A disease is a condition of the body or apart of it in which functions are disturbed or arranged. Diseases may also be defined as morphological , physiological , psychological disturbance in the body or body parts caused by some external agencies which may be non-parasitic e.g. deficiency of nutrients or may be parasitic caused by causes, bacteria , fungi etc. The term disease means DIS-EASE or discomfort. In short it can be defined as „diseases is disorder of body‟.

The reservoir of human diseases are: a) Air: It is reservoir of pathogens of many diseases like, measles, mumps, tuberculosis, diphtheria etc. b) Food and Water: These are reservoir of pathogens of many diseases like, cholera, polio, typhoid, roundworm, tapeworm etc. c) Soil: It is a reservoir of pathogen of tetanus diseases. d) Animals: These are those living organisms which spread the pathogens from an infected person of healthy person. These do not suffer from the diseases so are also called reservoir host.

Diseases are broadly classified into two categories: A. CONGENITAL DISEASES Diseases present since birth and are caused due to defective development of inheritance e.g. congenital heart diseases, hemophilia, colour blindness etc. B. Acquired diseases Diseases developed after birth. They are further classified as-

a) Communicable diseases b) Non-Communicable diseases

Differences between Communicable Diseases
S.No. Communicable diseases
1. 2.




S.No. Non-communicable diseases

The diseases which spread from one person to 1. another. They are caused by pathogens, e.g. malaria, 2. smallpox etc.

The diseases which are not transmitted f person to another. They are caused by deficiency of nutrients, abnormal proliferation of cells etc. e.g. kwa cancer etc.

The diseases are transmitted from the reservoirs of infection to the healthy persons the following ways: 1) Direct transmission: The pathogens are transmitted from an infected person or healthy person directly without an intermediate agent. It occurs in following waysa) Contact with infected person e.g., small pox and chicken pox. b) Contact with soil e.g., tetanus. 2. Indirect transmission: The pathogens of some diseases are carried through some intermediate agents. It occurs in following ways: a) Air borne diseases. b) By unclean hands and fingers.


It is commonly known as “Flu” and is highly infectious. It is commonly caused by influenza virus (Myxo virus influenzae). Mode of transmission: through direct contact, sneezing, coughing etc. (air–borne diseases). Symptoms: It affects upper respiratory tract. It starts with fever, headache, sore throat, coughing and pain all over the body with restlessness. Control:  Antibiotics should be given to prevent secondary complications like pneumonia and ear infections.  No vaccine is available which can give protection against all types of influenza viruses. Prevention:  The patient should avoid joining parties or gatherings of people.  Handkerchief should be used while sneezing and coughing.

Jaundice is yellowness of sclera of eyes (White part of eyes) and skin. Yellowness is due to excessive deposition of bile pigments in these structures. Jaundice is caused by hepatitis virus. Liver is the most important organ in the body caused its inflammation due to jaundice affects digestion adversely. The types of hepatitis are hepatitis-A, B, C, D, E or G. Modes of transmission:  Hepatitis A is spread mostly by contaminated food and water.  Hepatitis B is transmitted by contact with infected body secretions and blood. Symptoms:  Fever and loss of appetite.  Nausea and vomiting.  Yellowness of skin.  Dark yellow coloured urine and light-coloured stool after 3 to 10 days.

Control:  Adequate bed rest.  Carbohydrate rich diet should be given to the patient.  Consumption of protein and fat should be limited.  Interferon injection should be administered on the advice of the doctor. Prevention:  Eating hygienic food and drinking disinfected water.  Hepatitis B and Hepatitis A vaccine should be taken to prevent the diseases.  Use of disposable syringes and blood should be tested before transfusion.  Properly clean hands after handling bed and utensils of the patient.

Rabies a fatal viral disease that is transmitted to human beings by bite of rabid dog or cat. A number of wild animals also carry the virus, e.g. Jaundice wolves, foxes, bat, monkeys, rabbit etc. Disease is not expressed after infection up to 1-3 months. Symptoms: Rabies is 100% fatal disease. It is characterized by high fever and pain contraction of muscles of throat and chest. The patient feels restless, has choking feet and finds difficulty in taking even liquid food. He is afraid of water, so called hydrophobia. The virus destroys the brain and spinal cord. So, it causes paralysis and painful death. Prevention:  Compulsory immunization of dogs and cats should be done. Pet dogs should be vaccinated with anti-rabies vaccine.  Rabid animal should be killed, if it shows excessive salivation and tries seeking isolation. Control: There is no treatment until now.

Aids stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is caused by HIV (Human immunedeficiency virus). It was firstly detected in June 1981 in USA. This virus weakness the human

body‟s immunity or self defense mechanism. Hence the aids virus reduces the natural immunity of the human body; therefore, the body saving AIDS becomes prone to many other infections. Modes of transmission:  It spreads though sexual contact with an infected person carrying AIDS virus.  It spread though the transfusion of blood infected with AIDS virus.  It spread though the use of infected needles for injections, blade or razors and other equipment of barbers.  The children of AIDS infected mother get this disease from mother‟s blood. Symptoms: The important symptoms are Severe brain damage which may lead to loss of memory, ability to speak and think.  Swollen lymph nodes.  Decreased count of blood platelets causing hemorrhage.  Sweating at night and weight loss.  AIDS patient also become more susceptible to infections of any body. A full blown AIDS patient dies within three years and mortality is 100%. Prevention: No absolutely satisfactory vaccine is yet available. So, we can prevent AIDS only preventive measures like Use of disposable syringes.  Using condoms and adopt clean sex habits.  People should be educated about AIDS.  Blood test must be done in pregnant woman, blood donor‟s organ donors.  Dentists should use sterilized instrument.  The common razor at the barber shop should be used. Control: Till today there is no specific therapy against HIV infection. Some medical have been discovered which can suppress AIDS virus.

