory authorities and compliance with all relevant fire restrictions. maintenance and operation of all machinery so as to comply with relevant fire safety standards thus minimising fire risk Revision 2 – March 2009 65 . emergency contacts. This section provides guidelines for conducting pipeline construction activities in a manner which minimises fire risks. BUSHFIRE PREVENTION – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Soil erosion and sedimentation of land and water Damage to. equipment. petrol driven pumps.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES CONSTRUCTION 4. flora and fauna Damage to. or loss of. response and training. the potential for bushfires to impact on the Project.19 BUSHFIRE PREVENTION Pipeline construction activities have the potential to temporarily increase the risk of bushfires. To minimise bushfire risk during pipeline construction To protect the public and construction personnel To protect property and minimise damage or loss To prevent the spread of bushfire in the event of ignition BUSHFIRE PREVENTION – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning Management Measures Prior to the commencement of construction a fire management plan. and secondly. or loss of. generators. petrol driven pumps) or vehicles in high fire hazard areas. Potential bushfire ignition sources associated with pipeline construction are pipe cutting. may be required.g. wildlife habitat Impacts on primary industry production Damage to.g. 4. 3. it involves two primary issues. 2. however. third party infrastructure BUSHFIRE PREVENTION – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. notification requirements. Firstly. Fire prevention measures may include: aligning the pipeline to avoid high fire danger areas scheduling construction to avoid high fire danger periods discontinuing construction in fire prone areas during extreme high fire danger periods clearing all flammable material from around potential fire ignition sources utilising tarpaulins or fire resistant mats at welding or grinding stations in areas where minimal clearing of vegetation has been required undertaking fuel reduction on or adjacent to the pipeline construction area in consultation with relevant fire and wildlife management authorities and landholders ensuring flammable materials are cleared from the immediate vicinity of field equipment which may pose a potential fire hazard e. preparedness. based on a risk assessment. permitting procedures and requirements. welding and grinding activities and the operation of equipment (e. the potential for construction activities to generate a bushfire.

not parked over shrubs. on standby at the construction site during work operations in high fire risk areas for fire control if required. as appropriate. rakehoes and fire extinguishers) at the appropriate times in accordance with the relevant Fire Protection Regulations having construction equipment.g. such as earthmoving machinery and water trucks.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION machinery and vehicles not in use shall be parked in areas free of flammable material and vegetation (e. detailing fire prevention and safety. personnel responsibilities and basic fire suppression. Construction workforce bushfire education and training shall be undertaken. Fire response preparation measures shall include: storage of appropriate fire fighting equipment at all work and camp sites in accordance with the requirements of the relevant State Fire Protection Regulations.g. 66 Revision 2 – March 2009 . Equipment must be of the required standard and be inspected and well maintained throughout the construction phase equipping construction machinery and vehicles with fire fighting equipment (e. water knapsacks. tall grass or cleared vegetation residue).

An operational pipeline corridor. In particular. landuse and third parties. To operate and maintain the pipeline in a safe manner. pressure reduction stations and cathodic protection equipment). 3. pipeline easement and associated facilities (such as valves. this section aims to assist pipeline operators achieve the following key environmental objectives: 1. This section provides guidance for the application of best practice operating procedures and environmental management that aims to prevent or mitigate such impacts. Revision 2 – March 2009 67 . If pipeline operations are appropriately managed. Ecos Environmental Objectives In particular. handling and disposal of wastes ignition and spread of fire degradation of air quality (dust. pigging of the pipeline for cleaning or inspection. Sound management of the pipeline will generally result in a low level of impact: protecting the asset protects the environment. 2. odour) reduction to amenity (visual and noise). sedimentation and subsidence disturbance to flora and fauna species and their habitat the introduction or spread of weeds and disease disruption to access or landuse altered surface water flow or drainage contamination of soil or water the production. include: Potential impacts that may require preventative action or mitigation measures soil erosion. and the use and handling of odorants. Environmental Management Environmental management is an integral part of pipeline operation.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES OPERATIONS 5 ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES OPERATIONS The operation of onshore pipelines involves a range of activities generally undertaken by operations staff and specialist service companies. operations aim to manage four key issues: the pipeline structure and integrity pipeline operating conditions and practices the pipeline easement activities that could affect the above elements. Common activities include surveillance of the pipeline easement. Pipelines are widely accepted as a safe and environmentally responsible means for transporting gas and liquids. compressor stations. maintenance of the pipeline. To conduct maintenance and repair activities in a manner consistent with the environmental guidelines for pipeline construction contained in this Code. few environmental issues are likely and those that do eventuate are typically localised and small-scale. To operate and maintain the pipeline easement in a manner that minimises potential impacts on the environment.

The guidelines are consistent with AS2885.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION Effective environmental management in these areas will help minimise potential environmental effects.3 Pipelines – Gas and liquid petroleum – Operation and maintenance. 68 Revision 2 – March 2009 . and it is recommended that they be read in conjunction with this document. Environmental Management Plans or an Environmental Management System (refer to section 2). The guidelines contained in this section can be used as a reference when preparing company Operations Manuals. For minor pipelines it is anticipated that this section of the Code may be adopted in its current form.

1. undertaking earthworks. identify possible leaks. A higher frequency of access may be required following construction or operations and maintenance activities to ensure all environmental protection measures are functioning as intended. ACCESS – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. vehicle.1 PIPELINE EASEMENT MANAGEMENT During pipeline operation. and to maintain line of sight between pipeline marker posts. check cathodic protection. erosion and sediment release to land and water. washouts or land subsidence evidence of pipeline exposure vegetation cover on the easement (excess levels requiring maintenance or insufficient levels requiring revegetation) weed infestation condition of watercourses and protection of natural flows disturbance to protected heritage sites indications of leaks or spills the presence of refuse or litter. monitoring third party activity and identifying any unacceptable risks to the pipeline monitoring and auditing of environmental conditions performance of maintenance activities construction of facilities or additional infrastructure. protection of soil and water quality.1 ACCESS During operation. to maintain access. aircraft or boat. management of the pipeline easement may be required to protect the safety and integrity of the pipeline.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES OPERATIONS 5. maintenance program and amount of unforeseen repairs needed. This section provides guidelines for the control and management of access. areas requiring vegetation management. landholders and third parties Soil compaction. In many cases access will be required through a number of landowners’ properties. Environmental aspects should be incorporated into the surveillance program. An example checklist is provided in Appendix 4. This may be completed in the field and used as the basis of a field inspection report. 5. The nature and frequency of access will vary according to the local environment. Australian Standard AS 2885 provides a framework for pipeline surveillance. protection of landuse and fire prevention. access to the pipeline easement is required on a regular basis for: pipeline surveillance and inspections to identify areas of erosion and subsidence. Access may be by foot. ACCESS – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Disturbance to native vegetation and wildlife Damage to agricultural production or other landuses Temporary disruption to residents. To minimise disturbance to native flora and fauna Revision 2 – March 2009 69 . management of vegetation. Issues or environmental aspects of particular note include: activity on the easement and in the vicinity use of access tracks and easement and any unauthorised traffic access track condition and maintenance requirements evidence of erosion.

In sensitive environments (such as National Parks and catchment areas) vehicle access should be restricted as appropriate. dog leg service track entrances or vegetation). and surveillance undertaken by foot or aircraft. Any use of internal farm tracks or private roads for pipeline surveillance must be with the agreement of the landowner. 7 Refer also to section 4. gates. The width of the access track shall be kept to the minimum practicable in order to enable safe vehicle movement. Potential impacts associated with access to the easement should be monitored as part of a structured inspection and monitoring program. In some areas. log and rock barriers. Vegetation and soil erosion should be adequately controlled to allow continued access and safe navigation by vehicles.15). Except for specific purposes (e. as far as is practicable. alternative agreements should be reached regarding ongoing access. rehabilitation areas.g. The landowner should be notified at least 24 hours before access is required.1 Access for information on access management and reinstatement if disturbance is necessary. or frequency minimised. landholders and third parties To minimise impacts on soil and water 7 ACCESS – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Management Measures The pipeline easement shall only be used as an access for activities essential to ensuring the continued safe operation of the pipeline and protection of the local environment.g. 70 Revision 2 – March 2009 .4 Weed Control. Access to and along the pipeline easement should be minimised following periods of prolonged or heavy rainfall. Access to the pipeline easement through private property shall only occur with individual landowner or lessee approval. Access to the pipeline easement shall be managed to minimise potential weed impacts refer to section 5.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 2. trenches) and by signs. Public access to the pipeline easement shall be restricted by measures such as disguise (e.g. The easement shall not be used as a general thoroughfare. be via existing tracks. To minimise impacts on residents. by physical barriers (e. safety hazard control or protection of pipeline facilities). fences. the pipeline easement should not be fenced and allows landowners continued use of their properties. protection of heritage sites. access may need to be restricted to specific times as determined in consultation with local authorities or landowners. 3. Where this is commonly not possible (e. if possible. Access to the pipeline easement shall be conducted in a manner that adequately considers potential noise or vibration impacts (refer to section 4. Public access along the pipeline easement shall not be permitted unless that right already exists.1.g. Access to the pipeline easement shall. some extensive petroleum operations).

To minimise the potential for soil erosion To adequately prevent or control sediment release to land and water To avoid unacceptable damage to native vegetation or wildlife habitats To prevent damage to agricultural production or other legitimate land uses To minimise the risk of pipe exposure To adequately control subsidence of the pipeline trench SOIL AND GROUND STABILITY – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Management Measures Erosion and sediment controls should be installed in accordance with best practice and should be routinely checked to ensure they are in good condition. SOIL AND GROUND STABILITY – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Soil erosion Sediment release to land and water Damage to native vegetation and wildlife Damage to agricultural production and other land uses Subsidence of pipeline trench. 3. particularly in steep areas. SOIL AND GROUND STABILITY – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. In the case of surface water flow. If significant erosion is encountered. the pipeline easement may be vulnerable to soil and ground instability issues such as erosion and subsidence due to: exposure of the ground surface to water and wind lack of vegetation cover vehicle and equipment movement. Potential impacts associated with soil and ground stability should be monitored as part of a structured inspection and monitoring program.1. 2. and require drainage controls to divert overland and channelled flows. Additional care should be taken near watercourses and drainage lines. Soil should preferably be sourced locally and be free of weeds and other contaminants. 6. Any imported material required for rehabilitation works should be obtained with landowner approval. Maintaining an adequate level of vegetation cover on the pipeline easement is vital to protect the soil resource. The reinstated pipeline trench should be routinely checked for subsidence and exposure of pipe.13 Erosion and Sediment Control. erosion and sediment control structures should be constructed as per section 4.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES OPERATIONS 5. access tracks may be more vulnerable to erosion. 5. are stable and are effective. particularly at watercourse crossings and drainage depressions. Such work should be conducted in consultation with the landowner. Repair works should be undertaken as required. consideration should be given to promoting additional growth.5 Water Management for details on reducing the risk of water contamination. Revision 2 – March 2009 71 . Where erosion is occurring due to inadequate vegetation cover on the easement. Refer to section 5.2 SOIL AND GROUND STABILITY During the operation of buried pipelines. 4. Vehicle access should be restricted to stable ground where practicable.

1. 6. areas that have been recently rehabilitated (e. 3. soil type.e. following construction or maintenance) should be avoided by vehicular or machinery movement.g. To promote and maintain stable vegetation cover To minimise impacts on native flora and fauna.3 72 Revision 2 – March 2009 . 2. where further impacts are likely. The pruning or removal of protected marine vegetation (including mangroves) must only occur with approval. with consideration of vegetation type.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 5.8 Reinstatement and Rehabilitation.3 VEGETATION MANAGEMENT Vegetation cover provides ground stability and protection against erosion by reducing the volume and velocity of runoff. Where possible. When undertaking vegetation maintenance. which in turn may lead to: erosion and sedimentation loss of agricultural productive capacity loss of visual amenity Excessive vegetation regrowth Disturbance to existing vegetation and faunal habitats Establishment of weed species VEGETATION MANAGEMENT – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. minimum heights for vegetation removal should be determined. 8 8 Also refer to Australian Standard AS2885. it should be done by hand. The period for which these areas should be avoided should be determined by qualified personnel. The width of vegetation removal (i. the distance cleared on either side of the pipeline centreline) should be the minimum extent reasonably necessary to ensure the safe operation of the pipeline. under relevant state legislation. Regrowth vegetation on the pipeline easement shall be maintained to ensure root systems do not create a safety risk to the pipeline . particularly threatened species To minimise soil erosion and sedimentation To avoid losses to agricultural production To reduce visual impacts To prevent and control weed invasion VEGETATION MANAGEMENT – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Management Measures In areas of poor vegetation cover. taking into account the area. The access track should be kept navigable by adequately controlling vegetation growth. land use sensitivity and topography. 4. and assists in mitigating sediment pollution to downslope lands and waterways. VEGETATION MANAGEMENT – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Poor vegetation cover. 5. A buffer of riparian vegetation should be maintained for watercourses. Such measures shall be determined on a site-by-site basis and should be consistent with section 4. Vegetation is also important in providing habitat for fauna. If regrowth trees within this buffer require removal. Minimum heights for mechanical maintenance may be between 150 to 300mm. climate and method of planting. appropriate corrective actions shall be taken.

CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES OPERATIONS The removal or disturbance of vegetation outside the access tracks or pipeline easement is not permitted (unless the relevant regulatory and landowner approvals are obtained). Revision 2 – March 2009 73 . Further rehabilitation works may be required in areas where vegetation establishment has been less than acceptable.8 Reinstatement and Rehabilitation. Rehabilitation success should be monitored in accordance with an approved monitoring program. Such works should be conducted in consultation with the relevant landholder and should be consistent with Section 4.

WEED CONTROL – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Competition from weed species and loss of agricultural land use and native flora Reduction in diversity of native species Reduced primary industry productivity and produce quality Impacts to sensitive environments adjacent to weed infected areas Loss of visual amenity WEED CONTROL – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. Following construction. Where relevant. the cleared pipeline easement has the potential for invasion of weed species due to: disturbance of topsoil removal of vegetation competition creation of favourable conditions such as increased water and light redistribution of propagative material introduction of weeds from outside the easement. in some areas with a high level of weed invasion. aspects noted should include: 9 Agricultural and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 5. 2. The National Weeds Strategy: A Strategic approach to weed problems of national significance. 5. Appropriately trained personnel are required to identify potential weed problems and to develop suitable control procedures. 3.1. social or conservation values . A specific control program may be required for each weed species. Agricultural weeds are problems in farmlands and many of these are proclaimed noxious weeds. a detrimental effect on economic. 4. pipeline surveillance should monitor the density and abundance of weeds and schedule weed control as required. To minimise the introduction and/or spread of weeds To promptly identify areas requiring weed control To eliminate infestations of noxious weed species To effectively control weed species To avoid impacts on primary industries WEED CONTROL – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Management Measures An appropriately detailed weed control program should be incorporated into the Pipeline Operations Manual. or be determined on a site-by-site basis.17 Weed Control). Regular inspections. monitoring and auditing of the pipeline easement should include an assessment of weed impacts. In such areas. Note that. the program should utilise information obtained during the construction phase (such as the use of weed inventories). 74 Revision 2 – March 2009 . The program will need to meet the requirements of relevant local or state authorities and should be developed and implemented in consultation with the relevant landholders. Environmental weeds are generally considered to be plants that invade areas of native vegetation. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia. usually adversely affecting the regeneration and survival of native flora and fauna. Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Forestry Minister (1997).4 WEED CONTROL 9 A weed may be defined as a plant that has. it may be impractical to maintain a weed free pipeline easement. or has the potential to have. If significant infestations are found. The program should be developed in consultation with local authorities (refer also to section 4.

All soil and organic matter should be removed. Evidence of compliance with hygiene requirements should be documented. including under the vehicle and in the cabin or load trays. to ensure no foreign seeds are introduced. Patrol officers should be trained in the identification of declared noxious and environmental weed species and techniques for their eradication. such as in urban areas. In areas where vehicular movement is so frequent that processes such as wash down are deemed impractical. In declared weed infestation areas. Where demountable buildings are used on the pipeline easement or work site. The presence of noxious weeds should be reported to local authorities and the control of significant species should be conducted in conjunction with local authorities. the floors will be cleaned prior to entry and upon leaving. e. such as a stabilised area of gravel or cattle grid to remove sediment from tyres. Maintenance crews should be made aware of weed control requirements and their activities monitored by the patrol officer as appropriate. In the event that soil must be imported from another location. may increase the risk of weed introduction and establishment.g. Revision 2 – March 2009 75 . the procedures described in section 4. by brushing. as part of weed control.17 Weed Control must be followed. on a Vehicle Wash down Register. other suitable controls should be considered. Frequent access to the pipeline easement. all vehicles and machinery entering or exiting the pipeline easement or other work sites shall comply with hygiene requirements (such as wash down). The transportation of soil along the pipeline corridor should be avoided where practicable.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES OPERATIONS weed species that are present (noxious weeds should be noted as such) estimated coverage of total area possible reasons for outbreak suggested technique for eradication.

5 CONTROL OF DISEASES Unless adequately managed. Phylloxera. Vehicle cleaning points should be located close to infected areas along the pipeline easement to reduce the risk of spreading infected material. equipment and personnel may spread disease along the pipeline easement. 76 Revision 2 – March 2009 . and the relevant hygiene requirements and access restrictions conveyed to operations personnel. Of particular note are diseases such as Dieback. and from boots and PPE. the movement of operations and maintenance vehicles. and pose a threat to livestock. and into adjoining properties To prevent the introduction of disease into clean (disease-free) areas DISEASE CONTROL – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Management Measures Information on disease infected areas and disease outbreaks should be obtained from the relevant state government agricultural agencies. This section presents guidelines for the prevention and control of the spread of diseases during pipeline operation. Disease may adversely impact plant and animal health. Areas of high conservation value that pipeline easement passes through (eg. The transportation of soil along the pipeline easement should be localised where practicable. and avoided when working in or near disease areas. Evidence of compliance with hygiene requirements should be documented. 2. Footrot and Bovine or Ovine Johne’s Disease. Demountable buildings or temporary facilities used in disease areas along pipeline easement to have thorough removal of soil and vegetative matter prior to demobilisation Operational and field staff should be trained adequately in hygiene procedures. Machinery and vehicles should be cleaned prior to entering and exiting disease areas.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 5. In potentially affected areas. Types of cleaning include wash down with sterilized high-pressure water or application of cleaning solutions. Note that some diseases may also be harmful to human health. DISEASE CONTROL – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Damage to native vegetation possibly leading to death Loss of biodiversity Poor regeneration Impaired visual amenity Reduction in agricultural productivity Adverse effects on livestock health DISEASE CONTROL – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. National Parks) and require special protection should be identified and defined on pipeline maps. such as on a Vehicle Wash down Register.1. Vehicles and machinery should be prevented from carrying any soil or vegetable matter that may be infected with disease into or out of the area. The method of cleaning is dependent upon the type of disease. disease should be monitored in accordance with an approved monitoring program. To minimise the spread of disease onto or along the pipeline easement. government agency hygiene requirements. An appropriately detailed disease control program should be incorporated into the Pipeline Operations Manual. Cleaning should remove all soil and vegetative material from the interior and exterior of vehicles. horticulture and forestry industries. remoteness of the area and water availability. Mundulla Yellows.

and are generally of relatively short duration and minimal depth of excavation. and respread over the disturbed area at completion of works in order to aid regeneration.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES OPERATIONS 5. only weed free certified soil should be used. 3. Minor earthworks may be required in order to maintain access tracks and drainage controls. 2. Repair works should be undertaken as required. During earthworks.5. During earthworks. landholders and third parties Introduction of weed species. or to protect the pipeline from land subsidence. landholders and third parties EARTHWORKS – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Management Measures Earthworks shall be undertaken in accordance with the principles and guidelines outlined in Section 4. topsoil should be stockpiled separately from subsoil.2. or to stabilise areas of erosion. are stable and are effective. Blue Book). EARTHWORKS – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. Should earthworks occur in an area with known or potential acid sulphate soils. adequate notification shall be given to surrounding residences and landowners. EARTHWORKS – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Soil erosion and sediment release Interruption to natural surface and groundwater flows Disturbance to native vegetation and wildlife Damage to agricultural production or other land uses Temporary disruption to residents.Construction. 10 10 See Australian Standard AS2885.3 section 3.4. and should be routinely checked to ensure they are in good condition. To minimise impacts on soil and water and environmental flows To minimise disturbance to native flora and fauna To minimise disruption to residents.1. will result in a greater level of environmental disturbance. If the area requiring earthworks is within a sensitive environment. Such works are considered to be construction and should be conducted in accordance with section 4 Environmental Guidelines . erosion and sediment controls should be installed in accordance with best practice (e. Only clean fill shall be used if additional material is required . a neutralising agent (such as agricultural lime) should be used to neutralise soil during stockpiling or backfilling.g. Earthworks involving excavations to expose the pipeline to undertake coating and corrosion repairs. Prior to commencing earthworks. Fill material should preferably be sourced locally and be compatible with the surrounding area. Revision 2 – March 2009 77 .6 EARTHWORKS Earthworks may be required for maintenance or construction of additional facilities within the pipeline easement.

the pipeline operator should maintain a database of landowner contact details covering all lands that the pipeline passes through. operations and maintenance activities should be scheduled during appropriate periods with consideration given to land use activities.g. landowners and third parties To maintain appropriate consultation with all relevant landowners LAND USE – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Management Measures Consultation with relevant landholders and regulatory authorities should be undertaken with regard to any special management measures required for an area/property such as weed or disease management provisions. certified area provisions (e.1. including livestock and crops. as well as the safety. in order to reduce potential adverse effects. To facilitate landowner contact. 2. landowners and third parties LAND USE – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. To minimise disruption to existing land use rights and practices To minimise disturbance to residents. quarantine provisions.7 LAND USE Many pipeline easements pass through private or leasehold land that is used for other activities. allowing the landowner continued use of their land while the pipeline operator is allowed rights of access for operation and maintenance of the pipeline. organic. LAND USE – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Disruption of existing land use rights and practices Disturbance of residents. residents within proximity to the pipeline and relevant third parties should be notified in advance of operation and maintenance activities that are likely to cause disruption. emergency response and operational considerations of the pipeline. 78 Revision 2 – March 2009 . In these situations cooperative agreements have usually been negotiated with landowners. Regular contact with landowners should be maintained and all relevant pipeline and easement management issues discussed. New landowners should be briefed regarding approved and prohibited land uses on the pipeline easement. 3. Where practicable. Where practical landowners.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 5. disease/weed free).

CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE

– ONSHORE PIPELINES

OPERATIONS

5.1.8

FIRE PREVENTION

Generally, the risk of fire ignition and spread as a result of pipeline operation and maintenance activities is considered low. The main fire ignition sources include patrol vehicles and spark-emitting maintenance work such as welding, acetylene cutting, grinding, and the use of gas torches for heating, drying and shrinking of coating sleeves. This section provides guidelines for monitoring and maintaining the pipeline to minimise fire risks.

FIRE PREVENTIION – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Injury to public or personnel Damage to, or loss of, flora, fauna and habitat Damage to agricultural production Damage to, or loss of, third party infrastructure FIRE PREVENTIION – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. To minimise the risk of fire ignition To prevent the spread of fire in the event of ignition To protect the public and personnel To protect property and minimise damage or loss To protect flora, fauna and habitats and minimise damage or loss To provide adequate response in the event of ignition

FIRE PREVENTIION – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Management Measures Measures to prevent and respond to fire incidents should be developed and implemented in accordance with: AS 2885.3 construction fire management plans (if available) section 3.5 Safety and Emergency Planning. Fire management strategies should address prevention, preparedness, emergency contacts, equipment, response and training. Pipeline operations and maintenance shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements of regulatory and local fire authorities. In particular, operations shall comply with relevant fire restrictions, notification requirements and permitting procedures. Debris from vegetation management activities should not be left on the pipeline easement in a manner that will increase the fuel load (e.g. stockpiled). Debris should be re-spread or chipped and re-spread in a thin layer over the area. Large quantities of vegetation debris should be removed from site. All equipment shall comply with relevant fire safety standards (e.g. use of exhaust spark inhibitors). Machinery and vehicles not in use shall be parked in areas of low fire risk (e.g. not parked over shrubs, tall grass or cleared vegetation debris). Vehicles shall be regularly checked to ensure that combustible materials such as grass and debris do not build up in critical areas where ignition could occur. Where flammable or combustible chemicals are required to be stored on-site, appropriate fire-fighting equipment shall be available. Incompatible chemicals should not be stored together. Where practicable flammable liquids should be stored in flammable liquid cabinets.

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AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION

5.2

AIR EMISSIONS

Air emissions from planned gas pipeline operations are generally small in quantity. Emissions that may have an adverse effect on air quality include: the release of natural gas during pipeline purging to allow certain maintenance activities the products of combustion (particularly nitrous oxides) associated with flaring the release of odorant (or odorised gas) vehicle and machinery exhausts dust emissions from vehicle and equipment movement.

