World Petroleum Resources Assessment Project

Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of Southeast Asia, 2010
100°E 110°E 120°E

Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 21.6 billion barrels of oil and a mean of 299 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in 23 provinces of southeast Asia.
20°N

CHINA

Hanoi

Pearl River Mouth Basin

Introduction
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas fields within geologic provinces of southeast Asia as part of the USGS World Petroleum Resources Assessment Project (fig. 1). Twenty-three provinces were assessed in this study (table 1), including provinces entirely or partially within Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, China, and Philippines. Many of the oil and gas basins within these geologic provinces originated as extensional basins that evolved into a post-rift thermal subsidence phase, which is characterized by carbonate platform deposits or prograding clastic wedges typical of passive margins. This simple sketch does not reflect the complexity of the tectonic history in southeast Asia, which has included rifting and attenuation of continental crust, opening and closing of ocean basins, development of regional fault systems and associated structures, collision and suturing of terranes, formation of accretionary prisms and local uplifts (Morley, 2001, 2002; Hutchinson, 2004; Hall and others, 2008). Petroleum systems in provinces of southeast Asia reflect the complex tectonic evolution, but generalities can be made concerning the origin of oil and gas in what are mainly Cenozoic basins (Todd and others, 1997; Doust and Sumner, 2007; Hall, 2009). Petroleum source rocks mainly are synrift deep-basin
U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey

BURMA
Thai Cenozoic Basins

LAOS
Vientiane

Rangoon

Song Hong Basin

Khorat Plateau

THAILAND
Bangkok

VIETNAM CAMBODIA
Phu Khanh Basin

South China Sea

Manila

PHILIPPINES

Andaman Sea
10°N

Phnom Penh

Thai Basin

3605 Palawan Shelf Palawan Basin Shelf

Gulf of Thailand

Cuu Long Basin South China Sea Platform

Sulu Sea
Sulu Sea Basin Baram Delta/ Brunei-Sabah Basin Greater Sarawak Basin

North Sumatra Basin

Nam Con Son Basin Malay Basin

BRUNEI

Celebes Sea
Tarakan Basin

MALAYSIA Penyu-West Natuna Basin
Kuala Lumpur

Central Sumatra Basin 0°

SUMATRA

I

Singapore

MALAYSIA

N

D

BORNEO

Kutei Basin

South Sumatra Basin

O

N E Java Sea S I A
Barito Basin East Java Basin

SULAWESI

Northwest Java Basin Jakarta

JAVA

Explanation
Assessed Provinces
10°S
CHINA

Southeast Asia Assessment Area

Indian Ocean

Indian Ocean

AUSTRALIA

0 0

250 125

500 Kilometers 250 Miles

Figure 1.  Locations of 23 provinces of southeast Asia assessed in this study.

lacustrine and marginal lacustrine shales; post-rift marginal marine to marine coaly mudstones, coals, and marine shales (Todd and others, 1997). Oil predominantly is generated from synrift lacustrine shales, whereas gas is generated from the post-rift coaly mudstones, coals, and shales, and by cracking of earlier-formed oil. As gas generation
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Fact Sheet 2010–3015 June 2010