This solution helps in preventing dehydration.5g. Sucrose-40g in one liter of water) are given to patient orally (through mouth). Vaccine immunity for about 6 months.3. The drinking water must disinfect with strong chlorine solution.  Underground disposal of human faces.  Saline drip may be given intravenously.National AIDS control program was started in 1987.  Cholera vaccine should be given during epidemics and fairs. KCL-1. Modes of transmission: It is transmitted through contaminated food and water flies it is spread rapidly when sanitation is poor.0g. Some times it may occur in epidemic form.5g. Symptoms: It is characterized by Rice watery stool. . BACTERIAL DISEASES CHOLERA CHOLERA: It is highly communicable diseases caused by vibrio-cholera it is common during fairs and after floods. Control:  Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT).20. which is generally painless. Sodium bicarbonate -2. cheeks hollow subnet temperature etc. Prevention:  Use of boiled water and proper cooking of food.  Repeated effortless vomiting without nausea.  Rapid loss of large amount of water from the body.  Use ant cholera drugs. Glucose. which causes dehydrates muscular cramps and weight loss. eye becomes sunken. World AIDS day: December which fluid and electrolytes (NaCL.5g .  Due to excessive loss of water.

. salt and lime. cloths bed sheets and utensils. Salmonella.  Use of boiled water and proper cooking of food. A protozoan Giardia and certain viruses also can cause similar conditions. eyes appear sunken. to provide relief. The main pathogens are bacteria such as Escherichia coil. Doctor should be consulted immediately. etc.  Abdominal camps. DIARRHEA DIARRHOE: Diarrheas is a group of infection of the intestinal tract. Symptoms:  Frequent passage of stools with blood and mucus.  Oral rehydration therapy or Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS).  Saline drip may be given.  Due to rapid loss of water (dehydration). Control:  Complete bed rest. vomiting leading to dehydration.  Proper coverage of eatables to prevent contamination. also helps in controlling diarrhea. deep breathing etc. sudden loss of weight. Modes of transmission:  Contaminated food and water.  Contamination through fingers. Prevention:  Proper personal hygiene and community hygiene. Shigella.  Pulp of unripe banana along with amount of turmeric powder. the inner sides of cheeks appear dry.  Underground disposal of human faces. The drinking water must be disinfected with strong chlorine solution. fever. cheeks hollow.  Isabgol should be given with curd or water. including food poisoning.

Control: Antibiotics can treat the diseases. Vaccine is available immunity of 6 months. Cholera 1) It is caused by bacteria Vibrio cholera.  Disinfection of water and proper cooking of food. TYPHOID TYPHOID: Typhoid is caused by Salmonella typhoid bacteria. Diarrhea 1) 2) 3) Passage of rice watery stool. Frequent passage of stool with blood and mucus. commonly found in interterm of man. Antibiotics can treat the diseases. which can 2) give 3) It is caused by either bacteria or protozoa or viruses. It is most common communicable diseases.5 million people suffer from typhoid.No.  Rose coloured rash on the upper abdomen. Vaccine is not available. Some common pathogens are Guardia Escherichia coli.  TAB. S.No. Differences between Cholera and Diarrhea S. Every year about 2. Symptoms: It is characterized by Headache and rise in body temperature.  Typhoid is diagnosed by widal test.  Typhoral oral vaccines also prevent typhoid.Vaccine provides immunity for 3 years.  Lesions of intestinal mucosa. . This is common is age group of 1-15 years. Modes of transmission: Contaminated food and water and house flies.  Diarrhea which becomes hemorrhagic. Prevention:  Underground disposal of human faces.

The bacterium releases a toxin called tablet.  Health education e. Control:  Anti-tubercular therapy. whish may discharge secretions though the skin. use of handkerchief while coughing and sneezing.g. b) Pulmonary(Lung) TB: The main symptoms are –  Fever  Coughing  Chest pain and breathlessness  Sputum containing blood  Loss of weight and weakness. PROTOZOAN DISEASES .It is caused bacteria My Mycobacterium tuberculosis. diet. Two specific sites of infection area) Lymph gland TB: The main symptom is swelling and tender ness of lymph glands often in the leg.Antibiotics can treat the diseases. It most commonly affects the lungs it may also people live in dingy. Symptoms: The symptoms of tuberculosis vary depending on the site of diseases in the body. congested part of large cities. rehabilitation and surgery help in controlling diseases.  Proper rest. Modes of transmission: It can be transmitted directly as well as indirectly. avoiding indiscriminate spitting.TUBERCULOSIS TUBERCULOSIS: TB was first discovered by Robert Koch (1882). Prevention:  Isolation of TB patients.  Vigorous public health measures are the best method of prevention.  BCG vaccine provides immunity.

Characterized by chilling and shivering.MALARIA MALARIA: Malaria is more common in tropical and subtropical countries. etc.D. especially in Africa and Asia.  Killing of adult mosquitoes by spraying insecticides like D.24 March. Presence of malarial parasite can be checked by blood test.T and B. it introduces its saliva containing the malarial parasite into the blood stream of the man. nausea and muscular pain.  Sleeping under mosquito nets. Kerosene oil should be sprayed on ponds and ditches to kill the larva. The commonest anti-malarial drug is quinine. the patient feels weak. Total period of malarial attack is of 6-10 hour and can be divided into 3 stages:  Cold stage.  Destroying breeding places of mosquitoes. The malaria may secondarily cause engagement of lever and spleen.C.  Hot stage.gauzing of doors. Symptoms: Malaria attack is preceded by headache.Characterized by high fever. to check the entry of mosquitoes. SOME IMPORTANT DATES ABOUT DISEASES:  World TB Day.H. After the malaria attack. Causes: Malaria is caused by the toxins produced in the human body by the malarial parasite Plasmodium. etc. Prevention:  Use of insect repellants to prevent mosquito bite. windows. Modes of transmission: Plasmodium of transmitted by female Anopheles mosquito. .  All the mosquito breeding places should be destroyed or covered.It is characterized by lowering down of temperature to normal. Efforts are being medicine for the development of an anti-malarial vaccine.  Wire. faster rate of breathing and heart beat. Control: A number of anti-malarial drugs are available. exhausted and anemic. It is estimated that about 300 million people are infected with malaria every year and more then 2 million people die annually due to this diseases. When this mosquito bites man to suck blood.  Sweating stage.

