Air preheater The purpose of the air preheater is to recover the heat from the boiler flue gas

which increases the thermal efficiency of the boiler by reducin g the useful heat lost in the flue gas. As a consequence, the flue gases are als o sent to the flue gas stack (orchimney) at a lower temperature, allowing simpli fied design of the ducting and the flue gas stack. It also allows control over t he temperature of gases leaving the stack (to meet emissions regulations, for ex ample. Baffles are flow-directing or obstructing vanes or panels used in some industria l process vessels (tanks), such as shell and tube heat exchangers, chemical reac tors, and static mixers. Baffles are an integral part of the shell and tube heat exchanger design. A baffle is designed to support tube bundles and direct the f low of fluids for maximum efficiency The main roles of a baffle in a shell and tube heat exchanger are to: ï § Hold tubes in position (preventing sagging), both in production and operation ï § Prevent the effects of vibration, which is increased with both fluid velocity an d the length of the exchanger ï § Direct shell-side fluid flow along tube field. This increases fluid velocity and the effective heat transfer co-efficient of the exchanger The blow down valves are needle valves designed for operation in open position. Their function is mainly to control a continuous flow of steam and/or water unde r high differential pressure. For that reason the design and materials must be such as to minimize the effects of a fluid stream in condition of flashing or made of water containing sometime s abrasive particles. The burner is heated through fuel, and there are a number of different types f f uel that can supply the boiler burner. For instance you could use natural gas, c oal, or even wood pellets. When the burner is finished heating up, the gass es are sent to the boiler. The water within the boiler will be heated up, and wi ll then be ready for use throughout the entire establishment. The heat is consta nt, and there is no storage tank for hot water. This means you will have hot wat er on demand the moment you turn the tap on. Draft fans â ¢To provide information on axial and centrifugal fans used for boiler draft service â ¢ To assist fossil power plant maintenance personnel in troubleshooting and maintain ing fans â ¢To provide routine and preventive maintenance guidance to assist in improving the r eliability of fans. economizers are heat exchange devices that heat fluids, usually water, up to but not normally beyond the boiling point of that fluid. Economizers are so named b ecause they can make use of the enthalpy in fluid streams that are hot, but not hot enough to be used in a boiler, thereby recovering more useful enthalpy and i mproving the boiler's efficiency. They are a device fitted to a boiler which sav es energy by using the exhaust gases from the boiler to preheat the cold water u sed to fill it (the feed water). feedwater heater is a power plant component used to pre-heat water delivered to a steam generating boiler.[1][2][3] Preheating the feedwater reduces the irrever sibilities involved in steam generation and therefore improves thethermodynamic efficiency of the system.[4] This reduces plant operating costs and also helps t o avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feedwater is introduced back into the steam cycle. A boiler feedwater pump is a specific type of pump used to pump feedwater into a steam boiler. The water may be freshly supplied or returningcondensate produced as a result of the condensation of the steam produced by the boiler. These pump