274 3.739 942 136 727 391 104 123 609 270 54 319 198 1. Results shown are fully risked estimates.488 8.524 19. BCFG.750 4.381 6.055 3.625 3.196 5.347 634 578 2.907 2. MMBNGL.165 6. Southeast Asia assessment results.905 4.268 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 502 0 187 3.100 773 9.678 8.547 12.076 83 162 58 231 997 339 84 2.515 1. TPS. assessment unit.200 9.159 F95 10 102 4 121 3 89 0 3 0 1 40 3 38 190 58 260 66 148 26 5 2 2 2 10 1 7 10 24 2 4 3 26 23 90 91 128 NGL (MMBNGL) F50 F5 Mean 26 256 11 226 9 226 0 6 0 3 92 14 79 353 168 756 109 242 84 17 5 5 5 30 3 16 38 78 12 16 11 84 41 160 188 290 63 588 25 399 37 507 0 14 0 8 203 50 151 616 437 1.0 Reservoirs AU Gas 514 Tarakan Basin (Neogene TPS) Deltaic AU Turbidite AU Mangkalihat Carbonates   AU 1.376 11.0 Reed Bank AU Gas 703 764 2.0 Gas 136 Palawan Shelf Province (Eocene-Miocene Composite TPS) Oil 101 84 226 Eocene-Miocene  1.180 635 3.159 2. gas field size is in BCFG] Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) and Assessment Units (AU) AU Largest  Field  probexpected  type ability field size Oil Gas Oil Gas 97 2.192 685 1.421 370 81 516 110 32 573 100 14 380 64 311 2.165 5.889 13.359 487 2.782 48 166 593 223 244 4.278 0 665 3.217 Thai Basin Province (Eocene-Miocene Composite TPS) Oil 80 Pattani Trough AU 1.112 18.053 10.766 Brunei-Sabah Turbidites AU 1. other fractiles are defined similarly.928 173 379 247 55 10 13 13 94 10 36 151 223 71 76 53 234 70 270 358 594 30 289 12 238 13 253 0 7 0 4 103 19 85 371 197 881 113 250 103 22 5 6 6 38 4 18 54 95 21 25 18 101 43 168 202 316 Pearl River Mouth Basin Province (Paleogene Lacustrine TPS) Eocene-Miocene   Reservoirs AU Paleogene-Neogene  Reservoirs  AU 1.339 1.089 515 8.0 Reservoirs  AU Gas Khorat Plateau Province (Mesozoic TPS) Oil Permian Carbonates AU 1.0 Oil Gas 202 Cuu Long Basin Province (Eocene-Oligocene Composite TPS) Oil 427 726 1. total petroleum system.192 4.0 Gas Khorat Group Sandstones  AU 1.205 1.668 675 1.360 503 804 417 3.878 0 1.208 2. Gray shading indicates not applicable.536 18.071 6.0 Gas 1.061 11.149 4.035 1.130 9.384 Phu Khanh Basin Province (Paleogene TPS) Oil Paleogene-Neogene  1. all liquids are included as NGL (natural gas liquids).0 Song Hong Basin Province (Eocene-Miocene Composite TPS) 1.078 945 10. million barrels of natural gas liquids.478 7. [MMBO.599 854 10.683 32.269 5.673 7.0 1. Largest expected oil field size in MMBO.047 2.419 8.205 3.800 South China Sea Platform (Miocene TPS) Oil Dangerous Grounds1.058 4. AU.563 15. billion cubic feet of gas.716 543 263 372 179 1.162 11.Table 1.0 1.609 386 152 615 479 946 1.310 1.370 15.253 3.812 1.0 . For gas accumulations.447 1.900 7.955 – 279 – F95 279 Oil (MMBO) F50 F5 567 1.532 0 2.376 71 590 178 22 64 Sulu Sea Province (Miocene TPS) 2.426 0 1. AU probability is the chance of at least one accumulation of minimum  size within the AU.371 62 922 107 1.448 1.463 112 1.522 3.213 6.361 2.0 Gas 444 Oil 551 1.343 1.618 18.0 Gas 787 Oil 181 Offshore Western Cenozoic  1.229 123 1.079 Mean 608 Total Undiscovered Resources Gas (BCFG) F95 F50 F5 Mean 290 3.012 6.674 17.599 Syn-Rift Reservoirs AU 1.526 18.899 22.279 694 8.679 0 1. F95 represents a 95-percent  chance of at least the amount tabulated.151 3.211 608 3.441 380 710 345 6.366 10.748 649 2.581 8.0 Rifts AU Gas 257 Thai Cenozoic Basins Province (Eocene-Miocene Composite TPS) Oil 76 162 362 Onshore Cenozoic Rifts AU 1.041 426 240 321 147 984 96 1.939 6.735 1.171 0 568 3.448 Baram Delta/Brunei-Sabah Basin Province (Brunei-Sabah TPS) Oil 67 350 Brunei-Sabah Deltaics AU  1. Undiscovered gas resources are the sum of nonassociated and associated gas.0 Oil Gas Oil Gas Oil Gas Oil Gas 38 406 235 2.152 23.643 1.803 4.866 3.0 80 183 399 204 405 5.352 Sandakan Reservoirs AU 1.204 1.0 Gas 315 Nam Con Son Basin Province (Eocene-Miocene Composite TPS) Oil 146 321 643 Oligocene-Miocene  1.0 Reservoirs AU Gas 1.380 2.035 307 2. million barrels of oil.406 3.