 Ronald Ross (1897) proved that malarial parasite is spread by female Anopheles mosquito.  Bubonic Plague is commonest type of plague. National TB control program was started in 1962.  Hepatitis is more dangerous then AIDS.  August 20 is called Malaria Day.  Macculoch (1827) proposed the name malaria.  The incidence of tetanus in India is about 30-50 persons per one lakh.  Incidence of Diarrhea diseases is highest in Andhra and Orissa states. .  Laveran (1880) discovered malarial parasites in the blood of a malarial patient.

a) P. Malaria has been for thousands of years a very serious disease of the tropical and temperate regions.Malaria Malaria is one of the major diseases which is caused by Protozoan. 1897. after 48 hours. which attacks every third day i. Bangladesh.Malaria . Parasite posses various forms and complete their life cycle through alternative host and Reservoir.Malaria means . India. because they cause a horrible diseases called malaria.bad area . Parasite acquire Resistant to pesticides like D. History of Malaria History of Malaria . malaria term was given by "Macculoch" in 1872. Pakistan. The fever is mild and seldom fatal.Vivax . Ronalol Ross established mosquito-malaria relationship on Aug. Hypothesis 1. Since this day is celebrated as Mosquito Day. Srilanka where the temperature are high. b) P.e. includes causative agent of malaria in man and lower animals. class Telosporidea. It is generally present in Kenya. which recurs every 48 years. Plasmodium is a genus of Protozoa belonging to subphylum Sporozoa. but unfortunately it has appeared again. SouthAfrica. Malaria .It also causes benign tertian malaria. 29.Position in World Malaria Position in World .air.Ovale . Uganda.D. .Mala .Malaria more common in developing countries as compared to developed countries. It was almost eliminated a few years back with the efforts of WHO and our National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP).Project Report | Essay Project Report | Essay .It causes benign tertian malaria.T. Protozoan causes many diseases in human beings. Evidences There are four species of plasmodium which causes different kinds of human malaria. 2. Members of the genus plasmodium are collectively known as Malaria parasite. Prevalence of malaria continues to be one of the major health problems of developing countries.

headache and muscular pain. quotidian malaria. d) P. which is characterized by 48 hours cycle between the first malarial fever and subsequent recurrence of chill and fever. Life Cycle of Plasmodium Vivax It is the causative organism of tertian or benign tertian malaria. These process results in the formation of infective stage the sporozoites. Malaria Symptoms Malaria Symptoms . and irregular malaria.The attack of malaria is preceded by Yawning tiredness.D. malignant tertian malaria but which occurs every 48 hours. involving gametogony and sporogony. it is completed in two hosts. Monkey. During the fever.It causes quartia malaria which recurs every fourth day i.e. After a few hours the body freely and the temperature becomes normal. f) Resistant of Mosquito against D. the female Anopheles mosquito. after 72 hours. but is very severe and often fatal . e) It reserve in some animals in normal condition of animal like. The sexual cycle is completed in the final hosts or vector.It alone is capable of causing three types of malaria. Control of Malaria We control the malaria from : .Malaria . The asexual cycle is passed in man by a process termed schizogony. the patient feels chilly and shivers and high temperature.T. Incubation Period of Malaria The incubation period for malaria caused by Plasmodium Vivax is about 10-14 days. This is also accompanied by enlargement of spleen and liver. Vaccine for Malaria Pre manual pat arroyo produced a vaccine against malaria in 1987 but it proved effective upto 60 to 70% cases. The cycle is repeated if no medicine is taken. Life cycle of "Plasmodium Vivax" is being digenetic. which attacks almost daily. Falciparum .c) P.

1. The adult mosquitoes can also be avoided by removing unnecessary thing around the house. 4. Clear the sluggish. ponds etc. 2. . Drain off or fill up all ditches. 3. Cover the drains.

8.BIOLOGY SYLABUS BIOLOGY Theory Practical Total THEORY STRUCTURE Paper Paper Time Time Marks : : 3 3 Hours Hours : Max. . Marks: Marks 70 30 100 OF QUESTION PAPER 1. Max. 4. 5. 1-10 are very short answer type questions carrying 1 mark each. In Q. 10. there will be 100% internal choice. fill in the blanks multiple choice. No. 11-18 are short answer type questions carrying 2 marks each. Answer to each question will be in 40 to 50 words. Q. 19-26 are short answer type questions carrying 3 marks each. 7.Nos. The question paper should be strictly from the prescribed syllabus based inabove mentioned guidelines. true/false etc. Q Nos. There will be no objective type questions such as 'yes/no'. All questions will be compulsory. 3. Distribution of marks to cover different dimensions of question paper will be as under: Learning outcomes Knowledge Understanding Application Marks 20 30 20 Percentage of Marks 29% 42% 29% 9. Marks for each question are indicated against it. 6. Answer to each question will be in 20 to 30 words. Q. 27 to 30. tick/cross'. No. No. 27to 30 are long answer type questions carrying 5 marks each. Answer to each qustion will be in 80 to 100 words. Answer to each question will be in one line or few words only. 2. Q. There will be one theory paper comprising of 30 questions.

contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. Development of seeds and fruits.II Genetics and Evolution 20 Marks Unit .implantation.V Ecology and Environment 14 Marks Unit I : Sexual Reproduction Pollination and fertilization in flowering plants. production of gametes. Human reproduction : reproductive system in male and female.The unit wise distribution of marks will be as follows: Unit .III Biology and Human Welfare 12 Marks Unit -IV Biotechnology and Its Applications 12 Marks Unit .I Sexual Reproduction 12 Marks Unit . menstrual cycle. fertilization. . pregnancy and parturition. Unit II : Genetics and Evolution Mendelian inheritance. embryo development. Reproductive health:birth control.