AIR EMISSIONS – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Release of air pollutants Greenhouse gas emissions Odour emissions Temporary reduction of amenity associated with dust Localised impacts on sensitive flora and fauna AIR EMISSIONS – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. 2. 3. 4. To minimise atmospheric emissions To minimise greenhouse gas emissions To minimise the creation of safety hazards To minimise disturbance to the community

AIR EMISSIONS – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Management Measures The planned release of gas from pipelines (including the flaring of purged gas) shall be minimised for economic and greenhouse gas emissions reasons. Where practicable, planned gas releases (including the flaring of purged gas) shall be conducted under favourable meteorological conditions that will facilitate rapid atmospheric dispersion of the gas. Periodic leakage surveys shall be conducted to detect fugitive gas releases from the pipeline as per AS 2885.3 requirements. Companies should complete a greenhouse gas reduction strategy as an overall goal during operation. Membership of initiatives such as the ‘Greenhouse Challenge’ should be considered. Where technically and economically feasible, natural gas should be flared rather than vented. Gas vents shall be located an appropriate distance from residential areas and infrastructure in accordance with relevant regulatory and Australian Standards requirements. Adjacent residents and local authorities shall be advised of the pending major venting operation prior to undertaking the activity. Appropriate dust emission controls shall be applied during operation as necessary, based on the procedures detailed in section 4.16 Dust Control. If dust problems still occur at particular sections of the easement, the following measures should be adopted as appropriate: revegetate using existing species and prevent access until vegetation is established.

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CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE

– ONSHORE PIPELINES

OPERATIONS

ensure speed limits are appropriate and being observed. minimise vehicle movements. use geotextiles, hessian or mulched vegetation on localised areas. if available, spray water on the problem areas. In areas of heavy "bulldust", the easement may be stripped and the more stable subsurface watered to provide a firm base (although this may not always be possible for very deep bulldust). Where required, odorisation of the gas (i.e. mercaptan dosing) should be undertaken in a manner that minimises the risk of accidental release of odorant. Odorising equipment should be appropriately maintained and waste materials should be disposed of in accordance with section 5.7 Waste Management. In the case of a spill of odorant, a solution of common liquid bleach or pool chlorine should be applied to the affected area to prevent further release of the odour (spill kits or specific cleanup products may also be available). The resultant material should then be disposed of in an appropriate manner.

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Equipment shall be fitted with appropriate noise abatement devices (e. 2. Equipment should be selected in consideration of its noise emissions. noise complaints will be investigated and remedial action taken as required.g. excessively noisy activities shall be scheduled for periods that are less likely to result in a noise nuisance. This section outlines recommendations to avoid or attenuate noise and establish a process for dealing with complaints. Where practicable. NOISE EMISSIONS – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Disturbance to local residents and other landusers Disturbance to stock and wildlife NOISE EMISSIONS – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1.3 NOISE EMISSIONS During operation and maintenance activities on the pipeline. Where appropriate. in particular those with tonality. Landowners and local residents shall be notified of potential noise from maintenance or project activities prior to the commencement of activities. equipment should be selected that is likely to result in the lowest noise impact whilst still completing the required task. may lead to adverse impacts on local residents. To minimise operation noise impacts on adjacent residents and other land users To minimise operation noise impacts on wildlife and livestock NOISE EMISSIONS – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Management Measures Pipeline operations shall comply with the following regarding noise control: all relevant regulatory requirements AS 2885.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 5.15 Noise Control (if any construction activity is required).3 section 4. modulation or impulsiveness. noise emissions may be generated by: vehicles and machinery travelling along the pipeline easement and access tracks activities such as earthworks and vegetation management maintenance at aboveground sites gas vented from pressurised equipment equipment noise at aboveground sites. silencers and screens) and be maintained in good working order. Where practicable. Appropriate strategies for dealing with noise complaints shall be implemented. noise monitoring shall be conducted. All plant and facilities should be designed and operated to comply with relevant State noise regulations and Australian Standard AS 1055 – Acoustics. This decision should be made in consultation with the residents. 82 Revision 2 – March 2009 . mufflers. In particular. Noise emission.

Actions to address site disturbance shall be taken in consultation with regulatory authorities and local community groups. This database shall be available to patrol officers and environmental advisers and auditors during operations. While it is unlikely that damage to heritage sites will result from pipeline operations (i. HERITAGE – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES The disturbance to or destruction of heritage sites or items. All operations activities must comply with the permit and reporting requirements under the relevant State and Commonwealth heritage legislation Sites that are within or adjacent to the easement should be given adequate physical protection. The heritage database should provide appropriate detail regarding the significance.e. 2. anthropological. undisturbed sites on the easement or within proximity to the easement must be afforded all reasonable protection from disturbance. Revision 2 – March 2009 83 . Physical protection measures shall be adequately maintained. Such sites may comprise areas or items of archaeological. environmental or scientific significance. patrol officers shall monitor any work activities on the easement.4 HERITAGE – NATURAL AND BUILT ENVIRONMENTS Heritage sites are of cultural value to the community and are protected by law. Where appropriate. location and management measures for each site. HERITAGE – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. Such measures include: installing barriers such as logs or fences installing appropriate signs. the pipeline easement was heavily disturbed during pipeline construction). The operations workforce should be made aware of the location and value of these sites in order to ensure impacts are avoided. regulatory authorities and other relevant stakeholders. regulatory authorities and other relevant stakeholders HERITAGE – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Management Measures A database of heritage sites should be maintained during operations (this database should have been prepared prior to pipeline construction by suitably qualified persons with appropriate input from indigenous communities). Patrol officers should be adequately trained in heritage and cultural issues and management. ethnological. Patrol officers will record any disturbance to heritage sites. To avoid impacts on heritage sites on or near the easement or in the vicinity of associated facilities To implement an effective consultation program with heritage and community groups. as necessary.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES OPERATIONS 5. A program shall be developed and implemented to facilitate effective consultation with heritage and community groups. Appropriate approvals must be obtained prior to any activity that will disturb or destroy a heritage site or item.

Blue Book). watercourse substrata and position of the pipe. Erosion control measures such as silt fences. WATER MANAGEMENT – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Reduction in water quality as a result of increased sediment load Contamination of surface or groundwater Altered drainage patterns and water flow regimes Secondary impacts on flora and fauna as a result of altered water quality or quantity. the condition of watercourse bed. bank slopes. This may include details such as top and toe. Should erosion and sedimentation occur. Monitoring should note the condition of such measures and the need for remedial action. 3.g. WATER MANAGEMENT – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. watercourses and groundwater To manage surface water flows and to minimise potential adverse impacts associated with altered flow regimes To minimise impacts to riparian. appropriate corrective action should be undertaken (consideration to be given to permanent rather than temporary repair). Such impacts may be associated with sediment loads to streams. 4.5 WATER MANAGEMENT Water is an important feature of the Australian environment. 84 Revision 2 – March 2009 . in particular. 5. sags. Pipeline integrity shall be monitored and maintained to prevent the release of product to the environment. The refuelling or maintenance of equipment and vehicles should be conducted as far away as is reasonably practical from any surface water body to reduce the risk of contamination in the event of accidental fuel or oil release. reseeding slopes. berms and drains shall be appropriately maintained. Survey details of the original contours of water crossings should be incorporated into the “As Built” documentation.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 5. over bends. associated facilities or operational activities To prevent contamination of surface water. Where required. the potential for spills of product or chemicals and the maintenance of appropriate surface and groundwater flow regimes. This may include restoring bank profiles. the number of watercourse crossings should be minimised. banks and riparian vegetation should be inspected in accordance with an agreed inspection program. To control erosion in all operational areas To minimise the volume of sediment entering waterways from the pipeline corridor. Where practical. 2. Erosion and sediment controls should be installed and managed in accordance with best practice (e. Refer also to section 5. replacing sandbags or gabions or installing additional silt fences or geotextile fabric. aquatic and water dependant flora and fauna WATER MANAGEMENT – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Management Measures Operations and maintenance activities occurring in or near watercourses may require approval under relevant state legislation. Stability of the pipeline easement and. All activities must comply with legislative requirements and the conditions of any permits/licences issues under the legislation. invert.2 Soil and Ground Stability. designated crossing points should be used and the bed and banks maintained in a stable condition. Pipeline operations should aim to minimise potential impacts on water quality and/or quantity.1.

CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES OPERATIONS All chemicals used during operations shall be transported. Any spills or releases of product or chemicals shall be managed in accordance with such procedures. monitoring programs should be implemented to identify potential impacts to riparian. Barriers or other control measures should be implemented to ensure such soils are not released to surrounding land and water. detailed spill response procedures shall be developed. the disturbance of acid sulphate soils should be avoided or minimised. Hazardous wastes shall not be stored or handled within the vicinity of any surface water. During pipeline operations. aquatic and water dependant flora and fauna. Revision 2 – March 2009 85 . In accordance with section 5. approved and implemented. stored. Where appropriate. Prior to installing any new surface control structures (such as berms or diversion drains) the implications for downstream environments should be considered. handled and disposed of in accordance with the requirements of the relevant dangerous goods and environmental legislation and industry standards.8 Pipeline Spill Prevention and Response. Changes to the pattern of water flow should be monitored. Only suitably qualified personnel should conduct such programs.

3. such as compressor stations. stock and wildlife Reduction of visual amenity PIPELINE FACILITIES – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. security. W. visibility. the ground surface of facilities will be gravelled to reduce fire risks and prevent weed infestation. delivery facilities and scraper stations. Permanent buildings may be constructed at major facilities.g. mainline valves.3 section 3.3 Noise Emissions.1. Fire prevention methods outlined in section 5. Where visual treatments (such as painting or screening by vegetation or other means were applied during construction) such treatments shall be maintained in an effective condition. on cropping lands or areas of sensitive native vegetation). 86 Revision 2 – March 2009 . changes to visual impacts should be considered from time-to-time and additional measures adopted where necessary. To eliminate unacceptable safety hazards To minimise the risk of bushfire To minimise the impact of noise.3. Noise from pipeline facilities shall be managed in accordance with section 5.2 Air Emissions. visual impacts and fire risk. Mathieson PIPELINE FACILITIES – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Safety hazards resulting from increased traffic Bushfire and internal fire risk Noise disturbance to local residents. 2. Potential odour issues shall be managed in accordance with section 5. Additional operational activities and surveillance related to aboveground facilities should be detailed in the Safety and 11 Operating Plan .6 MANAGEMENT OF PIPELINE FACILITIES Aboveground facilities associated with pipeline operations comprise compressor stations. Where appropriate. or areas of tourism and leisure. A main line valve. In residential areas. Pipeline facilities shall be kept in a clean and tidy condition. at facilities close to residences. odour and traffic to the local community PIPELINE FACILITIES – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Management Measures Facility sites should be securely fenced and locked to prevent entry by unauthorised persons. other land users.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 5.8 should be implemented as appropriate Fire fighting equipment shall be maintained on-site in areas of higher fire risk (e. gas leaks. pressure reduction stations. 11 See Australian Standard AS2885. The high-pressure equipment located within aboveground facilities may create issues associated with noise. but the majority of facilities are controlled remotely. Areas for storage of liquids such as oil or pipeline liquids should be bunded and drains from bunds kept clear of foreign material.

domestic and industrial wastes such as waste oils. in particular friable asbestos products. glass. pallets. bitumen and tyres include: Providing suitable collection points for reusable and recyclable wastes such as timber skids.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES OPERATIONS 5. bricks. If disturbance or disposal of this pipeline type is needed. 5. metals. To avoid the contamination of soil and water To minimise potential risks to workers and the public To minimise adverse effects on native vegetation and wildlife To minimise visual impacts To maximise the efficiency of resource use WASTE MANAGEMENT – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Management Measures A comprehensive waste management plan should be developed and implemented. Management measures for solid inert wastes such as building rubble. putrescible waste and general refuse. packaging. using pigs).e. plastic. Waste material may be generated by internally cleaning the pipeline (i. scrap metals and pipe transport spacers for salvage supplying designated collection bins at work sites for aluminium cans. 3. WASTE MANAGEMENT – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Contamination of soil and water Health risks to the community and the workforce Adverse effects on native vegetation and wildlife Reduction of visual amenity Inefficient use of resources WASTE MANAGEMENT – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. Operations personnel also generate sewage. appropriate safety measures should be employed. concrete. 4.7 WASTE MANAGEMENT During the operation of a pipeline. Historically. poses health risks to humans if the fibres are inhaled. Waste management procedures must comply with all necessary regulatory requirements and shall be based on the following principles listed in order of priority: reduce wastes at the source reuse materials where possible recycle wastes where practicable dispose of wastes appropriately and responsibly. drums. The removal of asbestos. 2. All wastes must be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. asbestos was used as a pipeline coating. Any material that contains more than 1 per cent asbestos by volume should be regarded as asbestos material. Waste material is not to be left or buried on the pipeline easement. drums and general refuse may be generated. All waste management practices must comply with the relevant State legislation and the local planning requirements. glass and paper recycling (where recycling facilities are available) collecting and transporting general refuse to landfill sites approved by the local authorities development of on-site disposal areas conforming to regulatory authority Revision 2 – March 2009 87 . timber. detailing the required waste management procedures.

