Gods & Demons Aharaigichi - the supreme god of the Abipone of South America. He is referred to, respectfully, as Grandfather.

Ah Mun - a Mayan corn god. Ah Puch - the Mayan god of death and the ruler of Hunhau, the lowest underworld layer. He is also associated with war abd dusease. He usually appears in the form of a giant with decaying flesh and a skull-like head; he wears ornaments inlcuding bells, eyeballs, owls, etc. Ahtoltecat - the Mayan god of silverowrking. Ahulane - a Mayan god associated with warfare and combat. He was venerated by soldiers and could bless them by controlling the course of arrows in battle. Aiomun Kondi - the supreme and creator god of the Arawak. Aiomun Kondi made the Earth, the sea, the heavens, and the wind. The god eventually became angry with the people for being wicked and envious, so he sent a great flame to destroy the population. A few were wise enough to heed Aiomun Kondi's warnings and hide in the caves; they survived and returned to the world. At first they tried to live good lives but as their population grew it became gradually more corrupt. This time, Aiomun Kondi sent forth a flood; the only survivor this time was Marerewana, who survived the great flood and repopulated the world with his family. Anchancho - wicked spirits that haunt the Colla people of the Andean highlands. They are wailing, moaning spirits who haunt the lonely places in the mountains, particularly during dusk and during storms. They use their evil eyes to beguile travelers before possessing their bodies and sucking out their blood. The anchancho were also blamed for causing illnesses and bad fortune; they oppose the beneficient ekkekko, and -along with the equally-malevolent machulas -- they made up a class of evil beings called the supay. Anhanga - the Devil, to the Amazonian Indians of Brazila. Anhanga is a shapeshifter who can appear as a white deer or an evil-looking man. He haunts the dreams of his victims and his mere presence alone means death.

Animal symbolism: most tribes and civilizations believed animals had powers that could help and hinder them. Humans could tap into this power by owning a part of the animal (either literally, like a feather or a horn, or symbolically, like a symbol or likeness). After death, humans became like animals; commoners would become insects, while nobility could become birds or animals. Some animals became nahuals, protective spirits. •Bird - South America has more bird species than any other continent on Earth. The greatest concentration is in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru, in their many jungles and mountains. Their feathers are incorporated in clothing and religious ceremonies and at times are more valuable than jade. Large birds, such as eagles, condors, and hawks are admired for their strength and skill in hunting and war. •Butterfly - joy and rebirth •Cat - powerful, fierce, and mysterious due to their aloofness. could represent Go or a devil figure. •Condor - an intelligent, strong bird, respected by the Incans and other tribes. His feathers were originally white but became black due to grief at having lost his first love. •Deer - swiftness, shyness, aloofness •Dog - associated with death, and the unknown; a dog's howl predicts death, dogs could communicate with the dead, and dogs guide people into the underworld •Eagle - a symbol of day, the Sun, and the Eagle Knights (the highest order of Aztec warriors, even higher than the Jaguar Knights); women who died in childbirth were also made honorary Eagle Knights •Fox - trickster figure •Jaguar - a large wild cat white or rich yellow in color with black rosettes. They are the largest cats in South America. Jaguars are respected for their strength and speed; humans and gods often took their shapes, and a high-ranking order of Aztec warriors was called the Jaguar Knights

•Llama - smart, fast, and easily domesticated, llamas are an important aspect of the economy and culture of the Andes; they are great pack animals (able to trek fully loaded for as long as 12 hours) and the females are raised for milk and meat. Llama fur is made to rope, textiles, and other materials. They can even guard animals. Sometimes llamas were offered as sacrifice. •Monkey - tree dwelling monkeys are respected for their quickness and intellect; the Maya in particular revered them, and believed that monkeys had once been wooden humans who failed to worship appropriately. While most were annihilated in Hurakan's flood, a few survived and were transformed inot monkeys. •Opossum - old age and childbirth; opossums are also assistants to humanity, bringing fire and corn to mortals •Owl - associated with death and the underworld; also associated with healing and witchcraft, and could carry messages between the humans and the gods. Owls were also feared because they could change shape. •Rabbit - often a source of food; associated with the moon god and with alcohol (pulque) •Serpent - associated with darkness and the underworld. The serpents that had the most spiritual power were large, venomous snakes. Among the most powerful is the cobra grande, which prowls at night and uses magnetic force to trap boats •Snail - rebirth and joy; the whirled shape of its shell represents the continuous cycle of life and death •Vulture - a sign of impending death; also associated with fire and resurrection Apiztetl - the Aztec god of famine. Apocatequil - to the Huamachucho Indians of Peru, the god of night and the prince of evil. His twin is the god of day, Piguerao. Apocatequil is also associated with lightning and thunder. Apoiaueue - the rain spirits of the Tupi Indians in Brazil, who opposed droughts.

