Indian epics: Knowledge and Wisdom - Transcending into Millenium management Practices

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More so corporate India is setting new trends through expansion and extension of their corporate boundaries as seen through their acquisitions and mergers. Be it the Arthasashtra or the Ramayana or the Mahabharatha they are a store house of management knowledge and wisdom.These lessons are relevant in the 21st century for us because these paradigms of management implicit in them are not objects of archives but living lessons for generations to come, without over sighting the fact that they at best supplement or support existing principles or practices of management. Indian epics and mythology offers countless solutions to day-to-day problems being faced by people. Epics such as theBhagavadGita, Mahabharata and others are the storehouse of invaluable knowledge, which can be utilised to tackle difficult situations in the corporate world. More so today corporate India is setting new trends through expansion and extension of their corporate boundaries as seen through new acquisitions and mergers. Be it King Ashoka of Kanishka who built rest houses for travelers and advertised Buddhist philosophy on rock edicts to our father of the nation Mahatma Gandhi discovering the paths of truth from the play on Raja Harishchandra or understanding the characteristics of a leader from the Ramayana to our present day corporate entities strategic actions namely Bharti Airtel acquiring Zain telecom's Africa assets for $10 .7 billion Tata group acquiring UK ‘s flagship brands LandRover & Jagaur brands Reliance pay out of 392 million for 60% stake in US Shale Joint Venture … as the list goes on , one can quote a number of instances where our indian epics are rich in Business practices and ethics for the man of today , tomorrow and beyond. Indian Business is breaking a new ground facilitating the arrival of the idea of Indian Management. Yoga, Ayurveda and Indian Management Wisdom (IMW) are the three rivers of knowledge from India that are drawing a new attention at the global level. Evolution of Management Thought: Here we must take note of the changes that occurred in the last 25 years in various domains of life -- knowledge, technology and economy. The terms such as knowledge economy, and knowledge society have become buzzwords. These terms denote the rapid speed in creation of knowledge. So we have to think of adopting, adapting and being 'adept' according to them. Only 'fittest', not fit or fitter, would survive. Keeping these changes in view, it is necessary to think of new strategies of managing these changes. The position cannot be controverted. The fact, however, is that despite all the changes the core principles of management remain unchanged. It is because essential human nature does not change. At the core, 'things' of management i.e. various stakeholders involved in it as they are, do not change . Mere management in terms of degrees and qualifications does not work, as has been discussed in detail by Henry Mintzberg in the book Managers Not M.B.A. Gandhi did not have an M.B.A.. Despite that he was the greatest manager in at least recent Indian history. He did not manage finance but a vast ocean of human resources in the country that had been disunited for centuries and so enslaved it politically, culturally, intellectually and economically as well. He succeeded because he went to his people to understand their condition. He associated himself with them and became one of them in terms of their distress and dispossessions, as was evident in his dress, diet and dealings with people of different religions and regions. With it, he made his fellow Indians think the way he thought. He changed their perceptions of their own condition and exploitation. To his call, the entire nation responded in one voice. It was something unprecedented in Indian history, for he succeeded against the most powerful -- politically and economically -- and highly sophisticatedly managed and administered empire. After the contextual remarks, a natural question arises: Who discovered management??? The present scenario informs us that management has travelled a long distance from its origin in Latin 'manege' standing for training horses through exercise. Even before the term came into existence, there were cultural encyclopedias like theRamayana and the Mahabharata and Kautilya's The Arthashastra which are primarily about political and economic management. Texts such as these have inventory and methodology of management of the given field. More so in case of the latter. In a general sense, all of us are amateur managers, as we have not gone through training. The training aspect was incorporated in the era of Industrial Revolution in the 19th century Europe. Manager and management are the products of the industrialization which added professionalism and