work and storage sites shall be maintained to an orderly and hygienic standard appropriate measures shall be taken to ensure litter accumulation is avoided. Recycled wastewater may be utilised for plant irrigation at permanent pipeline facilities. alternatively. Asbestos should be processed and handled in accordance with regulatory requirements. Management of hazardous liquid wastes such as radiography or cleaning chemicals and waste oils shall comply with relevant regulatory requirements. Where possible. The material should be placed in polythene bags (0.g.2mm thick) or doublewrapped in sheets of polythene. bunded or otherwise contained in accordance with statutory requirements) contaminated soils (e. Management measures include: safe storage prior to collection and transport off-site for reuse. Soil with an asbestos content equal to or greater than 1 per cent by volume should be regarded as a hazardous waste. Vehicles must be carefully cleaned following asbestos transport asbestos shall only be disposed of at an appropriately licensed site. treatment or disposal at locations approved by relevant regulatory authorities storage areas must be suitably designed to contain any spills and prevent contamination of soil or water (e. such as the provision of litter bins on-site and regular site maintenance duties. Measures as outlined above should be used. loading bay drain/pig trap contents.g. commercial wastes and garden clippings include: collection and transportation to a landfill approved by the relevant regulatory authority on-site disposal at camp or work sites should only be conducted in remote areas with the approval of relevant authorities and where storage and transportation to a registered landfill depot may lead to the creation of unacceptable health risks camp. mobile chemical treatment systems or. disposed into municipal sewage treatment plants. domestic garbage. are required to be managed according to their concentration of contaminants and their leachability. Generally. Sewage and sullage disposal shall be via approved septic systems. 88 Revision 2 – March 2009 . Management measures for putrescible wastes such as discarded food. oil/fuel spills). the asbestos should be wet in order to prevent dust being released. Packages should carry an asbestos warning label owners of vehicles transporting asbestos may be required to hold a waste transport permit. management measures include: a professional contractor should be used to manage the collection and disposal of asbestos asbestos must be handled so as to ensure there is no release of fibres or dust to the air. Appropriate disposal options shall be determined in consultation with the relevant environment protection authorities. This requirement should be checked with the regulatory authorities.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION requirements. recycling.

Spill Prevention and Response Plans shall address: monitoring and detection systems notification and reporting procedures (both internal and external) call-out procedures. 3. To avoid unacceptable safety hazards To prevent contamination of soil and water To prevent the direct and indirect impacts on vegetation communities. Pipelines are individually designed to minimise the chance of such failures. Operations activities on any pipeline (gas or liquid) has the potential for spills. such as areas of particular environmental. Spill response exercises shall be regularly conducted for operational pipelines. valves. 2. contact lists and incident investigation procedures. particularly in sensitive areas. Workforce training shall be conducted in spill response and recovery procedures. Spill Prevention and Response Plans should be prepared for all pipelines where the impact of spills may be detrimental to public safety or the environment. social or cultural sensitivity. SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Safety hazards to the workforce and the public Contamination of soil and water including groundwater Damage to or death of flora and fauna SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. etc. etc. clean up material. Detailed Pipeline Spill Prevention and Response Plans shall be developed for all operational pipelines where spills may be detrimental to public safety or the environment. measures required to halt the spill (i. control of pumps. storage. maintenance and transport communications and logistics Spill response procedures shall comply with all relevant regulatory requirements. environmental impact assessment personnel responsibilities equipment requirements. location. This section deals with general operational procedures to minimise the risk and consequence of a liquid spill. Plans shall address local issues. condensate or chemicals have the potential to impact on public safety and the environment in the event of pipeline failure. such as fuels and oils from plant and equipment.8 PIPELINE SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE Pipelines carrying liquids such as oil. fauna and fauna habitats SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Management Measures Pipelines shall be designed and operated in accordance with AS 2885 to minimise the risk of pipeline failure.e.) spill containment procedures and procedures to safely recover the spilt material reinstatement and rehabilitation procedures requirements for disposal of contaminated soil. spills of chemicals in storage compounds. Revision 2 – March 2009 89 . Pipelines shall be designed to limit the volume of material released.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES OPERATIONS 5. or spill of contaminated water (such as from water bath heaters).

storage and application of chemicals to prevent harm to the environment. Emphasis is then placed on the safe and secure transport. handled within containment facilities (e. 3. fuels and chemicals shall not be stored or handled in the vicinity of natural or built waterways or water storage areas (e. where practicable. Appropriate spill response equipment.g. Chemical use should be minimised where practicable. Appropriate fuel and chemical handling procedures shall be adopted with the aim of avoiding spills to land or water. Persons handling chemicals shall wear appropriate personal protective equipment and shall be provided with appropriate training. leak proof trays) designed to prevent the release of spilt substances to the environment. relies primarily on the selection of chemicals that pose little risk to the safety of employees or the environment. lubricants and chemicals shall be stored and. Fuels. fuel and chemicals on-site can pose a threat to the environment and personnel if not managed properly. The minimum practicable volume of chemicals should be stored on-site. Management procedures must be put in place prior to the introduction and use of any chemical on the pipeline easement or associated facilities. for land and water. lakes). bunded areas. – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Contamination of soil and water. shall be formulated .g.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION FUEL AND CHEMICAL STORAGE The use and storage of oils. 90 Revision 2 – March 2009 . canals. To prevent contamination of soil and water To avoid unacceptable safety hazards To minimise atmospheric emissions – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Management Measures The storage and handling of fuels and chemicals shall comply with all relevant legislation and Australian Standard AS1940 – The storage and handling of flammable and combustible liquids.8 Pipeline Spill Prevention and Response. from both environmental and safety aspects. Detailed spill response procedures. including ground water Safety hazards to the workforce and the public Air and odour emissions – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. shall be available on-site. streams. dams. 2. Workforce training shall be conducted in fuel and chemical handling and spill response and recovery procedures. Material Safety Data Sheets should be obtained when purchasing chemicals and should be available on-site for all chemicals stored and handled. including containment and recovery equipment. Where practicable. Control of these substances.refer also to section 5.

g.2 DECOMMISSIONING OPTIONS When a pipeline is no longer required (e. A pipeline may be segmented with more than one of the three options (suspension.pipelines are not depressurised but are physically isolated from the pipeline system abandonment in place .CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES DECOMMISSIONING 6 PIPELINE DECOMMISSIONING Decommissioning (as defined in this Code) encompasses all activities where petroleum products are no longer flowing through the pipeline.1 for a description of AS 2885).pipelines are entirely removed from the pipeline easement.1 PIPELINE DESIGN LIFE The planned life of a natural gas pipeline is dependent upon the viability of gas markets and supply. safety reasons). This section of the Code addresses the issues in determining the best strategy for the decommissioning of onshore pipelines in Australia. Steps required for this are outlined in AS 2885. There are also international guidelines available for reference. a detailed investigation shall be made of the design. Whilst it may be possible to consider Suspension as an operations option for the purpose of this report. typically only applicable to above ground pipelines Decommissioning of onshore pipelines needs to assess both the environmental and commercial costs of the chosen strategy. it is important that the pipeline be decommissioned in an environmentally responsible manner. and may be in operation for several years. In the event that the utility is no longer required. Suspension shall be included in decommissioning.1. the pipeline will be decommissioned in accordance with Legislative Requirements. 6. Pipeline engineering design takes into consideration the planned life of the pipeline.3.1. operating conditions and history of the pipeline in order to determine condition and any limits to continued safe operation of the pipeline. In this section the pipelines generally considered under this Code are those designed. 6. The scope of this Code of Practice shall only be applicable where a Pipeline Licence exists or the pipeline system is designed to AS 2885. The Australian Standard AS 2885 Pipelines – Gas and liquid petroleum provides some guidance on the abandonment of a pipeline (see section 3. built and operated in accordance with AS 2885. Where it is intended to operate a hydrocarbon pipeline beyond the design life. APPEA). reduced market. 6. International best practice recognises that removing the pipe from the ground is unlikely to be a commercially or environmentally viable option (refer DTI.pipelines are physically disconnected from the pipe system. Approval is required as determined by AS 2885. ARPEL. relevant Australian Standards and this Code. removal) applying to the decommissioning. purged and cleaned with water or inert material and sealed (capped) at the ends removal . The pipeline shall be operated under the approved conditions and the limits established from the detailed investigation. OSPAR.1 LEGISLATIVE REQUIREMENTS Legislation and/or pipeline licences in most Australian states indicate that the regulation of decommissioning of pipelines will be based on the standards of the day and/or as directed by the relevant Minister. Revision 2 – March 2009 91 . exhaustion of supply. including: suspension . abandonment. Industry should refer to the legislation of the day and consult with relevant government agencies for advice when commencing a pipeline decommissioning project. future development potential or stakeholder requirements. depending upon environmental considerations.

92 Revision 2 – March 2009 . such as nitrogen or allowed to contain non corrosive petroleum fluids and blinded at the ends. The pipeline may be purged with inert material. Abandonment of buried pipelines in situ is environmentally preferable to the disturbance associated with the removal of pipelines. infrastructure crossings). and the easement is relinquished.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 6. such as nitrogen. and the easement is relinquished. the monitoring of the pressure. Maintenance of the easement is discontinued after an agreed monitoring period. The pipelines are not pressurised and are not maintained.9mm in diameters (NPS 12). and the easement rehabilitated.e. The pipeline is depressurised and purged with inert material. risk assessed basis. All above ground structures are removed (including marker signs). subject to: licence conditions stakeholder requirements in terms of future development environmental considerations such as pipeline cleanliness. cannot be recovered safely and efficiently. It is recognised that long term structural deterioration of a pipeline abandoned in place may lead to some measure of ground subsidence. The pipe would then be left to corrode and biodegrade in situ. and do not contain environmentally contaminating materials that. due to structural damage or deterioration or other cause. Pipelines are buried below the normal depth likely to be disturbed by agricultural activities and are therefore unlikely to affect future land use activities. 6. but removal would need to be considered on a case by case. it was determined that ground subsidence would be negligible for pipelines up to 232.g.2. 6.2 ABANDONMENT IN PLACE Pipelines abandoned in place are physically disconnected from the pipe system. Abandonment in Place) for inactive pipelines is usually considered the best option of decommissioning. maintenance to the cathodic protection system. which involves excavation. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has examined this issue and determined that subsidence is unlikely to be a critical issue as a structural failure due to corrosion may take many decades and that significant lengths of pipeline would not collapse at any one time due to the localised nature of the pitting process. Maintenance of the easement is discontinued after an agreed monitoring period. or exposure to subsidence or water conduiting. Above ground pipelines may be decommissioned by removal.1 SUSPENSION The pipelines are not depressurised but are physically isolated from the pipeline system. Therefore.2. in situ decommissioning (i. This will need to be determined in consultation with the relevant authorities at the time of decommissioning and take into account the long term plans for the pipeline. particularly those: that are adequately buried or trenched and which are not subject to future development and are likely to remain so where burial or trenching is undertaken to a sufficient depth and it is likely to be permanent that can be adequately cleaned. Even if a total collapse did occur. and maintenance as determined in the safety and operating plan.3 REMOVAL This deactivation status applies to pipelines that are physically and entirely removed from the pipeline easement.2. Buried pipelines should generally be left in situ. with cathodic protection system disconnected. purged and cleaned with water or inert material and sealed (capped) at the ends. Filling with an inert material may be appropriate at critical locations (e. All above ground and below ground structures are removed and the pipeline easement rehabilitated. Buried pipelines should only be removed in the case where damage to the surrounding environment or disturbance to third party amenity (resulting from the removal) is low. The pipelines are maintained as per an operating pipeline including relevant standards.

for specific guidance on abandonment of pipelines. in particular AS 2885. This section can be used as a reference when preparing pipeline Safety and Operating Plans. Key considerations include: health and safety implications.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES DECOMMISSIONING 7 ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES DECOMMISSIONING Decommissioning of pipelines requires a careful assessment and balancing of environmental issues and close communication with regulators and other stakeholders. environmental impacts. Reference should also be made to AS 2885 Pipelines – Gas and liquid petroleum. Operations Manuals or Environmental Management Plans. This section provides guidance for the application of best practice decommissioning procedures and environmental management that aim to prevent or mitigate potential environmental impacts during decommissioning. The following sections include: planning consultation product removal and pipe cleaning removal of pipeline removal of above ground infrastructure rehabilitation of pipeline easement roads. This section provides guidelines directly relevant to decommissioning activities for the control and management of: access soil and ground stability vegetation weed control diseases earthworks waste management water management protection of land use prevention of bushfires. Revision 2 – March 2009 93 . access tracks and hardstand remediation waste management easement tenement monitoring and auditing. technical options and cost.3. For minor pipelines with few significant environmental issues it is anticipated that this section of the Code may be adopted in its current form.