DNA: replication. Inheritance pattern of haemophilia and blood groups in human beings. Basic concepts of immunology. Genome and Human Genome Project. DNA fingerprinting. Unit III Biology and Human Welfare Animal husbandry. Sex determination in human beings : XX.Chromosome theory of inheritance. XY. Linkage and crossing over. vaccines. codominance. deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interactionincomplete dominance. Gene expression and regulation. . translation. transcription. multiple alleles). complementary genes. Evolution : Theories and evidences.

types and energy flow. Cancer and AIDS. Adolescence. Unit V Ecology and Environment Ecosystems components. food production. Plant breeding. Unit IV Biotechnology and Its Applications Recombinant DNA technology. Genetically modified (GM) organizms. . Insulin and Bt cotton. tissue culture. biosafety issues. Agriculture and Industry. drugs and alcohol abuse. Microbes in houshold food processing. Applications in Health. industrial production. sewage treatment and energy generation.Pathogens and parasites.

Spotting of two animals and two plants. Two slide indentification with reasons 2 + 2 Marks 4 Marks 3. Two experiments four marks each 4 + 4 Marks 8 Marks 2. National Parks and Wild Life Sanctuaries. Comment upon their adaptations 8 Marks 4.Species. population and community. Environmental issues. 1. PRACTICAL One Practical Paper Time : 3 Hours Max. Ecological adaptations. Centers of diversity and conservation of biodiversity. Marks 30 STRUCTURE OF QUESTION PAPER Distribution of marks. Investigatory project and Viva based on the project 5 Marks .

Study of pollen grain on a slide. 2. 7. 2.5. . Record and Viva based on the experiments 5 Marks Note : 1. Collect and study soil from different sites and study them for texture and moisture content. 5. 6. Study the pH and Water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them. The maximum number of students to be examined by the practical examiner should not be more than 20 students per group. Study of plant population frequency by quadrat method. Collect water from different water bodies around you and study them for pH clarity and presence of any living organisms. The project report duly signed by the teacher should be kept in record and sent to the board on demand. SYLLABUS List of Experiments : 1. 3. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different sites. 4. Study of plant population density by quadrat method.

T. Study and identify stages of gamete development i.S. Study plants and animals found in xerophyte conditions. Study prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue. . 19. Exercise on controlled pollination-Emasculation. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause through permanent slides or specimens. To identify common diseases causing organisms like Ascaris. Study of pollen germination on a slide. 16. 14. 12. of ovary through permanent slide. 15.8. 9. Study mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant. Comment upon their adaptation ecosystem.S. 17. Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slide. Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind. Study plants and animals found in aquatic conditions. of testis and T. 11. insect). of blastula through permanent slide. widow's peak. colour blindness. Study of T. ringworm.e. Study analogous and homologous organs in various plants and animals. 13. tagging and bagging.S. 18. Comment upon their adaptation ecosystem. Plasmodium. 10.blood groups. Entamoeba.

There will be one Theory Paper comprising of 30 questions. In to questions 30 No. 8. true/false etc. 7. Max. paper The can vary by one log tables can also be mark. Marks: Marks (10+2) 70 30 100 OF QUESTION PAPER 1. 11-18 will be of 2 marks each Q. 6. 19-26 will be of 3-marks each. There will be no question of the type 'Write short note on' or objective type such as yes/no. 27-30 of marks will there over will be be of internal choice of the 5 in all will marks the four be as each. Q Nos. All questions will be compulsory. 1-10 will be of 1 mark. used. 27 3. CLASS One 70 marks Unit No. 2. Q-Nos. No. multiple choice.PHYSICS PHYSICS Theory Practical Total THEORY STRUCTURE Paper Paper Time Time Marks : : SYLLABUS 3 3 Hours Hours : Max. fill in the blanks. 4. tick.Nos. Numerical problems can be et many type of questions but the total weightage willbe in the range of 25% to 30%. questions follows: Distribution different paper Learning Outcomes i) Knowledge Marks Percentage of Marks 20 29% 42% 29% ii) 30 Understanding iii) Application 20 5. Weightage to units Use of unprogrammable in the calculator question is allowed. (x) cross'. Q. Unit I Unit II Unit III Unit IV Title Electrostatics Current Electricity Magnetic effect of currem & Magnetism Paper Time XII : 3 (THEORY) Hours Weightage 08 07 08 08 Electromagnetic induction and Alternating current .

