This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Asian American Online: An Analysis of Growing Consumer Market for Luxury Items
A Study Based on Data from the Florida State University Multicultural Marketing Project
Asif Shaikh firstname.lastname@example.org April 27, 2012
Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. 2010. African-Americans and Asian-Americans. However. African Americans. Gitlin. media audit. ACS.. Chen et al. This study used ANOVA to analyze the survey responses from four ethic/cultural groups in the United States: Asian Americans. 2001-2009. In this paper the survey method has been used to collect data from among a sample of 2843 respondents comprising of Hispanics.Asian Americans online Abstract 2 In this current era of technology and convenience-driven consumerism. ¹ (Census 2010.Edmondson. Marketing charts. little research has compared the online shopping preferences among various cultural groups in purchasing luxury items. 2009. Prior studies and researches indicate that Asian Americans are the fastest growing market¹ in terms of population. the internet has been increasingly used for marketplace transactions throughout the world. buying power and online purchases. This study finds that Asian Americans are more likely to purchase luxury products online than any other ethnic group. 2010. 2006). This is significant. Foreman. because several studies have not only identified the global increase in luxury brand consumption² but also have found luxury products are the largest part of merchandise in the e-commerce environment³. 2008) ² (Hung. Palmeiri. . 1997. 1992) ³ (Sung and Jeon. 2011.
This proportion is 60 percent more than whites (U. that make Asians a major prospective consumer market. while the total U. 1996). July 2011) According to the Selig Center at the University of Georgia. it is significant to explore online shopping trends among the ethnically diverse U.4 million in 2000 to 308. and is far in excess of Hispanic and African American median income.S. Asians enjoy the highest median household income of all groups.5% of employed Asian Americans who are 25 or older have a higher degree. from 281.S. Asian Americans now represent 5. population (U.7 million in one decade (U. There is significant evidence available to believe that the Asian population is growing faster than any other cultural group in the United States. the Asian population increased more than four times faster than the total U. 2010). Growing by 46 percent from 10.6% of the total U.S.S Census.Asian Americans online ‘Asian American Online: An Analysis of Growing Consumer Market for Luxury Items’ 3 Introduction The evolution and advance of internet media as a convenient shopping place in recent decades has forced marketers to direct their businesses online. According to the 2010 Census. business and political leaders (Shim and Gehrt.S population. 57. Since ethnic diversity in the United States has remained a cornerstone of lively debate among academicians. There are other attributes of Asian Americans according to Census 2010 and the annual American Community Survey (ACS) reports (2001 through 2009). almost $10. In addition.7%.S. representing an 89% increase in purchasing power since . 2010).7 million in 2010. population.2 million to 14.000 ahead of non-Hispanic White households.S Census. population grew by 9. For example. Asian-American purchasing power in 2009 reached $509 billion. Department of Labor.
prior studies and researches indicate that Asian Americans are the fastest growing market in terms of population.S. 2006). This is significant to know because several studies have not only identified global increase in luxury brand consumption (Hung. the large and growing Asian American online market cannot be ignored by web marketers attempting to expand their revenues and consumer base. and nearly twice the purchasing power growth rate for the total U. media audit. buying power and online purchases etc (Census 2010. Separate studies have also found Asians as a diverse and nuanced (Beres. Current statistics have also found that Asian Americans shop online more than any other ethnic group with over 70% shopping online (Marketing Charts.. little research has compared the online shopping preferences among various cultural groups in purchasing luxury items online. 2008). 2009. Palmeiri.Asian Americans online 4 2000. Thus. Edmondson. 2006). Their average annual expenditure is the highest worth $58. 1997. Gitlin. Asian American consumers form a desirable market (Edmondson. population during the same period (Gitlin.2006) consumer group who have a penchant for luxury shopping (Radha and Paul. For the number of purchases done online. Purchase of luxury items).e. 2010). 1997). Chen et al. Asians were ahead with 46% shopping online making 12 purchases or more per year which is huge (Media Audit 2008).376 compare to all cultural groups (U. 2001-2009. 2011. However. 1992) but also have found luxury products as largest part of merchandise in e-commerce environment (Sung and Jeon. Asian Americans) and largest part of e-merchandise (i. Marketing charts. 2010). 2010. Foreman. ... 2008). Clearly. ACS. 2010. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Also in terms of tendencies toward brand loyalty. It is therefore appropriate to examine the e-relationship between largest part of ethnic online consumer group (i.e.S.
