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Carried out at M/s Vijai Electricals Ltd, Hyderabad (works at Rudraram) during 21-06-2010 to 08-07-2010. Under the guidance of Sri. V. Koteswara Rao, Consultant and Trainer Centre for Education, Training and Development. By D.Nagamani Devi (Regd no:07071A0235) U. Sundeep (Regd no:07071A0253) L. Sridevi (Regd no:07071A0254)
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
Vnr Vignana Jyothi Institute of Engineering and Technology (Approved by A.I.C.T.E., New Delhi & Govt. of A.P. & Also to J.N.T.U) Bachupally(v), Hyderabad, A.P., India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Website: www.vnrvjiet.ac.in
A Mini Project On CAST RESIN TRANSFORMERS Manufacturing and Testing
Carried out at M/s Vijai Electricals Ltd, Hyderabad (works at Rudraram) during 21-06-2010 to 08-07-2010. Under the guidance of
Sri. V. Koteswara Rao, Consultant and Trainer Centre for Education, Training and Development.
First and foremost, we wish to thank our guides Sri. V. Koteswara Rao & Sri. D. Vijay Bhasker, Engineer, CETD, VIJAI ELECTRICALS LTD. for their enthusiastic support and guidance extended by them without which this project would not have been completed with any degree of success. We also express our sincere thanks to Wg.Cdr. A.Kamalakar, VP (HR) VIJAI ELECTRICALS LTD. for providing us this opportunity to complete the project work successfully. We sincerely thank Associate Prof. Ramesh babu Sir, EEE , VNR VIGNANA JYOTHI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY for providing us the support & enough guidance to complete the project work successfully. We also thank Prof. K. Anuradha, Head of the department, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, VNR VIGNANA JYOTHI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, Bachupally for providing us this opportunity to carry out our project work. We express our gratitude to Sri. J. D. Ramesh, Chairman& Managing Director, VIJAI ELECTRICALS LTD. for allowing us to do the project in their organization.
ABOUT VIJAI ELECTRICALS LTD.
Overview Pioneering leadership, remarkable vision, strong customer focus, and a relentless commitment to quality and innovation have made Vijai Electricals Ltd. one of the largest and leading manufacturer-exporters of Power and Distribution Transformers. Ever since its foundation in 1973, Vijai has made an impact in the Electrical Industry and its products have been inspected and accepted by several internationally reputed third-party Inspection Agencies like Lloyds-UK, Crown Agents-UK, BSI Inspectorate Griffith-UK, Bureau Vetitas, OMIC Japan, CAPEThailand, Society General de Surveillance (S.G.S), Tube scope Vecto GmbHGermany, Robert W. Hunt Organization, RITES, AT Survey & Inspection Company-Bangladesh and so on. Headquartered in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India and operating from stateof-the-art manufacturing facilities, spread over a 160-acre campus, Vijai Electricals Ltd. employs aver 7000 highly qualified, experienced and well trained personnel with an inspiring zeal for hard work and success. Today, with more than three decades of continuous progress behind it, Vijai has crosses many historical landmarks and grown into a progressive global organization surpassing many benchmarks in the field.
Vision Vijai Electricals Ltd. Aims to be a prominent global player and a national leader in the field of Power Transmission and Distribution, promoting the cause of energy saving through constant innovation and customization of products, and introduction of value added solutions for its honored customers. It is getting set to become a one stop shop for Power and Distribution Transformers, scaling newer heights of technology, setting quality benchmarks for all its products and services, and ensuring satisfaction to all its shareholders.
Distribution Transformer Division: CRGO Transformer Plant:
Vijai operated from a chain of facilities based in Hyderabad, Uttarakhand and an overseas unit at Brazil. The manufacturing units of Vijai represent the best form at manufacturing process that is based on the concept of vertical Integration or Backward Integration. This helps us to create an effective system that maintains its good hold on quality. This plant is capable of the following: Small and Medium Range Distribution Transformers Small power oil Filled Transformers Single Phase Transformers Dry type Cast Resin Transformers Corrugated Tank Transformers Completely Self Protected Transformers
This manufacturing unit uses in house developed PLC controlled semi automatic winding machines. testing and supply of EHV Power Transformers up to 500 MVA. Japan. Vijai Electricals Ltd. manufacturing. This plant of Vijai Electricals Limited is most contemporary with state of the art manufacturing facilities that would be required to manufacture the end product. 500 kV class in technical collaboration with M/s Daihen Corporation. EHV and Large Power Transformers Division: Having excelled in the field of Distribution and Power Transformers. Vijai has now stepped in the arena of EHV Large Power Transformers. Single phase transformers. Three phase transformers and 700 Nos. Pad Mounted Transformers Amorphous metal core distribution plant: The amorphous metal core transformer plant is one of the most modern and advanced manufacturing capacity of over 1000 units per day comprising of 300 Nos. has pulsed in design. oil filling under vacuum arrangement which is complemented by complete test set up including High Voltage Impulse Lab and Short Circuit Lab for type testing the transformers. Amorphous Metal Core Transformers reduces the no load component in a transformer by 60 to 70%. Hot Air Blowing Machines. .