Atlacamanc - an Aztec storm god, the male complement of Chalchihuitlicue Atlaua - an Aztec war god associated with arrows. Aunyaina - an evil magician who persecuted the Tupi Indians. The people of Earth were rid of him after they tricked him into climbing a vine and then falling to the Earth. Lizards, caimans, and iguanas all grew out of his body. Bacabs - the Bacabs are Mayan gods that stand at the four corners of the world and hold up to the heavens. The Bacabs are one god split up into four separate aspects, the son(s) of Itzamna and Ix Chel. They sometimes appear as jaguar gods. Each Bacab is associated with a direction, a color, and an attribute of nature: Hobnil was in the East, associated with red and the rising sun; Can Tzicnal was in the North, associated with white, and the cold; Zac Cimi was in the West, associated with black and the darkness after sunset; and Hozanek was in the South, associated with yellow, and the Sun shining on the cornfields. Humans could consult the Bacabs as oracles. Balam - the everyday gods that protect the Maya, including. Boiuna - a mythical giant serpent who rules over the rivers in the Amazon rain forest. He is normally black but can change into various swamp creatures in order to frigthen away local fishermen. Boto - freshwater dolphins of Brazil; locals believe that they are enchanted creatures who contain the spirits of those who have drowned in the river. They are playful and friendly, and seek to remind the living that they are still around. Some of them can even shapeshift into handsome men. Cachimana - the great spirit of the Orinoco of South America. His evil foe, Iolokiamo, is much more active in the world but has less power. Caipora - in Brazil, these are giant jungle spirits covered in dark hair; they live in trees and hide from people in the daytime. At night, they ride on the back of a huge boar, haunting anyone who ventures into the forest or has gotten lost. Camahueto - a Chilean sea monster that destroys boats. It resembles a young silver bull with a golden horn. It can only be controlled by a

wizard, who must fashion a rope out of sea kelp to lead it away. Camaxtli - the Aztec god of fate, war, and the hunt, one of the four gods who shaped the world. He is associated with fire. Camazotz - the vampire bat god of the Quiche Maya. He is a terrible god who rules twilight and serves death. He dwells in bloody caverns and other dark places, and anyone who disturbs him faces great danger. Camulatz & Cotzbalam - two of the four mythic birds that helped the wind god Hurakan punish the first humans for their disrespect. These two birds were responsible for biting off the heads of the drowning humans and pecking off their flesh. Catequil - the Incan god of thunder and lightning, who served Inti and Mama Quilla. Ccoa - in the highlands of Peru, these beings are flying feline spirits who are the most dangerous agents of the mountain god Inkarri. They can fire lightning from their eyes. They often prey on the crops of the poor, since the rich are better able to bribe them to stay awy. Ceiuci - to the Tupi of the Amazon river, Ceiuci is a cannibalistic sorceress. She is one of the stars of the Pleiades who came to Earth to find food due to her intense hunger. Chac - another Mayan deity with four-parts, associated with thunder, lightning, wind, and fertility. Chalchihuitlicue - the Aztec goddess of rivers, lakes, oceans, storms, and whirlpools. She is the wife of Tlaloc and the embodiment of youth and beauty. She watches over the ill and newborns -- in the latter role, she supervises baptisms. Chamalcan - the bat god of the Maya. Chasca - the attendant of the sun god, Inti. Chenuke - an evil spirit of the Ona Indians of Tierro del Fuego. Cherruve - the monstrous spirits of shooting stars, resembling flying serpents with human heads; they are feared by the Araucanian Indians of Chile. Chiccans - giant snakes who hold up the world, according to the Maya