... capacitors and capacitance. superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.70 03 14 04 06 07 05 Unit I: Electrostatics Electric Charges... capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates..... torque on a dipolein uniform electric field... drift velocity...combination of cells in series and in parallel. Coulomb's law-force between two point charges. electrical resistivity and conductivity.. colour code for carbon resistors..... Electric potential.. electric dipole.. electric field due to a dipole. statement of Gausss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire.. series and parallel combinations of reastors............. electrical resistance.. Dielectrics and electric polarisation.... Carbon resistors..... Internal resistance of a cell.. electric field lines........... electric field due to a point charge.... uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (Field inside and outside)...Unit V Unit VI Unit VII Unit VIII Unit IX Unit X Electromagnetic Waves Optics Deal Nature of Matter Atoms and Nuclei Electronic Devices Communication Systems Total : . Wheatstone bridge. combination of capacitors in series and in paralle.... free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. equipotential surfaces. ... Conservation of charge.. mobility and their relation with electric current.. Electrical field. measurement of internal reistance of a cell.... Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications. Poentiometer . potential difference. a dipole and system of charges.. temperature dependence of resistance. energy stored in a capacitor Van de Graaff generataor.... Electric flux.... Conductors and insulators.. metre bridge...... V-I characteristics (linear and non lineart)... Unit II: Current Electricity Electric current.principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells.... electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field... electric potential due to a point charge... potential difference and emf of a cell. flow of electric charges in a metillic conductor............ Onm's law...... electrical energy and power. forces between multiple charges...

straight and toroidal solenoids. resonance. correction of eye defects (myopia. coherent sources and sustained interference of light. moving coil gal galvanometaits current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field. Unit VI: Optics Reflection of light. refraction at spherical surfaces. lens-maker's formula. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. microwaves. bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid. induced emf and current. Permanent magnets. reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width. optical fibres. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. wattless current. with examples. Need for displacement current. Eddy currents. Para-. image formation and accommodation. hypermetropia. LCR series generator circuit. spherical mirrors. Self and mutual inductance. Oersted's experiment. LC oscillations (qualitative AC treatment only). Interference. Refraction of light. Alternating currents. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors.Unit III : Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism Concept of magnetic field. peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. total internal reflection and its applications. definition of ampere. dia-and ferro-magnetic substances. infrared. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. power and in AC circuits. Magnetic depole moment of a revolving electron. Xrays. Faraday's law. mirror formula. Lenz's Law. magnetic field lines. Scattering of light-blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers. power of a lens. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Optical instruments: Human eye. gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses. Diffraction due to a . presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. lenses.thin lens formula. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Waves optics: wave front and Huygens' Principle. combination of thin lenses in contact. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (Bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements. transformer. Unit V : Electromagnetics waves Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Proof of laws of reflectionand refraction using Huygens' principle. Torque experienced by a currentloop in uniform magnetic field. visible. Magnification. Cyclotron. Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Unit IV : Electromagnetic induction and Alternating Currents Electromagnetic induction. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves. reactance and impedances. ultraviolet.

Transistor as a switch . The question paper will contain 8 experiments in all. Junction transistor. Unit VII: Dual nature of Matter and Radiation Dual nature ratiation Photoelectric effect. 2. The examinee will have to mark three experiments from each section and the examiner will allot one experiment from each section. diode as a rectifier. Need for modulation. de Broglic relation. Unit VIII. solar cell and Zener diode. Unit X : Communication Systems Elements of a communication system (block diagram only). characteristics of a transistor: transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. AND. Einstein's photoelectic equation-particle nature of light. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere. Production and detection of an amplitude-modulated wave. radioactive decay law. Matter waves-wave nature of particles. Logic gates (OR. atomic masses. width of central maximum. isobars. semiconductor diode-I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias. hydrogen spectrum. energy levels.Bohr model. sky and space wave propagation. bandwidth of signals (speech. binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number. NAND and NOR). Desolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. (PRACTICALS) ONE Time 30 : PRACTICAL 3 PAPER Hours marks Notes : All experiments are compulsory. Unit IX: Electronic Devices Semiconductors. I-V characteristics of LED. uses of plane polarised light and pointed. beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties. mass defect. Atoms & Nuclei Alpha-particle seating experiment. Records of experiments are to be maintained. bandwidth of transmission medium. Mass-energy relation. Davission-Germer experiment. Rutherford's model of atom. . transistor action. Brewster's law. nuclear fission and fusion. isotopes. Hertz and Lenard's observations'. isotones. Polarisation. Radioactivity-alpha. plane polarised light. photodiode. 4 from each section.single slit. TV and digital data). NOT. Composition and size of nucleus. Zener diode as a voltage regulator.

To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core. To determine angle of minimum deviationfor a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation. 2. mains with a sonometer. To To find find the the focal focal length length of of a a convex mirror. key ammeter and voltmeter. three (on/off) switches. To draw the I-V characteristic curve of a p-n junctionin forward bias and reverse bias. PRACTICALS Note: Every student will perform 10 experiments 15 from each section and 6 activities (3 from each section) during the academic year. SECTION Experiments A : 1.. 7. To To study assemble the variation the components of a in potential drop with length of given a wire electrical for a steady circuit. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse breakdown voltage.. 7.the local length. To determine reistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit. 2. current. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram. 6.... SECTION Experiments B 1. current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery. using using a a convex convex lends. 5. as fuse and a power source.c. resistor theostar. 3. 8. To verify the laws of To compare the combination emf of (series/parallel) two given of resistances using a primary cells using metre bridge. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and . 6. To measure resistance. 4. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs. 5. Activities 1. 4. 6.3. 5. . potentiometer. voltage (AC/DC). To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of meno into an ammeter and voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same. Records of activities are to be maintained. To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using potentiometer. 3. 4. 3... To find the frequency of the a. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between I/a and I/v. concave lens. 2. lens. To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specifie resistance of its material.

diode. and IC. To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit. an LED. . 2. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor. 7.g. To identify a diode. To study the nature and size of the image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror.R.D. transistor or IC) is in working order. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on and L. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses. To observe polarization of light using two Polaroids. a transistor. (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED. 3. To observe refraction and laterial deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab. (iv) Check whether a given electronic component (e. To study the characteristics of a common-emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains. Activities 1. 4.8. on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror). 5. a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items. (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors. 6. 8.