This division of Vijai is mainly crafted for: .Switchgear Products Division: Vijai was established for the manufacture of wide range of Switchgear products from 12kV to 420kV and Instrument transformer from 12kV to420kV and Vacuum interrupters up to 36kV. Medium Voltage Vacuum Switchgear Medium Voltage Gas Insulated Switchgear Medium voltage Current Transformers Medium Voltage Potential Transformers Medium Voltage VCB Kiosk EHV Live Tank EHV Dead Tank Circuit Breakers Circuit Breakers EHV Gas Insulated Switchgear EHV Current Transformers EHV Voltage Transformers Vacuum Interrupters Projects Division: The projects wing started operation from the year 2003 and now it is carrying out major projects in Transmission and Distribution of Power all over India. Gas Insulated Substations up to 220kV as below.
a sister concern of Vijai Electricals Ltd. price and delivery schedules. provided support to Vijai by manufacturing and supplying almost all major components that go into the making of Transformers.• Rural Electrification works (RE) • Substation works • Overhead Transmission Lines • DTR packages • High Voltage Distribution System (HVDS) • Consultancy Sister concerns Improving quality &Efficiency through Vertical Integration Samrakshana Electricals Limited: Samarakshana Electricals Ltd. while maintaining an effective and complete control on the entire supply chain. This helps Vijai to get an edge over competitors in terms of quality. SEL is well known for the quality of its products and effectively caters to the needs of various national and international customers besides meeting the requirements of Vijai. (SEL). Awards In recognition of Outstanding Excellence .
Govt. Rolling Trophies for Export by Confederation of Indian Industries (CII). Udyog Ratna Award from the then Union Minister of Energy. Award for the best Export Effort in the State ( Surana Udyog Silver rolling Trophy) during 2001-02 from the FAPCII. EEPC Regional Award for the outstanding Export Performance during the year 1999-2000 (Under the category Electrical Power Machinery. New Delhi. of India in the year 1987. Udyog Jyothi Award from the then Minister of Labour & Employment. . Certificate of Merit from EEPC for outstanding Export for the years 1992. ITID (Institute of Trade Industrial Development) Quality Excellence Award 2002 awarded in recognition of Quality Product (Amorphous Metal Transformers) by ITID. Udyog Patra Award from Vice President of India in the year 1982. Recognition as ‘Export House’ in 1993-94 by the Govt. 1996-97. of India in the year 2000. of India. Govt. Switchgear and Control gear). 1993 and 1994. National Citizen’s Award for the year 1998 received by our Chairman for outstanding contribution in the field of Industry. continually for four years beginning from 1994 to 1997. 1995-96. All India Award for Export Excellence by EEPC for the years 1994-95.
3. 2. Vijai Electricals has always seen “Training and Development” as a part of the heart of business and committed to be a learning organization. Ministry of Railways. EEPC Regional Award for the outstanding Export Performance during the year 2005-2006. EEPC Regional Award for the outstanding Export Performance (New/Difficult Market) during the year 2002-2003. Training and Development 1. 4th Best Exporter Award for the year 2001-2002 from container corporation of India. M.P. Training and Development (CETD) has been created to facilitate nurturing the learning culture of the people and empowering them to build the company into a knowledge enterprise. A. EEPC Regional Award for the outstanding Export Performance during the year 2000-2001. EEPC Regional Award for the outstanding Export Performance (Continuous Excellence) during the year 2001-2002. CETD facilitates and co-ordinates . Centre for Education. of India. Veisvesvaraya Industrial Award 2003 for Best Import Substitution Effort All India Manufacturers Organization. The Centre for Education. Bharat Ratna Dr. Govt.
− Regular in-house education and training programmes for newly appointed personnel of different disciplines utilizing the services of experienced and Knowledge able managers of VEL as faculty and also external faculty from reputed organizations. − Performance management system for performance improvement. − External training programmes at premier institutes in the country and enterprises abroad for achieving individual and organizational excellence. 4. . − In-house programmes for enhancing essential skills for executives and managers for organizational effectiveness utilizing the services of experienced and knowledge able managers of VEL as faculty and also external faculty from reputed institutes. The objectives of CETD are redefined so as to work in unison with HR department in the following areas. − Continuing professional development of people for global competitiveness. − In-house refresher courses for professional development.
They make sure that the work and accomplishments of young managers are seen. Each of the functionaries in supervisory role is required to engage his team members in a dialogue in the tradition of Socrates. and he often discussed difficult questions with his friends and acquaintances. 5. these managers are the best in some aspect of their business. they demand excellence. They provide latitude. CETD has introduced Socratic method of teaching in various units of the organization. They are tough taskmasters. you may be aware. The challenge. so that out of the discus- . They involve them in important tasks. − − − − 6. They give young managers constructive advice and feedback. − They Counsel. They use younger managers as sounding boards. Developing the leadership pipeline through continuous improvement. Socrates. always searching for truth. Creating a welcome environment where people want to stay. They open doors for them. Where in finance. succession depth. production or marketing. and reducing retention risk. They give Exposure. the courage to fail. They give young managers freedom to try. To him the only thing worth having was true knowledge. was a philosopher. They Excel. # (Annexure). CETD has been developing managers as teachers.− − − − Fostering talent. Building a knowledge enterprise. Socratic method calls for small group environment.
