1

PASSIVE VIBRATION CONTROL OF HIGH-RISE STRUCTURES USING TUNED MASS DAMPERS
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF DR.PRADEEP RAMANCHARLA

BY BHARATHI THADIGOTLA MTECH CASE 200711002

2

INDEX
TOPIC
ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION
EQUATIONS OF MOTION AND CLASSICAL SOLUTION PRINCIPLE OF TMD DESIGN PROCEDURE OF TMD TYPES OF TMD 11 9 10

PGNO
3 4
7

ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
STAADPRO MODELS MATLAB CODES SDOF WITHOUT TMD MDOF WITHOUT TMD SDOF WITH TMD MDOFWITH TMD SAP2000 RESULTS

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14 17 25 27 28 29 41

CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES

57 58

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ABSTRACT
This project summarizes the results of reduction in maximum displacement of G+20 structure by using a roof top tuned mass damper. The El Centro data is considered for Time history analysis. First considering whole structure as a two degree freedom system combined with TMD, response is known for different percentages of mass. Then as multi degree freedom system and performing optimization techniques response is known for different percentages of mass. A check in SAP2000 is also performed and the results are compared. This shows how effective Tuned mass damper works for the reduction of maximum displacement ensuring structural stability when subjected to earthquake loads.

active control devices incorporate real-time recoding instrumentation on the ground integrated with earthquake input processing equipment and actuators within the structure. their energy flow density. active or hybrid where: • • • passive control devices have no feedback capability between them. For this. abbreviated correspondingly as TMD for the tuned (passive). and as HMD for the hybrid mass dampers. up to 90%. for instance: • • • to dissipate the wave energy inside a superstructure with properly engineered dampers. have been studied and installed in high-rise buildings. to disperse the wave energy between a wider range of frequencies. All seismic vibration control devices may be classified as passive. After the seismic waves enter a superstructure. there is quite another approach: partial suppression of the seismic energy flow into the superstructure known as seismic or base isolation which has been implemented in a number of historical buildings all over the world and remains in the focus of earthquake engineering research for years. there is a number of ways to control them in order to sooth their damaging effect and improve the building's seismic performance. some pads are inserted into all major load-carrying elements in the base of the building which should substantially decouple a superstructure from its substructure resting on a shaking ground. structural elements and the ground. vibration control is a set of technical means aimed to mitigate seismic impacts in building and non-building structures.4 INTRODUCTION In earthquake engineering. predominantly in Japan. It also requires creating a rigidity diaphragm and a moat around the building. hybrid control devices have combined features of active and passive control systems When ground seismic waves reach up and start to penetrate a base of a building. the remaining portions of the incident waves during a major earthquake still bear a huge devastating potential. due to reflections. reduces dramatically: usually. as well as making provisions against overturning and P-delta effect. . for a quarter of a century However. as AMD for the active. However. to absorb the resonant portions of the whole wave frequencies band with the help of so called mass dampers Devices of the last kind.

.performance deterioration under changing excitation frequency will not be very sharp and response at resonance can also be significantly reduced. suppose we wish to reduce the maximum force on the motor mounts as the motor operates over a range of speeds. m2. We will add a smaller mass.5 Tuned mass dampers(TMDs) are amongst the oldest structural vibration control devices in existence. A tuned damper balances the vibration of a system with comparatively lightweight component so that the worst-case vibrations are less intense.Frahm did not have any inherent damping. Consider a motor with mass m1 attached via motor mounts to the ground. connected to m1 by a spring and a damper. k1 and c1. Tuned mass dampers stabilize against violent motion caused by harmonic vibration.this shortcoming was eliminated when Ormondroyd and Den Hartog showed that if certain amount of damping is introduced in frahm’s absorber. Frahm invented a vibration control device for the first time in 1909 named dunamic vibration absorber. k2 and c2. Let F1 be the effective force on the motor due to its operation. The force on the motor mounts is F0. The motor vibrates as it operates and the soft motor mounts act as a parallel spring and damper. so it is effective only when absorber’s natural frequency was very close to the excitation frequency .