To undertake pipeline corridor remediation works in a manner that is consistent with AS 2885 To decommission the pipeline corridor in a manner that minimises potential impacts on the environment. It is recognised that commercial considerations.1 PLANNING The decommissioning program should be supported by a suitable study which addresses any potential effect on the environment and other uses of the easement. safety and social impacts of all options prior to disposal of product. through the use of the companion document to AS 2885 HB105 Guide to Pipeline Risk Assessment. 8. Early planning for decommissioning is essential in order to determine regulatory requirements for each case. goals and objectives for the decommissioning process. 2. PLANNING – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Impact on flora & fauna Impact on soil and water quality Waste management and disposal Impact on Landholders and other stakeholder PLANNING – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. philosophy. 3. land use and third parties Where the pipeline decommissioning exposes the public or environment to high risk. to develop a safety management plan that is documented and implemented for the decommissioning of any pipelines To assess the environmental. such as whether there is any future use for the pipeline. Planning will also involve setting out the strategy.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 7. Each onshore pipeline is different. The following should be considered: the potential reuse options age and length of the pipeline the nature of the environment in which the pipeline is located any other issues relevant to the particular pipeline. 6. can be a key determining factor in planning a decommissioning strategy. 5. 94 Revision 2 – March 2009 . The method of decommissioning for each section of a pipeline should therefore be based on a case-by-case evaluation. pipe waste and facility components To consider all feasible recycling alternatives when disposing of a facility To ensure that the means of decommissioning should not cause a significant adverse effect on the environment To assess the environmental (including social) aspects of decommissioning options To clarify issues of residual liability before licence relinquishment 4. The process of risk assessment should be carried out in accordance with AS 2885.1. as each is purpose built for a specific function in a specific location. Planning aspects essentially comprise four assessment criteria: technical feasibility environment safety cost. 7.

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PLANNING – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Strategy Option Management Measures The decommissioning strategy must be identified. Planning objectives shall be set. A planning assessment shall be conducted. Decommissioning procedures shall be developed. Social/community implications shall be considered when decommissioning. The Decommissioning Plan shall have an implementation strategy. Technical Planning shall include a description of the pipeline(s) and associated equipment to be decommissioned, including lengths, diameters and type of construction. Planning will incorporate technical and engineering aspects of the phase, including reuse and recycling and the impacts associated with cleaning, or removing chemicals from the pipeline. Planning shall assess the timing of the decommissioning. Planning shall assess safety considerations associated with capping, removal and disposal of above ground infrastructure. Planning shall identify critical areas where subsidence of an abandoned pipeline cannot be tolerated (e.g. railway crossing). Technical consideration shall be given to pipeline structural integrity and structural condition, the state of the easement, and the establishment of the order of dismantling. Existing Easement Condition Assessment will be made during planning, on the current condition and status of the pipeline(s) including the extent of burial, trenching and details of any materials used to cover the lines in order to determine potential environmental impacts associated with decommissioning. Operational and monitoring data and history shall be reviewed. Environment and Stakeholders Impacts on the environment and landholders, including exposure of the environment to pipeline related contaminants, shall be assessed in the development of the decommissioning strategy. Impacts on other environmental aspects, including emissions to the atmosphere, leaching to groundwater, discharges to surface water and effects on the soil, shall be reviewed. Consumption of natural resources and energy associated with re-use or recycling shall be reviewed. Impacts on amenities, the activities of communities and on future uses of the environment shall be assessed.

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AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION

7.2

CONSULTATION

An appropriate level of consultation is required to ensure stakeholders have sufficient information and any concerns have been addressed. Potential impact on amenities, the activities of communities and on future uses of the environment should be considered.

CONSULTATION – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Increased safety hazard resulting from temporary increases in traffic volume Increased noise and nuisance factor associated with temporary works Provision of sufficient information for public and landholders CONSULTATION – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. 2. To undertake pipeline corridor remediation works in a manner that is consistent with AS 2885 To ensure stakeholders, landholders and regulators have been consulted and key issues addressed

CONSULTATION – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning Management Measures Decommissioning planning shall include consultation with statutory authorities, local community and residents, the landholders and other interested parties. Consultation with relevant landowner/occupiers and regulatory authorities regarding the utilisation of existing road or tracks and infrastructure. Consultation with statutory authorities and third party infrastructure operators regarding critical areas where subsidence of pipelines abandoned in situ cannot be tolerated. Consultation with landholders and local government regarding temporary road closures and traffic impediments. Decommissioning Impacts on the environment and landholders, including exposure of the environment to pipeline related contaminants. Impacts on amenities, the activities of communities and on future uses of the land and environmental functions. Rehabilitation and Monitoring Following completion of decommissioning, landholders shall be provided with a contact number to register complaints.

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7.3

PRODUCT REMOVAL AND PIPE CLEANING

Onsite decommissioning commences with product removal and pipeline cleaning. Hydrocarbon product is purged from the line and the pipe cleaned using the most appropriate method over a series of stages. Likely stages include injecting inert substance such as nitrogen, flushing with water, and the utilisation of foam or brush pigs to clean the pipeline.

PRODUCT REMOVAL AND PIPE CLEANING – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Potential impact on surface and ground water quality Potential soil contamination Potential impact on flora and fauna Release of air pollutants Waste management and disposal Temporary disruption to landholders and third parties PRODUCT REMOVAL AND PIPE CLEANING – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To prevent impact on surface and ground water To prevent soil contamination To minimise impact on flora and fauna To minimise waste and dispose appropriately To minimise disruptions to landholders and third parties

PRODUCT REMOVAL AND PIPE CLEANING – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning Management Measures Site preparation and management requirements shall be implemented in accordance with developed and approved Decommissioning Strategy. The equipment must be made safe by removing or making safe harmful substances. Depressurising Hydrocarbon gases shall typically be disposed to fuel gas or flare systems. As systems become depressurised the pipeline may then be isolated by valving and subsequent blanking. Venting Where flammable or other harmful materials are to be vented, the point(s) for release should be located in order to preclude any possibility of vapours encroaching on areas where personnel are working or where there is a likelihood of ignition, under suitable meteorological conditions and away from residential and environmentally sensitive areas. Prolonged or significant venting activities should be undertaken in consultation with the appropriate regulatory agencies (e.g. Pipeline Technical Regulator, Environment Protection Authority). Draining Prior to equipment being isolated it is essential that facilities are drained as much as possible via fitted drain points. Adequately sized drain lines should be installed at the lowest points and sized in accordance with operating engineering practices. All equipment must be cleaned and purged before connections can be cut ready for disconnection and/or removal. The extent of the cleaning activity depends upon the state of the equipment and the type of contaminants present.

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water is used as the primary pipe cleaning method. the responsibility for ownership is to remain with the pipeline operator and appropriate records kept. water or inert gas. Water shall be tested for hydrocarbon and chemical residue prior to disposal. where a series of cleaning pigs are pushed through the pipeline with chemical agents and flush water to remove all hydrocarbons. For many applications. Consideration should be given to filling the pipeline with cement slurry or other appropriate material to prevent water conduiting or subsidence. Water supply and disposal will be undertaken in accordance with regulations and managed in accordance with the procedures developed in the Decommissioning Strategy. In the event that cathodic protection is maintained.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION Purging and Flushing Pipe-work can be flushed or purged using steam. Pipelines can be cleaned using a process called progressive pigging. Management of waste water shall be in accordance with section 4 Environmental Guidelines – Construction and regulatory requirements. Alternatively cathodic protection might be applied in order to prevent the eventual collapse of the pipeline and consequent ground subsidence. flushed water shall be disposed of at an approved waste facility. Rehabilitation and Monitoring All pipelines which are partially or wholly left in situ should be inspected and thoroughly cleaned internally to ensure that all contaminants are removed. including erosion and sediment transport. Discharging water into the environment shall be undertaken in a manner that prevents localised effects. A project specific Water Source and Disposal Plan shall be developed in consultation with the appropriate regulatory agencies. 98 Revision 2 – March 2009 . Where contaminant level exceeds EPA requirements. No water will be returned directly to watercourses without appropriate approvals.

site locations and access tracks by undertaking appropriate rehabilitation To decommission the pipeline corridor in a manner that minimises potential impacts on the environment. Topsoil and cleared native vegetation shall be respread. Buried pipelines should only be removed in the case where damage resulting from the removal to the surrounding environment or disturbance to third party amenity is low. Topsoil shall be stripped and stockpiled for respreading during rehabilitation. To undertake pipeline corridor remediation works in a manner that is consistent with AS 2885 To prevent impact on surface and ground water To prevent soil contamination To prevent soil erosion To minimise impact on flora and fauna To minimise waste and dispose appropriately To minimise disruptions to landholders and third parties To minimise visual impact of the easement. REMOVAL OF PIPELINE – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Potential impact on surface and ground water quality Potential soil contamination Potential soil erosion Potential impact on flora and fauna Waste management and disposal Temporary disruption to landholders and third parties REMOVAL OF PIPELINE – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. 2. recycled. 5.2. or disposed of as scrap as appropriate (refer to project Waste Management Plan). 9. 3. Removal of Pipe The condition of the pipe shall be assessed and salvaged/dismantled for reuse. 6. 4. abandonment of buried pipelines in situ is environmentally preferable to the disturbance associated with the removal of pipeline. monitored and assessed for any further revegetation needs. land use and third parties REMOVAL OF PIPELINE – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Excavation Management Measures The width of vegetation clearance shall be minimised to the safest practical width. 8. Cleared vegetation shall be stockpiled for respreading during rehabilitation. The easement shall be reinstated to match surrounding contours in a manner that will not cause erosion. 7. Trench spoil shall be stockpiled separately from vegetation and topsoil.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES DECOMMISSIONING 7. Reinstatement Trench spoil shall be replaced as close to soil horizon order as possible and certified clean fill material shall be added to the trench as required. which will involve excavation.4 REMOVAL OF PIPELINE As discussed in section 6. Revision 2 – March 2009 99 .

All aboveground pipe and supports along the pipeline should be cut-off (at a minimum depth of 750mm below the natural surface or at pipeline depth as determined by AS 2885. or disposed of as scrap as appropriate (refer to project Waste Management Plan). 5. recycled. mainline valves and other ancillary infrastructure that is part of the pipeline designed under AS 2885 shall be assessed and salvaged/dismantled for reuse.3). 6.3 and section 7. 2. The condition of the power plants/generators. Well pads shall be removed and any hydrocarbon-contaminated soil disposed of in accordance with the project’s Waste Management Plan. Wells shall be permanently plugged. All aboveground signs and markers above the pipeline should be removed.5 REMOVAL OF ABOVE GROUND INFRASTRUCTURE The overall objective is to leave the easement as near as practical to pre-existing environmental conditions and decommission the pipeline in a manner that minimises potential impacts to the environment. 3. To undertake pipeline corridor remediation works in a manner that is consistent with AS 2885 To prevent impact on surface and ground water To prevent soil contamination To prevent soil erosion To minimise impact on flora and fauna To minimise waste and dispose appropriately To minimise disruptions to landholders and third parties To minimise visual impact of the easement.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 7. 100 Revision 2 – March 2009 . and anode and earthing beds are to be disconnected at 600mm below the natural surface level (refer to AS 2885. removed and blinded below the surface. REMOVAL OF ABOVEGROUND INFRASTRUCTURE – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Potential impact on surface and ground water quality Potential soil contamination Potential impact on flora and fauna Waste management and disposal Temporary disruption to landholders and third parties Visual amenity REMOVAL OF ABOVEGROUND INFRASTRUCTURE – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. 7. 4. If the cathodic protection system is being abandoned all above ground elements should be removed. site locations and access tracks by undertaking appropriate rehabilitation REMOVAL OF ABOVEGROUND INFRASTRUCTURE – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Well Head Pipework Management Measures Well manifolds shall be abandoned using methods that will protect groundwater resources. compressor station equipment.3). Where buildings are to be demolished this shall be undertaken in accordance with the project’s Waste Management Plan. Other Infrastructure Reuse of buildings in good condition shall be considered. 8. land use and third parties.