INDEX . These meetings would enable functionaries in supervisory role to become responsible workers defined by Peter F Drucker as persons ‘committed to getting the results. These are managed by Executive Assistants to Heads. A fortnightly e-journal “A Time to Think” is being bought out regularly. it has set up information centers at S. CTED has ‘Information Centers at corporate level and at Rudraram.B. which will be the building blocks for the company to become knowledge enterprise. He had many disciples or chelas.sions truth might emerge. CETD has Training Centers at Corporate Office and Rudraram. These provide facilities for reading and sharing information for new knowledge. under the guidance of Sri. T. The facilities include classrooms for conducting in-house training programs with a total seating capacity of 300. Advisor. Sugunakara Rao. The managers are encouraged to take leading role in facilitating such group meetings. VEL. 8. With a view to developing departments as “Knowledge Centers”.’ 7. Unit and departmental level also.
TESTING OF CAST RESIN TRANSFORMER CHARACTERISTICS OF CAST RESIN TRANSFORMER CONCLUSION 7. 2.1.1. 3.3. Casting of coils Enclosures HV winding LV winding 4. 22.214.171.124. Definition Working principle EMF equation Equivalent circuit of transformer DRY TYPE OR CAST RESIN TRANSFORMERS MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF CAST RESIN TRANSFORMER 4. 4.2. Flowchart of manufacturing process Core making or core assembly Windings 4. 6. 4.3.5. 4.2.1. 4.3. 5. ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION OF TRANSFORMERS 2. 2. 4. ABSTRACT .4.4. 2.
Enclosures. such as residence houses or office buildings. Core assembly. Winding. schools. 3. department stores. Casting of coils. In this project the manufacturing process and testing of cast resin transformer is studied. In testing we have studied different tests like induced over voltage test. It is especially suitable for places of denser electricity consuming or the places that specially require safety. the importance of the cast resin transformer has gradually been enhanced in the territory of power-distribution system. 2. 4. The manufacturing process includes: 1.Cast resin transformer is non flammable with high anti-heat strength. Definition: . hospitals. stations etc. Therefore. insulation resistance test etc.
This is possible with a static device called transformer. when there is no electrical connection between the two circuits. The transformer works on the principle of mutual induction. transmission. .Alternating voltages can be raised or lowered as per the requirements in the different stages of electrical network as generation. It transfers an electric energy from one circuit to other with the desired change in voltage and current. distribution and utilization. without any change in the frequency. PRINCIPLE OF WORKING: .
this emf drives a current through it. 02 E. it circulates an alternating current. Fig.F EQUATION OF A TRANSFORMER: When the primary winding is excited by an alternating voltage V1. If now load is connected to the secondary winding. Thus an alternating flux links with the secondary winding. an electrical energy gets transferred from primary to the secondary.M. When primary winding is excited by an alternating voltage. according to the Faraday's law of an electromagnetic induction.Principle of mutual induction: It states that when two coils are inductively coupled and if current in one coil is changed uniformly then an emf gets induced in the other coil. it . mutually induced emf gets developed in the secondary winding. This emf can drive a current. Thus though there is no electrical contact between the two windings. This current produces an alternating flux which completes its path through common magnetic core. As the flux is alternating. The transformer works on the same principle. when a closed path is provided to it.
producing an alternating flux.M.11*avg value R.M. Therefore.44fΦm As N1 is the number of primary turns hence the RMS value of induced emf E1 is.S value/avg value = 1. Value = 1. Form factor = R.44fΦm volts Equivalent circuit of transformer: . The alternating flux linking with the primary winding itself induces an emf in it denoted as E1.11*4fΦm = 4.11 R.S value of the primary induced emf E2= R. This is mutually induced emf.S. E2 = N2*4. E1 = N1*4.M. It produces an induced emf E2 in the secondary winding. The same flux links with the secondary winding through the common magnetic core. the change in flux is from 0 to Φm. Therefore.S.circulates alternating current.S value of the secondary induced emf From Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction the average emf induced in each turn is proportional to the average rate of change of flux. Value of induced emf / turn = 1. Average emf / turn = avg rate of change of flux dΦ/dt = change in flux/time required for change in flux In 1/4th time period. Φ = flux Φm= maximum value of flux N1= Number of primary winding turns N2= Number of secondary winding turns f = frequency of the supply voltage E1= R.44fΦm volts As N2 is the number of turns the RMS value of induced emf E2 is.M.M. dΦ/dt = Φm – 0/ (1/dt) [ As‘dt’ for 1/4th time period is 1/4fseconds ] = 4fΦm wb/sec For sinusoidal quantity.
They are: Im = Io sin Φo Iw = Io cos Φo Iw Im Fig. For a transformer. Due to I2. This causes voltage drop across R2 & X2. When the load is connected to the transformer then secondary current I2 flows. primary draws an additional current I'2 = I2/K Now. This circuit consisting of Ro & Xo in parallel is called "exciting circuit".The term equivalent circuit of a machine means the combination of fixed and variable resistances & reactance’s. which exactly simulates performance & working of the machine. Types and Applications of transformers: . 06 Equivalent circuit of transformer Im produces the flux and is assumed to flow through reactance Xo called "No load reactance" while Iw is active component representing core losses hence is assumed to flow through the resistance Ro. I1 is the phasor addition of Io & I'2. no load primary current Io has two components. This I1 causes the voltage drop across primary resistance R1 & reactance X1.