The Bode plot is more complex. the blue line shows the motion of the damping mass and the red line shows the motion of the primary mass. The amplitude plot shows that at low frequencies. The split between the two peaks can be changed by altering the mass of the damper (m2). An important measure of performance is the ratio of the force on the motor mounts to the force vibrating the motor. so would the force on the motor mounts. the two masses are in . In the plots at right. showing the phase and magnitude of the motion of each mass. Changing the damping also changes the height of the peaks. F0 / F1. it also has a second normal mode and will vibrate somewhat more than the baseline system at frequencies below about 6 and above about 10. While the maximum response force is reduced. with a maximum response of 9 units of force at around 9 units of frequency. in a complex fashion. there are some operating frequencies for which the response force is increased. for the two cases.5 units. A Bode plot of displacements in the system with (red) and without (blue) the 10% tuned mass. The peak response is reduced from 9 units down to 5. as a side effect. excited by vibrations with an amplitude of one unit of force applied to the main mass. It has a maximum response of 5.5. The red line shows the effect of adding a tuned mass of 10% of the baseline mass. so if the force on the motor were to double. the black line shows the baseline response (m2 = 0).6 Response of the system excited by one unit of force. The phase plot shows that at low frequencies.Graphs are shown above. at a frequency of 7. The heights of the two peaks can be adjusted by changing the stiffness of the spring in the tuned mass damper. (We are assuming the system is linear. the damping mass resonates much more than the primary mass. relative to F1. Graph is shown above The graph shows the effect of a tuned mass damper on a simple spring–mass–damper system.) The blue line represents the baseline system. Now considering m2 = m1 / 10. m1. with (red) and without (blue) the 10% tuned mass.

In case of base excitation . Suspended from the 92nd to the 88th floor.7 phase. this maximizes the energy dissipated into c2 and simultaneously pulls on the primary mass in the same direction as the motor mounts. Equations of motion and classical solution: For figure 1 the equations of motion of a SDOF structure-TMD mechanism are given as: MX(t) + KX(t) .[c{Sc(t)-X(t)} + k{x(t)-X(t)}] = P(t) (1) mY(t) + c{x(t)-J((t)} + k(x(t)-X(t)} = p(t) (2) where M = main mass M= absorber mass K = main spring stiffness k =absorber spring stiffness C =absorber damping P(t)= force acting on main mass. maximizing the damping effect by maximizing the amplitude of x2 − x1. the tuned mass dampers are huge concrete blocks mounted in skyscrapers or other structures and moved in opposition to the resonance frequency oscillations of the structures by means of some sort of spring mechanism. Typically. a steel pendulum weighing 660 metric tons that serves as a tuned mass damper was designed and installed atop the structure.5 Hz it is 180° out of phase with m1. the pendulum sways to decrease resonant amplifications of lateral displacements in the building caused by earthquakes and strong gusts. Taipei 101 skyscraper needs to withstand typhoon winds and earthquake tremors common in its area of the Asia-Pacific. For this purpose. As the frequency increases m2 moves out of phase with m1 until at around 9.

ξ = damping ratio of main mass. ξ d= damping ratio of TMD. f = frequency ratio. g1 = ω/Ώ1 where Ώ1 is the first modal frequency of the structure. It is given as: P(t)= (m/M)*P(t) for base excitation P(t)=0for main mass excitation To facilitate further discussions. frequency of a harmonic excitation. ωa = g1 = ratio of excitation frequency to main mass natural frequency g1 = ω/Ώ. force acting on damper mass. These expressions for the calculating optimum damper parameters are given as: For the case when the structure is subjected to a harmonic base excitation. optimum values of damping c and stiffness k of the damper Which gives Similarly . f = ωa/Ώ. can be calculated as and . which minimize the steady-state response of the main mass subjected to a harmonic main mass excitation. Ώ = natural frequency of main mass. additional notations are introduced here as follows: μ= damper mass to main mass ratio μ= m/M. Den Hartog developed closed form expressions of optimum damper parameters f and ξ d. P(t) = -MY~(t). Ώ = ωa = natural frequency of damper mass.8 P(t)=with acceleration £g(t). the corresponding expressions can be easily found to be: Using the values of . for MDOF structures.