habits and practices. is regarded as the world's first Management Guru. Gradually one's home. Arthasastra is a well Known book dealing with management of Kingdom. a new currency. Their lives and the way they managed situations around them can be treated as material for constructing paradigms of management. All lasting narratives celebrate their success or mode of management narratives -. for they have sustained for so long because the protagonists -. new mode of management of finance. which led to the liberation of the nation. The factory.real or unreal -. Ads by Google Arthasastra Foundations: Written in the context of the Kingdom.These lessons are relevant in the 21st century for us because these paradigms of management implicit in them are not objects of archives but living lessons for generations to come. as they used different paradigms of management. With the switch over from the Industrial to postIndustrial. Emergence of Indian Management Wisdom : When we look at the emergence of Indian Management Wisdom (IMW) as a new thought current. All great heroes were great managers without going to any college or University for a course in management. Krishna represents leadership and strategy and Ram-Krishna combination represents spiritual approach to management. It represented a holistic approach to building business organizations. The heroes or nāyak were the people who were distinguished managers of their lives. for in them their wise authors who were just observers of general human nature have kneaded views or lessons on management voiced through their characters.commercialization to it. These views on paradigms of management are directed at exploring new paradigms of management and their possibilities. A hero was a manager par excellence of his own self and society that had reposed its faith in his abilities.mythical and epical.were acceptable not only for their success but also for being so within given cultural time and space in accordance with lok(popular) and shāstra (learned) traditions. a new market (in which every individual is a market) came into existence. Implications of such a perspective for management thought are interesting as Rama represents good governance. society. The same can be said about other civilizations. Those who managed the society in trying times and upheavals were honored and invested with the title of hero. Every civilization that has survived for thousands of years could do so because it found and had its managers. three periods of mythology and history could as well be viewed as Rama period. The Manager had to manage an army of workers in factories. The linkage of Indian Management with freedom movement led to a broadening the concept of management. It may be indicated that the Ramayana. the post-industrial society was a post-manager society. The concept of trusteeship was the product of the freedom movement as Gandhi was searching for an alternative to Capitalism and Communism. though the term was not then in vogue. Valmiki. Thus. All the powerful kings in ancient India like Ashoka had learnt Arthashastra and practiced it to expand their kingdom multifold (increase market share). Krishna period and Ramkrishna/ Vivekananda period. the place of work was replaced office with a necessary network of communication with the people whom the manager might never physically see but manage them in terms of assigned task. It has many useful lessons for leadership and management that can be applied to ‘Corporate Kingdoms'. we find its roots in the following seven ‘streams of consciousness' of ‘Indian Wisdom'represented by crystallization of experiences in the form of insights. Many such paradigms can be developed from Indian cultural tradition. to protect the kingdom against powerful enemies (develop a strategy against competitors). and of the people around them in their personal and public lives particularly in moments of crises. the life of hero (read managers). It . develop winning strategies. From the viewpoint of the impact on Indian consciousness. Vyasa and Vivekananda on Indian consciousness is immeasurable. Freedom Movement Foundations: India's freedom struggle also provided a backdrop for the emergence of the idea of Indian Management and Indian Management Wisdom. the Mahabharata and the Complete Works of Vivekananda capture the essence of Indian mythology and philosophy. Its secular character is very appealing and its pro-people orientation has interesting lessons for management of organizations. hotel room might be a workplace for the manager. as can be discerned in the following discussion. It is possible to learn from them. served as models for deriving principles or theories of management. Impact of Valmiki. there was a change in the nature and stature of manager. Freedom movement was also a social movement. In fact. imaginations and visions : Ancient Wisdom Foundations: 3 Vs capture the essence of ancient wisdom viz. Now. every one became a manger of the given task. Indian Business played a significant role during freedom struggle. With new mode of economic production.His management thoughts and ideas helped kings and rulers for centuries. without over sighting the fact that they at best supplement or support existing principles or practices of management. Vyasa and Vivekanand.To date Kautilya (Chanakya). Every society in a sense has been managing itself for centuries with or without methodology of the management.The writings like The Ramayana and The Mahabharata in Indian context are not only cultural encyclopedias but also texts of management.

