Animal Tissues

A tissue is a group of structurally similar cells of common embryonic origin and intercellular or extracellular substance working together for particular or related function. Histology (Gr. Histos=tissue; logos=discourse) deals about structure and functions of tissues in organs. The term was coined by Mayer. Marcella Malpighi is known as the Founder of Histology. The terms ‘tissue’ was coined by Marie Francois Xavier Bichat.
TYPES OF ANIMAL TISSUES

1. 2. 3. 4.

Name Epithelial Tissues Muscular Tissues Connective Tissues Nervous Tissues

Origin Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm Mesoderm Mesoderm Ectoderm

Epithelial Tissues or Epithelia

(Gr. Epi=upon; thele=nipple; Ruysch) An epithelium is a tissue present on the lining of body or body cavities.
Common Features:

a. They may have a single layer of cells (simple epithelium) or many layers of cells (compound epithelium). b. Lowermost layer is based on non-cellular basement membrane or basal lamina made of collagenous protein. c. Intercellular space is little or absent. d. They are not supplied with blood vessels. Lymph vessels supply nutrients. e. These tissues may be ectodermal (skin or epidermis), mesodermal (lining of coelom) or endodermal (mucosa).
Common Functions:

a. Protection: The epithelial tissues protect the underlying or overlying tissues from injuries, dehydration and infection. b. Secretion: Epithelial lining the cavities gives rise to glands that provide valuable secretions such as mucus, saliva, etc. c. Absorption: Epithelial lining of the intestine absorbs digested food.

d. Excretion: Epithelial lining of uriniferous tubules in the kidneys eliminates nitrogenous waste as urine. e. Sensation: Sensory epithelium in sense organs picks up stimuli from environment and sends nerve impulses to the Central Nervous System. f. Reproduction: Germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules and ovaries produces spermatozoa and ova respectively.
Classification:
Squamous

Cuboidal Simple Epithelium

Columnar Pseudostratifi ed

Compound Squamous Compound Cuboidal

Epithelium

Compound Epithelium

Stratified

Transitional Ciliated
Specialized Epithelium

Compound Columnar

Sensory Glandular
Germinal

Simple Epithelium: The simple epithelia consist of a single layer of cells resting on a basement

membrane. They are further divided into four types according to the form and structure of the cells.
1. Simple Squamous Epithelium (Gr. Squama=scale)

This epithelium consists of flat and polygonal cells which are tightly fitted like the mosaic tiles on floor. Hence, it is also called pavement epithelium. Nucleus is large and rounded and often lies at the centre of the cell.

The Squamous epithelium lines the heart, blood vessels, and lymph vessels, alveoli of lungs, Bowman’s capsule and buccal cavity. Functions include protection, diffusion, filtration and secretion of coelomic fluid.
2. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

This epithelium consists of a single layer of cubical cells of equal height and width. It bears a large oval or spherical nucleus which lies at the centre of the cell. The Cuboidal epithelium lines the uriniferous tubules, salivary glands, sweat glands, retina of eyes and gonads (also known as Germinal Epithelium). Functions include protection, secretion, and absorption and gamete formation.
3. Simple Columnar Epithelium (L. columna=pillar)

This epithelium consists of a single layer of pillar-like cells closely fitted epithelium. It bears elongated nucleus at basal region. It bears elongated nucleus at basal region. The simple columnar epithelium lines the stomach, small and large intestine, gall bladder, uterus and urinogenital duct. Functions include protection, secretion and absorption.
4. Pseudo stratified Epithelium

This epithelium bears single layer of columnar cells of unequal height that gives the appearance of false strata. The longer cells usually bear cilia at free ends but shorter cells do not. Pseudo stratified epithelium lines respiratory tract (trachea, bronchus and bronchioles), uterine and fallopian tube. Functions include propulsion of mucus, cough and ovum.
Compound epithelium: The compound epithelia consist of many layers of cell which are thicker

and stronger. Basement membrane is usually absent.

Simple Epithelia 1. Is only one cell deep. 2. All cells rest on basement membrane. 3. Cells are all alike.

1. 2. 3.

4. Cover moist surfaces subject to little wear 4. and tear. 5. Provide poor protection to underlying 5. tissues. 6. Play a role in absorption, secretion and 6. excretion.