285 1.896 763 1.643 11.756 8.200 215 415 94 460 146 32 589 Pematang/Sihapas  Siliciclastics AU 1.984 32.108 133 222 2.338 7.189 0 9.192 18.0 Gas 639 Total Conventional Resources 133 321 1.319 2.0 Gas 183 Oil 169 71 280 Mergui Basin AU 1. BCFG.047 471 1.646 1.299 9.094 1.112 0 32.632 128. assessment unit.078 847 3.491 3. million barrels of oil.096 296 262 772 1.212 4.291 9 143 216 328 10 66 33 461 9 1 28 33 63 1 4 43 28 110 8. Southeast Asia assessment results.641 4.048 2.Table 1.913 Malay Basin Province (Oligocene-Miocene Composite TPS) Oil 71 240 Main Malay-Tho Chu AU 1.570 6. Undiscovered gas resources are the sum of nonassociated and associated gas.048 1.310 8.661 681 1. F95 represents a 95-percent  chance of at least the amount tabulated. gas field size is in BCFG] Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) and Assessment Units (AU) AU Largest  Field  probexpected  type ability field size F95 Oil (MMBO) F50 F5 0 618 0 0 1.0 Oil Gas 14 99 84 142 233 148 70 85 East Java Basin (Eocene-Miocene Composite TPS) Oil 190 173 435 East Java Carbonates AU 1.0 Gas 952 Oil 615 1.—Continued [MMBO.0 Gas 687 Oil – 0 East Natuna Carbonate AU 1.493 Northwest Java Basin (Eocene-Miocene Composite TPS) Oil 31 90 161 Sunda-Asri Basins AU 1.974 3.056 20.819 106 329 1.0 Gas 1.759 2.444 240 562 7. million barrels of natural gas liquids.259 160 2.0 AU Gas 997 Central Sumatra Basin Province (Brown Shale-Sihapas TPS) 430 179 732 493 450 214 893 4.146 2.398 8.434 13.851 Kutei Basin Turbidites AU 1.474 1.489 256 2.522 1.0 Gas 1.818 408 699 1.617 141 259 3.670 5.051 298.754 2.529 4.194 0 20.169 0 18.652 38.099 Greater Sarawak Basin Province (Sarawak Basin TPS) Oil – 0 Central Luconia AU 1.658 7.340 0 4. billion cubic feet of gas.761 .487 2.281 1.435 2.212 119 1.0 Gas 1.0 Sandstones AU Gas 153 South Sumatra Basin (Lahat/Talang Akar-Cenozoic TPS) Oil 82 South Sumatra AU 1.796 274 310 797 169 166 391 152 80 326 625 606 8 150 74 109 598 681 353 537 1.008 835 1.828 NGL (MMBNGL) F50 F5 Mean 0 542 48 243 0 260 21 160 8 26 3 32 12 5 82 142 151 1.049 1.381 10 162 233 342 10 71 48 516 9 1 32 36 74 3 5 45 32 120 9.524 495 581 1. Largest expected oil field size in MMBO.264 892 3.013 0 Mean 0 643 0 Total Undiscovered Resources Gas (BCFG) F95 F50 F5 Mean 0 11.049 1. MMBNGL.908 272.216 0 562 50 256 0 278 22 167 10 31 5 40 13 6 99 155 165 1.104 19. total petroleum system.286 269 5.742 Oil 294 633 1.0 Gas 2.0 Gas 2.031 16 3 64 71 163 10 10 72 65 228 17.270 0 878 81 425 0 494 37 275 25 71 16 100 23 12 224 288 311 2.0 Gas 535 Barito Basin (Eocene-Miocene Composite TPS) Oil 84 20 Barito Foredeep Structures  1.416 478 934 1.401 21. AU probability is the chance of at least one accumulation of minimum  size within the AU.0 Gas 2.371 2.0 Gas 1.233 7.035 31.471 North Sumatra Basin (Bampo-Cenozoic TPS) Oil 12 48 77 North Sumatra AU 1.492 Oil 80 361 Balingian AU 1.558 21. other fractiles are defined similarly.816 514 1.729 3.588 41 284 1.158 Oil 82 60 Khmer Trough AU 1.711 6.367 F95 0 318 27 132 0 126 11 87 3 8 1 9 6 2 32 68 67 613 5 58 101 187 5 36 8 188 5 0 12 15 23 0 1 24 11 48 3.967 6.925 17.464 6. AU.0 Gas 378 Oil 116 136 348 Biliton-Vera Basins AU 1.486 279 224 692 1.038 2.350 1.154 6.945 13.0 Gas 100 Oil 46 73 152 Ardjuna Basin AU 1.400 East Java Siliciclastics AU 1.541 41.471 16 331 423 546 17 121 137 1. all liquids are included as NGL (natural gas liquids).230 495 977 2.922 19. Results shown are fully risked estimates.0 Gas 90 Penyu-West Natuna Basin Province (Oligocene-Miocene Composite TPS) Oil 24 27 66 Gabus-Udang-Urang  1.639 6.848 557.879 3.729 0 20. For gas accumulations.346 816 6.128 12.478 20.849 1.338 3.358 Kutei Basin TPS Oil 32 91 160 Kutei Basin Deltaics AU 1.393 168 3. Gray shading indicates not applicable.031 3.392 0 10.018 79 374 288 534 423 2. TPS.