In fact. Athreya. If one studies these mythological books. This has been a reason for their success and it has led to development of new Indian Management Wisdom through ‘India Blend' approach to management. This led to demands of involvement and empowerment. These Centres (Knowledge Dhams)are making significant contributions to further development of Indian Management Wisdom. Such experiences of the development of organizations led to development of a corpus of knowledge and wisdom in the form of case studies of ‘Business Maharajas' and ‘Corporate Rishis'. In essence management should be ‘development oriented' in nature. J B P Sinha. tools and techniques in classrooms and in Management Development Programs. new lessons were learnt. principles and concepts of management. Chettiar entrepreneurship. In due course. first . articles etc available. however in practice they intuitively integrate this learning with ground realities and thereby evolve their own ‘Indian blends' that integrate American and Japanese theories of management with indigenous cultural context. Management Centre for Human Values (MCHV) at IIM Calcutta. the great writers like Tulsidas. Lizzat Papad. Brahma Kumaries spiritual university. Cultural Foundations: It is now recognized that cultural dimension is also important for development of management philosophies. there is indeed no doubt of the numerous management lessons our B-School students and corporate leaders can take from Prince Ram to succeed in the present environment of globalised economy. Subaltern/Social Movements Foundations: Indian Management Wisdom has also been influenced by subaltern forces as manifested in several social movements. Once mentally prepared for the job and reached there. whether in business or some other human activity. Prof Virmani and Prof Rajen Gupta. This has been the concern of many Indian scholars such as Prof. During recent years echaupal of ITC has also created a new linkage model wherein grass root action is combined with corporate action. Every incidence teaches us a new lesson and in itself is a classic example of putting management at its best use and getting the work done. Prof. Dabbawalla. Lessons from the Ramayana As the controversy over the existence of Ram prevails . This is an important lesson from the freedom movement foundations of Indian Management. Indian Business Academy (IBA)at Bangalore and Greater Noida. Indian managers learn about American and Japanese management concepts. Women's Institute for Studies in Development Oriented Management (WISDOM) at Banasthali University in Rajasthan. These movements are influencing the corporate world leading to emergence of a new integration of Yoga and Management. which talks in elaboration about various management theories. Yoga. Capillary Action Foundations: Many grassroots institutions driven by the philosophy of ‘loksangraha' (well being of members) have made an impact on the social consciousness. This implies that Corporations have a duty towards the society and the corporate model should incorporate this idea in its operating philosophy. Indian Management as an idea has been emerging from the influence of the civilizational and cultural experiences. In fact. New Age Spiritual Movements: New age spiritual movements originating from India. then one can easily make out about the various management lessons which are taught in them. AMUL model suggests the need for a linkage between the capillary action and corporate action. Subaltern and social movements led to the idea of ‘Duty of the Fittest'.B.g. Japan developed Japanese Management rooted in its culture. S K Chakraborty. have emerged from Indian spiritual traditions. As the medium size businesses developed into corporate structures. The use of management principles is very clearly visible in that of Hanuman going to Lanka. M. Later it found its expression in community entrepreneurship e. ‘Indian Management' would acquire its distinctive identity. Meditation and Spirituality (YMS) are emerging as new areas of research in the field of management.implied that the idea of management should not be merely restricted to corporate Management but should also include marginal sections of society. But way before the modern day management gurus gave their theories.g Marwari entrepreneurship. Yoga and Management Division at Swami Vivekananda YogaAnusandhan Samsthana (SVYASA) University at Bangalore. Prof. Management Lessons from Indian Epics: Management of any type. Indian Business Foundations: Indian business' acumen is known from ancient times. this may be acknowledged as distinctive contribution of ‘Indian Management' to the world of management. Art of Living movement etc. Jamvant asked Hanuman to go there. When it became clear that Sita was in Lanka. His mission was to locate Sita there and give her Prince Ram's message. Gujarat entrepreneurship. theories and concepts. Empowerment of the weakest is equally important in contrast to the survival of the fittest. SEWA. such as Transcendental Meditation (TM) of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. journals. Valmiki etc had explained them in the ancient Hindu epics. ‘Vyapar Sastra' provided the conceptual foundations for many trading practices. He helped him in realising his true potential and motivated him to go into the enemy's camp. New Institutional Initiatives: Application of Indian Management Wisdom has found institutional support in the form of several initiatives e. AMUL and many other organizations are shining examples of the capillary action approach to development. in simplest of words according to Koontz is "Getting work done through and by the people in formally organized groups" Broadly speaking management is defined by the following functions        Planning Organizing Staffing Leading Directing Controlling Coordinating There are number of books. With this acknowledgment. Vipasana meditation. Similarly.

