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By: Jaap Hoogland SPX Cooling Technologies GmbH

CW /Jaap Hoogland/ 16-10-2007

Seawater Cooling Tower Circuits

SUMMARY

Seawater recooling systems Technique required for seawater cooling towers Heat calculation Construction material Environment Drift loss Salt emission

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Seawater Cooling Tower Circuits

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Seawater Cooling Tower Circuits

ONCE THROUGH COOLING

Chiller

100 %

100 %

Cooling water pump

A sea water filtration station, consisting of one bar screen and two travelling basket filters
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Electro Chlorination station


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HELPER or DISCHARGE COOLING TOWER


Cooling towers complete with pump pits Chiller

98 %

100 %

Cooling water pump

A sea water filtration station, consisting of one bar screen and two travelling basket filters
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Electro Chlorination station


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SEAWATER COOLING TOWER PLANT


Cooling towers complete with pump pits Chiller

3%

4%
Suppletion water pump

A sea water filtration station, consisting of one bar screen and two travelling basket filters
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Electro Chlorination station

Seawater Cooling Tower Circuits

Technique required for seawater cooling towers

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Seawater Cooling Tower Circuits

Main Components of a Wet Cooling Tower


fan stack with diffusor fan with gearbox, shaft and motor plenum drift eliminator water distribution

spray area

cooling fill

rain area with air inlet

cold water basin with outlet to the main pump(s)

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Seawater Cooling Tower Circuits

Principle of Wet Cooling

Cooling Water Circuit


evaporation, drift loss
(droplet emission)

Drift loss (min. 0.0005 %) Blow-down Evaporation

Make-up blowdown

% of Circuit Water Flow Evaporation Conc. Factor

City Water 1,2 % 5 1,5 % 0,3 %

TSE

SEA WATER 1,2 % 1,4 4,2 % 3%

1,2 % 2,5 2,0 % 0,8 %

heat exchanger

Make-up Blow down

CHILLER PLANT
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Seawater Cooling Tower Circuits

Designing Seawater Cooling Towers


Salts in the cooling water

Salts in the Cooling Water


What differentiates seawater cooling towers from fresh water towers is the existence of dissolved minerals (salts) in the cooling water. Therefore, establishing the impact of salts in the cooling water is the single most important technical feasibility concern. The areas of concern were identified as thermal performance salt concentration salt emission (Drift) and environmental impacts as far as material resistance.
Make-up water Brackish Water Total Dissolved Solids Sulfate (SO4) Chloride (Cl- ) mg/l 8000 450 4500 Circulating water mg/l @ 3 -4 cycles 24 - 32000 1350 - 1800 13500 - 18000

Sea Water Total Dissolved Solids Sulfate (SO4) Chloride (Cl- )

mg/l 35000 2800 20

mg/l @ 1.2 - 1.4 cycles 42 - 50000 3400 - 4000 24000 - 28000

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Designing Seawater Cooling Towers


Thermal Performance Thermal Performance
Salt in the water has four basic effects on its use as a coolant, only one of those is major. Salt lowers the vapor pressure of water, thus the water does not evaporate as readily. This makes it less as a effective coolant and reduces tower performance. For the above reasons tower performance decreases by approximately 1.1% for every 10,000 ppm of salts in the cooling water.
Fresh water Salt water 1) Water Temp. 35 35 Air Temp. 30,6 30,6 Air Relative Humidity 60 60 Liquid Vapor Pressure 5,62 5,42 Air Vapor Pressure 2,63 2,63 Liquid-Air Vapor Pressure Difference 2,99 2,79 Liquid-Air Vapor Pressure Difference (of Fresh Water Condition) 100 93,2 Performance loss 2) -5,4 1) At salts concentration of 50,000 ppm 2) Performance loss (approximated as 80% of change in VP difference) = 0,8 x (1-0,932)

Impact of salts in water upon vapor pressure

[C] [C] [%] [kPa] [kPa] [kPa] [%] [%]

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Designing Seawater Cooling Towers