the magnetic circuits are connected together. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relaying. The primary and secondary circuits therefore have a number of windings turns in common. or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. the core thus containing a threephase flow of flux. Δ-Y. Polyphase transformers For three-phase power. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together. transformer oil must remain stable at high temperatures over an extended period. The primary voltage is applied across two of the terminals. the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding. three separate single-phase transformers can be used. An adjustable autotransformer is made by the secondary connection through a sliding brush. Instrument transformers A current transformer is a measurement device designed to provide a current in its secondary coil proportional to the current flowing in its primary. Oil filled transformers Oil-filled transformers are transformers that use insulating oil as insulating materials. The most common connections are Y-Δ. In this case. and the secondary voltage taken from one of these and the third terminal. The oil helps cool the transformer.Autotransformer An autotransformer has only a single winding with two end terminals. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents. Dry type transformers: . If a winding is connected to earth (grounded). Δ-Δ and Y-Y. plus a third at an intermediate tap point. Because it also provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts. giving a variable turn’s ratio.
chemical plants and places where fire safety is a great concern. steel factories. MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF CAST-RESIN TRANSFORMERS Flow chart: . Dry type or "cast resin" transformers are well suited for installation in high rise buildings. catch basins or the venting of toxic gases. Dry type transformers are a rather mature product and technology but. underground tunnels. Dry type transformers require minimum maintenance to provide many years of reliable trouble free service. Dry type transformers provide a safe and reliable power source which does not require fire proof vaults. school. a transformer replacement can be a physically challenging event. of all the components in a power system. hospitals. extended delivery of a replacement or repair unit and expensive transportation costs.
In this flow chart. Demoulding Cutting and finishing . Preparation of core Conductors laminations Fibre glass insulation Winding Core assembly Core chamber LV Windings HV Windings Pre-core testing Mould assembly Core coil assembly Pre-heating Accessories Casting Enclosure Curing This flow chart is showing the processes involved in the coil making. the different phases of manufacturing a transformer are showed in an order.
cold-rolled grain-oriented [CRGO]. high .Core making: Core and frame construction: The core is made up of highest quality.
all steel parts are coated with epoxy paint. The core is insulated on both sides of each lamination and protected against corrosion by a resin coating and grounded in accordance with required standards. The frame consists of upper and lower steel channels. the core is miltered at a 45° angle and carefully stacked to obtain very low losses. Lifting lugs and Grounding terminals are fitted to the upper and lower frame respectively. To protect against corrosion.5 KV for 1 minute with respect to earth. The legs are arranged in circular structure multi-ply step-wise design.silicon content steel and accurately cut on the latest CNC machines. exciting current and noise. The core is suitably clamped on a structure so as not to give any vibrations. The undercarriage is bolted to the bottom of the lower frame. The clamping structure is tested 2. Using the step lap technology. Three legs of the core are arranged in a single plane and interconnected with a yoke. Wheels enable the transformer to be moved either length -wise or side -wise. It holds the core and coil together securely. MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF CAST-RESIN TRANSFORMERS I) HIGH VOLTAGE WINDING A) Scope: . and are carefully interlaced with stepwise epoxy arranged yokes.
C) Preparation: ½ KGS .This specification describes the requirements for cast resin high voltage cross-over winding up to maximum Outer diameter = 800mm Length = 2000mm Weight 3000Kgs Parallel = 4 B) MANUFACTURING AIDS: i) Machine speed Range Max. weight 9 RPM Up to 10 MVA – HV 1200 KGS ii) Tools: Nylon mallets 1/2 KG size 300 mm shearing scissors 200 mm cutting pliers 6 Number screw spanners OD calliper (spring loaded) Wooden blocks of (50mm x 50mm x 25mm) Bending tools iii) Accessories: Mandrel fixing rod Side flanges Locking nut "C" clamps Oxy-acetylene gas brazing.
4. slower speed is desirable and vice-versa. Machine is selected on the basis of coil size. If number of parallels is more. ID = Inner diameter] 3. Coil ID = Mandrel OD [Note: OD = outer diameter. Keep tapered mandrel on a stand 1 1/2 feet above the ground. Mandrel is picked as per design. Select mandrel fixing rod suitable to mandrel. 5. Insert rod through a flange and then insert through mandrel ensuring that smaller OD of mandrel is on the left and flange is on left. Now insert right flange and fix it with four M12 bolts and tighten it with lock nut. . 2.1. Lift the mandrel with crane carefully and load it on the suitable machine. Fix mandrel to flange with four M12 bolts. 6. Mandrel fixed with a left flange A machine loaded mandrel for winding 7.
12. 13. Clean the mandrel with emery paper and cotton gauze.8. 11. 1F x 2over 2F x 1over D) PROCESS: .Loan the bobbins on the stands as per the arrangement. 10. Plummer blocks on both sides shall be fixed properly to ensure free rotation of mandrel.Apply the releasing agent QZ13 (silicon oil) all over the mandrel. Wrap fleece and glass mat [Fibre glass tape].Do marking on the mandrel given on winding details chart.2 mm thick fully on the mandrel to avoid sticking oil after casting).Wrap polypropylene disconnecting film (0. 14. 9.