TMD is used in many flexible and lightly-damped towers. from which the system is called “Tuned Mass Damper”. wave.TMD is a mechanically simple system which does not need any external energy supply for operation. earthquake. natural period of TMD by itself is tunes with natural period of the structure by itself. . When subjected to dynamic loads such a traffic loads.9 Which gives Principle of TMD(Tuned Mass Damper) Developments in computer-aided structural design and high-strength materials led to more flexible and lightly damped structures. Because of easy maintenance and high realiability. wind. To achieve the most efficient energy absorbing capacity of TMD. Hence the kinetic energy of the structure goes into the TMD system to be absorbed by the viscous damper of the TMD. vibration lasting for long duration may be easily induced in this type of structures. The viscous damper of TMD shall also be adjusted to the optimum value to maximize the absorbed energy. TMD is a vibration system with mT spring Kt and viscous cT usually installed on the top of the movement of the structure.

Identify dynamic structural properties of a main structure. 1.10 Design Procedure of TMD: In the design of actual TMD. 2. Assume appropriate mass ratio μ(determined mass of mT of TMD). . there are many design constraints arising from structural properties of the main structure. damping ratio of the specific vibration mode of the structure to be controlled by TMD. vibrations mass. 3. Determine design ratio ∆ξ eq to be generated by TMD. Design procedure for general flexible and lightly-damped structures is as follow. Determine natural frequency.

Monitor behavior of TMD and adjust ωT and ξ T on site. 10. 7. 3. If it is too large go back to 3. 9. Calculate γopt and ξ opt from μ(determined stiffness K T and damping coefficient C T of TMD). Multiple TMD of which are distributed around the vibration period of the structure has robustness in tuning effect. Installation of TMD to the main structure.Examples of different TMDS are . If the displacement of TMD is too large. if necessary: • If the vibration mode of the structure to be controlled by TMD has another vibration mode close to it.11 4. The following issues shall be examined . 5. Verification tests of TMD with shaking table or with other methods 8. which may not always give the optimum TMD. 6. Design mechanical system of TMD including the methods on how to adjust ω T and ξ T . Innovative challenge is highly expected in this field. • • Types of TMD: There are many types of TMD for implementation. Calculate maximum displacement of TMD. use of larger mass or higher damping becomes inevitable.or higher-DOF modeling of the main structure and the TMD has to be used to determine the optimum TMD.

. The column dimensions are 600x600 and the beam dimensions are taken as 300x450.12 ANALYSIS AND RESULTS: A G+20 structure having dimensions 75x41m is taken and modeled in StaadPro.

Stiffness of each floor = 1.3*240*25*0.88*108)/21 = 13.57*105)-(0.3*240*25*0.57*105)-(0.2*240*108 = 2. Mass of the last floor = (4.5646*106 Kg.6*0.57*10 5 Kg.6/2) = 4246 KN = 4.6/2) = 95646 KN = 9.6*0.88*108 N/m Stiffness of whole structure = (2.446e5 Kg Mass of the whole structure = (21*4.13 Mass of first and intermediate floors of building using static check results of Staadpro = 4.71*108 N/m PLAN OF PLOT .

14 PLAN OF ONE HOUSE IN PLOT .

STAADPRO MODEL: Elevation: .15 Structure is analyzed in staadpro and the results are checked.