Compound Epithelia Are many cells deep. Only cells of the lowermost layer rest on basement membrane. Cells in different layers have different forms. Cover surfaces subject to a lot of wear and tear. Provide much better protection to underlying tissues. Have a little role in absorption, secretion and excretion.

1. Stratified Squamous Epithelium

It consists of several layers of cells. The lowermost layer is known as stratum germinativum which is made of columnar cells that divide mitotically to form new cells. Intermediate layers are made of Cuboidal cells and other layer made of flat squamous cells. These tissues cover the areas exposed to much friction. It is of two types: Keratinized Epithelium Forms outer layer of skin, nail, claws and hair. Squamous cells bear Keratin, a highly insoluble protein. It is impervious to water. It is well protective against abrasion. Nonkeratinized Epithelium 1. Lines mouth, pharynx, anterior third of oesophagus, anus, vagina, etc. 2. Squamous cells do not bear Keratin.

1. 2. 3. 4.

3. It is not impervious to water. 4. It is moderately protective against abrasion. 5. Surface cells are dead and have cytoplasm 5. Surface cells are living and retain replaced by Keratin. cytoplasm.
2. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

This epithelium consists of columnar cells on basal layer and Cuboidal cells on upper layers. It is found in the lining of ducts of sweat glands, lactiferous tubules of mammary glands and eye conjunctiva. Function involves protection.
3. Stratified Columnar Epithelium

It consists of Cuboidal cells on stratum germinativum and columnar cells in the upper layers. It is present in vasa deferentia and respiratory tract. Functions involve protection and secretion.
4. Transitional Epithelium

It consists of many layers of stretchable cells. The basal layer bears Cuboidal cells, middle layers bear club-shaped cells and upper layers bear dome-shaped cells. It is present in urinary bladder or ureter. It allows the urinary bladder to be dilated when filled with urine.
Specialized Epithelium: It consists of either columnar or Cuboidal cells which are specialized for

certain functions.
1. Ciliated Specialized Epithelium

It consists of columnar cells with many cilia at distal end known as brush border. The tissue is found in the lining of respiratory tract, uterine tube and spinal cord. Function involves propulsion of materials.
2. Sensory Epithelium

It consists of columnar cells and elongated neuro-sensory cells. The neuro sensory cells bear sensory hairs at the free end and inner end is connected with nerve fibrils. It is found in tongue, nasal chamber and cochlea of internal ear. Its function is to perceive external and internal stimulus.
3. Germinal Epithelium

It consists of columnar or Cuboidal cells and is present in seminiferous tubules of testes and lining of ovary. It undergoes cell division to form gametes.
4. Glandular Epithelium

It consists of columnar or Cuboidal cells specialized for the secretion of certain chemicals that are essential for body activities. The secretions may be mucus, saliva, enzymes or hormones. This epithelium is present in glands.
Types of Glands a. Based on the number of cells i. Unicellular glands: One- celled gland that secretes mucus, e.g. Goblet cells ii. Multicellular glands: Many celled glands, e.g. salivary, sweat, liver and pancreas b. Based on the presence or absence of ducts. i. Exocrine glands: Glands with ducts and secrete enzymes, e.g. salivary, tear, gastric and

intestinal glands
ii. iii. Endocrine glands: Glands without ducts and secrete hormones passing directly to

blood, e.g. thyroid, pituitary glands Heterocrine glands: Act as both exocrine and endocrine glands, e.g. pancreas, testes, ovary

c. Based on the shape of secretory unit/region i. Simple Glands (Single duct) ii. Compound Glands (Many ducts) Simple Glands i. Simple tubular glands: Such glands bear single, unbranched, straight duct and tube like

secretory region. They are present in Crypts of Lieberkuhn of intestine.

ii. iii. iv. v.