It will then detail the research hypothesis and scope of this study. The methodology. 2001) and U.S. 2008).S Hispanic Consumer E-Commerce preferences: expectations and attitudes toward web content (Singh et al. In the end conclusions are drawn and recommendation for future research is made. sampling and survey questions will be explained followed by survey results. . The present study constitutes a fresh perspective on a subject that is important both for academia and for marketers. This study focuses on investigating the online shopping of luxury items by Asian American with a comparative outlook from other ethnic groups in United States. consumers.Asian Americans online Significance: 5 The study and its subsequent findings are significant in identifying Asian Americans as a prospective consumer market from other cultural groups. The responses are then discussed and analyzed using ANOVA and other quantitative/statistical measures. To serve the purpose. The broad objective of this study is to fill this gap in the academic literature through an analysis of Asian American online consumer web particularly on luxury shopping. This study hopes to provide insights into how marketers can adapt their online content to successfully target online Asian Americans. This paper will first explain the literature review on the key research findings in Asian Americans as a consumer groups for luxury items.. et al. few academic studies have investigated ethnic/Hispanic‟s attitudes toward web content (Korgaonkar. this study uses a survey research method. The literature is available on Hispanic but there are very few studies on Asian American market that directly address the relationship between luxury brands and Asian Americans as online consumer group. Literature Review While there is an increasing firm focus on online U.
Asian Americans online Online Shopping and Asian Americans 6 Internet has become an increasingly common medium for consumer marketplace transaction throughout the world. This study (Glen. 2005). This high frequency of online shopping within this group.‟s (2003) research on how shopping online reduces price discrimination for minority groups. The Asian American group was ahead of the other cultural groups with 70% shopping online. brainy and highly tech-savvy demographic having a penchant for luxury shopping. In the eMarketer report. Asians have the highest internet penetration of all groups in the US.. In 2008. The study conducted by Glen (2007) called Asian Americans as diverse and nuanced ethnic consumer group known as wealthy. Morton. et al. This includes Zainul. While the web is a new avenue for research.5% of Asians are online which is higher than the “White” group at 67%.‟s (2004) discussion of Muslims and e-commerce. Morrison & Oladuunjoye‟s (2006) research on Asian American business leaders computer capabilities & web usage patterns and U. 2007) focused on attributes of Asian Americans which make them as most sought after market for retailers.S. In the current technology and convenience driven retail environment. et al. Hispanic consumers‟ attitudes influence their interaction with web advertising (Korgaonkar. . 2001). In 2009 73. et al. eMarketer (2008) have done a study on internet usage for 2008-2013 showing some interesting contrasts in comparison to the Media Audit report. there has also been some preliminary research on the online behaviors of ethnic populations. e-commerce is posing an indispensable complimentary distribution channel for offline retailers (Okonkwo. Marketing Charts reported on new numbers from Media Audit showed that online shopping for most minority groups in the US has significantly increased.
Chanel and Dior). to luxury goods (e. the research used Anova and descriptive analysis to describe why different segments buy luxury products online. They (Hung et al.Asian Americans online 7 requires reallocation of marketing efforts towards Asian groups for a higher return on investment than mainstream audiences and a lower cost-to-sale ratio for online products. organizing and communicating information. (1997) commented that the Internet may provide an efficient medium for accessing. Foreman (2011) found in his study that men‟s luxury market has grown in recent years.A. the U. UniLever).S. 1999). The Internet has become an essential part of the branding and marketing strategies of organizations. Italy.g. . These countries command more than four-fifth of the global consumer luxury goods sales (Pambianco. Hung et al. Luxury Shopping Online It is important to know the factors which influence consumers‟ buying decisions.K. It is important to recognize that most luxury brands in the consumer goods categories originate in just a handful of countries. Switzerland. ranging from fast moving (e. and U. 1992) that vanity has a role in influencing purchase of luxury brands.g. (1992) attempted to explore relationship between purchase intention of luxury brands and phenomenon of luxury brand consumption. Luxury branding is also an e-business opportunity and challenge to build relationships with individual consumers. namely France. while Chaffey (2000) focuses on the Internet‟s interactivity potential and on the opportunity to build relationships with individual consumers. Sung and Jeon (2009) attempted to classify internet users by fashion lifestyles. Peterson et al.. Palmeiri (2006) envisioned luxury products to be sold online rather than from physical stores and that internet business would „cannibalize‟ sales.