16 Plan: 3DModel: .

17 Matlab code to find maximum response of Single degree of freedom system: .

%% change to f=m*a if a =acc d=size(f).16%input('please enter the damping constant c '). v(1)=0%input('please enter the initial velocity : '). z=5/100 wn=sqrt(k/m) c=z*2*wn*m.02 %%% load input file load elcentro. %Average acceleration Be= 1/4 && R =1/2 R=1/2. Be=1/4. a=elcentro(:. dt= 0.23e6 k=11. %%% data input clear all clc format long m=15.1). %% for ground accelerations.txt. g=d(1). %c=19.40e8%input('please enter the stiffness : '). %Linear acceleration R=1/2 && Be=1/6 .18 %%% Numerical evaluation of dynamic response by %% Newmark's method. t=elcentro(:.Elcentro Record is taken.2). u(1)=0%input('please enter the intial displacement : '). f=m*a.

19 %%% intial calulations ::: A(1)=(f(1)-(c*v(1))-(k*u(1)))/m. dv(j)=(R*du(j)/(Be*dt))-(R*v(j)/Be)+((1-(R/(2*Be)))*(A(j)*dt)).2. dA(j)=(du(j)/(Be*dt^2))-(v(j)/(Be*dt))-(A(j)/(2*Be)). A(j+1)=A(j)+dA(j). aa= ((Be*dt)^-1*m)+((R*c)/Be). u(j+1)=u(j)+du(j). %%%% iteration ::: for j= 1:g-1 dPcap(j)=(f(j+1)-f(j))+(aa*v(j))+(bb*(A(j))). v(j+1)=v(j)+dv(j). end w=1:length(a) t=1:length(a) %subplot(3.1) plot(t. Kcap=(k)+(R*c/(Be*dt))+(m/(Be*dt^2)). du(j)=dPcap(j)/Kcap. bb= ((2*Be)^-1*m) +(((R*(2*Be)^-1)-1)*c*dt).u(w)) display('max displacement') max(abs(u(w)))*1000 Matlab code to find maximum response of Multi degree of freedom system: .

c1=input('damping of tmd'). end M(dof-1. mn=4.dof-1)=m2.%input('Enter the mass of first and intermediate floors'). m1=4. end . for MDOF %%% data input ::: clear all clc %%% mass data input dof=22%input('Enter the number degrees of freedom').57e5.246e5%input('Enter the mass of last floor'). for i=1:dof-1 k(i)=k1. %% stiffness data input. M(dof.88e8%input('Enter the stiffness of each floor').20 %%% Numerical evaluation of dynamic response (time histroy) by %% Newmark's method %% for ground accelerations. m2=4. pm=input('percentage of mass').dof)=mtmd. k2=input('Enter the stiffenss of tmd').i)=m1. k1=2.9014e6. for i=1:dof-2 M(i. mtmd=pm*mn.

2)-1) if W(j. K(i+1. W(j.j).2) for j=1:(g(:. g=size(W).j+1) temp=W(j.i)=K(i.21 k(dof)=k2.i)=k(i).j)=W(j+1.i+1).j). W=sqrt(W). temp1=V(:. else K(i.i)=k(i)+k(i+1).j+1).j+1). end I(i)=1.i+1)=-k(i+1). V(:. V(:. end %%% Finding the eigen values [V. .j)=V(:. %%%% bubble sort for i=1:g(:.j+1)=temp1. %%% stiffness matrix generator for i=1:dof if i==dof K(i.W]=eig(inv(M)*K).j)>W(j+1. K(i.

dof)=c1.i)/sqrt(MM(i.i)=(2*0.i)*MM(i. for i=1:dof V(:.1)=0 cc(i.1)=0 v(i. end end end fprintf('The eigen Values are \n '). %for i=1:dof % V(:. MK=V'*K*V.i)=V(:. fprintf('The eigen Vectors are \n'). V.05*W(i. display('Modal stiffness matrix') for i=1:dof u(i.i)=V(:.i)). .22 W(j+1. %end %MM=V'*M*V.i)).i))). end display('Modal mass matrix') MM=V'*M*V. %% damping matix (classical damping) end cc(dof.i)/max(abs(V(:. W.j+1)=temp.