ii. questions to Questions Questions iii. There will be internal choices in any two questions of 3 marks each. However each your may ask for logarithmic and statistical tables.. There will be no over all choice.. Total Marks. iv. each. QUESTIONWISE DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS (XII CLASS) FOR 2008 3 4 Marks Marks 2 1 II Algebra Matrices Determinants Continuity and differentiability Applications of derivatives Integrals Applications ofintegrals Differential equations Vector. 1 4 24 6 Total Marks Marks I Relations and Functions Relations and Functions Inverse Trigonometric Functions 6 10 4 7 13 6 10 7 14 6 7 7 17 10 6 10 100 100 6 10 100 100 Unit Total Unit Topic Sub-Topic III Calculus 44 IV Vectors and three dimensional geometry . Three dimensional geometry Linear Programming Probability 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 12 36 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 10 40 1 1 1 V Linear Programming VI Probability Total no. if required. each. each. Use of calculator is not permitted. Questions number number All number 13 23 1 to to INSTRUCTION OF SYLLABUS FOR +1 QUESTION are 12 22 26 one one one of of of 4 6 3 marks marks marks AND (10+2) +2 PAPER compulsory.MATHS MATHEMATICS GENERAL STRUCTURE i. any two questions of 4 marks and any two questions of 6 marks each (Total of six internal choices). of ques.

transitive and equivalence relations. inverse of a function. Unit 1. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions. Binary operations. One to one and on to functions. principal value branches. Inverse Trigonometric Functions: Defination.CLASS One 100 marks Paper Time : 3 XII Hours Unit I: 1. composite functions. 2. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Matrices: II: Algebra . symmetric. Relations and Functions : Relations and Functions Types of relations: reflexive. domain. range.

symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. and their derivative. simple properties of addition. 2. (Here all matrices will have real entries). Second order derivatives. Addition. multiplication and scalar multiplication of matrices. derivative of composite functions. Unit-III: 1. derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions. order. solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix. derivative of implicit function. minors cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. equality. inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples. Rolle's and Lagrange Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretations. Continuity and Differentiability: (Periods 18) Calculus Continutiy and differentiability. zero matrix. Derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Consistency. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse. transpose of a matrix. if it exists. multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the/zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2). properties of determinants. chain rule. 2.Concept notation. Concept of elementary row and column operations. types of matrices. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix.Logarithmic differentiation. Determinants : Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 (X) 3 matrices). Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions. Applications of Derivatives: .

3. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations). approximation. Integrals : (Periods 20) Integration as inverse process of differentiation. by partial fractions and by parts. only simple integrals of the type to be evaluated. . Intergration of a variaty of functions by subsitution.(Periods 10) Applications of derivatives: rate of change. tangents& normals. Basic properties of definite intergrals and evaluation of definte integrals. maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). increasing/decreasing functions. Definite intergrals as a limit of a sum.

general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables. area between the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable). dx Unit 1. position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Vector (cross) product of vectors . parallel and collinear vectors). components of a vector.unit. projection of a vector on a line. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type: dy = p(x) y = q(x). especially lines. addition of vectors. Angle between (i) two lines (ii) two planes. Unit-V: Linear Programming .dimensional Geometry : Direction cosines/ratios of a line joining two points. Applications of the Integrals: Applications in finding the area under simple curves. Distance of a point from a plane. where p(x) and q(x) are functions of x. negative of a vector. Direction cosines/ratios of vectors. Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given. areas of circles/ parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only). Differential Equations : Defination. shortest distance between two lines. Three . Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. (iii) a line and a plane. zero. 2. Types of vectors (equal. multiplication of a vector by a scalar.4. maguitude and direction of a vector. 5. order and degree. Vectors: -IV : Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry Vectors and scalars. Scalar (dot) product of vectors. coplanar and skew lines. position vector of a point. Cartesian and vector equation of a line.

feasible and infeasible solutions. Conditional probability. feasible and infeasible regions.P.) problems. Max. definition of related terminology such as constraints.1. 2. will 27-30 be there of will 5 be marks 100% each. Baye's theorem. mean and variance of haphazard variable. Random variable and its probability distribution. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.P. objective function. Q Nos. 4. No. choice. 27 3. Probability : VI Probability Multiplication theorem on probability. Distribution of approximate percentage over different dimension in the question paper will be as follows: i) ii) iii) Knowledge Understanding Application 30% 40% 30% .different types of linear programming (L. 11-18 will be of 2 marks each Q. In to 30 questions No. Marks: Marks (10+2) 70 30 100 QUESTION PAPER 1. Q. CHEMISTRY CHEMISTRY Theory Practical Total THEORY STRUCTURE OF Paper Paper Time Time Marks : : SYLLABUS 3 3 Hours Hours : Max. graphical method of solution for problems in two variables. optimization. All questions will be compulsory. Linear Programming: Introduction. mathematical formulation of L. total probability. Q-Nos. 19-26 will be of 3-marks each. independent events. optional feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constrain:) Unit 1. There will be one Theory Paper comprising of 30 questions. 1-10 will be of 1 marks.Nos. problems.