. South China Sea Platform (mean of 2.usgs.. v. eds.073 BCFG). van Hattum. Several other provinces are estimated to have potential gas volumes greater than 10. Troy A. Pollastro. and Laos: Journal of Geological Society of London. Baram Delta/Brunei-Sabah Basin (mean of 26.675 BCFG).051 BCFG.489 BCFG). about 70 percent is estimated to be in six provinces—Baram For Further Information Supporting studies of the geologic models and the methodology used in the assessment of Southeast Asia Basins are in progress. and Richard M.W.632 MMBO) in the provinces of southeast Asia using a barrels of oil equivalent conversion.. 15. The methodology for the assessment included a complete geologic framework description for each province mainly based on published literature and definition of petroleum systems and assessment units within these systems. schenk@usgs. p.J. p. v. R. R.600 BCFG).001 BCFG). Pitman. and Pearl River Mouth Basin (mean of 608 MMBO). Klett. 127–144. Timothy R. Marginal basin evolution: the southern South China Sea: Marine and Petroleum Geology.522 MMBO). Greater Sarawak Basin (mean of 643 MMBO). with a range from 8.. gas is focused into the younger. 2008.. . Petroleum systems in rift basins—a collective approach in southeast Asia basins: Petroleum Geoscience. and Spakman.216 MMBNGL. M.K. v. with a range from 128. 126. 2007). Hutchinson. and Malay Basin (mean of 12. for undiscovered conventional gas the mean total is 298. A.761 BCFG.794 MMBOE) than undiscovered oil resource (21. Overall.S.. M. 451.266 BCFG). and (2) there is more than twice as much undiscovered gas resource (298.558 MMBO. Resource Summary The USGS assessed undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in assessment units within 23 geologic provinces (table 1). Todd. Of the mean oil total of 21. p. in Fraser. and Thai Basin (mean of 1. Phu Khanh Basin) geologic analogs were used as a basis for volumes of undiscovered oil and gas resources.632 MMBO. Southeast Asia Provinces Assessment Team: Christopher J. 25–47. East Java Basin (mean of 31. Nam Con Son Basin (mean of 685 MMBO). S. Matthews. 131–146. v. http://energy. p. and Sumner. post-rift clastic and carbonate reservoirs. For conventional oil resources. Impact of India— Asia collision on SE Asia: the record in Borneo: Tectonophysics.088 BCFG). Kirschbaum. Mark A. p. Tarakan Basin (mean of 12. Morley. Song Hong Basin (mean of 12. is later than oil. v.G. For the mean undiscovered gas total of 298. 21.278 MMBO). Exploration and discovery history was a critical part of the methodology used to estimate sizes and numbers of undiscovered accumulations. 158.375 BCFG). 13. East Java Basin (mean of 2. R. A tectonic model for the Tertiary evolution of strike-slip faults and rift basins in SE Asia: Tectonophysics. and coproduct ratios were used to calculate the volumes of associated gas (gas in oil fields) and natural gas liquids. H. Phu Khanh Basin (mean of 13. 2009.908 BCFG to 557.761 billion cubic feet (BCFG).040 BCFG). p. and Murphy.P. several provinces are estimated to have potential oil volumes greater than 500 MMBO—Northwest Java Basin (mean of 726 MMBO). with a range from 3. Michael E. or 49.632 million barrels of oil (MMBO). Kutei Basin (mean of 3.J. the assessment indicates that (1) more than 90 percent of the undiscovered oil and gas resources are offshore. Charpentier. 1997.099 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL).W. S. Tarakan Basin (mean of 707 MMBO). Assessment results are available at the USGS Energy Program website. Morley. Wim. 347. In addition.. Malaysia. and Barwise.735 MMBO). Greater Sarawak Basin (mean of 38.000 BCFG—Thai Basin (mean of 14. A. Delta/Brunei-Sabah Basin (mean of 4. 1129–1148. Cuu Long Basin (mean of 1. gas would be expected to be more prevalent than oil in these provinces where post-rift sources have achieved the appropriate thermal maturity for generation (Doust and Sumner.036 MMBO). 2001. and a mean total of 9.761 BCFG..519 BCFG). Brownfield.. 2004. Hydrocarbon basins in SE Asia: understanding why they are there: Petroleum Geoscience. C. 2007.A. Cook. Each assessment unit was assessed for undiscovered oil and nonassociated gas accumulations.gov). 2002. Malay Basin (mean of 664 MMBO). Petroleum geology of Southeast Asia: Geological Society of London Special Publication v. Combined escape tectonics and subduction roll-backbackarc extension: a model for the Tertiary rift basins in Thailand.583 BCFG). 461–474.. 366–389. 89–215. In areas where there are no discoveries (for example. Hall. v. South China Sea Platform (mean of 25.S.cr.References Doust.gov/oilgas/.212 MMBO).. the mean total is 21.K. Janet K. C. p.. and Nam Con Son Basin (mean of 14.. Volumetrically.E. Schenk (Task Leader. Characterizing petroleum charge systems in the Tertiary of SE Asia.. Ronald R. Dunn. C.828 to 17. about 60 percent is estimated to be in six provinces—Kutei Basin (mean of 46. H.215 MMBO).. Hall.922 to 41.J.

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