. recognition. Bhishma and karma Bhisma and Sakuni Karna and Shakuni Karna and Shalya Shalya and Bhisma They were like bees . complex military formations and strategies. unless you know where you are going. Another one is in an organisation one must be treated affectionately which Rama did when he met Guhanand Vibhishana. Magadh through marriage of Shadeva and Vijaya.brother-in-laws. hornets and mosquitoes put together in a jar. Say Bhisma for his vow to protect the throne of Hastinapur.thing which Hanuman did was to completely analyse the situation in Lanka. or job to be done. Moreover Jamvant motivating Hanuman is a classic example of a good Manager helping his personnel to realise their potential and acting accordingly. sociology. Analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the competitor and what threats and opportunities are there in the business. Chedi through marriage of Nakula and Karenmayi. APJ Kalam were also motivated by their vision too. they all had huge respect for Krishna and Yudhisthira. Both the Pandavas and kauravas had made powerful alliances. rewards for good work. Having a right plan. Airtel . which he had in the enemy's camp. This SWOT (strength. spirituality. Tatas . Dwarka through marriage with Arjuna and Subhadra. psychology. and a cause worth fighting for. Lessons from the Mahabharatha Noted as the second largest epic of the world has innumerable revelations on various fields like astronomy. The Mahabharatha has many more lessons for the modern day manager like : Subordination of individual interest to achieve common goal Commitment of Team members Assigning of the right man to the right job Leadership as an art of inspiring team members Analysis of Opportunities and exploiting the situation and many more……. The reply that Rama gave stands out as a great lesson in leadership Many prominent industry leaders today opine that you need not necessarily have a vision. No doubt our corporate leaders have swung into action making mergers and acquisitions the norm of the day . While the Pandavas were a one team.Shalya was simply cheated by Duryodhana . Ravana's brother who had defected to Rama's side. Wipro . had no wealth or power of their own . Especially the Pandavas who were on exile for 13 years . Drona and kripa owed allegiance to the throne. In the case of Ramayana. It was their"common" war. be it Reliance . time management and the art of communication are aligned with instances in the epic.As one can see the characteristics of a bad manager visible in Ravana who never heeded to his ministers . Getting mentally prepared for it. and. market exploitation. he questioned Rama: How will you defeat this huge army with your limited resources? Rama told Vibhishan . the cause was to rescue his beloved Sita and the vision was to defeat the evil forces. and the like. and Rama applied the same in search of Sita and was successful in the mission. they all were part of the decision-making process. More than that. how will the world step aside and aid you in your pursuit? No doubts that the great Dhirubai mbani . father-in-laws. who listened with rapt attention. The other instances which are obvious are: teamwork an important principle in management. Yet another relevant lesson from the Mahabharatha is the spirit of team work which is the essence of modern management . but I think that unless you have a vision. opportunities and threats) analysis is one of the most important aspects of modern day management. the various threats and opportunities.But then How were they able to win the war?The lesson is they had made powerful alliances all over India like Panchala through Marriage with Draupadi. Or so thought Vibhishan. one can also see the characteristics of a good manager in Ram as he follows principles such as encouraging lower category of employees.This clearly indicates that making powerful alliances is a winning strategy. Karna to prove his friendship for duryodhana. This indeed shows the success of team work. As men. geography. Kasi through marriage of Bhima and Balandhara ……. you will never be able to follow a trajectory. weakness. assessing their strengths and weaknesses. rather. market survey. philosophy. In the war . Maruti and its likes. you have to make sure you have a clear vision. decision-making. one goal. This is what management is all about     Defining the goals.more over they didn't get on well with each other. religion. Most of them were close relatives – cousins. politics. While as warriors they were in complete awe of Bhima and Arjuna.They all fought their own individual wars . "The world steps aside to a person who knows where he or she is going." In that parlance. He did a complete study about the Lankans. taking one step at a time could be a much more practical way of going about.Rama's group of men and monkeys were no match for the evil Ravana's forces and weaponry. self-motivation. mathematics. Unable to contain his concerns. even modern management lessons. In the words of the great Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.Ample instance reveal that the Kauravas did not show team work.