this research focuses on Asian Americans‟ choices for online purchase with regard to purchase of luxury items. how to use the Internet and translate such use into economic value (Porter. These circumstances naturally call for an investigation to examine whether undifferentiated or differentiated target marketing is necessary to reach Asian American. The aim of this study is to comprehend the relationship between luxury products and Asian-Americans as consumer market. Research Hypothesis and Scope of the study The study compares among different ethnic groups in United States the internet usage and the subsequent decision of buying different luxury items. The ethnic groups in comparison to Asian Americans include African-Americans. rather. This is to identify the likelihood of growing online consumer group in purchase of luxury items. More specifically.S but not born. The research hypothesis developed on the existing evidences and presumption is: H 1 : “The Asian Americans are more likely to purchase luxury items more than any other ethnic group‟ The scope of luxury items in this study is limited to electronics and cosmetic products only. a critical issue for luxury goods marketers is not whether an online presence is necessary. Hispanic whites and Non-hispanic whites.Asian Americans online 8 As the Internet is changing the marketing landscape. .S (B) Asian Americans residing in U. forcing companies into new ways of competing. 2001). However Asian Americans are further classified in (a) Asian Americans born in U.
using the e-Rewards panel. are added as active members. Sampling: The sample was provided by Research Now. which connected them with . Panel members fill out profile information.). gender. a quantitative survey research method is used.Asian Americans online 9 Since the research on understanding the relationship between Asian Americans and luxury products in comparison with other ethnic group is scarce this study has specified scope of analysis based on the questions from the survey respondents. The Following research questions have been considered in analyzing survey responses: Q #1 what are the reasons for online purchase and luxury brands by Asian American in comparison with other ethnic groups? Q # 2 What is the frequency of using online shopping websites like e-bay and Amazon for making online purchases in comparison with other ethnic groups? Q # 3 what is the preference of purchasing luxury items (cosmetics and electronics) online instead of physical store? Methodology: In this paper. etc. Respondents completed the survey by clicking on a link in the email invitation.” Sponsor companies offer links to join the panel to customers after an online transaction has completed.The survey consisted of a series of questions related to consumer behavior & preferences (both shopping physical or online). and after basic questions have been answered (age. media habits & consumption (both traditional and social) and attitudes & values and questions relating to demographics (ethnicity & cultural background). The e-Rewards panel is sourced “by invitation only. Data collection is made from a large-sample through web-based consumer survey to measure these constructs between March 9th and March 19th of 2012 .
Non-Hispanic Whites (N=473). Non-Hispanic Whites. Incentives were variable according to survey length. respondents who were screened out received $.4 minutes. African American and Asian American. and Asian American (N=994). with specific targeting to Hispanic. an open ended question was asked about respondents‟ frequencies of online purchases. which was then redeemable for merchandise from sponsor companies.50. saving. Survey Questions and Analyses This study utilized questions from the online survey regarding purchasing online which also included a list of factors influencing consumers‟ buying decisions such as convenience. 62% completed the questionnaire. The question was “About how many times in the past three months have you purchased luxury brands online? . Quotas were implemented to match census breaks for nested age. The actual number of completed surveys for each group was as follows: Hispanic (N= 880). The average length of the survey was 16. In addition. or making them feel special.25 and those who completed the survey received $3. Of those qualified responders. Respondents were required to be minimum 18 years and maximum 75 years old. Approximately 90% of the total respondents qualified to participate in the study.Asian Americans online 10 the online questionnaire. The survey questions also included the preference of purchasing luxury brands such as “cosmetics and electronics” online instead of in physical store. African American (N=496). The Sample was targeted to respondents in the USA. both in e-Rewards currency. gender and region. avoiding the crowds. A total of 2843 survey respondents completed the survey. where zero meant the respondent completely disagreed and five indicated that the respondent completely agreed. For this survey. The question asked respondents to respond on a scale of “How much do you agree or disagree with each of the following?” Respondents then selected any number from zero to five. and were awarded in e-Rewards currency.