Erosion and sediment control measures shall be installed as necessary. the pipeline corridor shall be re-profiled to original or stable contours. and repairs undertaken as required e.10 to ascertain pipeline corridor condition. subsidence backfill. Revegetation and Monitoring Unauthorised access shall be discouraged in order to facilitate natural regeneration of the area. Where topsoil has been removed. it shall be respread or clean topsoil imported where there are insufficient stockpiles. 4.6 REHABILITATION OF PIPELINE CORRIDOR The overall objective is to leave the pipeline corridor as near as practical to pre-existing environmental conditions and decommission the pipeline in a manner that minimises potential impacts on the environment. land use and third parties. REHABILITATION OF PIPELINE CORRIDOR – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Potential impact on surface and ground water quality Potential soil contamination Potential impact on flora and fauna Remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils Waste management and disposal Temporary disruption to landholders and third parties REHABILITATION OF PIPELINE CORRIDOR – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. The pipeline corridor shall be assessed to determine if additional revegetation is required to facilitate natural regeneration. site locations and access tracks by undertaking appropriate rehabilitation REHABILITATION OF PIPELINE CORRIDOR – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Earthworks Management Measures Compaction relief shall be undertaken. 9. 2. As necessary. Areas of high ecological value may be fenced in order to facilitate regeneration and revegetation. 7. 8. reestablishing surface drainage lines and other land features. 3.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES DECOMMISSIONING 7. revegetation. by ripping or scarifying soils along the contours. 5. To undertake pipeline corridor remediation works in a manner that is consistent with AS 2885 To prevent impact on surface and ground water To prevent soil contamination To remediate any soil contamination present To prevent soil erosion and subsidence To minimise impact on flora and fauna To minimise waste and dispose appropriately To minimise disruptions to landholders and third parties To minimise visual impact of the pipeline corridor. The pipeline corridor shall be assessed in accordance with 7. as required. 6.g. Revision 2 – March 2009 101 .

by ripping or scarifying soils along the contours. the pipeline easement shall be re-profiled to original or stable contours. signage and infrastructure shall be removed and recycled.6). Areas of high ecological value may be fenced in order to facilitate regeneration and revegetation. Erosion and sediment control measures shall be installed as necessary. All imported material. land use and third parties To prevent impact no surface and ground water To prevent soil erosion To minimise visual impact of the easement. The pipeline corridor shall be assessed to determine if additional revegetation is required to facilitate natural regeneration. 5. site locations and access tracks by undertaking appropriate rehabilitation ROADS. ROADS. re-establishing surface drainage lines and other land features. where possible. Compaction relief shall be undertaken. dirt roads and access tracks should be rehabilitated to existing surrounding conditions or better (refer to construction guidelines for Reinstatement and Rehabilitation section 4. roads and access tracks will be left in place for continued use unless otherwise directed by government authorities or landowners. ACCESS TRACKS AND HARDSTAND REMEDIATION In most cases. 2. ACCESS TRACKS AND HARDSTAND REMEDIATION – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. ACCESS TRACKS AND HARDSTAND REMEDIATION – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Potential impact on surface and ground water quality Potential soil contamination Potential impact on flora and fauna Temporary disruption to landholders and third parties ROADS. as required. or taken to an approved waste disposal facility.1. ACCESS TRACKS AND HARDSTAND REMEDIATION – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning Remediation Management Measures Ensure landholder and affected stakeholders have been notified of intended works. Rehabilitation and Monitoring Unauthorised access shall be discouraged in order to facilitate natural regeneration of the area. If required. 102 Revision 2 – March 2009 . 3. To undertake pipeline corridor remediation works in a manner that is consistent with AS 2885 To decommission the pipeline corridor in a manner that minimises potential impacts on the environment. As necessary.7 ROADS.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 7. 4. Where topsoil has been removed it shall be respread or clean topsoil imported where there are insufficient stockpiles.

groundwater testing (if applicable). land use and third parties To minimise and manage wastes in accordance with regulatory requirements To prevent contamination of soil and water To minimise visual impact of the pipeline corridor. If it has. shall be reviewed and considered in Waste Management Plan. Sampling locations can be determined based on visual inspection and site surveys. 2. The primary goals of remediation are to protect public health. protect groundwater stores and to protect sensitive ecological resources. Contaminated Soil Prior to the decommissioning. The results of the preliminary investigation shall be used to determine whether significant contamination has occurred. of an unauthorised or accidental release of a contaminant during operations. site locations and access tracks by undertaking appropriate rehabilitation WASTE MANAGEMENT – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Planning Management Measures Waste materials will be carefully disposed of at approved waste management facilities in accordance with the applicable regulations. in particular former treatment. storage and processing areas. Historical information can be used to ascertain potential sources and types of contaminants. a preliminary inventory of existing equipment and hazardous material should be collected. soil vapour testing (if applicable). health risk and ecological risk. Initial sampling should take place on areas suspected of having the greatest probability of subsurface contamination. 5. the activities of communities and on future uses of the environment shall be reviewed and considered in the Waste Management Plan. Consumption of natural resources and energy associated with re-use or recycling shall be reviewed and considered in Waste Management Plan. Revision 2 – March 2009 103 . Impacts on amenities. further assessment may be required in order to define the extent of the contamination and should consist of more extensive testing including: soil testing. reuse and recycle” principle. 3. 4. To undertake pipeline corridor remediation works in a manner that is consistent with AS 2885 To decommission the pipeline corridor in a manner that minimises potential impacts on the environment. including exposure of the environment to pipeline related contaminants. and appropriate disposal. Remediation can be defined as the removal. Historical information is also useful for documentation of previous spills or other incidents. A project specific Waste Management Plan should be developed and shall adopt the “reduce. WASTE MANAGEMENT – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Protection of soil and water quality Waste management and disposal Temporary disruption to landholders Remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils WASTE MANAGEMENT – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. Impacts on the environment and landholders.8 WASTE MANAGEMENT Management of wastes should be conducted in accordance with AS 2885 and the APIA Code of Environmental Practice. standards and industry best practice.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES DECOMMISSIONING 7.

AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION Hydrocarbon contaminated soils (e. in consultation with regulatory agencies and in accordance with ANZECC guidelines. loading bay drain/pig trap contents. Remediation of contaminated sites shall be in accordance with sections 4 and 5 Environmental Guidelines – Construction and Operations and regulatory requirements. 104 Revision 2 – March 2009 . oil/fuel spills). should be removed and remediated according to their concentration of contaminants. their leachability and the extent of area affected.g. state regulations and policies.

consideration must be made of any abandonment conditions applying to the pipeline. Revision 2 – March 2009 105 . Easement relinquishment should also include obtaining landowner releases for the completed abandonment. maps and drawings) identifying and locating the abandoned pipelines will need to be prepared and submitted to the appropriate authorities to allow future identification of infrastructure left in situ. All pipelines which are partially or wholly left in situ should be accurately mapped and recorded as required by AS 2885. Records When the process of tenement relinquishment is undertaken.9 EASEMENT TENEMENT Where a pipeline is being abandoned and no further use of the easement is intended the tenement on the easement should be relinquished. it is likely that records (i.e. EASEMENT TENEMENT – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Temporary disruption to landholders and third parties EASEMENT TENEMENT – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. including a review of the following documents to ensure that all condition are met: pipeline licence conditions legislative requirements ministerial requirements government negotiations or contracts Australian Standards landowner agreements. To undertake pipeline corridor remediation works in a manner that is consistent with AS 2885 To decommission the pipeline corridor in a manner that minimises potential impacts on the environment. land use. landholders and third parties EASEMENT TENEMENT – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Relinquishment Management Measures Prior to the easement tenement being relinquished.3. 2.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES DECOMMISSIONING 7.

4. Removal Monitoring or auditing of easements where the pipeline has been removed shall be undertaken for a specified period following their abandonment or the relinquishment of the tenement.10 MONITORING & AUDITING Pipeline operators are responsible for decommissioned pipelines however once a pipeline tenement has been relinquished an operator is normally relinquished of liability and responsibility after a specified period of time. Monitoring or auditing of removed pipeline easements shall focus on the success of remediation and revegetation activities.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 7. A review should be undertaken of the following documents in order to determine the extent and period of liability and responsibility for suspended. site locations and access tracks by undertaking appropriate rehabilitation MONITORING AND AUDITING – ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Activity Suspension Management Measures Decommissioned pipelines require continued monitoring and maintenance of cathodic protection. Monitoring shall be undertaken periodically to ensure prompt remediation of erosion or third party damage to infrastructure. MONITORING AND AUDITING – KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Potential impact on surface and ground water quality Potential soil erosion Potential impact on flora and fauna Potential impact on landholders and third parties MONITORING AND AUDITING – ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES 1. The easement shall be monitored to check for evidence of soil subsidence and erosion. Monitoring or auditing of an abandoned pipeline shall focus on the success of remediation and revegetation activities. or ground water contamination. abandoned in place and removed pipelines: pipeline licence conditions legislative requirements ministerial requirements regulatory commitments landowner agreements. Abandonment in Place Monitoring or auditing of abandoned pipelines shall be undertaken for a specified period following their abandonment or the relinquishment of the tenement. 5. The easement shall be monitored to check for evidence of soil subsidence and erosion. and in some cases maintenance of the easement or right-of-way. 3. To undertake pipeline corridor remediation works in a manner that is consistent with AS 2885 To prevent impact on surface and ground water To prevent soil erosion and subsidence To minimise impact on flora and fauna To minimise visual impact of the pipeline corridor. signs and markers. 106 Revision 2 – March 2009 . 2.

both now and in the future. in a way that maintains the ecological processes on which life depends”. The disease affects the roots of native Australian plants. DTI Easement EIA EMP EMS EPA EPBC Erosion control berms Department of Trade and Industry (United Kingdom) A right held by the proponent to make use of the land for the installation and operation of a pipeline. leading to their eventual decline. Revision 2 – March 2009 107 . Highly dispersive soil which becomes powdery (talc like) when disturbed causing large movement of sediment and soil particles due to wind and water erosion. Small rocks enclosed within wire mesh. grading topsoil to the edge of the right of way. Australian Standard AS 2885 Pipelines – Gas and liquid petroleum An enlarged area of trench. commonly referred to as cinnamon fungus. Dieback A soil borne plant pathogen (Phytophthora cinnamomi). condensate or oil from a well to a processing plant. Defined by the Australian National Strategy for ESD (1992) as “development that improves the total quality of life. Fabric for placing on ground surfaces to minimise erosion. An earth. Drainage or other disturbance which causes oxidation results in the release of highly acidic leachates from the soil.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS Acid sulphate soil Soils which form when sulphate rich soils or sediment are exposed to oxygen. ESD Ecologically Sustainable Development. used to stabilise slopes. trenching and other construction activities. Flow line Gabions Geofabric or geotextile A pipeline used to relay raw gas. Also referred to as a right of way. Application of an electrical current to the pipeline exterior to prevent the electrochemical process of corrosion occurring. involving clearing vegetation and other obstacles from the right of way. in particular forest tree species. products or services that can interact with the environment. and creating a safe working surface (and slope) for construction. rock or concrete wall constructed to prevent the inflow or outflow of liquids. AGA Anthropological ANZECC APPEA ARPEL Aspect AS 2885 Bell hole Blue Book Borrow pit Bulldust Bund Cathodic protection system Clear-and-grade Australian Gas Association Pertaining to human societies Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association Regional Association of Oil and Natural Gas Companies of Latin America and the Caribbean Element of an organisation's activities. Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental Management Plan Environmental Management System Environment Protection Authority Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 Compacted earthen banks strategically placed to divert erosive and/or silt contaminated water away from vulnerable areas such as the pipeline corridor or water resources. The preparation of the right of way for vehicular movement. Landcom’s Soils and Construction – Managing Urban Stormwater Handbook Surface excavation for the extraction of materials such as sand or clay.