Kcap(i)=(MK(i. % GAmma Value here Linear acceleration R=1/2 && Be=1/6 %%% intial calulations ::: for i=1:dof PF(i)=V(:.5)=12333.j)/Be)+((1-(R/(2*Be)))*(A(i.j)=dPcap(i.i))+((R/Be)*cc(i.i)) +(((R*(2*Be)^-1)-1)*cc(i.j))).i)'*M*I'.i))+(R*cc(i. gg=dd(1)..j))+(bb(i)*(A(i.txt.1)=(f(1)-(cc(i. %%%% iteration ::: for j= 1:gg-1 dPcap(i. dd=size(a). bb(i)= ((2*Be)^-1*MM(i. %%% load input file load elcentro.1).23 %cc(5. dv(i.1))-(MK(i. %%%% newmark's method.i)*u(i..j)=(du(i.i)/(Be*dt^2)). .j)/(Be*dt^2))-(v(i.02 %input('please enter the time step :').j)/Kcap(i).1)))/MM(i.1704.j)*dt)).j)/(Be*dt))-(A(i. aa(i)= ((Be*dt)^-1*MM(i.i)*dt).i)). f=-1*PF(i)*a. t=elcentro(:. %% BETA Value here %Average acceleration Be= 1/4 && R =1/2 R=1/2. dt= 0.i).j)=(R*du(i.j)/(Be*dt))-(R*v(i. Be=1/4.i)/(Be*dt))+(MM(i.2).i)*v(i. A(i.j)/(2*Be)).j)=(f(j+1)-f(j))+(aa(i)*v(i. du(i. dA(i. a=elcentro(:.

.dof).j).t)*X(t... t=1.j)+K(i.j)=Shearforce(i.j)+V(i.j).gg).j).j)=X(i.j)+SS(i. v(i.gg).j).j)+du(i.j+1)=v(i. X=zeros(dof.t)*u(t.j)+dA(i. %%%%% Mode superposition Method.. A(i.j). for i=1:dof for j=1:gg-1 for t=1:dof X(i.j)+dv(i. .j+1)=u(i.j+1)=A(i. end end end Force=zeros(dof.j).0) SS=S*K.24 u(i.t)*X(t. t=1. Shearforce(i. end end S=triu(ones(dof. Shearforce=zeros(dof..gg).j)=Force(i. for i=1:dof for j=1:gg-1 for t=1:dof Force(i.

76 Optimization: clear all m=4. figure(1).25 end end end i=input('Storey value').1488 fopt=(1/(1+mu))*sqrt(((2-mu)/2)) zetaopt=sqrt(3*mu/(8*(1+mu)))*(2/(2-mu)) wa=fopt*ws ka=(m2*ws^2)*fopt^2 copt=2*zetaopt*fopt*ws*m2 Response of the SDOF structure without TMD .1 m2=mu*m ws=9.02:53.9107e6 mu=0. j=1:gg h=0:0.

MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENT FROM SAP CONSIDERING SDOF SYSTEM .26 Graph showing maximum displacement on y-axis From the Matlab code of SDOF system we got maximum displacement of 60.473 mm.

27 From SAP2000 maximum displacement without TMD is 60.270 mm. So the code value is nearer to the value from SAP. Response of the MDOF structure without TMD . Hence it is correct.

28 .

60 44 .67 4 0.527885 5 44.So with TMD it becomes a two degree freedom system.28324 31. So there is great difference in maximum displacement if the whole structure is considered SDOF. Whole G+20 structure is taken as one degree and TMD is taken as another degree.723 52.83 45 .900294 3 41. TUNED MASS DAMPER FOR SDOF SYSTEM In this procedure mass and stiffness both are reduced by equal percentages.802594 5 33.67 3 6.501025 7 38. So MDOF system is opted as it is giving higher displacement.199871 5 32.862324 4 31.111566 1 34.539 mm form matlab code and the SAP2000 result also satisfied.90 47 .71 2 0.05 3 1.463853 8 Percentag e Reduction in displacem ent 0 13.33 4 3.690686 36.57 . %mass NO TMD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Maximum displacem ent 60.9507 48.45 46 .29 The maximum displacement Of MDOF system is found to be 336.20 46 .480981 7 33.728422 6 32.00 4 3.00 26 .