“How often do you do each of the following? And choices were using ebay and Amazon. July 2001). For the analysis. Respondents then selected any number from zero to two. Asian Americans had the highest mean response for purchasing luxury items (cosmetics and electronics) online and using e-bay and Amazon. Asian Americans are likely to purchase online more than Hispanics. The mean scores of each group were then compared using an ANOVA test for equality of means depending on the most appropriate test statistic for each reason. where zero meant never. and Asian American) based on their original quota groups. a mean response for each cultural group was calculated for each reason. non-Hispanic White. In addition. However. one meant sometimes and two meant very often. African American. 35-54. a comparison of the means for shopping online due to convenience.Asian Americans online 11 Another question asked. However. and purchase luxury brands due to make them feel special. Hispanic Americans had the highest mean score for frequency of purchasing luxury brands online in past three months. The data files were split in to age brackets (18-34. . The respondents were put into one of these categories (Hispanic. nonHispanic Whites or African Americans. ethnic recode (ethnic without language preference) and acculturation proxy (Hispanics and Asians born and not born in US) were used to see the results of cultural groups because immigrants in total Asian American population are approximately 64% (Marketing to the Emerging Majorities. 55+) to analyze deep insights of cultural groups‟ online purchasing behavior. Asian Americans had the highest mean response preferring online purchase due to saving. avoiding the crowds. Results In general.
) Between Groups Within Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups Total 9.002 39.117 .406 6045.439 16.206 7.890 .938 1.371 1211.) Use e-bay (How often do you do each of the following?) Use Amazon (How often do you do each of the following?) Cosmetics (Check the items below that you prefer to purchase online instead of in physical store.809 .284 6826.) Electronics (Check the items below that you prefer to purchase online instead of in physical store.508 49.128 .422 1249.240 2.307 5322.201 5313.446 292.702 291.000 12.864 11.116 675.742 6672.263 6864.) I purchase luxury brands because they make me feel special (Please indicate how much you agree or disagree with each of the following statements.149 7.443 3.551 38.079 9.103 2.261 .000 2.582 .000 .465 .494 5. I shop online for the convenience of it (Please indicate how much you agree or disagree with each of the following statements.430 .192 16.041 .000 Between Groups Within Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups Total 3.028 6554.670 1223.547 118.147 .) I shop online to avoid the crowds (Please indicate how much you agree or disagree with each of the following statements.Asian Americans online 12 ANOVA Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.769 3 2741 2744 3 2740 2743 3 2737 2740 3 2687 2690 3.234 .067 1.365 682.) I shop online to save money (Please indicate how much you agree or disagree with each of the following statements.051 8.442 1246.343 2.481 3 2816 2819 3 2816 2819 3 2816 2819 3 2816 2819 1.761 2.372 .469 2.592 .790 .144 6094.
Results in age brackets When the data files were split in to age brackets (18-34. in age bracket of 35-54. a comparison of the means for shopping luxury brands due to make them feel and using Amazon found statistically significant differences in all age brackets. Asians Americans were the highest and non-Hispanics Whites were the lowest in purchasing luxury brands due to make them feel special. Asians Americans were the highest and Hispanic were the lowest in using Amazon. In general. non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans in age brackets of (18-34.Asian Americans online 13 using e-bay and luxury item (cosmetics) found no statistically significant differences among Asian Americans. Whereas. 35-54) . Hispanics were the highest & Asians were the second highest and non-Hispanic Whites were the lowest in frequency of purchasing online in the past three months. Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. African Americans. In age bracket of 55+. Asians Americans were the highest and Hispanics were the lowest in online shopping due to avoiding crowds. using e-bay found statistically significant differences. Asians Americans were the highest and African American were the lowest in purchasing cosmetics online. 55+). Asians Americans and non-Hispanics Whites were the highest and African American were the lowest in using e-bay. Asian Americans are likely to purchase online more than Hispanics. Post Hoc Tests In post hoc pair comparisons. Asians Americans were the highest and non-Hispanic Whites were the lowest in purchasing electronics online. shopping online due to saving and purchasing electronics found statistically significant differences. Asians Americans were the highest and African Americans were the lowest in online shopping due to saving. 35-54.