of eastern Guatemala. There are four large ones responsible for this task, as well as a multitude of smaller chiccans who managed rivers and earthquakes. Chicomecoatl - the adult form of the Aztec corn goddess, Xilonen. Chimalma - an Aztec goddess, the mother of the feathered serpent god Quetzalcoatl. Chiminigagua - the creator god of the Chibcha Indians, who created the universe and sent large black birds to carry light over the mountains. Chonchon - an Araucanian Indian vampire, with big ears and a human head. He uses his ears as wings to fly, enabling him to look for prey. Cihuacoatl - Earth mother to the Toltec and Aztec, a powerful goddess who is very involved in the lives of humans. Not only does she preside over births and battles, she predicted natural disasters and helped humans avoid damage. Cihuateteo - the spirits of women who died giving birth. The Aztecs considered such deaths worthy of the same honor given to warriors. The cihuateteo lived in the wester paradise where each day they carried the Sun from overhead on its afternoon descent to the underworld. After a period of time in paradise, each cihuateteo is permitted to wander the living world occasionally, but only at night, and always in the forms of moths or unearthly spirits. They bring bad luck and illnesses to living beings, especially children. Cinteotl - the Aztec god of corn, who was frequently appeased. Cipactli - a sea monster so ancient that it existed since before the beginning of time and was thought to have swum in an ocean of stars. From it, the Aztec gods created the Earth. It is also known as Tlaltecuhtli. Coatlicue - the Earth goddess and ruler of both life and death in Aztec mythology. She is the mother of the sun god Huitzilpochtli. Despite her importance, her appearance was ghastly -- she had loose and sagging breasts, claws for hands and feet, a necklace of human skulls, and a skirt made of snakes. She is both life-giving and cruel. Cocijo - a Zapotec god of lightning and rain, who blew on the formless

matter of the cosmos to create the Sun, the heavenly bodies, the seasons, plants, animals, days, nights, mountains, and rivers. Ehecatl - the wind god and an aspect of the Nahua god Quetzalcoatl. His own aspects were the four directions / four winds. He appeared as a black god with a beaked red mask and he served the rain god, Tlaloc. His wind also aids Nanautzin, the god of the Sun, and Tecciztecatl, the god of the Moon, in their daily progression across the sky. He breathes life into humans and, by falling in love with the goddess Mayahuel, you can grant humans the ability to love. Ekkekko - an everyday personal god of good luck, plenty, and wealth to the people of the Peruvian highlands. By placing miniature objects of your wants or needs near an Ekkekko doll, you could influence the god into granting them to you over the next year. Guecubu - a class of demons that could change form and become either humans or animals. Guecubus could cause earthquakes, summon crop-destroying insect plagues, bring disease to animals, and even empty seas of fish. Guineche - the supreme god of the Araucanian, who controlled the natural world and rescued humanity from a flood by raising up mountains that were taller than the waters Guirivilo - or Neguruvilu, a snake-fox demon of the Araucanian, who lurks in rivers and uses its long tail to ensnare swimmers and drag them to their deaths. Hacavitz - a Mayan mountain god Hobnil - the Bacab of the East, the color red; he is also the bee god and patron of beekeepers. Homshuk - the corn spirit of the Maya Huitzilopochtli - the Hummingbird of the South, a warrior/sun god of the Aztec. He is a new god who struggles with the underworld and accompanies dead souls. Hunahau - the Maya lord of death and head of all demons; he may be an aspect of the death god Ah Puch Hurakan - the creator god of the Maya, who created the Earth from a

watery mass. He sent a flood to destroy the disobedient humans who reigned over the Earth at this time, and all were consumed except for a few (who became forest monkeys). He has control over fire, water, thunder, lightning, and heavy rain Iae - the moon god of the Mamaiurans of the Brazilian Amazon. Along with his brother, Kuat, he brings daylight to humans by defeating the king of the birds, Urubutsin. Ihuemecatl - to the Nahua, these are the demons who helped Tezcatlipoca bring ruin to Quetzalcoatl. Illapa - the Incan god of rain, lightning, thunder, and storms; Illapa is closely heland revered as god 'everyday god'. Inkarri - the all-powerful but aloof creator god of the Quechua of the Andes. In addition to creating the heavens and the Earth, including humans, Inkarri created the wamanis, everyday spirits who worked with humans. Inti - the Sun, a godlike ancestor of the Incan royal family and -- in some myths -- the ancestor of all Incans. Inti is the son of the creator god Viracoccha and his wife Mama Quilla; his wife was Pachamama, the Earth goddess. Inti's symbol is gold. Itzlacoliuhqui - the Aztec god of obsidian and a god of sacrifice. Itzpapalotl - a Nahua goddess with associations of fire, the heavens, hunting, pleasure, and pain. Itzapapalotl is lovely to look upon and is strongly associated with jaguars. Ix Chel - Mayan goddess of water, medicine, weaving, childbirth, and the moon. She could be both benevolent and destructive, but her destructive aspect is more prominent. Ixtlilton - Aztec god of medecine, healing, and feasting. The waters found in his temple can be used for healing. Iztaccihuatl - an Aztec moutnain goddess, guardian of animals needed for food. Jakui - water spirits that play heavenly music on their enchanted flutes, which are reed-like instruments of the same name. They wear wooden masks.