166086 8 33.30 32.490583 9 46 . . Each floor is taken as one degree and TMD is taken as another degree.18 14 15 Graph Between maximum displacement versus percentage of mass reduction TUNED MASS DAMPER FOR MDOF SYSTEM: In this procedure mass is reduced by a percentage and respective to the reduction of the mass the optimized stiffness and damping of TMD is found using some numerical techniques. So combined with TMD it becomes a twenty two degree freedom system.40 44 .

0000 -0.0000 0.9148 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0e+006 * Columns 1 through 11 4.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 4.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.9544 -0.9031 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.9043 0.0000 0.0000 4.0000 -0.9014 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 4.9177 0.0000 0.0000 0.9107 -0.0000 4.0000 4.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.9091 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 4.0000 -0.0000 4.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.31 MODAL MASS MATRIX AND MODAL FREQUENCY MATRIX FROM CODE MM = 1.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 .0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 4.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.9017 0.0000 0.0000 0.

0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.9530 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 4.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 .0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.32 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 4.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.9162 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 Columns 12 through 21 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.

0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.33 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.5092 .0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 4.0000 -0.9530 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.9246 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.9309 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 4.0000 4.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 4.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 4.9142 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.9451 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.8397 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.9242 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.9418 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 4.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.9359 >> W W= Columns 1 through 11 1.0000 4.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 4.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 4.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 4.9172 -0.0000 0.0000 0.9297 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.

2597 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19.1827 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 34.34 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9.2204 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 29.6925 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 23.0187 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 26.1488 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12.9115 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Columns 12 through 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .2805 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32.7388 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16.

4525 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 39.9014e6 to get the mass of TMD.8397.4907 0 0 0 0 0 0 46.6764 0 0 50.0151 0 0 0 49.0937 0 0 0 0 49.8220 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 45.9193 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 43.9170 0 0 0 0 0 48.0745 So here mass of TMD should be reduced by some percentage of modal mass. .7925 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 41.9014e6.Response graphs for different percentages are shown .35 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 37.Here modal mass is considered in place of total mass of the structure Modal mass = 4. Modal frequency with respect to 4.9014e6 mass is 1. For 1%mass we have to take 1% of the mass of 4.

36 1% .

37 2% .

38 3% mass .

39

40

4%

41

5%

42 6% .

43 7% .

44 8% .

45 9% mass .

46 10% mass .

47 11% mass .

48 12% mass .

49 13% mass .

50 14% mass .

51 15% mass .

01E+ 05 7.1572 283.59E+ 05 9.5394 329. 583 15.52 Percenta ge Reduction Stiffne Dampi in ss of ng of displacem tmd tmd ent 0 1. 012 12.16E+ 05 4.0879 Graph of maximum displacement versus percentage of mass .607 309. 250 8.68E+ 05 3. 155 18.11E+ 05 3.0068 322.2352 294. 262 18.9129 287.8717 273.58E+ 06 1. 690 14. 750 19.27E+ 05 2.09E+ 04 3.6736 304.7954 290.41E+ 04 1. 238 4.34E+ 05 8.41E+ 05 0 2. 311 6.6 13 16.62E+ 05 6.032 315.53E+ 04 8.30E+ 06 1.74E+ 06 0 1. 667 17. 524 11.99E+ 05 4.09E+ 06 1.46E+ 05 4.49E+ 06 1.8887 278.93E+ 05 5.9953 280.1717 299.1 50 %mas s NO TMD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Maximum displace ment 336.88E+ 05 2.9464 272.40E+ 06 1.66E+ 06 1. 500 13.54E+ 05 3.20E+ 06 1.05E+ 04 5.16E+ 05 1. 036 9.3605 275.62E+ 05 3.79E+ 05 1.51E+ 05 1.