Simple coiled tubular glands: These glands bear single, unbranched, coiled duct and

tubular secretory regions. E.g. sweat glands Simple branched tubular glands: These glands bear many tubular secretory units opening with a single duct. E.g. Gastric gland and Brunner gland Simple alveolar glands: These glands bear sac like secretory unit with single duct. E.g. cutaneous gland of frog, seminal vesicles of mammals Simple branched alveolar glands: E.g. sebaceous glands

Compound Glands i. ii. iii. Compound tubular glands: They bear many tubular secretory units which open through

many ducts E.g. salivary gland Compound alveolar glands: They have many sac-like secretory units opening into many ducts. E.g. mammary glands Compound tubule-alveolar glands: These glands bear both tubular and sac like secretory units and many ducts. E.g. pancreas and Cowper’s glands of male reproductive organs.

d. Based on mode of secretion i. Mesocrine/Epicrine glands: Secretory products form a vesicle at the tip of the cell and

ii. iii.

are released out when the cell membrane ruptures. This process is called exocytosis. The cell remains without actual damage. E.g. pancreas, liver, salivary glands Apocrine glands: A fragment of the cell along with the secretory products is pinched off. The cell regains its original form.
Holocrine glands: Secretory products get accumulated in the cytoplasm of gland cells and such cells disintegrate releasing the secretion. That cell is replaced by another cell of the gland. E.g. sebaceous gland Connective Tissues

Connective tissues are those tissues that bind and support various tissues and organs of the body. These tissues are always mesodermal in origin. These tissues have large intercellular spaces filled with non-cellular ground substance. The non-cellular and non-living ground substance of connective tissues is called matrix.
Functions

i. ii. iii.

Attachment: They join one tissue to another in the organs. Support: They form a supporting framework of cartilage and bone for the body. Storage and Insulation: A variety of connective tissue, called adipose tissue, sores

fat and insulates the body against heat loss.

iv. v.

Shock-proof Cushions: Adipose tissues form shock-absorbing coats around some

organs such as eye balls and kidneys. Repair: Collagen fibres of connective tissue play a role in repair of injured tissues.

On the basis of matrix and the functions, connective tissues are of the following tissues:

CONNECTIVE TISSUES

Connective Tissue Proper Areolar Tissues Adipose Tissues

Supportive/Skeletal Connective Tissues

Fluid Connective Tissues Bone

White Fibrous Tissues

Yellow Elastic Tissues

Cartilage

Bone

Lymph

1. PROPER CONNECTIVE TISSUES: These tissues are characterized by soft, gel-like matrix consisting of white collagen fibres or yellow elastic fibres or both along with cells. a. Areolar Tissues: This tissue consists of transparent, gelatinous and sticky matrix. It consists of both types of fibres and several types of fibres. i. White collagen fibres: These fibres are made up of collagen protein. They are long, non-elastic, numerous and occur in bundles. The bundles of white collagen fibres are called fascia. ii. Yellow elastic fibres: These fibres are made up of elastin protein. They are few in numbers, straight, branched, elastic and usually occur singly. The spaces between the fibres are called areolae. The cells found in the matrix are of the following types: i. ii.
Fibroblasts or Fibrocytes: They are large and flat and produce fibres. Mast Cells: These are also called mastocytes and are large and oval and secrete

heparin, serotonin and histamine. Heparin > prevents clotting of blood in the uninjured vessels

iii. iv. v.

Serotonin > causes constriction of blood vessels Histamine > causes dilation of blood vessels Macrophages (Histocytes): These cells are large, flat and irregular. They engulf germs. Lymphocytes: These are small and oval. They destroy germs. Fat Cells (Lipocytes, Adipocytes): They are small and few in number. They store fat droplets.

Location: Present below the skin joining skin to the muscles joins blood vessels and nerves to

other structure. b. Adipose Tissues: Adipose tissues are modified areolar tissues. They consist of large number of large, spherical or oval flat cells, or Adipocytes. Adipocytes bear fat droplets in the centre. Nucleus and cytoplasm are shifted to the periphery. The matrix also contains fibroblasts, macrophages, collagen fibres and elastic fibres.
Location: Present in the dermis of skin (subcutaneous layer); mesenteries and around heart,

kidneys, eyes, etc; blubber of whale, hump of camels and fat bodies of frogs
Functions: (i) Prevent heat loss from the body

