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UNIT # 3: HYDROSTATICS #1 Pressure Force per unit area #2 Pressure Head of a Liquid A liquid is subjected to pressure due to its

own weight Pressure increases as the depth of the liquid increases P=wXh=XgXh h = static head Static head Height of the free surface above any point Intensity of pressure expressed in two ways (i) Force per unit area (N/m2) (ii) Equivalent static head (m, cm or mm of liquid) #3 Hydrostatic Law Pressure variation in a fluid at rest Statement The rate of increase of pressure in a vertically downward direction must be equal to the specific weight of the fluid at that point dp / dz = w =


p=XgXz p is pressure above atmospheric pressure

Class Problem # 1 Find the pressure at a depth of 15 m below the free surface of water in a reservoir (Ans: pressure = 147.15 kPa) Class Problem # 2 Find the height of water column corresponding to a pressure of 54 kN/m2 (Ans: height of water column = 5.5 m) #4 Pascals Law Statement The intensity of pressure at any point in a liquid at rest is the same in all directions px = py = pz Class problem # 3 The diameter of the ram and plunger of a hydraulic press are 200 mm and 30 mm respectively. Find the weight lifted by the hydraulic press when the force applied at the plunger is 400 N (Ans: weight lifted = 17.77 kN) #5 Atmospheric pressure Atmospheric air exerts normal pressure upon all surfaces with which it is in contact Also known as barometric pressure

#6 Gauge pressure Pressure measured with the help of pressure measuring device Atmospheric pressure is taken as datum (marked zero on scale) #7 Absolute Pressure Pressure measured above the absolute zero Scale independent of changes in atmospheric pressure P

= P atmosphere + P gauge #8

Units of Pressure N/m2 = Pa Standard atmospheric pressure 101 .3 kN/m2 101.3 kPa 10.3 m of water 760 mm of mercury 1013 mb (millibar) 1 bar (approx) 100 kPa (approx) 105 N/m2

Class Problem # 4 Given that Barometric reading = 740 mm of mercury Specific gravity of mercury = 13.6, Intensity of pressure = 40 kPa, Express the intensity of pressure in S.I. units, both gauge and absolute Ans: Gauge Pressure: 0.4 bar, 4.077 m of water, 0.299 m of mercury Absolute pressure: 1.38 bar, 14.137 m of water, 1.039 m of mercury Class Problem # 5 Calculate the pressure at a point 5 m below the free water surface in a liquid that has a variable density given by relation =(350 + Ay) kg/m3 where A = 8 kg/m4 and y is the distance in meters measured from the free surface. Ans: Pressure = 18.15 kN/m2 Class Problem # 6 A cylindrical tank of cross sectional area 600 mm2 and 2.6 m height if filled with water up to a height of 1.5 m and remaining with oil of specific gravity 0.78 The vessel is open to atmospheric pressure. Calculate (i) Intensity of pressure at interface (Ans: 8417 N/m2) (ii) Absolute and gauge pressure on the base of tank in terms of water head (Ans: 2.358 m), oil head (Ans: 3.023 m) and N/m2 (Ans: 23132 N/m2). (iii) The net force experience by the base of the tank (Ans: 13.879 N) Assume atmospheric pressure as 1.0132 bar

DIY On the suction side of the pump gauge shows negative pressure of 0.35 bar. Express this pressure in terms of (i) Intensity of pressure, kPa (Ans: 35 kPa) (ii) N/m2 absolute (Ans: 66396 N/m2) (iii) Meters of water gauge (Ans: 3.567 m) (iv) Meters of oil sp gravity 0.82 absolute (Ans: 8.254 m) (v) Centimetres of mercury gauge (Ans: 26.23 cm) Take atmospheric pressure as 76 cm of Hg and relative density of mercury as 13.6 #9 Pressure Measuring Devices Manometers Devices used for measuring the pressure at a point in a fluid by balancing the column of fluid by same or another column of liquid Types of Manometers I. Simple manometers Ex: Piezometer, U-tube manometer, Single column manometer II. Differential manometers Mechanical Gauges Pressure is measured by balancing the fluid column by spring or dead weight

Types of Mechanical Gauges Bourdon pressure gauge Diaphragm pressure gauge Bellow pressure gauge Dead weight pressure gauge # 10 Simple Manometers Consist of a glass tube whose one end is connected to the point where pressure is to be measured and the other end remains open to atmosphere # 11 Piezometer Used for measuring moderate pressures of liquid. PA = X g X h # 12 U-Tube Manometer Glass Tube bent in U shape Tube contains mercury (or other liquid) Specific gravity of liquid in tube is greater than that of liquid whose pressure is measured Gauge Pressure P=

X g X h2


X g X h1

Vacuum Pressure P = - (

X g X h2 +


X g X h1)

Class Problem # 7 The right limb of a simple U tube manometer containing mercury is open to atmosphere while the left limb is connected to a pipe in which a fluid of specific gravity 0.9 is flowing. The centre of the pipe is 12 cm below the level of mercury in the right limb. Find the pressure of fluid in the pipe if the difference of mercury level in the two limbs is 20 cm. (Ans: pressure=2.597 N/cm2) Class Problem # 8 A simple U tube manometer containing mercury is connected to a pipe in which a fluid of specific gravity 0.8 and having vacuum pressure is flowing. The other end of manometer is open to atmosphere. Find the vacuum pressure in pipe if the difference of mercury level in the two limbs is 40 cm and the height of fluid in the left from the centre of pipe is 15 cm below (Ans: pressure = -5.454 N/ cm2)