Early boilers without them were prone to accidental explosion. pilot-operated relief valves. or a flat glas s assembly held in a special frame. one goal of goo d process instrumentation design is to install fewer but more useful and more re liable pressure gages and switches. In steam engines the fus ible plug is screwed into the crown sheet (the top plate) of the firebox. if a plant can operate safely while a gage is defective. A safety valve is a valve mechanism for the automatic release of a substance fro m a boiler. low pressure safety valves. Gage glass A level indicator. Pressure gage and switches are among the most often used instruments in a plant. are reached in a closed vessel. attention to maintenance--and reliability-can be compromised. indirect sensing method. as allowed in Section I. is used on a steam boiler to provide a water level reading. The other parts of the set are relief valves. typica lly extending about an inch (25mm) into the water space above. The name derives from Latin fornax. As a consequence.s are normally high pressure units that take suction from a condensate return sy stem and can be of the centrifugal pump type or positive displacement type. and vacuum pressure sa fety valves. oven . could include fiber-o ptic cables. rather th an dangerous pressures. If an indir ect sensing method is used. indicating the water level. Safety valves were first used on steam boilers during the industrial revolution. it is not uncommon in older plants to see many gages and switches out of service. as allowed in Se ction IV. could be in the form of a floating magnet which causes colored "flags" external to the mechanism to flip over. Therefore. whether it be a gage glass. a glass tube with a circular cross-section. it s hows that the gage was not needed in the first place. A fusible plug operates as a safety valve when dangerous temperatures. In British English the term furnace is used exclusively to mean industrial furnaces which are used for many things. A furnace is a device used for heating. an operable gage glass must also be installed. safety relief valves. An indirect sensing method. Conversely. for example as the heat source for fractional disti llation columns. In American English and Canadian English. An in dependent remote level indicator. This is unfortunate because. which could result in catastrophic failure of the b oiler. such as the extraction of metal from ore (smelting) or in oil refinerie s and other chemical plants. But because of their great numbers. or other system when the pressure or temperature ex ceeds preset limits. the safety of the plant may be compro mised. video camera. the term furnace on its own is general ly used to describehousehold heating systems based on a central furnace (known e ither as a boiler or a heater in British English). pressure vessel. Depen ding upon ASME Code requirements. the gage glass can be a round glass "window" k nown as a bull's-eye. and magnetic devices. and sometimes as a synonym fo r kiln. . if a plant is operated with a failed pressure switch. Its purpose is to act as a last-resort safety device in the event of the water level falling dang erously low: when the top of the plug is out of the water it overheats. a device used in the production of ceramics. It is part of a bigger set of pressure safety valves (PSV) or pressure relief va lves (PRV). or indep endent remote. the lowmelting-point core melts away and the resulting noisy release of steam into the firebox serves to warn the operators of the danger before the top of the firebox itself runs completely dry. electronic representation on a computer monitor. Section I has specific requirements which must be followed whe n using these types of indicators. A gag e glass is the most common form of level indicator found on steam boilers.

It is a type of energy storage device. A smokebox is one of the major basic parts of a steam locomotive exhaust system. The soo blown out with the flue g it will trap the soot.A sootblower may be operated manually or by a remotely t. Spain. The smoke then enters the smokebox. they also have good water circulation by means of the thermosyphon effect. It can be used to smooth out peaks and troughs in demand for steam. If the boiler is equipped with a dust collector. Steam drum Made from high Carbon Steel with high tensile strength and its working involves temperatures around 390oC and pressures well above 350 psi(2. they have a high evaporative capacity relat ive to their size. which is removed from the heating surfaces. As they are directly expose d to the radiant heat of combustion.[1] and is planned for t he "solar steam train" project in Sacramento. and separately fired. convection. Ot through the chimney stack A waterwall in a boiler is any furnace wall that is comprised of refractory and tubes in a water-tube boiler. The tubes are evenly spaced and generally connect to headers which in turn are connected back to the main generating bank of the b oiler.4MPa). California[2] A superheater is a device used to convert saturated steam or wet steam into dry steam used in steam engines or in processes. They serve a two fold purpose here in that they capture heat that would o therwise escape to the atmosphere and help heat the water in the boiler. and is exhausted to the atmosphere through the chimney (or funnel). And the y also help keep the refractory cool (relatively speaking) This prevents spallin g of the refractory. herwise. An example is the PS10 solar power tower plant near Seville. Thermic siphons are heat-exchanging elements in the firebox or combustion chambe r of some steam boiler and steam locomotive designs. Further heating of the saturated steam will make superheated steam normally u sed to drive a steam turbine. the soot will be ejected into the outside air . controlled motor. Smoke and hot gases pass from the firebox through tubes where they pass heat to the surrounding water in the boiler. By arranging them near-vertically. The separate d steam is drawn out from the top section of the drum and distributed for proces s. A superheater can vary in size from a few tens of feet to several hundred feet (a few metres or some hundred metres). A Steam accumulator is an insulated steel pressure tank containing hot water and steam under pressure. will be ases. . There are three types of superheaters namely: radiant. Steam accumulators may take on a significance for energy storage in solar thermal energy projects. such as steam reforming.

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