After completing the coils.Then bend the copper sheets at the marked position and braze the M16 or M12 brass. Bend both starting and finishing leads of the pre-segment coils. MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF CAST-RESIN TRANSFORMERS .Clean the joints with emery paper and cotton gauze to remove the carbon formation after brazing.Unload the mandrel from the machine and remove the locking nut. Now start windings as given in design sheet. Insulate with glass tape and mat 13. 5. do the markings of tap positions on the coils.Wrap with mat mentioned in the design and do the full taping with 100 mm glass tape. After completing the pre-segment winding fill the gaps with fibre mat and wrap insulation. 9. Check the OD. Mark the directions of each coil windings on mandrel. 2. 8. 10. 15. 6. 14. 4. 11.1. 12. 16. Fix the segment with sides flanges support and ensure (50 mm) uniform gap between segments. Take the bent starting leads to the mandrel and tape them to the mandrel at position where windings is to commence.Now the coil is ready for further manufacturing processes. Check the OD with the spring loaded callipers and record in the format.Check the OD and record. 3. 7. Fill the gaps with fibre mat and wrap insulation. Pass all the conductors through tension stand and bend the starting leads of 300 mm length to Z shape. flanges and mandrel fixing rod.
Tools: • Nylon mallets • Shearing scissors • Cutting pliers • Screw spanners • OD caliper(spring loaded) • Bending tools • • • Machine speed 9 RPM Range Upto 10 MVA Max wt. 1200KG Vernier calipers : 0-300mm Micrometer : 0-25mm Steel rule : 1meter 3. 2. a weight of 2500kgs and up to 60 parallels. Accessories: Mandrel fixing rod Side flanges Locking nut ’C’ clamps Oxyacetylene gas brazing equipment PREPARATION: . a length of 200mm. MANUFACTURING AIDS: 1.no 1. Machine for winding: S.II) LOW VOLTAGE WINDING This specification describes the requirements of cast resin LV winding up to a maximum outer diameter of 600mm.
Process: . insert right side flange and fix it to mandrel with M12 bolts and tighten the rod to mandrel with lock nut. • Wrap the polypropylene disconnecting film of 0.2mm thickness fully on mandrel to avoid sticking of coil to mandrel after casting. • • Keep the tapered mandrel on a stand about one and a half feet above the ground level.• Machine is selected on the basis of coil size. • Then do the marking on mandrel as given in the winding detail chart. • Lift the mandrel carefully with 5T crane and load it on the selected machine. • Clean the mandrel properly with smooth emery paper and cotton waste. Mandrel is picked as per the design coil ID=Mandrel OD ± 1mm. • Then wrap fleece and glass mat as required by design with fibre glass tape. • Insert the rod through a flange and then insert the rod through the mandrel such that the flange is on the left side of the mandrel and ensuring that smaller OD of the mandrel is on the left side. • Apply releasing agent (silicon oil) with the brush moderately throughout the mandrel. then lesser speed is preferable and vice versa. If the number of parallel in a coil is more. • Proper locking of mandrel fixing rod with plummer block on drive side shall be ensured by means of key provided for this purpose. • Select the mandrel fixing rod suitable to the mandrel bore. • Plummer blocks on both sides shall be fixed properly to ensure free rotation of mandrel. • Fix the mandrel to flange with M12 bolts.
Pass all the conductors through the tensioners and arrange in a line as per the winding arrangement.1. Keep the fibre glass edge strips on left and right sides. Fill the inter turns gap with mat such that the filling is flush with the conductor level. 6. 14. Ensure proper insulation at transposition by taping & keeping fleece between conductor to conductor. 5. 2. .Do the transposition at mentioned turns. 12. Tape all the conductors with 30mm tape (FG) separately & together as one bunch. and tie the conductors with polster tapes to avoid displacement of its start position. Then clamp the conductors to the mandrel at start point on right side with ‘C’ clamp by keeping supporting wooden blocks between the clamp & conductor and clamp and mandrel. 11. 15. Winding shall start from right to left while the machine drive is on left side. 7.Then wrap the mat & fleece as required by design. 13. while winding in tension. Check the OD and recorded in the format. Ensure proper tightening of ‘C’ clamp to avoid displacement of conductors from start point. continuity should not come in between any of the parallels. 10. Complete the first layer. Keep all the conductors tight in tensioner and bend them to ‘L’ shape with the bending tools for starting leads. 4. 8.On completion of transposition check the continuity between each conductor. Keep the gap between turn to turn as given in winding details chart. 3.Then remove the ‘C’ clamp at the ‘start’ bending. 9. Start winding from right to left. Tie each set of parallels which are in “OVER” position separately and ar- range them in descending order from left to right with a gap of 20mm between the tips of each set.
Then fill the gaps with fibre glass mat. While fixing the segments ensure equal gaps between them.16. Check the OD & record it in the format.Start the second layer and follow the same procedure as mentioned above. After completing the last turn clamp the conductors with ‘C’ clamp.Wrap the insulation on segments as mentioned in design chart. 21. 17. 19. 18. as point ‘B’ in other direction. Then cut the conductors by keeping required bending length for finishing lead. 22. 2) CASTING OF COILS: . 20. flanges & mandrel fixing rod.Then tie them with fibre glass tape and remove the ‘C’ clamp.Unload the mandrel from the machine & remove the nut. Wrap mat & fleece as per design. Tape all the conductors separately & then together as a single bunch.Fix the segments on first layer with clamping bolts. Check the final OD and record in format.Then bend the finishing leads to ‘L’ shape exactly over the starting leads.