Jurupari - a chief god and evil spirit of various groups in the tropical forests of the Amazon region. Jurupari is closely associated with boys and coming-of-age rituals. As a cult god, Jurupari enforces cultural norms and rituals; as an evil spirit, Jurupari takes the forms of animals and stalks children and others in the night. Kauyumari - a trickster god of the Huichol in Mexico, Kinich Ahau - the sun god of the Yucatan Maya, a god of the day who moves across the sky and becomes a jaguar at night to travel safely through the underworld. He is worshipped by hunters nad rulers alike. Kon-Tiki - creator god of the Colla, who could walk on water and travel across the sea. Korupira - a forest demon of various Brazilian/Amazon rain forest tribes. It protects the animals of the forest, treating them when they are wounded or are sick. It also guards trees. Korupira can be kind and helpful but it also capable of great harm, especially when enraged by wasteful or cruel hunters. Korupira can take either animal or human shapes (most often that of a young boy) and can transform others. Its most frightening power is its ability to drain away a person's soul. Kukulcan - the supreme god of the Yucatan Maya. He is a creator god of resurrection and reincarnation, associated with the planet Venus. Kururumany - Arawak creator god of men and goodness. His wife, Kulimina, was a fellow creator goddess who created women. Makonaima - the creator god and great spirit of several Guyanese groups, including the Arawak. He works only only int he darkness of night. He is also a rescuer of people in their time of need. Mama Allpa - the Incan goddess of Earth and the harvest. Mama Cocha - the Incan goddess of rain, water, and the sea, and wife of the creator god Viracoccha. She is the oldest deity who patronizes fishermen and physicians. Mama Cora - Incan goddess of corn Mama Quilla - the Incan Moon goddess and protector of married women. She is the wife and the sister of the sun god Inti. Within her portfolio, she also controls the passage of time and the seasons. The

Peruvians saw the Moon as a great silver disk, and the markings on the Moon were the feature of her face. They also believed that solar eclipses were caused when a serpent or mountail lion tried to eat Mama Quilla. Manta - or Huecu, a legendary fish demon who devours people who enter its lake and causes massive tidal waves when it weeps. Mayahuel - the goddess of childbirth and intoxicants in Aztec mythology. She was once a mortal woman who earned divinity by discovering the intoxicating maguey plant. She is guarded in the holy lands by Tzitzimitl, who was outfoxed by Mayahuel's suitor Ehecatl. Meztli - the Aztec moon goddess of the night and darkness. She is the female version of Tecciztecatl. Mictlantecuhtli - the god of death and lord of the north of the Aztec. He rules the underworld, the center of the Earth, where those not destined to heaven are sentenced to live in eternal boredom. With his wife, Mictecacihuatl, he guards the souls doomed to his abyss. Mictecacihuatl - the goddess of death and husband of Mictantecuhtli. Another version of her is Masaya, who received souls of those who had not been absolved of their sins and those who died in a less-than-honorable manner. Milomaki - a food god of some groups who live in the Amazon region of Brazil. Mixcoatl - the Aztec patron god of hunters, god of warriors, and god of the sky. He is the father of Quetzalcoatl as well as the 400 stars of the Milky way. He is usually depicted with red and white stripes running down his body, black eyes or a black mask, and long hair. Monan - creator god of the Tupi-Guarani of Brazil Nanautzin - the Aztec god of self-sacrifice, courage, and light. When the Sun was being created, the shy and retiring Nanautzin was brave enough to throw himself into the creative furnace while the more outgoing and arrogant Tecciztecatl hesitated. Nahual - personal spirits of the Aztec, who protect, guard, and inspire humans and deities alike. Nahuals are usually animals but could also be natural phenomena such as lightning or meteor. These spirits are typically assigned at birth but did not manifest themselves fully until