(ii) Act as shock absorbers (iii) Produce blood corpuscles c. White Fibrous Connective Tissues: It is also the modification of areolar tissues. Here, fibres are more in number than cells. It bears densely packed white collagen fibres which are thin, unbranched and non-elastic. It occurs in two forms: i. Tendons: Fibres are arranged parallel. They join skeletal muscles to bones. ii. Sheaths: In Pericardium of heart, renal capsules of kidneys, dura mater of brain, covering of cartilages and bones, they occur as sheaths. These tissues provide strength. d. Yellow Elastic Fibrous Tissues: They are modified form of areolar tissues. Densely packed yellow elastic fibres are present which are yellow, branched and elastic. They occur in ligaments (bear more yellow elastic fibres and few white collagen fibres). They connect bones to bones. Also present in trachea, bronchus and bronchioles. They provide elasticity. 2. SKELETAL CONNECTIVE TISSUES: These tissues have solid or rigid matrix and are mainly supportive in function.

a. Cartilages: Cartilages are tough, soft and flexible connective tissues which can resist strains and absorb mechanical shocks. They bear solid or semi-solid matrix, white collagen fibres, yellow elastic fibres and cartilage cells called chondrocytes (immature cells are called chondroblasts). The chondrocytes are scattered in the matrix and are enclosed in fluid filled spaces called lacunae (singular lacuna). These cells produce chondrin protein which remains in the matrix. Usually, cartilages are covered by a layer of white fibrous connective tissues, called as perichondrium. On the basis of composition of matrix, the cartilages are of the following types: i.
Hyaline Cartilage/Glass Cartilage (Gr. Hualos – glass): This type of cartilage has

transparent, homogeneous and tough matrix of chondrin protein. It appears soft and bluish white. It bears both white collagen and yellow elastic fibres.
Location: Respiratory tract (larynx, trachea), costal cartilages joining ribs to sternum,

xiphoid cartilages, skeleton of embryonic vertebrates, skeleton of Chondreicthyes
Functions: It covers joint surfaces, prevents the collapsing of respiratory tract, provides

body framework in cartilaginous fishes and reduces friction. ii.
White Fibrous Cartilage: It bears matrix similar in nature to that type of glass cartilage.

It bears dense mass of white collagen fibres. Therefore, perichondrium is absent. It provides greater strength and lesser flexibility. It is present as intervertebral disc in between adjacent vertebrae and in pubic symphysis of pelvic girdle.
Functions: To provide strength, act as shock absorber

iii.

Yellow Elastic Cartilage: The matrix is semi-opaque matrix provided with dense mass of

yellow elastic fibres. These fibres are branched and form a network. They are highly elastic and flexible. These cartilages permit an organ to retain its shape quickly if deformed.
Location: Ear pinna, tip of nose, epiglottis, pharynx Functions: It maintains shape and provides strength.

iv.

Calcified Cartilage: It is modified hyaline cartilage formed by the deposition of calcium

salts (CaSO 4 , Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ) in the matrix. It is non-elastic, hard and rigid.
Location: Supra scapula of mammals, pubis of frog, head of humerus and femur, vertebrae

of sharks
Funtions: It reduces elasticity of cartilage and makes rigid and hard.

b. Bones: A bone is a hard and stiff connective tissue that forms skeleton of most of the vertebrates. It consists of solid, rigid and calcified matrix consisting of inorganic salts (70%) and fibrous protein (30%) called ossein or ostein. Inorganic salts mainly consist of Hydroxyapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ) along with carbonate and phosphate salts of calcium and magnesium ( provide strength). Bones bear cells called osteocytes. Study of bones is called osteology.
INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF BONES

i.

Periosteum: It is the outermost thin layer of white fibrous connective tissues. It

bears nerves and blood vessels. It provides attachment to tendons and muscles. ii. Outer layer of osteoblasts: Just beneath Periosteum, a layer of flat cells called osteoblasts is present. Osteoblasts produce the fibrous protein called ossein. These cells divide and for osteocytes. Matrix: It is hard, solid, rigid and calcified. The matrix consists of concentric rings iii. of fibrous protein called lamellae. In between the lamellae, there are spaces with osteocytes called lacunae. Each lacuna bears single osteocytes. Lacuna also bear fine projections called canaliculi by which neighboring lacunae are communicated. Haversian canals: Haversian canals are cylindrical canals within mammalian bones iv. which enclose blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves. Each Haversian canal is surrounded by concentric rings of lamellae and lacunae forming a Haversian system. Haversian canals run parallel to the surface of bone. Neighboring Haversian canals are connected by transverse canals called Volkmann’s canals. Inner layer of osteoblasts: Lining the central marrow cavity of bones, there is a v. layer of flat cells called inner layer of osteoblasts. These cells divide and form osteocytes as well as produce bone marrow. vi. Bone marrow: It is soft and pulpy substance present in central marrow cavity. It is of two types: Red bone marrow: Present in flat bones like ribs, sternum, and bones of skull, vertebrae and head of lung bones. Red Bone Marrow produces RBCs and most types of WBCs. Yellow bone marrow: It is soft and fatty and present in shaft region of long bones. This bone narrow produces bone marrow only in emergency.