Hardener. 6. Filler material. Resin is filled from bottom to top. 4. for a temperature rise of 100K (the temperature of the insulating system being 155°C). They have tapings at the bottom and these are connected with the pipes for filling the resin. is degassed under vacuum and at controlled temperature. Depending on the coil size or width moulds are selected and the holes on the side of the mould are closed with nuts depending on the height of the coils. 9. The casting system prepared for our manufacturing installation contemplates the use of four principal components: Epoxy resin. 3. Then it is introduced into the moulds under vacuum. 2.1. These moulds are semi-circular shaped. 8. The mixture of resin and hardener. the coils are subjected to 18 hours of exposure to various temperatures. Before casting process the coils are placed in moulds. After the casting is done in vacuum. before a final mixing. with the filler material. Duration 3 hours 5 hours 3 hours 3 hours 4 hours temperature 110oC 80oC 90oC 110oC 140oC . Colouring 7. The resin used is of epoxy type with thermal class “F”. 5.
12. Now the coil is ready to use. Here the coil is given a smoother finish by removing the extra resin formations. 13. Then the mandrel is pulled using an mandrel puller machine. ENCLOSURES: . it is then enclosed and testing is done. 14. Then the next process is finishing. Images of coils after finishing and cutting 11.10. 3. This heating will help in filling up the air gaps or cracks formed during removal of mould. Then the tapings are given as per the customer requirement.
Standard Features 1) Rating Plate. 7) HV and LV Cable Box. Plug-in connections. Device for tapping changeover. Optional Features 1. 4. 6) Jacking Pads wherever required. For very onerous conditions these may be replaced with any other special materials. 7. 5) Temperature Monitoring relay. The protection categories as per relevant IP number can be provided based on customer requirement. 2. 6. 4) Earthing Terminals. Enclosures are made on most modern computerized metal sheet working machines. The standard finish is a polyester based powder coat. Monitoring equipment with temperature indication and alarm and tripping contacts. Uni /Bi Directional Rollers.Enclosures are generally manufactured from zinc coated steel sheet. protection IP31. Forced cooling equipment. 3. 5. FITTINGS: All the transformers are provided with the following fittings. 2) Lifting Lugs. 3) Under Base. Remote Winding Temperature Indicator. 8. VENTILATION: . Metal casing. Winding Temperature Indicator (scanning unit).
Calculation for heat dissipation and protection: The amount of air needed can be calculated according to the following formula: Vin = Pt/1. .752 x (Pt/ ) (m²) Where: Pt = Total losses to be eliminated in KW. it is essential to dissipate the thermal energy produced by the transformer during operation. A = net surface in m² (excluding the grille) of the lower opening. and for correct operation. The natural circulation of air is directed from the lower part to the upper (chimney effect) and the dimensions of the openings are according to the losses to be dissipated and the temperature of the air entering and leaving the cell.15 x ∆θ (m³/s) The net surface of the lower grille is given by the formula: A = 10. ∆θ = difference of temperature in °C. Vin = air intake in m³/s passing through the opening.In order to avoid excessive and damaging heating. H = distance in meters between the mid-point of the transformer and the mid point of the upper opening o the cell. as low as possible. The lower opening must be located close to the transformer. while the upper one must have a cross-section 15% greater to compensate for the lesser density of the hot air.
Measurement of winding resistance test. But if the temperature rise of the transformer is required. However a few common ones are discussed here. The performance parameters of interest can be obtained by solving that circuit for any load conditions. Induced over voltage withstand test. Also when a transformer is rewound with different primary and secondary windings the equivalent circuit also changes. then test method is the most dependable one. In order to get the equivalent circuit parameters test methods are heavily depended upon. The equivalent circuit parameters are available to the designer of the transformers from the various expressions that he uses for designing the transformers. Measurement of load losses (using two-wattmeter method). Now the test discussed here are: Measurement of insulation resistance. But for a user these are not available most of the times. Measurement of voltage/turn ratio test.TESTING OF TRANSFORMERS: The structure of the circuit equivalent of a practical transformer is developed earlier. Measurement of no load losses (using two-wattmeter method). From the analysis of the equivalent circuit one can determine the electrical parameters. . There are several tests that can be done on the transformer.
6. To ensure sufficient clearance between windings and windings to earth. Connect insulation resistance meter between shorted HV-LV terminals.MEASUREMENT OF INSULATION RESISTANCE Scope: 1. Short all HV and LV terminals separately. The insulation resistance varies inversely with the temperature. Apply the voltage and hold for 1min to reach the steady state.6 10 20 7. To ensure proper dryness of the active parts and 2. 3. Repeat the procedure 2 to5 to get the IR value between HV-Earth and LV- Earth. Therefore IR values shall be measured at ambient temperature. Equipment required: S no. Insulation resistance test shall be made as follows: 1. 5. 2. Select suitable voltage range of the meter depending upon the voltage class of the winding under test.2 20 40 12 28 75 24 50 95 36 70 145 . 01 Equipment Insulation tester Recommended Make Range 500v/1000v/2500v/ Yokogawa / Meggar / 5000v Motwane 0-2000mΩ/5TΩ accuracy ±3% Procedure: Insulation resistance shall be measured between windings. Therefore the oil temperature shall be recorded. Record the IR value as indicated by the meter. windings and tank with a meggar. 4. Highest voltage for equipment Um (kV) Withstand voltage AC (kV) Basic insulation level (kV) 3.