Rehabilitation is the process of returning an area to its pre-disturbance construction state including reinstatement. It may be a private landowner. dispersive soils. National Parks or Forestry areas). to clean and inspect the pipe internally. or soils at water discharge receiving areas. sand or serpentine soils. ethane. Purging Radiography Rehabilitation Removing all air from the pipeline. using gas. revegetation or restoration dependent upon the defined scope or works. Each individual employee and contractor operating within an agreed management structure or ‘chain of command’. soil surface topography. or a Government Agency responsible for management of a particular parcel of Crown land (e. major road. soils affected by dryland salinity. Result of an organisation’s aspect actually causing an environmental harm A general term used to refer to the legal owner or manager of a parcel of land. A tool which is inserted into a pipeline and propelled along by hydrotest water or the gas flow.e. Some common petroleum hydrocarbons include methane. from erosion caused by water flows. A class of chemical compounds consisting primarily of the elements hydrogen and carbon. railway) through which the pipe is threaded. watercourses. Natural material such as rock or timber used to protect susceptible areas. Definition for regeneration & revegetation is detailed in section 4. butane. The potential of something to cause injury or harm One method by which a pipeline trench is drilled at a shallow angle under a crossing (e. Raking or shallow ploughing to relieve compaction and aerate soils. such as a river or stream. Non-destructive examination of pipeline welds using X-ray to detect defects. Government or private utility.g. Such soils include. Valves located in a pipeline at intervals along its length. backhoes and bulldozers. propane. A soil by which its own properties increases risk of environmental harm and where additional management measures required. services and function from a de novo or degraded site to that of a pre-determined or analogue state. a stream bed. Relating to the bank or shore of a natural watercourse. Riparian Ripping Rip-rap 108 Revision 2 – March 2009 . Restoration Restoration is the replacement of structural habitat complexity. Hydrostatic testing A pipeline testing process used to test welds and pipeline integrity in high pressure hydrocarbon pipelines. Ministerial Council on Mineral and Petroleum Resources Fine grained soil placed in the trench to protect the pipeline coating from rock damage.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION Grading Hazard Horizontal directional drilling Hydrocarbon Levelling of the right of way using graders.8 Reinstatement Reinstatement is the process of bulk earth works and structural replacement of preexisting conditions of a site (i. condensate.g. Hydrostatic testing (or hydrotesting) Impact Landholder Line list Line management Mainline valves MCMPR Padding Pig Problematic Soils A document for construction contractors which itemises the management procedures to be undertaken and which gives site specific information for field operators. crude oil and asphaltenes. acid sulphate soils. followed by regeneration. A means to check the pipeline for strength and leaks prior to operation in which the pipeline is filled with water and the pressure increased and monitored under controlled conditions. such as reinstated creek beds and banks. ecosystem processes. culverts fences and gates and other landscape/d features. naphtha. The process involves filling the newly constructed pipeline with pressurised water enabling the detection of leaks. contaminated soils. Petroleum hydrocarbons are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons ranging from light gas to heavy oil compounds.

Those parties not directly associated with the pipeline such as landholders. Waters can also include trench and pipeline discharge waters. streams. Sources or conveyancing of water including drainage channels. designed to permit lowering of the pipe string into the trench. consisting of a tractor with a boom crane. where it is diverted away from the pipeline construction area by erosion control berms. similar to railway sleepers. Trench blocks (trench breakers) Impermeable barriers placed in the trench during pipelaying to prevent water erosion along the pipeline in the backfilled trench. Trench plug Trench spoil Trench water Waters/Watercourses Revision 2 – March 2009 109 . Construction equipment. Laying the pipe adjacent to the pipeline trench. used to keep the pipeline off the ground.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES Risk Scraper stations Side-boom tractors Skids Stringing Third party The probability that harm or injury may occur to persons or the environment An above ground facility used to launch and receive pigs which are inserted into the pipeline system. dams and other water bodies. government. Water (usually shallow groundwater) in the pipeline trench. Timber blocks. rivers. mining companies) and the general public. They are generally installed adjacent to watercourses and in sloping terrain and are designed to allow water to seep up and out of the backfilled trench. Short section of trench left unexcavated to allow passage of stock or wildlife across the trench. Soil from the pipeline trench. other commercial interests (e. creeks. power utilities.g.

Australian Gas Association Information Paper. The National Greenhouse Strategy: Strategic Framework for Advancing Australia’s Greenhouse Response. Construction.6. NSW Roads and Traffic Authority (1993) Road Design Guide Series. Landcom (2004) Soils and Construction – Managing Urban Stormwater Handbook. Australian Gas Association (1997) Horizontal Directional Drilling – A Pipeline Construction Tool. Principles and Practices. (Draft) Commonwealth of Australia (1998). 8. Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association (APPEA) (1996) Code of Environmental Practice. Guideline No. Institute of Engineers QLD. Australian Weeds Committee (2008) Noxious Weeds List for Australian States and Territories Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (2002) Guidelines for Pipeline Abandonment Applications in Alberta. Australian Pipeline Industry Association (APIA) (1997) Business Plan. October 1997. Environmental Guideline No. Australian Pipeline Industry Association and Victorian Farmers Federation (2004) Pipeline Easement Guidelines. Bibliography of Environmental Best Practice Documents. Environment Institute of Australia and New Zealand (2008). 4 Ed. Operation and Maintenance of Hydrocarbon Pipelines. Volume 1. Australian Gas Association (AGA) Gas Transmission Pipelines: Development and Economics. Australian Minerals and Energy Foundation (AMEF) (1996) Environmental Management in the Australian Minerals and Energy Industries. Institute of Engineers (1997). Code of Environmental Practice for Offshore Pipelines. Australian Pipeline Industry Association (APIA).AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION FURTHER READING American Water Works Association (AWWA) Standard for Water Quality Standard ARPEL (Regional Association of Oil & Natural Gas Companies in Latin America & the Caribbean) (1992) Decommissioning and Surface Land Reclamation at Petroleum Production and Refining Facilities. (the Blue Book) Ministerial Council on Mineral and Petroleum Resources (2005) Principles for Engagement with Communities and Stakeholders.11. Australian Gas Association (1996) Environmental Code of Practice (Code AG 750). Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) (1992) Australian Water Quality Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Waters. NSW Department of Urban Affairs and Planning (1996) Is an EIS Required? Best Practice Guidelines for Part 5 of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979. Erosion and Sediment Control Engineering Guidelines. UNSW Press. Environmental ARPEL (1992) Environmental Management of the Design. th 110 Revision 2 – March 2009 . Research Paper No.

Standards Australia (2004) AS/NZS 4360 Risk Management.2:2002) Standards Australia (2001) AS 2885.5:2002) Standards Australia (2001) AS 1579 – Arc Welded Steel pipes and fittings for water and waste water Standards Australia (2001) AS 1281 Cement mortar lining of steel pipes and fittings Standards Australia (2000) AS 2129 Flanges for Valves and pipe fittings Standards Australia (2004) AS 4087.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES Standards Australia (1997) AS 1055 Acoustics – Description and measurement of Environmental Noise. (AS 1055:1997) Standards Australia (2004) AS 1940 Storage and Handling of Flammable and Combustible Liquids. systems and supporting techniques (AS/NZS ISO 14004:20064). (AS/NZS 4360:2004) Standards Australia (2004) AS/NZS ISO 14001: Environmental Management Systems – Requirements with guidance for use (AS/NZS ISO 14001:2004).3 Pipelines – Gas and Liquid Petroleum – Operation and Maintenance (AS 2885. Victorian Environment Protection Authority (EPA) (1996) Best Practice Environmental Management Series – Environmental Guidelines for Major Construction Sites Victorian Water Industry Association Inc & Victorian Farmers Federation (2008).Metal Flanges and AS/NZS 2280 Ductile Iron Pipe and Fittings.4:2003) Standards Australia (2002) AS 2885. Standards Australia (2003) AS/NZS ISO 19011 Guidelines for Quality and/or Environmental Management Systems Auditing (AS/NZS ISO 19011:2003). Environmental Management Guidelines for the Australian Water Industry.2 Pipelines – Gas and Liquid Petroleum – Welding (AS 2885. (AS 1940:2004) Standards Australia (1997) AS 2885.1 Pipelines – Gas and Liquid Petroleum – Design and Construction (AS 2885. Pipeline Easement Guidelines. Water Service Association of Australia. Standards Australia (2004) AS/NZS ISO 14004 Environmental Management Systems – General guidelines on principles.3:2001) Standards Australia (2003) AS 2885.1:1997) Standards Australia (2002) AS 2885.5 Pipelines – Gas and Liquid Petroleum – Field Pressure Testing (AS 2885. Revision 2 – March 2009 111 .4 Pipelines – Gas and Liquid Petroleum – Offshore (AS 2885.

AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION APPENDICES 112 Revision 2 – March 2009 .

net. APIA has been based in Canberra since January 1998 and has developed a strong presence and profile. understand the benefits that a dynamic. APIA also provides information and promotes the interests of the pipeline industry through public presentations. social impact. Represent the pipeline industry to government. newspaper feature articles. These networking opportunities are a platform for members to demonstrate and market their expertise. Build and enhance relationships across the range of member groups within APIA and facilitate the contribution of all sectors to issues which impact on the industry’s common interests. The Association has a full-time team comprising a Chief Executive. the public and other organisations and enhance links with other industry bodies and environmental bodies. 7. operators.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES APPENDIX 1: ABOUT APIA The Australian Pipeline Industry Association Ltd (APIA) is the peak national body representing the interests of Australia’s transmission pipeline sector. engineering companies and suppliers of pipeline products and services. advisers. The APIA web page at www. services and knowledge. the Association welcomes membership of companies and individuals involved in the transmission via pipelines of other products including potable and recycled water. Promote training and encourage knowledge retention within the pipeline industry. industry and community groups. land access. APIA’s Key Objectives 1. owners. Develop and support policies. APIA’s Mission To provide services for our members and to ensure the broader community. ideas and innovations. 2. Business Manager. 6. 8. APIA manages and promotes an Annual Convention and Exhibition as well as a comprehensive program of seminars. Facilitate research relevant to the pipeline industry. including cultural and community heritage. including government. sewage and wastewater removal. Improve the regulatory environment in which pipeline projects are developed. Membership Officer and Functions/Administration Officer plus part-time Research and Technical Policy Managers and an Accounts Administrator. Provide members with information. An important role for APIA has been its industry research programs and the Association has strong working relationships with leading institutions. editorial comment in The Pipeliner and other publications and media releases as well as a regular Chief Executive Brief to members. services and networking opportunities. providing access to specialist industry information. 9.au is a vital tool for members. 5. standards and practices in the pipeline industry. Promote high-pressure pipelines as a safe and reliable mode of transport and improve general awareness of the benefits of pipelines. APIA has been a leading proponent in the development of the industry-accepted technical standard. products. minerals and sand slurry. petroleum and petrochemical liquids. It has a diverse membership base with approximately 400 members including contractors. market-driven Australian pipeline industry can deliver to the national economy and to regional development. 3. 4. Revision 2 – March 2009 113 . LNG and CO2. Monitor emerging trends in the industry and develop responses as appropriate. constructed and operated in Australia.apia. AS2885. APIA’s current membership is predominantly involved in the high-pressure transmission of gas. As part of this research focus. safety and environment. luncheons and dinners. however. Policy Adviser. powerline and cable conduits.

reuse. in their absence. standards and guidelines for the protection of the environment and. control and monitor environmental risks and monitor compliance with environmental requirements with the intention of continual improvement Incorporate environmental management into the planning. consistent with the spirit of international Greenhouse gas agreements to which Australia is a signatory Implement appropriate waste management strategies based on the principles of reduce. design. APPENDIX 2: APIA ENVIRONMENT POLICY APIA recognises the pipeline industry’s responsibility to the community regarding environmental protection. Cheryl Cartwright APIA Chief Executive October 2008 114 Revision 2 – March 2009 . adopt the best practicable means available to prevent or minimise adverse impacts Actively work with government agencies and statutory bodies in drafting legislation. operation and decommissioning is conducted in an efficient and environmentally responsible manner. operation. standards and procedures for environmental protection Develop and maintain management systems for self-regulation which identify. acquisition. construction. In support of this commitment APIA will promote through example. and will promote the adoption of all practicable measures to ensure that pipeline planning and design. recycle and appropriate disposal as the final option Ensure that all employees and contractors are aware of their environmental responsibilities and have opportunities to be trained in the necessary skills Communicate openly with stakeholders regarding environmental matters related to the industry’s activities.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION A streamlined Standing Committee structure enables APIA to progress many of its core priorities. document. construction. policies. decommissioning and divesture of all pipeline related businesses and facilities Implement appropriate strategies that aim to minimise Greenhouse gas emissions. regulations. and encourage APIA member companies to: Embrace a proactive approach to environmental management in the knowledge that environmental impacts can be prevented or minimised Comply with relevant legislation. as appropriate.