On the basis of matrix present, bones are of two types: a. Spongy bones: They consist of loose spongy matrix with many spaces like a honey comb. They are present at the head of long bones. They bear red bone marrow. b. Compact bones: They have hard, solid and tightly arranged matrix. They are present at the head of long bones.

On the basis of mode of ossification, bones are of three types: a. Cartilaginous/Replacing bones: They are formed from the ossification of pre-existing cartilages. E.g. humerus, radius and ulna. b. Membranous: Formed from ossification of other connective tissues. E.g. skull, face bones c. Sesamoid bones: E.g. Patella. Formed from the ossification of tendons
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SPONGY AND COMPACT BONES

i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Spongy Bones Its matrix is loose, spongy and with many spaces. It forms the expanded ends (epiphysis) of long bones. Matrix is filled with a soft tissue called red bone marrow. It has no Haversian system. Red bone marrow forms RBCs and WBCs.
3. FLUID CONNECTIVE TISSUES

Compact Bones i. Its matrix is solid, hard, rigid and without any spaces. ii. It forms the shaft of long bones. iii. Matrix is filled with fatty tissue called yellow bone marrow. iv. It has Haversian system. v. Yellow marrow stores fat cells.

They consist of blood (red vascular tissue) and lymph (white vascular tissue). They have liquid matrix and lack fibres. A. Blood: Blood forms the means of transportation of different materials from one part to another part of body. The volume of blood in a normal adult is about 5 to 6 litres. It is about 7% of total body weight. Chemically, the blood is slightly alkaline (pH 7.35 to 7.45). pH of arterial blood is more than pH of venous blood (venous blood consists of more amount of carbon dioxide). Composition of Blood Blood is composed of 55% of blood plasma and 45% of blood corpuscles by volume. 1. Blood Plasma: It is pale yellow in colour, clear, slightly alkaline fluid matrix of blood. The plasma constitutes 90 to 92% water and remaining 8 to 10% of other organic and inorganic substances. The major mineral salts include F-, Cl-, CO 3 --, HCO 3 -, SO 4 --, PO 4 ---, etc. of Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, Fe+++, etc. Among them NaHCO3 acts as buffer of blood (buffer – to maintain pH in normal range). Organic substances include plasma proteins (albumin, fibrinogen, globulin and other protein factors). Albumin - maintains osmotic pressure of blood

Fibrinogen – helps in blood clotting Globulin - helps to develop immunity

Blood plasma also contains hormones, nutrients, excretory products, respiratory gases, enzymes, vitamins, etc.
FUNTIONS

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x.

Blood plasma helps in transportation in hormones, nutrients, enzymes, etc. Maintenance of blood pH. It develops body immunity. It also prevents the blood loss. Uniform distribution of heat all over the body is a major function of blood. Provides cells of the body with water. Prothrombin is protein involved in clotting of blood. Calcium ion may act as a clotting factor. Enzymes take part in metabolic activities. α-globulin transports the hormone thyroxine.

2. Blood Corpuscles: Blood corpuscles are generally formed from haemocytoblasts of bone marrow by the process of haemopoeisis.
a. RBCs (Red Blood Corpuscles) – Erythrocytes

Erythrocytes are small, biconcave, circular and non-nucleated blood cells (in mammals). Size of RBCs is 7 to 8 microns (1μ=10-6 m). Number of RBCs ranges from 5 to 6 millions per millimeter cube in adult male and 4.5 to 5 millions per millimeter cube in females. RBCs are red in colour due to the presence of Haemoglobin (Hb). Hb is about 15mg in 100 ml of blood. Hb is a complex compound containing of iron compound ‘haeme’ and protein compound ‘globin’. They are formed in red bone marrows in adult stage. In embryonic stage, RBCs are formed in yolk sac, liver and spleen. Their life span is about 110 to 120 days. They are destroyed in liver by Kupffer cells and spleen.
FUNCTIONS:

a. RBCs transport oxygen with the help of respiratory pigment called haemoglobin. 20 cc of oxygen in carried by 100 cc of blood in mammals. b. They help in transportation of other gases.