Thermal Performance

Impact on Design / Size of the cooling tower Rejected Heat = Flow x Density x Spec. Heat x Cooling Range (DT) fresh water : density = 1000 kg/m, specific heat = 4.18 kJ/(kg.K) sea water: density = 1030 kg/m specific heat = 3.96 (@ salinity 45000 ppm) flow (sea) / flow (fresh) = 1.03 (for the same cooling capacity) !!! cooling tower size or power consumption increases

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Designing Seawater Cooling Towers

3 Computerised Design

Computerised Design
Our modern and updated computer design programs are taking into account the salt content depending on density and temperature. Therefore the design of the cooling tower will take place "on point" and no other adds are necessary. Only modern computer design programs, based on huge experience and test results, are able to determinate all parameters correctly to guarantee the most feasable and economical cooling tower design regarding size and type.

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Technique required for seawater cooling towers

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Materials for
Structural components Mechanical part Thermo- hydraulic part

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Construction materials
Concrete Timber FRP

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The Cooling Tower Environment:


The warm, saturated, oxygen-rich cooling tower environment promotes rapid corrosion of metallic components. Most construction materials are relatively unaffected by salt water Temperature level and pH-value has to maintained Wood and plastic are as good as concrete

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Impact on concrete constructions

Sulfates (SO4) React with cement May react with aggregate Reaction causes destruction of concrete matrix Chlorides (Cl-) Attack steel reinforcement Attack metallic hardware Rapid loss of cross section may occur Corrosion by products result in expansion and cracking of concrete

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Desired Properties:
Low absorption/permeability to provide maximum protection to reinforcement. High resistance to sulfate attack. Corrosion resistance Resistance against biological attack Temperature resistance

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General Recommendations for thermo- hydraulic & mech. part:

No problems with fill, drift eliminator, spray nozzles and fan if water quality is within the limits Steel parts made of high grade stainless steel ("Duplex" 1.4462 [316 L], 1.4539) or special coated Mechanical part should be protected with suitable coating for salt water application

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Environment

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Environment

Cooling Tower Drift


Circulating water is distributed as droplets or films to maximise surface area Exit air from cooling tower contains water vapor, drift droplets and condensate droplets Amount of content are mainly regulated by: Drift eliminator design Design of water distribution Ambient psychometric and wind conditions Water chemistry

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Environment
Cooling Tower Drift Loss (Standard Data)
Drift Loss
Different Types of Drift Eliminators 0,006 Drift Loss [% of water flow rate] 0,005 0,004 0,003 0,002 0,001 0 1 Layer TC 187/44 1 Layer TC 187/33 CDX 080 2 layers TC 187/33

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Environment
Drift Loss as a Function of the Droplet Size (Total Drift Loss = 0.0005% of water flow rate)
2 Layers TC 187/33E

0,0025

or 1 Layers

Drift Loss [% of water flow rate]

0,002

0,0015

0,001

0,0005

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200

Droplet Size [m]


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Requirements of Cooling Circuit


Waterquality Feature Make-up system Own intake station Seawater Normal Grey water Feature Connection to Grey water system Connection to sewage water system or irrigation system Standard material Polished Grey water Feature Connection to Grey water system Connection to sewage water system or irrigation system Standard material Potable water Feature Connection to DEWA pipe system Connection to sewage water system or irrigation system Standard material

Blow down system (drain) Condensor system

Own outlet station Titanium

Cooling tower

Water treatment system

Titanium/Duplex hardware, special coating, FAND for Standard material, low larger plants fouling fill Standard material Standard material ElectroChlorination, Bromation, hardness stabilizer Biocide, Corrosion inhibitor Biocide, Corrosion inhibitor Biocide, Corrosion inhibitor

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Central unit Cooling tower design data Hot water temparature Cold water temparature Entrance Wet bulb temperature Entrance Relative humidity Waterflow Salinity of the seawater drift loss CF used for seawater CF used for Normal Grey Water CF used for Polished Grey Water CF used for Potable water Water use based on Water use based on Water use based on Water use based on Total drain amount Total drain amount Total drain amount Total drain amount 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% operation Seawater operation Normal Grey water operation Polished Grey water operation Potable water operation Seawater operation Normal Grey water operation Polished Grey water operation Potable water