later on in life, at which point they typically appear in dreams. They have a wide range of powers, including the ability to travel into the world of dreams to seek information for their masters. Some humans can actually assume the form of their nahuals. A few examples of divine nahuals are the feathered serpent, guardian of Quetzalcoatl, and the hummingbird, associated with Huitzilpochtli Nyamandui - the creator of space, time, and Earth, according to an Amazon rain forest tribe. He emerged from the original darkness and created the universe out of his initial sacred imagination. Nohochacyum - the 'Grandfather'-like creator god of the Maya, the god of creation. He spends his time fighting the evil serpent deity, Hapikern, who is destined to one day defeat Nohochacyum, devour all of humanity, and destroy the universe at the end of time. Ometeotl - the supreme being of the Toltec and the Aztec. He created himself and was therefore outside of space and time. He lives in Omeyocan, the place of Duality, the highest of the 13 levels of heaven. He was not usually worshipped and had no temple. Ometecuhtli/Omecihuatl - the male and female aspects of Ometeotl, an Aztec supreme deity. Opochtli - the Aztec god of fishing, hunting, and trapping Orehu - an Arawak water spirit, similar to a mermaid; they are famous for their generosity and kindness. Pabid - to the Tupi of Brazil, this is the spirit of a dead person created when the eyes of a dead person rotted away. In the land of the dead, the pabids are taken before the head magician, Patobkha, who restored the pabid's sight with pepper juice. Pachacamac - the creator and supreme god of the early coastal of Peru. He is the son of the Sun and is considered to be an oracle. His powers are so great that he has been incorporated into the Incan pantheon. People revere him so much that the people did not speak his name. Pachamama - the mostly kind Earth goddess of the Incan people. She is the generous provider of all crops and food, and she received regular offerings and sacrifices.

Patecatl - Aztec patron of medicines and the god of 'pulque', an alcoholic drink made from the agave plant. Patecatl is the son of the god Cinteotl and the husband of Mayahuel. Pauahtun - the god of the ancient Maya who held up the four corners of the sky. Paynal - a messenger god of the Aztecs, who called men off to fight. Pek - the Mayan dog-god of death and lightning, who announced death's arrival. Quetzalcoatl - the most important god of the Aztec, Toltec, and the Zapotec. He is the supreme god of medicine, wind, the Sun, fertility, agriculture, air, clouds, thieves, and even gambling; his domain expanded to cover almost every aspect of daily life. After being humiliated by a trick of his brother Tezcatlipoca's, Quetzalcoatl sails away over the sea; the Aztecs mistook the Spaniards for the return of Quetzalcoatl and his retinue, which turned out to be a fatal error. Ruda - the god of love in Brazilian mythology. He takes the form of a warrior who lives in the clouds. To ensure that reproduction and repopulation occurs, he fills the hearts and minds of warriors with love for their families and their wives to ensure that they return to them after warfare and hunting. Supay - an evil spirit of the Inca, who tried to dominate the everyday lives of mortal. He demands the sacrifice of children. Sura - the creator god of the Andean people of Peru, who provided seeds to humans to help them survive. Tecciztecatl - moon god of the Aztac; also known as Meztli, this god typically appears as an old man with a white shell on his back and wings like a butterfly. Long ago, Tecciztecal had the opportunity to become the Sun instead, but he hesitated too often. He was eventually displaced from his position as moon by Coyolxauhqui. Tecumbalam - one of the four mythic birds that helped the wind Hurakan punish the first humans made of wood after they became disrespectful and impious. Tecumbalam's role was to break the bones and sinews of the wooden people and then ground into powder. Tenten & Caicai - mythological serpents of the Araucanian in Chile.