relationship marketing.This has indeed been the norm of the day in the past itself . in terms of Social responsibility."The winner of any corporate competition is the company whose moral purpose best fits the prevailing environment. it's the expectation of result". time management. but something else causes frustration. It was a question of principles. Even as society appears to be getting increasingly corrupt and criminal. it is a "duty" while for the third one. and (h) Nyasah — Renunciation." I am doing this horrible job of cutting stones". Nor was the general manager's contribution to the organization insignificant. First says. it is a "blessing". who were cutting stones for the construction of the temple. Berkshire Hathaway corp. . Wealth earned by 100 hands has to be distributed to 1. he or she will be merely a face in the crowd. Vedas. (c) Damah — Sense control. The Vedas insist on proper distribution of wealth. because he had inflated a travel bill. materials. Apple . No wonder Corporates like Microsoft . The Kathopanishad is one of the most popular of all Upanishads. (g) Daya — Mercy. "I am building the temple". Morals are more important than money. we can reach the zenith and we students being the prospective entrants in the corporate world. and also to succeed in trade (Atharva Veda Samhita iii-15). This shows attitude towards work. Tatas etc… today spend a considerable proportion of their profits in charity foundations and their activities of social relevance. change management. And yet.000 hands (Atharva Veda Samhita iii-24-5). Conclusion We can see how relevant and important aspects of Management and Business Knowledge and practices we can discover from our scriptures. Management is a process of aligning people and getting them committed to work for a common goal to the maximum social benefit . quality system. Azim Premji.' I am working to get money for my family" while the third says.They also have numerous lessons to be learnt on various functional areas of business also. you need character. The amount involved was not huge. References . and other ancient Indian scriptures also contain teachings which can be directly or indirectly applied to management. The Holy Gita is a practical psychology of transformation which offers us the tools to connect with our deepest intangible essence. of values. sreyas may be regarded as the hard option while preyas is the soft option. They encourage us to give charity in plenty with utmost faith and humility (Sraddhaya deyam! Sriya deyam! Hriya deyam! Taittiriya Upanishad I-11). For instance. They give the clarion call for value-centric business practices. Thus the social obligations are also taken care of. chairman of Wipro systems and Wipro InfoTech. once called for a meeting. Second says. All the three men are doing the same work but for the first one. many are beginning to realize that you cannot aspire to create value without deeply cherishing a sense of values. (f) Danam — Charity. which repeatedly proclaims that "you must try to manage yourself. The critical question in all managers'minds is how to be effective in their job. etc. The "ability to take decisions" is the real test of a manager's caliber.The individual value system of the various employees together shape up and determine the value system of an organization to which they identify themselves with. he was leaving because of one act of misdemeanor.Lessons from the Gita The Holy Gita has become a secret driving force behind one's life. In managerial terms.Yaksha asks "which path to choose?" and Dhramputra answers: The path that great men of yore had traversed in the past is the path we should follow. Smrutis. at every stage in a man's life he is confirmed by the necessity to choose between two courses of action. Surely today our corporate leaders like the Infosys have ventured into their role of Corporate social responsibility through their community welfare projects and many more have to realize this aspect. The Vedas stress upon moral and ethical conduct and appeal to every one to be guiltless and blemishless. talk about the following key values as very important: (a) Satyam — Truth. for the second. which represent the storehouse of our ancient value systems. Lessons from the Vedas The Vedas. you need to stick to your principles. (e)Dharmah — Righteousness. The answer to this fundamental question is found in the Bhagavad-Gita Gita. Wipro." The reason is that unless a manager reaches a level of excellence and effectiveness. Vedas also stress that "work itself does not cause frustration. Through core values and principles. (b) Tapah — Austerity. In the Yaksha Prashana episode. it is "hell". To sustain your competitive advantage in an increasingly corporate world. To add a lot of interest to your principal. the Vedas specify that the poor and the needy shall be duly protected. A short story reveals the"attitude towards work" in which: a lady asks three workers. One is sreyas which seems painful in the beginning but painful in the end. marketing and management. The Taittiriya Upanishads lays down the qualifications of those who are worthy of being looked up to as precedents.As we move towards a globalised Indian economy it is time that our would be managers of the corporate world get back to basics. The mantra in this Upanishads mentions.in search of excellence. A senior general manager of the company was leaving. We must learn to participate in the battle of life with right knowledge. The Gita is a valuable resource of numerous values relevant for the manager of today like Amanityam –Humility Adambhitvam – Pridelessness Arjavam – Simplicity Kshanti – Tolerance Anahankara – Absence of ego and several more values to be explored. (d) Samah — Tranquility of mind. Lessons from other Scriptures Various Upanishads. must inculcate these values from the very beginning and there is no dearth for them in our ancient scriptures. They call upon one not to cause injury to others or covet the wealth of others. The Vedas also inspire us to innovate and improve upon (Rig Veda Samhita i-31-8). The Vedas contain various concepts such as knowledge management. Infosys .