24 3.48 2 3 Hispanic African American Asian Sig.05 N 490 874 471 985 1.) Ethnic without Language Pref African American Hispanic NHW Asian Sig.) Ethnic without Language Pref NHW Subset for alpha = 0. 1.40 3.78 .35 .000 .) Ethnic without Language Pref African American NHW Hispanic Asian Sig. Cosmetics (Check the items below that you prefer to purchase online instead of in physical store.05 N 450 845 462 934 1 1.37 .25 2 Subset for alpha = 0.Asian Americans online Post Hoc Tests I shop online to save money (Please indicate how much you agree or disagree with each of the following statements.09 .313 Sig.828 .22 1.77 .066 1 3.48 1.154 1 .85 1. Subset for alpha = 0. .05 N 874 490 1 1.10 .05 N 490 471 874 985 .13 3.941 I shop online to avoid the crowds (Please indicate how much you agree or disagree with each of the following statements.) Subset for Ethnic alpha = without 0.090 .48 .000 1 . Subset for alpha = 0.000 1.12 1.212 .82 2.10 .301 2 3 Subset for alpha = 0.05 N 477 851 463 953 . Electronics (Check the items below that you prefer to purchase online instead of in physical store.) Ethnic without Language Pref NHW African American Hispanic Asian Sig.212 1 .98 3.10 1.24 3.40 3.78 .203 Sig.98 2.10 2 Use Amazon (How often do you do each of the following?) Ethnic without Language Pref Hispanic Use e-bay (How often do you do each of the following?) Ethnic without Language Pref African American Hispanic NHW Asian Subset for alpha = 0.12 .39 .073 2 .879 NHW Asian 471 985 Sig.11 1.87 2.05 Language Pref Hispanic NHW African American Asian N 850 462 478 951 1 2.000 2 .69 2 .05 N 471 490 874 985 . 14 I purchase luxury brands because they make me feel special (Please indicate how much you agree or disagree with each of the following statements.85 2.13 .12 .
In shopping electronics online. Asian Americans not born in US are likely to purchase online more than Asians Americans born in US. In shopping online due to saving. However. African Americans were the highest and non-Hispanic Hispanics Whites were the lowest in age bracket of 55+. a comparison of the means for shopping online due to saving. shopping luxury brands due to make them feel special. Results with Acculturation proxy In general. non-Hispanic Whites were the highest and Hispanics were the lowest in age bracket of 55+. 35-54). non-Hispanic Whites were the highest and African Americans were the lowest. In using e-bay in age bracket of 55+. what was surprising. However. 35-54). was to see that Asian Americans not born in US are likely to make purchase online instead of physical store due to saving and making them feel special reasons. . non-Hispanic Whites were the highest and African Americans were the lowest in age bracket of 35-54. As mentioned in the results section. Asians Americans were the highest and non-Hispanic Whites were the lowest in age brackets (18-34. using amazon and preferring electronics online only found statistically significant differences among all cultural groups. however. Discussion Our results generally supported the hypothesis that “Asian Americans are likely to make purchase online more than any other cultural group”.Asian Americans online 15 In post hoc pair comparisons for shopping luxury brands due to make them feel special. However. whereas Hispanics and African American were the lowest in respective age brackets. Asians Americans were the highest in age brackets (18-34. non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans. In using Amazon. Hispanics born and not born in US. Asian Americans were the highest and African Americans were the lowest in age bracket of 35-54.