b. b. WBCs (White Blood Corpuscles) – Leucocytes

WBCs are largest blood corpuscles which are irregular or spherical in shape, colourless and nucleated. WBCs are formed in bone marrow and lymph glands. The size of WBCs ranges from 8 to 20μ. The number of WBCs is 6000 to 10000 per millimeter cube of blood. The average life span of WBCs is 1 to 4 days. On the basis of the presence or absence of granules in cytoplasm, WBCs are of two types:
Lymphocytes Agranulocytes Monocytes White Blood Corpuscles (Leucocytes)

Eosinophil/Acidophil

Granulocytes

Basophil

Neutrophil

AGRANULOCYTES

These are irregular or spherical WBCs without granules in cytoplasm and with oval and nonlobulated nucleus. a. Lymphocytes: These are spherical cells with oval nucleus. They are motile and phagocytic in function. They produce antibodies against antigens. b. Monocytes: These are the largest WBCs, irregular in shape with kidney shaped nucleus and phagocytic in function.
GRANULOCYTES

They bear granulated cytoplasm and lobulated nucleus. a. Eosinophils/Acidophils: These are spherical cells with bilobed nucleus. They are stained with acidic dye called eosin. These WBCs detoxify toxin.

b. Basophils: These are spherical cells with S-shaped nucleus. They are stained blue with basic dyes like methylene blue or haemotoxylin. They produce histamine and heparin and have important role in anticoagulation. c. Neutrophils: The cells are spherical with a multilobed nucleus. They are stained with neutral dyes. They are phagocytic, engulf bacteria and destroy them.
c. Thrombocytes or Platelets (Gr. Thrombos-clot; kytes-cells)

Platelets are formed by fragmentation of megakaryocytes of red bone marrow. The number of leucocytes per microlitre of blood is called total leucocytecount (TLC). The total number of Thrombocytes is about 250000 per cubic millimeter. They are irregular shaped cells 2 to 3 μm in diameter. They are flat and often non-nucleated. Each cell is bounded by membrane and contains few organelles. They have a group of basophilic granules in the centre. The normal life span of platelets is about 7 to 9 days.
FUNCTIONS

Blood platelets are source of thrombosplastin or thrombokinase which is necessary for blood clotting. Thrombokinase NOTE: Ca++ + Prothrombin Thrombin Fibrinogen Fibrin (fibrous protein) Thrombin

B. Lymph (Gr. Lympha-water): Lymph is a colourless or light yellow, transparent fluid

connective tissue. Lymph consists of more WBCs and lack RBCs. Lymph is chiefly made of plasma plus leucocytes (lymphocytes). Most important centre for the formation of lymph is interstitial spaces. Lymph is formed when blood plasma with soluble substances oozes out of blood capillaries. Lymphocytes in lymph are produced from lymph nodes.
FUNCTIONS:

a. Lymph acts as mediator between blood and tissues. b. It fills the space between the tissues and bathes them. c. It helps in absorption and transportation of fatty acid, glycerol and fat soluble vitamins by lacteals. d. Lymphocytes destroy and engulf germs.

NOTE: Serum is the blood without blood corpuscles and clotting factor.

Muscular Tissues

The muscle tissue arises from the embryonic mesoderm. It makes up about 40% of a mammal’s body weight. The cells of muscle tissue, called myocytes, have a special feature of contractility. The muscle cells shorten and relax by change in the relative positions of different intracellular myofilaments. Another property of muscles is the electrical excitability. It is due to the energy stored in the electrical potential difference across the plasma membrane.
GENERAL STRUCTURE