53 SAP2000 MODEL: .

54 TABLE: Base Reaction s OutputC ase Column1 CaseType Colum n2 StepT ype Colu mn3 Step Num Column4 GlobalFX Col um n5 Glo bal Colu mn6 Glob alFZ Colu mn7 Globa lMX Colum n8 Global MY .

97 7 13295.916 -3047.929 8501.5 613 20492.7 371 29910.85 8 13050.9 123 351665 6.97 1 1172218.2 124 36511.0 815 33608.57 4 12851.417 -4998.7 209 38553.25 14 14995.74 81 9142.14 3 13228.5 741 39152.027 11202.4 304 39686.8254 .79 282619 3.9996 KN-m 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 KN-m 0 3071.73 7 12170. 931 942064.7 872 25503.9 306 39887.4 46 KN 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 KN 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Column 3 Static Percent 99.52 6830.34 Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Max Min 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 TABLE: Modal Participation Ratios OutputCase Text MODAL Load Column1 ItemTyp e Text Accelerati on Column 2 Item Text UX Column 4 Dynami c Percent 99.55 FY Text DEAD MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL ACASE1 ACASE1 Text LinStatic LinModal LinModal LinModal LinModal LinModal LinModal LinModal LinModal LinModal LinModal LinModal LinModal LinModHist LinModHist Text Unitle ss KN 0 1023.246 -9970.

03242 0.071611 1.488622 1.00113 0.167134 Column 4 UX Unitless 0.99268 0.99999 0.99772 0.00945 Column 5 SumUX Unitless 0.0000043 89 0.98978 0.9997 0.83008 0.99825 Column6 RY Unitless 0.00209 0.0000028 78 Column 7 SumRY Unitless 0.438933 2.0000110 1 0.99477 0.726199 0.00015 0.98557 0.0915 0.9963 0.0000185 9 0.99999 0.29625 6 3.99743 0.00153 0.95401 0.0000660 7 0.99999 0.9993 0.964572 0.00083 .92159 0.651295 0.98557 0.99998 0.0000068 39 0.99992 0.548262 0.826117 0.00606 0.0000334 9 0.99997 0.00412 0.9796 0.00041 0.593591 0.512178 0.01216 0.0029 0.01614 0.00157 0.99985 0.56 Accelerati on Accelerati on MODAL MODAL UY UZ 0 0 0 0 TABLE: Participating Mass Ratios OutputCase Text MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL Modal Column 1 StepTy pe Text Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Column 2 StepNu m Unitless 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Column 3 Period Sec 10.83008 0.99995 0.98566 0.97015 0.

71847 1 2 1 101.96669 878.65129 5 0.57823 466.0688 3 112.51217 8 Column4 UX KN-s2 2749.76256 4 9 1 193.43241 2183.8152 1 28.07161 1 1.33510 1317.043 28 131.54826 2 0.89262 5 543.57 TABLE: Modal Participat ion Factors OutputCas e Text MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL Colum n1 StepTy pe Text Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Colum n2 StepN um Unitles s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Column 3 Period Sec 10.9083 7 7 1 293.08213 358.8464 2 74.7826 4 68 1 234.43893 3 2.493 73 KN-m-s2 KN-m-s2 107326.2962 56 3.41 45 1 11920.3001 1 383.49811 4 9 1 183.336 150.77161 8 5 1 118.5602 32 912.82611 7 0.48862 2 1.8597 9 93.72619 9 0.11180 9 5 1 138.07024 282.9813 4 42.157 47 1 4287.3382 9.96457 2 0.39549 86.62195 3 8 1 162.66345 625.59359 1 0.23544 226.37309 7 Column5 RY Column Column6 7 ModalM ModalS ass tiff KN-m 0.37239 3.721025 1 1 .4316 6 57.19906 17.16713 4 0.