Asians Americans are wealthy people so it is a possibility that they purchase luxury brands to make them feel special. annual expenditure and education. Hispanics had the highest and Asian Americans had the second highest frequency to purchase luxury brands online for last three months. 35-54). never and often. In age brackets (18-34. According to census 2010 and other researches. Asian Americans are the highest in population growth. Asian Americans were the highest among all the questions selected for this study except the frequency of purchasing luxury brand online in past three months. Asian Americans are from a collectivist society and save money for their families. . It is a possibility that they purchase online due to savings and use often e-bay and Amazon for online deals. More specific questions and responses may provide more concrete data to conclude.Asian Americans online 16 They prefer purchasing electronics online instead of physical store and often use Amazon for online shopping. Limitations and Future Research It is necessary to note a few limitations of this study. These results supplement that Asians Americans purchase online more than any other cultural group. Asian Americans are likely to make purchase online for luxury brands than any cultural group. median household income. The web survey sampling technique used in this research does not technically constitute a simple random sample of the population under study because: 1) the respondents completed the survey on „invitation only‟ basis 2) respondents‟ age and locations were not distributed as they are in the population. The scale used in this survey also did not specifically addressed the questions as it measured the degree of agreement to disagreement or frequency of use in terms of sometimes. When not using acculturation proxy.
However.S and those not born in U. the survey questions used for this study were part of a larger survey. In addition. only a few pertinent questions were used. . Finally. An entire survey dedicated to this study would surely have produced more concrete results. the research finding lay the foundation for further future research in exploring the nature of relationship between luxury brands purchase online and consumer groups. Further studies may extend the findings of this study and bring more concrete result using advanced statistical measures.S further stratified the data and enhanced understanding of market growth even within a consumer group. The current study was limited in scope in terms of inclusion of luxury brands. Because of this. future research should also addresses the social context of the online buying decisions of Asian Americans. the classification of Asian Americans born in U.Asian Americans online 17 Future studies should take a random sample and ask more specific questions to ask respondents rather than use a scale might be more effective for answering this type of question. Nevertheless.
A. The asian-american equation.org/stable/4626167 Kai.com/about/press/bain-news/2011/luxury-brands-ride-the-waveboom-in-mens-wear-market-drives-deals-and-expansion.se/minority-online-shopping-increases-asian-americans-on-top/ Novak.34.. 2004).Asian Americans online References 18 Beres.jstor. Marketing Science . Vol.bain. Oxford University press. (2006).org/stable/3875238 Kang. Palgrave Macmillan Journals URL: http://www. A. Yung.com/multicultural_markets/asian-american Jin. K (1998) Ethnicity and Acculturation: Influences on Asian American Consumers' Purchase Decision Making for Social Clothes Retrieved from.L. 545-559 . 28-32. J.G & Kato. Hoffman.com/lp/sage/ethnicity-and-acculturation-influences-on-asian-americanconsumers-u07XreNggB .27(1)91 SAGE – Sep 1. 100(17). Retrieved from: http://joinville. (2004) Is eCommerce Boundary-Less? Effects of IndividualismCollectivism and Uncertainty Avoidance on Internet Shopping. 35. URL: http://www. K. H.(2011). 6 (Nov. D.T. No. National Jeweler. boom in men's wear market drives deals and expansion.aspx Gitlin.com/docview/196651192?accountid=4840 Foreman. Z. looking ahead from census 2010. Luxury brands ride the wave. http://search. Retrieved from: http://multicultural. (2011). 1998 ----------(2008) Marketing charts. Y. . 1. Kim. Measuring the Customer Experience in Online Environments: A Structural Modeling Approach. Volume.. Retrieved from: http://www. Vol.L et al. 19. Journal of International Business Studies . P. http://www. No. (2007) Dividing online and offline: A case study. pp.proquest.1077-727XFamily and Consumer Sciences Research Journal . G.deepdyve.jstor. S. Asian American market.F (2000).
pp. “U.org/stable/193257 Palmieri.com/docview/231248484?accountid=4840 Singh. http://search. Gehrt. Neimans luxury online. (2009).proquest. WWD. H. 13(1). Y. A profile of koreans: Who purchases fashion goods online? Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management.. doi:10.” Journal of Electronic Commerce Research 9. 79-97.Asian Americans online Special Issue on Marketing Science and the Internet (Winter. Journal of Retailing Sung. 2000). 192(103). N et al. E. K (1996) Hispanic and Native American adolescents: an exploratory study of their approach to shopping. 22-42 URL: http://www. (2006). S. HISPANIC CONSUMER E-COMMERCE PREFERENCES: EXPECTATIONS AND ATTITUDES TOWARD WEB CONTENT.1108/13612020910939897 . 19 27B-27B. J.S. Soyeon.jstor.2 (2008) : 162. & Jeon.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.