The muscle tissues consist of long, narrow cells called muscle fibres. The adjacent muscle fibres are held together by connective tissue, there being no intercellular substance. The cytoplasm of a muscle fibre is known as sacroplasm, and its endoplasmic reticulum as sacroplasm reticulum (SR). The sacroplasm is largely occupied by fine, longitudinal, parallel protein threads, called myofibrils. The plasma membrane of a muscle fibre is termed sarcolemma. It is surrounded by basal lamina. A muscle fibre may contain one or more nuclei. The latter vary in position in different types of muscle fibres.
FUNTIONS

a. It brings about movements of the body parts and locomotion of the organism. b. Many muscles support the bones and other structures. c. Muscles are responsible for the heart beat, for the flow of blood and lymph through the vessels, for the passage of blood and lymph through the vessels, for the passage of blood through the alimentary canal, etc. d. Facial expressions and gestures also depend on muscles.
1. Striated/Striped/voluntary/Skeletal Muscle

These muscles are attached with bones by tendons. The contraction of these muscles is under the control of our will. They bear alternate dark and light bands that give the appearance of striations. These muscles are neurogenic (impulses come from nerves for contraction). Striated muscle fibres are long and cylindrical with blunt end. Each fibre is enclosed by sarcolemma. Each fibre is externally covered by fibrous connective tissue called endomysium. The fibres remain in parallel bundles known as fascicule (singular fasciculus). Each fasciculus is again surrounded by perimysium. Its continuation forms tendon.

Each fibre consists of many oval or elongated nuclei beneath sarcolemma. So, striated muscle fibres are syncytial or coenocytic. Each fibre bears many longitudinal myofibrils. Each myofibril bears alternate dark band and light band. The light band or I-band (Isotropic band) consists of thin and short filamentous protein called actin. The light band is less refractive. At the middle of I-band there is a fine and dense Z-band (Krause’s membrane) that bears amorphous substance. The dark band or A-band (Anisotropic Band) consists of both actin and myosin. The dark band is more refractive. At the middle of A-band, there is an H-zone or Hansen’s Zone which bears myosin only. The area in between two successive Z-bands is called sarcomere. Sarcomere is the functional contractile unit of muscle fibre. Contraction of muscle fibre is brought by the sliding of actin over myosin. The striated muscle fibres consist of about 75% water. Proteins include actin, myosin, myoglobulin, myoalbumin, etc. it bears its own myoglobin (myohaemoglobin) to store oxygen. Large number of mitochondria and large amount of stored glycogen is present in these muscles. So, they contract strongly and rapidly. These muscles bring the movement of voluntary parts of our body.
2. Unstriped/Involuntary/Smooth/Visceral Muscles

These muscles are present on the wall of hollow internal organs like alimentary canal, respiratory tract, blood vessels, lymph vessels, ducts of gland, uterus, etc. Also present on the internal soft parts of body, so called visceral muscles. It is not under the control of our will, so functionally involuntary. It is under the control of Autonomic Nervous System. It does not bear alternate dark and light bands due to random distribution of actin and myosin. Unstriated muscles consist of thin, elongated and spindle shaped fibres. Each muscle fibre bears a central oval nucleus, dense longitudinal myofibrils and sacroplasm. These muscles lack sarcolemma but are covered by a thin plasma membrane only. These muscles bear few numbers of mitochondria and glycogen granules. The blood supply is poor. These muscles undergo slow and weak contraction.
FUNCTIONS: Propulsion of blood, respiratory gases, food materials, removal of urine from

urinary bladder, contraction of uterus muscle during delivery
3. Cardiac Muscles

These muscles are exclusively present on the walls of the heart.

Structurally, they are almost similar to voluntary muscles and functionally to involuntary muscles. Each cardiac muscle fibre is short, elongated, cylindrical and unbranched. It is covered by thin sarcolemma, bears alternate light and dark bands. Each fibre/cell is uninucleated and bears dense cytoplasm and fine myofibrils. The cells or fibres are joined with each other at intercalated disc. The fibres are interconnected by oblique bridges forming a network called as contractile network so that the wave of contraction is transmitted easily in such a network. These muscles are myogenic, i.e. impulse for their contraction originated in the muscle itself. The cardiac muscles undergo rhythmic contraction and relaxation. Mitochondria present are large and many in number.
Nervous Tissues

 Controls and co-ordinates the body.  Mainly made of nerve cells or neurons  Consists of four types of cells: neurons or nerve cells, neuroglia (glial cells), ependymal cells and neuro secretory cells.
1. NEURONS

