5.1 INTRODUCTION In order to analyze the proposed technique performance, a real distribution feeder of 4 buses it considered.

The data of the test system for the fault resistance estimation and fault analysis is given in section 5.2. Software has been developed using MATLAB for load flow analysis and fault analysis of radial distribution system without DG and with DG. The sample calculations are presented in the section 5.3. The results obtained for the IEEE-13 bus system without and with DG will be compared and presented in section 5.3 and for 37-bus is in section 5.4. finally, he summary of this chapter is presented in section 5.5. 5.2 TEST SYSTEM A 4-bus unbalanced radial distribution system is considered as a test system and shown in Fig. 5.1.

Fig. 5.1 4-bus test system The data for the line segments is as shown in Table 5.1. The load data at various buses for Fig. 5.1.is as shown in Table 5.2. Table 5.1 Data for the line segments Branch No. 1 2 3 Starting node 1 2 3 Ending node 2 3 4 Length(ft) 2000 1000 2500

Table 5.2 Load data for the various buses shown in Fig 5.1.

47 KV (a) Line impedance calculations The impedance matrix is given as. From the branch data of 4-bus radial distribution system.Bus No. Total number of buses or nodes n=4. (5. Let Base MVA=100. 1 2 3 4 Phase A Real Reactive Power Power (KW) (KVAr) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1800 784. .6 Phase B Real Reactive Power Power (KW) (KVAr) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1800 784. Impedance matrix Z for branch-1 is obtained by substituting the values of the resistances and reactance of branch-1 in the eqn. Base voltage is given as 12.6 SAMPLE CALCULATIONS For a 4-bus radial distributed system. Therefore number of branches br = (n-1) = 3. Here.6 Phase C Real Reactive Power Power (KW) (KVAr) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1800 784. given in Appendix A2. units of branch lengths are given in feet’s and units of resistance and reactance are given in ohms per mile.1) The per unit impedance can be calculated by using the formula.

005 e-0.1) =5. (5. Therefore.To convert the units of resistances and reactance into ohms. (b) Shunt branch admittance calculations The shunt branch admittance matrix is given as. there is a need of conversion factors of 1 mile=5280 fts.u. Therefore the.u. admittance matrix for branch-1 is obtained as: .u values.005 p. From the branch charging data given in Appendix A2. Therefore the Eqn. as follows: Thus the self admittance of Y(:.6711 mhos/mile. the admittance matrix for branch-1 is obtained by substituting the values of susceptances of branch-1 in Eqn. the p.:.4). Therefore the p. impedance matrix for branch-1 is obtained as Similarly the p.u Similarly the remaining admittances are obtained in p.2) becomes. (5. impedance of all branches can be obtained.u) = = 2.1481i*2.1) in (p. self admittance of Y(:.318e-0.:.1481 = 0.u.

0e-005 * Similarly the p. (c) Calculation of load currents Let the voltages of phases a. The load current of phase a at bus 2 is Similarly. load currents of all phases for all the buses are obtained as: (d) Calculation of voltages . i.y(:.e.:.u admittances of all branches can be obtained. Complex power is given as Therefore.1) = 1. b and c be flat voltages.

From (5. shunt branch currents and capacitor currents and also DG currents if present. These are already obtained from previous calculations of this section.The receiving end voltages are obtained by knowing the sending end voltage. . The total branch current is the sum of all the currents such as load currents.9-14. The product of current flows through the line and line impedance gives the voltage drop in that line.797i (actual value) The p. i. the receiving end voltage of phase a at bus 2 can be expressed as Thus substituting the values we get = 7178.u value for the above voltage is Similarly.e. current flows through it and line impedance. Converting currents and voltages into polar form.6). the voltages at each phase for all the buses are obtained.

341 Phase C 1.4 Voltages and phase angles of a 4 node radial distribution system node 1 2 3 4 Phase A 1.00000 0.789 119.904 -143.326 Phase B 1.01977 0.99206 Angles 0.01977 Angles 96.118 -0.612 .177 -0.0198 Angles -23.907 -23.99431 Angles -120.01977 0.904 Phase C 0.01977 Angles -143.99793 0.185 -120.907 -23.000 -0.123 -120.Table 5.99567 0.00000 0.095 96.01977 0.99689 0.0198 0.000 119.095 Table 5.0198 0.99645 0.3 Currents and phase angles of a 4-bus radial distribution system node 1 2 3 Phase A 0.859 119.904 -143.000 -120.095 96.907 Phase B 0.99350 Angles 120.00000 0.99711 0.01977 0.99763 0.

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