48272 0.432 57.8239 1.2105 1.2962 56 3.46 12.16713 4 0.07161 1 1.65129 5 0.1991 17.815 28.6102 4 1.585 11.37239 3.377 1.3834 6.981 42.9524 Colum n5 CircFr eq rad/sec 0.846 74.49 TABLE: Total Energy Column Components 1 CaseTyp OutputCase e Text Text DEAD LinStatic MODAL LinModal Column2 Input KN-m 0 0 Column3 Kinetic KN-m 0 0 Column4 Potential KN-m 0 0 Column5 ModalDa mp KN-m 0 0 Colum n6 Error KN-m 0 0 .96457 2 0.86 93.72619 9 0.6472 10.29079 0.6522 9.3382 9.58 TABLE: Periods And Frequencies OutputCase Text MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL MODAL Modal Colum n1 StepTy pe Text Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Colum n2 StepN um Unitles s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Column 3 Period Sec 10.82611 7 0.0367 1.2208 5.04 131.54826 2 0.8568 1.8271 3.43893 3 2.033 4.069 112.6057 8.6847 1.51217 8 Column 4 Freque ncy Cyc/sec 0.67176 0.34 150.268 Column 6 Eigenva lue rad2/sec 2 0.48862 2 1.514 7.09712 3 0.5354 1.59359 1 0.

A reduction of 33. .90 123981.93 547678.8 using SAP2000 .59 LinModHi st 770533.35 63 29 11 59 0.0017 ACASE1 MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENT FROM SAP CONSIDERING MDOF SYSTEM: A check for 8 and 10 percent mass reduction is done using SAP2000. From code the value is 283. The maximum displacement is 224.995 mm.92 630068. So a difference of 60 mm is found.So TMD can be designed for 8% mass.33% at 10% mass.

7. As the stiffness is increased the damping of TMD is also increased while the response of the structure decreased. Consider between 8 to 10 percentages of mass where the reduction is around 15% and design will also be economical. The maximum displacement of the structure considering it as SDOF is less compared to MDOF system. While for an SDOF system the reduction is more(25%) for a less mass percentage compared to MDOF system. 6.8 compared to 283. 5. Here only first mode is considered for tuning to required natural frequency. In SAP2000 33. So it is preferred to analyze as a MDOF system. 8. 4. But it is not recommended to go beyond some percentage as it is not economical and is not an optimized structure. Using SAP2000 the maximum displacement is found to be 224.1094*104 Kg Stiffness of TMD= 1. 10.995 by using matlab codes. 9. When gone beyond certain percentages there is less significant decrease in maximum displacement.0900*105 N/m. So finally design TMD for percentages in range of 6 to 8 to get both an optimized TMD with significant reduction in maximum displacement. CONCLUSIONS: 1. So accordingly fix the sizes of beams and columns of the roof top TMD to have a mass of 4. As the percentage of mass is increased the reduction in displacement is also increased.1094*104 and stiffness of 1. 2.33% reduction in response is observed at percentage 0f 10 of mass.0900*105 N/m. . 3.60 So mass of TMD = 4.

Ten-Po Wang. 6.C.Wind effects on Strcutres.fundamental and applications to design.soong and M. Structural dynamics and vibration in practice by Douglas Thorby. State university of Newyork at buffalo. 5.Liu Y. 4.Soong. SimiuLi E. Modal Analysis He& Fu. Parametric study and simplified design of tuned mass dampers by Rahul Rana and T. Optimal design theories and applications of tuned mass dampers by Chien-Liang Lee. 2.8:89-105.61 REFERENCES: 1. Li C.T.T.Scanlan RH.Ground motion dominant frequency effect on design of multiple tuned mass dampers. 7. Lap-Loi Chung.:1996. . Passive and active structural vibration control in civil engineering by T. Constantinou.NY: John Wiley and Sons Inc.3rd ed. Jouranl of Earthquake Engineering 2004.Yung Chen. 3.

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