Neurons are highly specialized cells of nervous tissues and are the longest cells (up to 1 metre long). Neurons have the properties of excitability or irritability and conductivity. Each neuron consists of cyton (cell body) and cytoplasmic extensions (nerve fibres). a. Cyton: The cell body is star-like oval structure with single, distinct central nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, ribosomes, ER, etc. In addition, it consists of network of neurofibrils for conduction of impulses and many Nissl’s Granules. The Nissl’s Granules are conical, angular or rhomboidal and rich in RNA and are concerned with protein synthesis. b. Cytoplasmic extensions (nerve fibres): They are of two types: dendrites and axon. Dendrites are short, many numbered and highly branched. They bear neurofibrils and Nissl’s granules. Dendrites are afferent in function, i.e. they bring the impulse towards the cell body. They are non-myelinated. Axon is single, long and cylindrical cytoplasmic extension. The cytoplasm present on it is called axoplasm and the plasma membrane is called axolemma. The case of axon is called axon hillock. It forms many branches at terminal end called terminal aborization or telodendria. The swollen like structures in the tail regions of telodendria are called synaptic knobs or buttons. The buttons of axon of neuron form functional contact with the dendrites of succeeding neuron called synapse. Nerve impulses from one neuron it

transferred to the next through synapse with the help of neuro transmitters. Axon is efferent in function. It bears only neurofibrils, no Nissl’s Granules.
Types of Nerve Fibres On the basis of presence or absence of myelin sheath

a. Myelinated/Medullated nerve fibres: The axon is surrounded by the Schwann cells. These cells secrete phospholipid or white fatty substance inside called myelin sheath. Such a nerve fibre is myelinated nerve fibre. Myelinated sheath is interrupted at regular intervals by circular constrictions called Nodes of Ranvier. Such fibres conduct the impulses faster. They are present in white matter of brain and spinal cord, cranium and spinal nerves. b. Non myelinated nerve fibres: In such fibres, Schwann cells present around fibres do not produce myelin sheath. Such fibres do not have Nodes of Ranvier. They conduct impulses slower. These nerve fibres are present in autonomic nervous system, gray matter of brain and spinal cord.
On the basis of nerve impulse conduction

a. Afferent nerves: Also called sensory nerves. They carry impulses from sense organs to Central Nervous System. E.g. olfactory nerves, optic nerves b. Efferent nerves: Also called motor nerves. They carry impulses from the Central Nervous System towards effector organs such as muscles or glands. E.g. occulomotor nerves, hypoglossal nerves c. Mixed nerves: They consist of both afferent and efferent nerve fibres enclosed in the same sheath of connective tissue. E.g. spinal nerves (afferent in dorsal root and efferent in ventral root)
Types of neurons On the basis of number and nature of cytoplasmic processes

a. Unipolar neuron: Single cytoplasmic extension arises from cyton and gets divided into a dendrite and an axon. Found on dorsal root of spinal nerves and nerves in embryonic stage. b. Bipolar neuron: It bears two cytoplasmic extensions, the dendrite and next the axon. Occurs in retina of eye, cochlea of internal ear and lining of olfactory chamber. c. Multipolar neuron: The cyton gives out many cytoplasmic extensions. One of them is axon and remaining all are dendrites. It is the most common that type that occurs in brain and spinal cord.

2. NEUROGLIA (GLIAL CELLS)

These are non-nervous cells. These are the cells by which neurons are held together. These cells are of two types:

Neuroglia (Glial Cells)

Microgliocytes [Small and spindle shaped]

Macrogliocytes [larger in size and bear cytoplasmic extensions]

Astrocytes [larger and bear many branched extensions]

Oligodendrocytes [smaller and bear few branched extensions]

FUNCTIONS:

a. Fill the intercellular spaces between neurons and give mechanical support. b. Maintain the concentration of ions and provide nutrients to ions. c. Insulation between the neurons.
3. EPENDYMAL CELLS

The ependymal cells are Cuboidal and ciliated. They occur in the lining of ventricles of brain and central canal of spinal cord. These cells produce cerebrospinal fluid and also help in its propulsion.
4. NEURO SECRETORY CELLS

These cells are present in the hypothalamus of brain and are endocrine in function. They secrete neurohormones, which stimulate pituitary gland to release tropic hormones.

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