Tenten symbolized goodness, and Caicai was evil; the two serpents battled so ferociously they caused the sea waters to rise up and flood the Earth. When Tenten saw what was happening, he tried to end the fight, but Caicai persisted. Tenten used his magic to erect mountains to protect the people and the environment but Caicai countered with even more intense floods. This is why the the island home of the Araucanian looks the way it does. Tepeu - one of seven creator gods of the Maya, who worked with Gucumatz, Alom, Bitol, Hurakan, Qahalom, and Tzacol to create the Earth and the first humans out of wood. Teotl - Nahuatl word for "god". Teteo Innan - the mother of the Aztec gods, a great Earth goddess filled with powerful healing magic. In her ceremonies, worshippers dance with their arms filled with flowers, sometimes for hours until they fall into a trancelike state. Tezcatlipoca - the Smoking Mirror god, often considered Quetzalcoatl's counterpart. He is omnipresent and omniscent, containing in his portfolio the Sun, the North, the cold, darkness, luck (good and bad), war, and courage. Using his obsidian mirror, he can see into the future, and had the power to change shape. Of all the Aztec gods, Tezcatlipoca is by far the most powerful. Tlaloc - the Aztec god of rain, thunder, and the mountains; combined with his sister/wife Chalchihuitlicue, he controls all water. He is an important god, with many temples and rituals. He rules the layer of heaven known as Tlalocan along with his sons, the Tlaloques. Tlaltecuhtli - a giant crocodile-like monster that the Aztec believed was the Earth. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca fought with and destroyed her; they used her dismembered body to form the heaven, the stars, and Earth. She still lives, however, and occasionally cries out in pain, demanding the blood and hearts of humans. Tlazolteotl - the Aztec goddess of vice, the Moon, Earth, healing, and the forgiveness of sins. She is the Queen of Witches and the mother of the flower deities Cinteotl and Xochiquetzal. She controls all the magic in the universe, and exercises her power on Earth by manifesting herself as four aspects -- each one a powerful witch who visited crossroads.

Tohil - the one-legged fire god of sacrifice of the Quiche Maya, who gave fire to mortals in exchange for human sacrifice. Tonantzin - an Aztec mother goddess associated with many powerful deities, including Coatlicue, Teteo Innan, Hueytecpatl, and Tentmic. Tonatiuh - the Aztec Sun god, an all-powerful ruler of the current era. His daily progress across the sky was so difficult that he received human sacrifice because he needed blood and flesh to nourish him. He was also strengthened by other kinds of sacrifice, such as leading a moral and virtuous life, working hard, and desmonmtrating courage during wartime. Tzitzimime - the nonhuman followers of the Aztec demon-goddess Tzitzimitl. These entities are also called star demons because they had hundreds of eyes staring down at Earth each time. There will eventually come a time when the tzitzimimes will descend upon Earth and destroy all life. In the meantime, however, they focus their destructive efforts on the Sun, attacking it during solar eclipses. Some tzitzimimes were formed from the souls of women who died while giving birth. Tzitzimitl - an air demoness, the Aztec goddess of inertia. She is a close companion of Mayahuel, the goddess of intoxicants and childbirths. Tzitzimitl descends from the stars and is the only Aztec deity to be wholly malevolent. Urutai - the bird of virtue and love, according to Brazilian mythology. Wearing the feathers of the urutai enables a couple to stay in love. Urubutsin - the king of the birds, according to Brazilian mythology. He is forced by Iae and Kuat to share daylight with humans. Before that, he used to order his bird subjects to spread their wings and blot out the Sun, forcing humans to suffer in darkness. Iae and Kuat used a ruse to trick him and attack him; they tied him up until he agreed to stop blocking the sunlight. Ueuecoyotl - the Old, Old Coyote, the Aztec god of unnecessary enjoyment and leisure. This deity is said to cause chaos and distract people from their ungoing wars. He is portrayed as a trickster and was deplored by the serious-minded Aztecs for his indolence and gaiety. Uixtocihuatl - the Aztec goddess of salt, sister of Tlaloc the rain god

