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# CIRCULAR MOTION Definition

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It is the motion of an object which moves at a fixed distance from a point.

Motion of a particle in a circular path. Motion of a rigid body in which all its particles move in circles about a common axis, fixed with respect to the body, with a common angular velocity. Angular Quantities: a. Angular Position

b.

Angular Position Angular Position – is the angle between reference direction and rotating arm.

*Angular position (θ) is an angle and does not represent the position of the particle by itself. It requires to be paired with radius of the circle (r) along which particle moves in order to specify the position of the particle. Thus, a specification of a position in the reference system will require both “r” and “θ” to be specified.

c.

Angular Displacement

Angular Displacement - is equal to the difference of angular positions at two positions.

d. Angular Velocity Angular Velocity - describes the speed of rotation and the orientation of the instantaneous axis about which the rotation occurs. Symbol: omega (ω) Unit: radians per second (rad/s) Formula:

Centripetal Force CENTRIPETAL FORCE - is the net force causing the centripetal acceleration of an object in circular motion.

Centrifugal Force CENTRIFUGAL FORCE - a fictitious force, peculiar to a particle moving on a circular path, that has the same magnitude and dimensions as the force that keeps the particle on its circular path (the centripetal force) but points in the opposite direction. The centrifugal force on a body of mass m is given by

where a is the centrifugal acceleration, v is the tangential velocity, r is the distance from the center of rotation and is the unit vector in the outwardpointing radial direction.

Coriolis Force CORIOLIS FORCE – It is a fictitious force exerted on a body when it moves in a rotating reference frame. It is called a fictitious force because it is a by-product of measuring coordinates with respect to a rotating coordinate system as opposed to an actual "push or pull." Imagine sitting at the North pole. You are not moving, but the Earth is - it completes a full rotation about its north-south axis every 24 hours. If you sit at the pole for a full 24 hours, you will "turn on the spot" one complete rotation with respect to the space surrounding the Earth. (figure at the right)

Uniform Circular Motion A particle is said to be undergoing uniform circular motion if its position vector in appropriate coordinates has the form , where (1) (2) Geometrically, uniform circular motions means that moves in a circle in the -plane with some radius at constant speed. The quantity is called the angular velocity of . The speed of is (3) and the acceleration of P has constant magnitude (4) and is directed toward the center of the circle traced by . This is called centripetal acceleration. Ignoring the ellipticity of their orbits, planet show nearly uniform circular motion about the Sun. (Although due to orbital inclinations, the orbital planes of the different planets are not necessarily coplanar.)

ROTATIONAL MOTION Definition: it is the motion of a rigid body (An idealized extended solid whose size and shape are definitely fixed and remain unchanged when forces are applied) which takes place in such a way that all of its particles move in circles about an axis with a common angular velocity; also, the rotation of a particle about a fixed point in space. Angular Quantities: a. Angular Position Unit: radian (rad) 1 rad = 360˚/2 = 57.3˚ 360˚ = 2 rad Symbol: theta (θ) Formula: = l/r (wherein: l = length of the arc; r = radius

b. Angular Velocity Angular velocity - is a vector quantity which specifies the angular speed of an object and the axis about which the object is rotating. Unit: radians per second (rad/s) Symbol: omega (Ω or ω) Formula:

*The direction of the angular velocity vector is perpendicular to the plane of rotation, in a direction which is usually specified by the right-hand rule (the fingers of the right hand are curled to match the curvature and direction of the motion or the magnetic field. The thumb indicates the direction of the vector.)

c.

Angular Acceleration Angular acceleration – is the rate of angular velocity over time. Unit: radians per second squared (rad/s²) Symbol: alpha (α) Formula:

Kinematical Equation:

Torque Definition:

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also called moment of force.

is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis.

Another way of explaining the above equation is that torque is the product of the magnitude of the force and the perpendicular distance from the force to the axis of rotation

(i.e. the pivot point). Let the force acting on an object be Tangential and Radial components of force broken up into its tangential, Ftan, and radial, Frad, components ( Figure at the right) (Note that the tangential component of force, Ftan is perpendicular to the moment arm, whereas the radial component, Frad, is parallel to the moment arm.) The radial component of the force has no contribution to the torque because it passes through the pivot joint (i.e. it is parallel to the moment arm). So, only the tangential component of the force affects the torque. Torque (Conditions of Equilibrium) An object at equilibrium has no net influences to cause it to move, either in translation (linear motion) or rotation. The basic conditions for equilibrium are: FORCE QUILIBRIUM

TORQUE EQUILIBRIUM

Moment of Inertia Moment of inertia is the name given to rotational inertia, the rotational analog of mass for linear motion. It appears in the relationships for the dynamics of rotational motion. The moment of inertia must be specified with respect to a chosen axis of rotation. For a point mass the moment of inertia is just the mass times the square of perpendicular distance to the rotation axis, I = mr2. That point mass relationship becomes the basis for all other moments of inertia since any object can be built up from a collection of point masses.

Moment of Inertia Examples Moment of inertia is defined with respect to a specific rotation axis. The moment of inertia of a point mass with respect to an axis is defined as the product of the mass times the distance from the axis squared. The moment of inertia of any extended object is built up from that basic definition. The general form of the moment of inertia involves an integral.

d. Angular Momentum The angular momentum of a rigid object is defined as the product of the moment of inertia and the angular velocity. It is analogous to linear momentum and is subject to the fundamental constraints of the conservation of angular momentum principle if there is no external torque on the object. Angular momentum is a vector quantity. It is derivable from the expression for the angular momentum of a particle