......................................................................................................Electrochemistry .................................Marks Unit I..............Polymers ........... A candidate will be provided with one answer book of 32 pages only......... There will be no question of the type................................................... 6.................... Unit CLASS wise distribution of XII marks is as follows: (THEORY) One Paper Time : 3 Hours 70 marks Unit No.........................................................5 Unit IV ......General principles and processes of Isolation of Elements ................................................ multiple choice...... No extra contineous sheet will be provided.................................................................................................... 4 Unit II...............................Biomolecules .........Title ..................................................................8 Unit VIII ...................................................Surface Chemistry ..Solutions .......................................................4 Unit XV ................................ however the total weightage to numerical problem will be around 20%... Phenols and Ethers .......... Use of log tables/unprogrammable calculator is allowed.. Numerical problem will be set in any type of question..............................................3 Unit VII........d-and f-Block Elements ......................................6 Unit XIII .................. p-Block Elements ...............Chemical kinetics ........................ 4 Unit XI ...." true/false etc...................4 Unit XIV ...............Alcohols............................ "Write short note on"..................................................... and objective type questions such as "Yes/No"........... .............. Ketones and Carboxylic acids ......................................... 8.............4 Unit VI ................................ tick ( P) cross (x) fill in blanks.......................Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen ..............................................................................................5 Unit III .................. Solid State.......................................................Haloalkanes and Haloarenes ..........................................................................Aldehydes.................................................................................... 5 Unit IX..................................................................................................................5 Unit V ...................................... 7...................................................5............................................................ Coordination Compounds ..........................................................3 Unit X .....................4 Unit XII .......

...... unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices.......................... conductance in electrolytic solutions.... number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell......... electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea)..... covalent and metallic solids......... solubility of gases in liquids........ electrical and magnetic properties.......... Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells.... ...... EMF of a cell...70 Unit I: Solid State (Periods 12) Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular.. dry cell electrolytie cells and Galvanic cells......... specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration..... solid solutions.......... abnormal molecular mass............... determination of molecular masses using colligative properties..................3 ..... colligative properties ......3 Unit XVI ........Total : ........ points defects...........P.... voids....relative lowering of vapour pressure.. fuel cells.......................... Unit II: Solutions (Periods 12) Types of solutions. depression of freezing point...... elevation of B....... osmotic pressure..... expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids............. Kohlrausch's Law........ packing in solids..................................... standard electrode potential.. corrosion................................ lead accumulator.. amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea)... calculation of density of unit cell....... Unit III: Electrochemistry (Periods 14) Redox reactions......Chemistry in Everyday life .... ionic........................

temperature. electrophoresia. colloids and suspensions. enzyme catalysis. concept of collision theory (elementary idea. catalysis. oxidation. lyophobic. no mathematical treatment) Unit V: Surface Chemistry (Periods 8) Adsorption . catalyst. lyophilic. rate law and specific rate constant. colloidal state: distinction between true solutions. occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium.Unit IV: Chemical Kinetic (Periods 12) Rate of a reacation (average and instantaneous). Unit VII: p-Block Elements . emulsion types of emulsions. multimolecular and macromolecular colloids.physisorption and chemisorption. coagulation. properties of colloids. concentration. zinc and Iron. copper. activity and selectivity. reduction electrolytic method and refining. homogenous and heterogeneous.concentration. order and molecularity of a reaction. factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids. Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements (Periods 8) Principles and methods of extraction . Tyndall effect. Brounian movenment. intergrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions). factors affecting rates of reaction.

interhalogen compounds. properties and uses. occurrence. dioxygen. occurrence. reparation. oxidation states. Phosphorous-allotropic forms. PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only). properties and uses. oxides of nitrogen (structure only). nitrogen . Sulphur . preparation. Group 17 elements : General introduction. halides (PCI3.preparation. compounds of nitrogen: preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid. preparation. Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements (Periods 14) . oxoacids of halogens (structures only). electronic configuration. trends in physical and chemical properties. electronic configuration.(Periods 14) Group 15 elements: General introduction. oxidation states.allotropic forms. electronic configuration. electronic configuration. properties and uses. compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine. uses. occurrence. trends in physical and chemical properties. Group 16 elements : General introduction. properties and uses of sulphur dioxide sulphuric acid: industral process of manofacture. trends in physical and chemical properties. oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). trends in physical and chemical properties. Group 18 elements: (General introduction. compounds of halogens. Occurrence. properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid. simple oxides. Ozone. compounds of sulphur. oxidation states.

introduction. extraction of metals and biological systems). colour. Preparation and propertics of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO 4 . general trends in properties of the first row transition metals metalli c character. importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis. Lanthanoids -electronic configuration. IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds bonding. ionic radii. oxidation states. coordination number. colour catalytic property. electronic configuration. magnetic properties and shapes. interstitial compounds. Actionoids Electronic configuration. oxidation states. occurrence and characteristics of transition metals. magnetic propertics.General introduction. Unit X: Haloalkanesa and Haloarenes. alloy formation. (Periods 12) . oxidation states. ligands. ionization enthalpy. Unit IX: Coordination Compounds (Periods 12) Coordination compounds . chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction. isomerism.

uses. Ethers: Nomenclature. mechanism of dehydration. methods of preparation. identification of primary. physical and chemical properties. Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond. electrophillic substitution reactions.methanol and ethanol. uses. natuer of C-X bond. substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compunds only) Uses and environmental effects of . physical and chemical properties. some important compounds . Phenols: Nomenclature. methods of preparation. secondary and teritary alcohols. freons. iodoform.Haloalkanes: Nomenclature.dichloro methane. physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only). mechanism of substitution reactions. Unit XI: Alcohols. tetrachloromethane. DDT. uses of phenols. methods of preparation. acidic nature of phenol. Phenols and Ethers (Periods 12) Alcohols: Nomenclature. . trichloromethane. physical and chemical properties.

physical and chemical properties. identification of primary. Ketones and Carboxylic Acids (Periods 12) Aldehydes and Ketones: Numenclature.Unit XII: Aldehydes. Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen (Periods 10) Amines: Nomenclature. classification. methods of preparation. Diazonium salts: Preparation. and mechanism of nuclcophilic addition. uses. .reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes. physical and chemical properties. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature. acidic nature. nature of carbonyl group. methods of preparation. Cyanides and Isocyanides will be mentioned at relevant places in context. physical and chemical properties. uses. secondary and teritary amines. uses. chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. structure. methods of preparation.

polypeptides proteins. bakelite. monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose). polyesters. rubber. primary structure. Vitamins Classification and functions. denaturation of proteins. natural and synthetic like polythene. maltose). importance.natural and synthetic. methods of polymerization (addition and condensation). Some importance polymers. copolymerization. enzymes. glycogen). nylon. Nucleic Acids: DNA & RNA. teritary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only). Proteins Elementary idea of a-amino acids. cellulose. peptide bond. secondary structure.Unit XIV: Biomolecules (Periods 8) Carbohydrates Classification (aldoses and keloses). polysaccharides (starch. . lactose. Unit XV: Polymers (Periods 8) Classification . oligosaccharides (sucrose.