and his siblings. During her June festival, Aztec women wear flowers in their hair and danced in her honor -- and, like most Aztec celebrations, human sacrifice was common. Salt was a popular trade item. Urcaguay - the serpent-god of the Inca, the god of the underground. He keeps watch over underground treasure. Viracoccha - the supreme god and creator of the people of the Peruvian Andes, later adopted by the Incans. He created the Sun and the Moon, the winds, the planet Venus, the stars, and all of humankind. Viracoccha is believed to have emerged from the sea. He is a remote deity, far above even Inti (the Sun), and does not intercede directly in the affairs of mortals. According to some legends, Viracoccha created not just one world but five; he dwells in the first world, the world of the gods, by himself. The second world is controlled by his giant worshippers. The third world is a realm of darkness, where humans languish; the fourth world is prehistoric and uncivilized; and the fifth is the world of the Incans. The Incans who first made contact with the Spaniards mistook the European invaders for Viracoccha and his messengers. Vitzilopochtli - an Aztec war god and sorcerer, who had the power to change shape. He was associated with dragons and received human sacrifices, like most Aztec deities. Wamani - the wamanis were powerful shape-shifting mountain spirits of the Andes, who control the weather and influenc the fertility of animals and plants. They also intercede on the behalf of mortals to the aloof supreme deity, Inkarri. Watavinewa - the benevolent god of the Yamana people of Tierra del Fuego. Though not a creator god, he supports life by teaching mortals how to plant, hunt, build houses, make clothes, and live communally. Xamaniqinqu - the Mayan god of the north, who guarded merchants as they traveled. Wanderers would light incense at his roadside shrines for luck. Xecotcovach - one of the four mythic birds that helped the wind god Hurakan punish the first wooden humans, in the creation myth of the Quiche, after they failed to worship the gods properly and treat the earth with respect. Xecotcovach's role was to tear the humans' eyes out.

Xilonen - the young corn goddess of the Aztecs, who married Tezcatlipoca. She received offerings in exchange for providing healthy crops. Xipe Totec - the Flayed Lord of the Aztecs, god of planting, flowers, sunsets, spring, and rebirth, and the patron of jewelers and warriors. Xipe Totec is a son of the first parents, Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl, and the brother of Huitzilopochtli, Tezcatlipoca, and Quetzalcoatl. At the beginning of creation, Xipe Totec sacrificed himself by skinning himself alive and tearing out his own eyes to provide for the creation of the cosmos. The Aztecs honored his sacrifice by flaying captured warriors alive during festivals. Xiuhcoatl - an Aztec flaming serpent, who symbolizes extreme drought. He is associated with Xiuhtecuhtli as well as Huitzilopochtli, who used it to behead his sister Coyolxauhqui when she tried to kill their mother, Coatlicue the earth goddess. Xiuhtecuhtli - the Aztec god of fire, turquoise, and life. He is depicted as a strong young warrior and is the current ruler of this era of history. Xochipilli - the Aztec god of flowers, love, beauty, song, feasts, and dances. He is the twin or the husband of Xochiquetzal. Xochiquetzal - the eternally young Aztec goddess of beauty, gaiety, love, and flowers. She watched over childbirth, guarded new mothers, and was the patron of weavers, painters, silversmiths, and all artists and craftsmen. She is honored with marigolds on her holiday, the Day of the Dead, and is often depicted as being attended by butterflies. Xolas - the Supreme God of the Alacaluf tribe, a pure spirit that existed prior to the creation of the universe. His main duty is to give babies their souls upon birth before snatching them back after they die. Xolotl - the Lord of the Evening Star and the dark twin (and nahual, or protector spirit) oft he god Quetzalcoatl. As the evening star, he rose before the Sun sets and nudges the Sun into the underworld before returning to his post to guard the nighttime sky with his light. Xolotl is also associated with lightning as well as disease. In iconography, he appears as a skeletal man with a dog head with one torn ear. Yacatecutli (He Who Goes Before) - the Aztec god of travelers and god of merchants. Because merchants of Aztec society were prominent and

well-honored for their dual role as traders and ambassadors/missionaries, it is natural for them to have their own god. (Merchants also acted as spies, going undercover in lands they traveled to learn about them). Not much is known about this god though, except that his symbol was a staff. Yara - water spirits from the Brazilian Amazon river. They spend half their lives living as serpents, and the other half as sirens -- beautiful young women who entrance young men, often drawing them to their deaths. In some legends, milk could be used to wash away the spell that forces them to spend time in serpent form, allowing them to remain humanoids permanently. Yum Kaax - a Mayan god of corn, coca, and agriculture. He is not an aggressive deity; in fact, he is so passive that he is often bullied with insects and rodents. He is dependent on humans for survival; humans bring him water and wards off pests, and in return he provides abundant food. Zakigoxol (Zaquicoxol) - an evil Mayan demon that lives in the forests. He is associated with the destructive side of fire.

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