2. The DC voltage applied shall not exceed the R.S low frequency applied voltage. RESULT: Terminals connected to megger HV to LV HV to ground LV to ground Resistance 2000MΩ 2000MΩ 2000MΩ .M.CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: HV to LV HV to BODY LV to BODY M. After the test has been completed all terminals should be grounded for enough time to allow any trapped charges to decay to a negligible value.Insulation resistance tester[Megger meter] Do’s and don’ts: 1.
frequency also must be increased atleast by the same proportion as that of voltage so as to keep the flux density within the rated value.1*Ec)*rated frequency Where Et = Induced voltage across winding Ec = Rated voltage across the winding Equipment 10vw test set Stopwatch Make AE/RE/ Kirloskar Taksun Recommended Range 0-1000v. When the test frequency exceeds twice the rated frequency.5 ±0. the test voltage is twice the corresponding rated voltage at double the rated frequency.INDUCED OVER VOLTAGE WITHSTAND TEST Scope: To check adequacy of inter turn/inter layer insulation of the windings. Procedure: This test is intended to check the inter-turn and line end insulation as well as main insulation to earth and between windings. For transformers with uniformly insulated windings. 01. Equipment required: S no. For 3-φ transformer with test voltage up to 66KV. the duration of the test shall be determined by the following formulae: Test duration in sec = 120*(Rated freq/test frequency) Test duration should not be less than 15sec.5 sec . since the applied voltage is more than the rated voltage. The minimum test frequency condition = (Et/1. 0-100/200hz 0-10 min Accuracy 0. 02. generally 3-Ф source is directly applied.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Observation: The voltage is applied for 30seconds of duration. Frequency = 200 Hz Current = 1. .33 A RESULT: The transformer withstood for 30sec at a frequency of 200 Hz. Applied voltage = 866 V.
MEASUREMENT OF WINDING RESISTANCE Scope: To calculate I2R losses of the winding To ensure proper crimping. c) Resistance value from highest winding tap to lowest winding tap should be in descending order. The measurement of winding resistance shall be done using transformer ohmmeter. The ambient temperature shall be recorded. 7. The resistance measurement shall be done by circulating the direct current in the winding and after it has reached a steady state value. Acceptance criteria: a) Winding resistance should be less than the guaranteed value. For calculation of I2R losses in the windings. 2. In some cases this may take several minutes depending upon the winding inductance. b) Resistance of each phase should be nearly equal. brazing & other connections Equipment required: S. the test shall be carried out normally before the load loss measurement rise test. The time taken can be a reference for hot resistance measurement at the time of temperature rise test. 6. no 1 2 Procedure: 1. . 4. 5. 3. Temperature of the winding should be stable and for this reason. it is necessary to measure Equipment Transformer winding resistance meter Thermometer Recommended Make MultiAmp/eltel/Tinslay Dimple/sita/zeal range accuracy DC resistance of each winding.
Where as.CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: A HV Winding resistance Equivalent circuit of HV winding A DC Total resistance = 3R/2. ‘R’ is the resistance of each phase winding. .
V winding is 3R/2.5ohms. 3R/2 = 15/2 = 7. Therefore equivalent resistance of H. Single resistance equivalent of HV winding A A DC LV Winding resistance Result: The resistance of each winding is obtained as follows: For ex.C supply is 10v and the current flowing through each resistance is 2A then R = V/I = 10/2 = 5ohms. D. .
MEASUREMENT OF VOLTAGE/TURNS RATIO Scope: To ensure number of turns in different windings. . and the average of the two sets of readings are taken to compensate for instrument errors. 3. The ratio of voltages on HV winding to LV winding should be declared as the ratio of transformer. 5. Equipment Transformer ratio meter Make Eltel /biddle Range 0. 2. Equipment required: S. one to read the voltage of the high-voltage and the other.80-2021 Accuracy ±0. The two voltmeters shall be read simultaneously. Any convenient voltage shall be applied on HV winding and voltage on HV & LV shall be measured.1% Procedure: 1. A second set of readings shall be taken with the instruments interchanged. Two voltmeters shall be used. the low voltage winding. no 1. 4.
4 500V 19.CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: RESULT: Turn`s ratio Applied voltage (at primary) Observed voltage (at secondary) 25.68V .
To assess the efficiency of the transformer.n o 1 2 Power analyzer 3 4 Current Transformer Potential transformer Recommended Equipment Variable voltage & variable frequency MG set Make Kirloskar/ AE/ RE Yokogawa/ Voltech/ AV power Any reputed make Any reputed make Range 0-1000V. 2) Therefore for large transformers this test shall be carried out before and after completion of the "Dielectric test". Equipment required : S. 0-100A. usually by applying rated voltage to low voltage winding and opening high voltage winding. The core losses consists of hysteresis and eddy current losses. 4) As no-load current is less. I2R losses will be negligible. . 10-5/1A 11000V/110v Accuracy _ 0. 0-600V. 5) The hysteresis loss is directly proportional to supply frequency 'f' and eddy current loss is directly proportional to square of the supply frequency. 0-100Hz. 3) Measurement of no-load loss shall be done at rated frequency.2 0.MEASURMENT OF NO-LOAD LOSSES (USING TWO-WATTMETER METHOD) Scope : To estimate energy loss of the transformer at rated voltage.2 Procedure : 1) The measurement of the no-load loss & current is important not only for the purpose of assessing the efficiency. 0-20A. but it is also a check to see that the high voltage has not caused any damage to insulation.2 0.
test is done at rated frequency. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: RESULT: No load losses are obtained.6) Hence. Applied voltage Observed current No-load loss 250V 230mA 68.29W .