...... Chemicals in foodpreservatives.........8 Marks Content Based Experiment .. Cleansing agents soaps and detergents. tranquilizers..Unit XVI: Chemistry in everyday life : (Period 8) 1... cleansing action... Chemicals in medicines ............. 2. antisecptics. antibiotics... antifertility drugs... disinfectants.. antimicrobials.....4 Marks .. antacids......annalgesica. 3.. 10 Marks Mixture Analysis . CLASS STRUCTURE One 30 Practical OF Paper XII Time QUESTIONS : 3 (PRACTICALS) PAPER Hours marks Experiments Volumetric Analysis....... antihistamines... artificial sweetening agents........

...........Project .............. (i) Physical nature ......... 4 Marks NOTE :Brief write up carrying 2 marks (If in the Question paper) question on preparation of crystals (Time for write up 5 minutes)............................................................1/2 (v) dil H 2 SO 4 ..................................................1/2 (ii) Dry heating test..1 . Stepevise distribution of marks of questions on salt analysis..... 1/2 (iii) Flame test ....................1/2 (iv) Charcoal cavity test ..4 Marks Class record & Viva..........

..... H 2 SO 4 test....................1/2 (viii) Correct group detection .(vi) conc.1 (ix) Systematic detection of ion .............. (vii) Preparation of original solution .. 1/2 (If anion is detected under dil H 2 SO 4 test full credit of 11/2 marks is to be given there and then) Confirmalory test (any two ) 11/2 marks each 3.....1 ............................

..(x) Any two confirmatory tests of cation. 2 ( 1 marks each) Step wise distribution of marks of questions on volumetric analysis.. Full credit of .....

. Lyophelic sol . (b) Study of the role of emulsifying in stabilizing the emulsions of different oils. egg albumin and gum.2 % variation and deduct 1/2 mark for additional 0. PRACTICALS Practicals Syllabus (Periods 6) A. Lyophobic sol . ferric hydroxide.starch. Surface Chemistry (a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol.1 ml variation.aluminium hydroxide. arsenious sulphide.

(b) Study of reaction rates of any one of the following: (i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions.B. KlO 3 and sodium sulphite : (Na 2 SO 3 ) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction). C. (ii) Reaction between potassium iodate. Chemical Kinetics (a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. Thermochemistry (Periods 6) Any one of the following experiments .

ii) Enthalphy of neutralization of strong acid (HCl) and strong base (NaOH) iii) Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (Hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform. Electrochemistry (Periods 2) Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn 2+ llCU 2+ /Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO 4 or ZnSO 4 ) at room temperature. D. E. Chromatography (Periods 2) i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of R .i) Enthalphy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate.

Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (Periods 4) i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash almum. Preparation of Organic Compounds (Periods 4) Preparation of any two of the following compounds i) Acetanilide ii) Di-benzal accetone . ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having wide difference in R f values to be provided). ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate.f values. G. F.

(ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate. Determination of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of : (Periods 8) (i) Oxalic acid. carboxylic and amino (primary) groups. iv) Aniline yellow or 2-Napthol aniline dye. (Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves). fats and proteins in pure form and detection of their presence in given food stuffs. H. (Periods 4) J. phenolic. ketonic.iii) p-Nitroacetanilide. I. alcoholic. . Study of carbohydrates. aldehydic. Test for the functional groups present in organic compounds: (Periods 6) Unsaturation. v) Iodoform.

flour.. Qualitative analysis (Periods 14)  Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt. Determination of rate of evaporation of different liquids. Determination of the minimum quantity of manganese dioxide required as a catalyst for the preparation of oxygen gas. (Note: Insoluble salts excluded) Few Suggested Projects                       Study of diffusion of a solid into a liquid.. Study on quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.. sand of different qualities. volume and stremyth). Preparation of soyabean milk and its comparision with the natural milk with respect to curd formation. effect of temperature. Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of soduim carbonate on thera...... Study of the presence of inseeticide/presicide (nitrogen contining) in vegetables and fruits.. Study of effect of metal coupling on die corrosion of iron. Determination of rate of flow of solution and liquids horizontally. Compasitive study of the rate of formation on following materials wheat. Extraction of essential oils present in Su .. etc (with respect to time.. Preparation of rayon threads from various cellulose sources. Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibres... Study of the setting of mixtures of cement with lime...K.. rice husk. carrot juice and or . Study of the effect po Study of digestion of starclity salivary anylase and effect of pH and temperature on it.juice. Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of riperings.. gram flour.of water (taken from different sources).. patato juice.. Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves and reasons for the variation in their tests.. Study of dyeing fabries under various conditions. taste etc. Determination of the dosage of bleaching powder required for disipfections of different . Analysis of fruit and vegetable prices for the content (acids and mineral a present in them).. Study of the dialysis of different sewage water sample and identification of different ions in rsulting solutions..

.. Study of ..... Note : Any other investigatory project can be performed I which involves about S periods of work with the approval of the teacher.................. .................... foods...

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