125.000 TR

535,1 MW

105 F 40,6 C 95 F 35,0 C 86 F 30,0 C 50% 50% 375.000 USGPM 85.125 m/h 3,50% is the amount 3,50% This 0,0005% 0,0005% This is the amount produced by a city of 1,4 1,4 produced by a people around 180.000city of 2,5 2,5 around 130.000 people 5 5 5 5 4.895.482.415 USGal/year 18.531.416 m/year 2.331.594.847 USGal/year 8.826.046 m/year 1.748.893.127 USGal/year 6.620.280 m/year 1.748.893.127 USGal/year 6.620.280 m/year 3.496.210.320 USGal/year 13.234.595 m/year 932.322.752 USGal/year 3.529.225 m/year 349.621.032 USGal/year 1.323.459 m/year 349.621.032 USGal/year 1.323.459 m/year

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Environment

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Environment

Use of Windrose

Critical Zone

Cooling Tower

Prevailing Wind

Dispersion Area

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Environment
Relative Immission as a Function of the Distance from CT Comparison between Round Type and Cell Type
70% 60%

wind
50%

cell 20 m across round 20 m cell 20 m average cell 20 m along round 60 m

C/Cmax

40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

Distance from CT [m]


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Environment
Salt Immission at Ground Level (Relative Concentration)
as a Function of the Cooling Tower Height and the Distance from the Cooling Tower

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
Distance from the Cooling Tower [m]
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15 m (cell) 40 m 60 m 80 m

Environment

90 80 70 Total mass ASSP [g/m] 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0,1 1 10 100 Distance from the coast [km] measured in Newport USA
so urce: A M S Jo urnals Online, st ud y Ro ssknecht , Ellio t and Ramsey 19 72

Cooling tower outlet will be arround 470-550 g/m


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Environment
Objects of the Investigation Cooling tower concepts
cell type cooling towers
which will be referred to as: case 1 ~50.000 TR

circular cooling tower with forced draught fans

case 2 ~ 90.000 TR

case 3 ~ 125.000 TR

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Environment

Methods of the Investigation Simulation of the flow in the surroundings of the cooling towers calculated magnitudes:
velocity pressure temperature mass ratio between wet air and dry air relative humidity flight path of salt water droplets

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Environment

Methods of the Investigation

Boundary conditions of the calculations


cell type cooling towers
wind speed profile layer direction temperature abs. humidity = 6 m/s (at 10m height) = atmospheric boundary = 0 and 90 = 5 C = 0,43 % massratio

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Environment
Results
figure explaination: colours

Salt emission
= ratio local salt concentration to salt concentration at the outlet of the tower [ unit = % massratio] (values lower than 100% represents dillution) colourrange = red 80%, blue 20%

case 1, 50.000 TR winddirection = 0


Building needs to be at at least 400 m

case 1, winddirection = 90

50 storied bld

increased salt concentration close to the ground

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Environment
Results
figure explaination: colours

Salt emission
= ratio local salt concentration to salt concentration at the outlet of the tower [ unit = % massratio] (values lower than 100% represents dillution) colourrange = red 80%, blue 20%

case 2, 90.000 TR winddirection = 0


Building needs to be at at least 500 m

case 2, winddirection = 90

50 storied bld

increased salt concentration close to the ground CW /Jaap Hoogland/ 16-10-2007 Seawater Cooling Tower Circuits 36

Environment
Results
figure explaination: colours

Salt emission
= ratio local salt concentration to salt concentration at the outlet of the tower [ unit = % massratio] (values lower than 100% represents dillution) colourrange = red 80%, blue 20%

Case 3 ~ 125.000 TR

Nearest 50 Storied bld should be in approx. 400 m


50 storied bld

downwash

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Arrangement of a Round Wet Cooling Tower


Water Distribution

warm air

hot water inlet


Drift Eliminator

Cooling Fills

cold air

cold water outlet


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125.000 TR central plant

Building 75 m x 75 m x 38 m tall (above ground)


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125.000 TR central plant

Shell could be made of framework structure with cladding


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125.000 TR central plant

Floors for pumps, chillers, fans, and miscellaneous


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125.000 TR central plant

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125.000 TR central plant

The tower can be divided into 4 or 8 sectors


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Thank you very much for your attention.

We will be pleased to answer your questions and provide any further information you need.

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