Due to changing legislation. each having associated Regulations and Policies that require review and use. This list of Acts is provided only as a guide. COMMONWEALTH Aboriginal & Torres Straight Islander Heritage Protection Act 1984 Australian Dangerous Goods Code Australian Heritage Council Act 2003 Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 Industrial Chemicals (Notification and Assessment) Act 1989 Native Title Act 1993 National Greenhouse Energy Reporting Act 2008 Ozone Protection and Synthetic Greenhouse Gas Management Act 1989 AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY Environment Protection Act 1997 Heritage Act 2004 Nature Conservation Act 1980 Pest Plants and Animals Act 2005 Planning and Development Act 2007 NEW SOUTH WALES Aboriginal Land Rights Act 1983 Catchment Management Authorities Act 2003 Contaminated Land Management Act 1997 Crown Lands Act 1989 Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 Environmentally Hazardous Chemicals Act 1985 Explosives Act 2003 Forestry Act 1916 Forestry and National Park Estate Act 1998 Heritage Act 1977 Land Acquisition (Just Terms Compensation) Act 1991 Local Government Act 1993 National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 Native Title (New South Wales) Act 1994 Native Vegetation Act 2003 Noxious Weeds Act 1993 Noxious Weeds Amendment Act 2005 Ozone Protection Act 1989 Pesticides Act 1999 Pipelines Act 1967 Plant Diseases Act 1924 Protection of the Environment Operations Act 1997 Roads Act 1993 Road and Rail Transport (Dangerous Goods) Act 1997 Rural Fires Act 1997 Rural Lands Protection Act 1998 Soil Conservation Act 1938 Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 Waste Avoidance and Resource Recovery Act 2001 Water Act 1912 Wilderness Act 1987 Revision 2 – March 2009 115 .CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES APPENDIX 3: LEGISLATION The following is a list of environmental legislation relevant to the construction. varying requirements and the often complex nature of pipeline approvals. operation and decommissioning of pipelines in Australia. State or Territory regulatory authorities. APIA advises its members to seek clarification from appropriate experts and relevant Commonwealth.

AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION NORTHERN TERRITORY Aboriginal Land Act 2004 Agricultural and Vetenary Chemicals (Northern Territory) Act 2005 Bushfires Act 2004 Crown Lands Act 2000 Dangerous Goods (Road and Rail Transport) Act 2005 Energy Pipelines Act 2003 Environmental Assessment Act 1994 Heritage Conservation Act 2000 Lands Acquisition Act 2004 Litter Act 1999 Northern Territory Aboriginal Sacred Sites Act 2004 Ozone Protection Act 1996 Pastoral Land Act 2004 Planning Act 2003 Soil Conservation and Land Utilisation Act 2001 Stock Diseases Act 2004 Territory Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 2005 Waste Management and Pollution Control Act 2003 Water Act 2004 Weeds Management Act 2001 QUEENSLAND Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Act 2003 Aboriginal Lands Act 1991 Agricultural Chemicals Distribution Control Act 1966 Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (Queensland) Act 1994 Chemical Usage (Agricultural and Veterinary) Control Act 1988 Dangerous Goods Safety Management Act 2001 Environmental Protection Act 1994 Environment Protection (Air) Policy 1997 Environment Protection (Noise) Policy 1997 Environment Protection (Waste Management) Policy 2000 Environment Protection (Water) Policy 1997 Fire and Rescue Authority Act 1990 Forestry Act 1959 Integrated Planning Act 1997 Land Protection (Pest and Stock Route Management) Act 2002 Land and Resources Tribunal Act 1999 Land Act 1994 Native Title (Queensland) Act 1993 Nature Conservation Act 1992 Petroleum Act 1923 Petroleum and Gas (Production and Safety) Act 2004 Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1982 Plant Protection Act 1989 Queensland Heritage Act 1992 Soil Conservation Act 1986 State Development and Public Works Organisation Act 1971 Torres Strait Islander Cultural Heritage Act 2003 Torres Strait Islander Land Act 1991 Vegetation Management Act 1999 Water Act 2000 116 Revision 2 – March 2009 .

CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES SOUTH AUSTRALIA Aboriginal Heritage Act 1988 Agricultural and Vetinary Products (Control of Use) Act 2002 Dangerous Substances Act 1979 Dog Fence Act 1946 Environment Protection Act 1993 Environment Protection (Air Quality) Policy 1994 Environment Protection (Industrial Noise) Policy 1994 Environment Protection (Machine Noise) Policy 1994 Environment Protection (Waste Management) Policy 1994 Environment Protection (Water Quality) Policy 2003 Fire and Emergency Services Act 2005 Heritage Places Act 1993 National Parks & Wildlife Act 1972 Native Vegetation Act 1991 Natural Resources Management Act 2004 Pastoral Land Management and Conservation Act 1989 Petroleum Act 2000 Water Resources Act 1997 TASMANIA Aboriginal Lands Act 1995 Aboriginal Relics Act 1975 Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (Control of Use) Act 1995 Crown Lands Act 1976 Dangerous Goods Act 1998 Environmental Management and Pollution Control Act 1994 Environment Protection Policy (Air Quality) 2004 Environment Protection Policy (Noise) 2003 (Draft) Fire Service Act 1979 Forestry Act 1920 Gas Pipelines Act 2000 Historic Cultural Heritage Act 1995 Land Use Planning and Approvals Act 1993 Litter Act 2007 Major Infrastructure Development Approvals Act 1999 National Parks and Reserves Management Act 2002 Native Title (Tasmania) Act 1994 Nature Conservation Act 2002 Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 Vermin Control Act 2000 Water Management Act 1999 Weed Management Act 1999 Revision 2 – March 2009 117 .

Industry and Trade) 1989 State Environment Protection Policy (Waters of Victoria) 1988 Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 Heritage Act 1995 Pipelines Act 2005 Water Act 1989 Wildlife Act 1975 WESTERN AUSTRALIA Aboriginal Heritage Act 1972 Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (Western Australia) Act 1995 Animal Welfare Act 2002 Bush Fires Act 1954 Contaminated Sites Act 2003 Dangerous Goods Safety Act 2004 Environment Protection Act 1986 Heritage of Western Australia Act 1990 Native Title (State Provisions) Act 1999 Petroleum and Geothermal Energy Resources Act 1967 Petroleum Pipelines Act 1969 Reserves (National Parks Conservation Parks Nature Reserves and Other Reserves) Act 2004 Soil and Land Conservation Act 1945 Waterways Conservation Act 1976 Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 118 Revision 2 – March 2009 .AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION VICTORIA Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006 Catchment and Land Protection Act 1994 Country Fire Authority Act 1958 Dangerous Goods Act 1985 Environment Effects Act 1978 Environment Protection Act 1970 State Environment Protection Policy (Air Quality Management) 1999 State Environment Protection Policy (Ambient Air Quality) 2001 State Environment Protection Policy (Prevention and Management of Contaminated Land) 2002 State Environment Protection Policy (Groundwaters of Victoria) 1997 State Environment Protection Policy (Control of Noise from Commerce.

2 AS 2865 AS 3725 AS 4087 AS 5667.2 AS 2885. operation and decommissioning of pipelines in Australia.1 Structural Steel Welding .3 AS 2885.Structural Design Buried Flexible Pipelines .CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES APPENDIX 4: RELEVANT CODES & STANDARDS The following is a list of standards relevant to the construction. For a comprehensive list of additional environmental codes and standards relevant to the construction. State or Territory regulatory authorities. Revision 2 – March 2009 119 .5 Pipelines—Gas and liquid petroleum—General requirements Pipelines—Gas and liquid petroleum—Design and construction Pipelines—Gas and liquid petroleum—Welding Pipelines—Gas and liquid petroleum—Operation and maintenance Pipelines–Gas and liquid petroleum—Offshore submarine pipeline systems Pipelines—Gas and liquid petroleum—Field pressure testing WATER STANDARDS AS 1554 AS 1726 AS 2566. GAS STANDARDS AS 2885. APIA recommends the Environment Institute of Australia and New Zealand’s Environmental Best Practice Bibliography (2008).1 AS 2885. varying requirements and the often complex nature of pipeline approvals. Due to changing legislation. operation and decommissioning of pipelines in Australia.0 AS 2885.Welding of Steel Structures Geotechnical Site Investigations Buried Flexible Pipelines .1 AS 2566.Installation Safe working in a confined space Loads on Buried Concrete Pipes Metallic Flanges for Waterworks Purposes Water Quality – Sampling. This list is provided as a guide.4 AS/NZS 2885. APIA advises its members to seek clarification from appropriate experts and relevant Commonwealth.

120 Revision 2 – March 2009 .AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION APPENDIX 5: PIPELINE INSPECTION CHECKLIST An indicative pipeline checklist is attached.

March 2009 121 . land subsidence or compaction? Are control banks of appropriate height. spacing and material? Are there any areas of trenchline subsidence? Are control banks diverting run-off to stable vegetated land? Vegetation Management Has native vegetation clearance along the pipeline corridor been in compliance with approvals and with flagging or marking in the field? Is vegetation showing signs of water stress? Is vegetation showing signs of disease (e.CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES Pipeline Inspection Checklist Location Compliance Other sites Access Has access been only via designated tracks? Have there been any complaints concerning access by landholders? Are there any reports or evidence of unauthorized third party access to the pipeline corridor or facility sites? Soil and Ground Stability Are there any sites of significant erosion. Dieback)? Have there been reports of disturbance to protected flora or fauna? Is there any evidence of feral animals? Pipeline General Issue Action / Comments or ROW Revision 2 .g.

pumps etc? Are crossings of railways and roads maintained so as to ensure the safety of the public in accordance with regulatory requirements? Bushfire Prevention Are local fire Authority regulations being followed? Is appropriate access available across / along the pipeline corridor for fire management? Air and Noise Emissions Have there been any complaints regarding dust or noise levels? Revision 2 . gates. such as fences.March 2009 122 Pipeline General Issue Action / Comments or ROW .AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION Location Compliance Other sites Weed Control Are any weed infested areas located on the pipeline corridor? (Note the location) Review the success of any current weed eradication programs on site Have all vehicles used on the pipeline corridor been ‘washed down’ to remove weed seeds? (declared weed areas only) Earthworks Is there adequate signage and fencing to ensure public safety? Is access being maintained across the pipeline corridor for vehicles and livestock? Land Use Has there been any disturbance to landowner infrastructure.

drainage shadow)? Are stream crossing banks stable? Are sections of the pipeline exposed? Aboveground Flowlines Are flowline supports in place? Is the flowline free from external corrosion? Is the flowline free from excessive stress? Facilities Management Are all facilities locked and secure? Waste Management Are drainage sumps regularly checked and drained? Are there any oil spills present? Have previous spills been cleaned up adequately? Are materials such as scrap metal. wood. contained and treated? Pipeline General Issue Action / Comments or ROW Revision 2 .March 2009 123 .CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES Location Compliance Other sites Heritage Issues Is there any visible disturbance to protected sites? Are there any reports of personnel accessing prohibited areas? Water Management Is there evidence of disturbance to drainage patterns (e. rags etc. recycled where possible? Is debris from pigging operations properly collected.g.

contained and treated? Chemical Storage Is appropriate chemical storage provided? Are all chemical drums properly disposed of at an appropriately licensed facility? Are all storage sites kept clean? Pipeline General Issue Action / Comments or ROW Revision 2 .AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION Location Compliance Other sites Asbestos Removal Has all asbestos been properly collected.March 2009 124 .

CODE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE – ONSHORE PIPELINES APPENDIX 6: FAUNA MANAGEMENT PRO-FORMA Revision 2 – March 2009 125 .

ASS. Consider separate item or references to ‘problematic soils’ including PASS. Water Management & Discharge – after review. for example in Section 4 replace the word ‘issue’ with ‘impact’. Contaminated land and UXO sites management Problematic Soils Management. Sustainability Consideration of sustainability. Heritage Marking Consideration of distinguishing between cultural and natural heritage items. Tidal and Marine Environments. These items were identified in the latest review of the Code and are under further investigation and clarification from industry experts and regulatory authorities. impacts and control measures. Contaminated lands. Dryland Salinity. Tidal and marine environments in coastal plain areas to be considered as they present additional influences to environmental management. 126 Revision 2 – March 2009 . with cultural items to be marked with a blue and white flag/tape and natural items to be marked with yellow. CO2 and other transmission pipelines Consideration of aspects and reconcile for adequacy against APIA CoEP EIANZ Consider possible affiliation with or endorsement by the EIANZ when undertaking review of CoEP and particularly control measures for ‘Best Practice’ not just industry best practice Further review of monitoring aspects of the Code. Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme and National Greenhouse Emission Reporting Scheme on pipeline construction and operational phases of facilities. Identify aspects. consider developing a new section in or associated with Purging and Hydrotesting and Commissioning in Section 5. Terminology Consideration of updating environmental terminology.AUSTRALIAN PIPELINE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION APPENDIX 7: FUTURE DIRECTIONS CONSIDERATIONS The following table is a list of items for further consideration by the pipeline industry in regard to the management of environmental aspects of our activities and operations. Sand dune or desert environments. Operations. Soils and soil management on Pipelines or other linear infrastructure are a major aspect and ipact upon the environment. Dispersive soils.

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