indyarocks.badaga. www.html Swami Nikhilananda (1990). Kaikeyi. The Hindu Businessline . Ram goes into exile so that his father can keep his word to his step-mother.indiayogi.vinayahs.com JUNGLE OF MISFORTUNE OCT 31. 5th Ed. 2011 | LEADERSHIP. the twin epics of India. Published in Corporate Dossier. the Kauravas.Ankur Bhatnagar(2010) "Management and Business Ethics through Indian Scriptures and Traditions"Shriram Institute of Management & Technology. "Management lessons on how the Mahabharatha war was won" .I.www. July 22. · www. Bhattathiri . 2011 It is curious that the forest-exile is central to both the Ramayana and Mahabharata. In the Mahabharata.        Yog Raj Singh . February 2 · M.P.com www. the Pandavas go into exile following an agreement with their cousins.Kannan (2009) . "Bhagavad Gita and Management :World Management Lessons from India " .S. ET. Kashipur AIMS International Conference on Value-based Management August 11-13 http://www.php? Rabindranath Bhojan (2007). MAHABHARATA. In the Ramayana.org Dr.valuequotes.com/blogs/blog_visiterview_main. "Ancient values for modern managers" . RAMAYANA. at 3-4 . when they lose their kingdom in a gambling match. The Upanishads: A New Translation Vol. .net/chronological.

Shakuni. The Pandavas. Sachin felt betrayed by the organization. Focus on what they can do to manage and resolve the crisis. making the former a king worthy of worship. he had burned all his bridges there. While the latter do not take responsibility for a situation. on the second day of the job. Two days after Raj moved to his new office. A series of events had taken place before he joined the team and he was witnessing the exit process. That somehow made him the cause of the unpleasant effect. the bust! But the approach to it distinguishes Ram from the Pandavas. The former take responsibility for a situation. endure the irritation of the exiting team. Customers were screaming. He did it with stoicism. Never once getting angry for the awkward position he had been put in by the management. Sachin on the other hand is on the verge of a nervous breakdown. He had moved to a . He could not go back to his previous organization. Managers can be classified into Ramayana Managers and Mahabharata Managers.are angry and furious. for fraud and trickery. The loss of kingdom and exile into the forest is a metaphor for misfortune. He had to hear all the terrible things the organization had done and how the person before him had betrayed their trust. All Raj could do is go through the process. never once feeling he had been duped into an unpleasant situation that was not of his own creation. on the other hand. never once taking responsibility for the fact that they gambled away their kingdom. In the Mahabharata. the Pandavas keep blaming the Kauravas and their uncle. So he picked up the phone and complained to the HR department for not warning him of the situation. Ramayana managers typically internalize the problem. rather than what he had no control over. even if they are not to blame. never once regretting his decision to take up this new assignment. Since Raj represented the senior management. Ram looks calm and peaceful. subordinates were yelling and Sachin did not know what to do.The reaction to the exile in both epics is startlingly different. even if they are to blame. He was not the cause. he had to take exit interviews and hear all the outpourings of negative emotions of those leaving. Mahabharata managers typically externalize the problem and spend a lot of time and energy finding people and processes to blame. In the large organization that he belonged. Ram keeps saying that neither Kaikeyi nor his father should be blamed and the moment should be accepted as an act of destiny. He called his boss who had hired him and encouraged him to take the post for not preparing him for what he was in for. few knew that he had no role in the crisis. Raj took this all in stride as the reality of corporate life and focused on what he could do. never once complaining to his superiors. He blamed the head hunter for tricking him to take up this job. His predecessor’s mess had created havoc and he was expected to handle it on the day he joined as the boss of the local branch. even though he is clearly the victim of palace politics. his entire team resigned. The system revealed him as the manager on duty at the time the resignations were tendered. In the Ramayana.

This was not the promotion and payrise he imagined. everyone wants Ram as their manager. Not surprisingly. like the Pandavas. simply adds fuel to the crisis. Sachin. He felt like a victim. He had been tricked. does not add to the crisis. He felt helpless. Both have taken decisions to move out of their previous situations.new city with his family and there was no going back. like Ram. Sachin is full of complaints. Raj. Both Raj and Sachin are victims of circumstances. not Sachin. Neither expects the current situation to be such a mess. He was angry. But Raj takes this without complaint. .