Voltech/ AV 0-20A.2 0. 2) This measured loss has small amount of core loss.2 Procedure : 1) This test is done by shorting any of the windings. mostly LV winding is shorted and rated current is circulated in the HV winding. Yokogawa/ 0-600V. .2 ±1 oC 0.no 1 2 3 4 5 Equipment Variable voltage & variable frequency MG set Power analyzer Thermometer Current Transformer Potential transformer Accuracy _ 0. since impedance voltage is a fraction of rated voltage. RE 0-100Hz. power Dimple/ Sita/ 0-50oC Zeal Any reputed 10-5/1A make Any reputed 11000V/110v make S. To assess the efficiency and voltage regulation the transformer. Load loss = [measured loss at test current*(Rated current/test current)2] (at rated current) 3) While measuring losses. Equipment required : Recommended Make Range 0-11000V. which is negligible. Kirloskar/ AE/ 0-100A.MEASURMENT OF LOAD LOSSES (USING TWO-WATTMETER METHOD) Scope : To estimate energy loss of the transformer at rated voltage. reading must be taken quickly.
3A 1. Applied voltage Short circuit current Load loss 471.32KW .CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: RESULT: Load losses are obtained.7V 5.
IMPULSE VOLTAGE STRENGTH CAST RESIN transformers have impulse levels equal to liquidimmersed transformers.2 times of the rated voltage. The impulse voltage stress of the HV coil is evenly distributed throughout the winding due to a suitable winding arrangement. Impulse withstand levels to 200kv are available because of careful design and special structure. In case of a short circuit. due to the dense glass fibre filling and the adhesion of epoxy resin to the conductors. Each high voltage coil is individually tested for partial discharge before assembly to ensure a partial discharge-free operation under all circumstances. and no visible corona at 2 times the rated voltage. including prolonged storage in up to 100% humidity and is capable of being energized immediately after such storage without drying. SHORT CIRCUIT RESISTANT The dynamic short circuit strength of a CAST RESIN transformer is greatly superior to that of liquid-immersed or dry type transformers. NO PARTIAL DISCHARGE There is no possibility of partial discharge in CAST RESIN transformers. CAST RESIN transformers are not endangered mechanically. Therefore only a strong glass fibre . it is suitable for both storage and operation in adverse environments. In the event of a maximum short circuit. and to guarantee the life expectancy of the insulation system. CAST RESIN transformers are free of partial discharge at least up to 1. the conductors heat up much faster than the surrounding insulation.CHARACTERISTICS OF CAST RESIN TRANSFORMERS: MOISTURE PROOF The complete casting of HV and LV coils under vacuum prevents the penetration of moisture into the winding and the break-down by ionization. Therefore. The coils are very resistant to impulse voltage.
So there would be no fear of spread of fire even if a fire took place in near by equipment. The transformers can be used indoors without fear of fire. OVERLOAD CAPABILITY Based on the high thermal time constant factor of the windings. as found in cast resin transformers can prevent cracking of the coils and failure. Due to the complete combination of epoxy resin and glass fibre. FIRE RESISTANT CAST RESIN transformers have an inherently safe characteristic of self fire-extinguishing and fire resistance. It has a greater capability to withstand sudden momentary high overloads such as might be encountered in heavy traction or severe duty industrial applications. .reinforced design. THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE Tensile and bending strength of glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin (used in the CAST RESIN design) is appreciably higher than that of quartz powder filled resin (used by mostly other manufacturers) has the disadvantage of becoming brittle and tending to crack when exposed to low temperature. even the worst temperature fluctuation will not induce the cracking of the coils in CAST RESIN transformers. CAST RESIN transformers can be overloaded for considerably longer periods of time than liquid immersed or dry type transformers. and it is not necessary to provide additional measures for safety.
LOW NOISE The encapsulation of the core in a special resin and the design of the clamping mechanism have provided an appreciable noise reduction. heavy dirt and dust build up is eliminated even under the worst circumstances. LESS FAILURE RATE Standard Insurance Company studies have shown failure rates in . PCB is poisonous. Cost savings add low maintenance and longer operating life in all conditions. They are sufficiently compact for convenient installation in a building where space is generally limited and have much smaller power loss than oil. Total costs are lower even though cast resin transformers may be more expensive than other transformers. the overall costs of a power supply system can often be considerably reduced. Therefore. The recommended routine maintenance is an occasional visual or InfraRed thermal inspection. Noise is also reduced due to the sound suppressing effect of the elaborate core cutting and the coil support elastic structure.immersed and dry-type transformers. No checking of liquid level and no yearly dielectric test for moisture absorption is required. ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE CAST RESIN transformers will not emit oil or toxic gases into the atmosphere. Due to the smooth coil surfaces. they do not pollute the environment and are recommended strongly as a replacement for arsenal filled (PCB) transformers. chemically aggressive and can discharge dangerous gases at elevated temperatures. MAINTENANCE FREE Maintenance is almost completely eliminated. COST SAVING If the advantages of CAST RESIN transformers are taken into consideration at the planning stage.
Conclusion: As we know that the general oil filled distribution transformers are having many disadvantages. So cast resin transformers came into field of power distribution making the distribution more reliable and safer. • Wikipedia. References: • A book on Transformers by Bimbhra. Koteswara Rao.com • Material and guidance by Mr. Apartments. Now-a-days the use of Cast resin transformers has been increased and they are widely used in power houses. • A book on Transformers by J.. . CETD. V. etc.cast coil transformers to be less than 5% that of standard dry type transformers in some applications. B.org • Google. These transformers are indoor type transformers. as back-up supply. Gupta.
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