Dow Water Solutions

DOWEX™
Ion Exchange Resins
WATER CONDITIONING MANUAL

WATER CONDITIONING MANUAL

A Practical Handbook for Engineers and Chemists
• • • Products Applications Operation • • • Design Equipment Engineering Information

What this handbook is about…
This is a handbook for people responsible for water supplies, but who are not necessarily water chemists. Here are basic data on ways of conditioning water with DOWEX™ ion exchange resins and straightforward explanations of how you can determine costs and results using the various methods on your own water.

Better Water = Better Operation
Because water is one of the most important raw materials brought into any plant, it follows that better water will cut overall costs and improve plant operating efficiency. These improvements can range from elimination of scale and corrosion in water- and steam-carrying equipment through reduced maintenance and outage time to better finished products.

Ion Exchange Versatility
DOWEX cation and anion exchange resins, used separately or in combination, with or without other water-treating materials, do an amazing variety of water-conditioning jobs; from simple softening of hard water supplies to removal of dissolved solids down to a part per billion!

The following trademarks are used in this handbook: DOWEX™ ion exchange resins DOWEX™ MAC-3 ion exchange resin DOWEX™ MARATHON™ ion exchange resins DOWEX™ MONOSPHERE™ ion exchange resins DOWEX™ UPCORE™ Mono ion exchange resins FILMTEC™ reverse osmosis membranes UPCORE™ system

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Introduction to Ion Exchange ................................................................................................................. 7 1.1 1.2 2 3 What is Ion Exchange? .................................................................................................................. 7 Selecting DOWEX™ Resins .......................................................................................................... 8

Terms, Acronyms, And Abbreviations ................................................................................................... 9 Sodium Cycle Ion Exchange Process (Water Softening) .................................................................... 19 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Ion Exchange Resins Specified ................................................................................................... 19 Typical Reaction and Chemicals Used ........................................................................................ 19 Equipment Required .................................................................................................................... 20 Softener Design for Co-current and Counter-current Operation .................................................. 20 Precautions .................................................................................................................................. 25 Ion Exchange Resin Specified ..................................................................................................... 26 Typical Reactions and Chemicals Used ...................................................................................... 26 Equipment Required .................................................................................................................... 27 Ion Exchange Resin Specified ..................................................................................................... 30 Typical Reactions and Chemicals Used ...................................................................................... 30 Equipment Required .................................................................................................................... 30 General Advantages .................................................................................................................... 32 Precautions .................................................................................................................................. 32 Reference Documents ................................................................................................................. 32 Ion Exchange Resin Specified ..................................................................................................... 33 Typical Reactions and Chemicals Used ...................................................................................... 33 Equipment Required .................................................................................................................... 33 General Advantages .................................................................................................................... 34 Reference Documents ................................................................................................................. 35 Ion Exchange Resins Specified ................................................................................................... 36 Typical Reactions and Chemicals Used ...................................................................................... 36 Equipment Required .................................................................................................................... 37 Product Water Quality .................................................................................................................. 39 Product Water Quantity ................................................................................................................ 39 Other Demineralization Techniques............................................................................................. 39 Reference Documents ................................................................................................................. 40 Process Description ..................................................................................................................... 41 Self-Cleaning Ability ..................................................................................................................... 42 Regeneration Cycle ..................................................................................................................... 42 UPCORE and the Layered Bed Anion Option ............................................................................. 43 Comparison with other Regeneration Systems ........................................................................... 43 Reference Documents ................................................................................................................. 45 3 Water Conditioning Manual

4

Brackish Water Softening .................................................................................................................... 26 4.1 4.2 4.3

5

Dealkalization: Salt Splitting Process .................................................................................................. 30 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

6

Dealkalization: Weak Acid Cation Resin Process ............................................................................... 33 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5

7

Demineralization (Deionization) Process ............................................................................................ 36 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7

8

The UPCORE™ Counter-Current Regeneration System ................................................................... 41 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6

DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins

................6 12.................................................................... 89 10 Ion Exchange Cleaning Procedures ............................................ 91 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 4 Water Conditioning Manual ........................................... and S...................................................... 67 Number of Lines ...........................2 11......................................8 11.................................5 11......................................................................... 61 Product Water Requirements ............................................. 72 Conversion of Concentration Units of lonic Species ............... 69 Particle Size Distribution ................................................................................1 9................................. 70 Conversion of U................1 12............... Units . 70 13 Bibliography ...................................... Total Dissolved Solids ................................................ 55 Ion Exchange Troubleshooting .........12 12.................................. 50 Backwash of an Ion Exchange Resin Bed .....................................9 12............................................. 69 Mixed Bed Design Considerations ..2 12............8 12..................................................................................... and Other Information ....................................................4 12....................................................................... 90 14 Index .............................................9 12.....................................................................................................................S..........4 11....................................................................5 12............................................................................ 75 Conversion of Temperature Units ....7 11....... 87 Tank Dimensions and Capacities ....... 46 Loading/Unloading Resins ......................................... 48 Analytical Testing of Ion Exchange Resins ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 47 Resin Sampling ..................................... 88 Other Information ...........................................................................................13 Storage and Handling of Ion Exchange Resins .......... 78 Concentration and Density of Regenerant Solutions . 80 Solubility of CaSO 4 .................................................................................................................................... 64 Chemical Efficiencies for Different Resin Configurations ..........................................................4 9...9 Ion Exchange Resin Operational Information .............10 12............................................. 65 Atmospheric Degasifier ......................7 12................ 85 Removal of Oxygen .......................................2 9.... 46 9..................................................... 66 Resin Operating Capacities and Regenerant Levels .....................................................................I......................7 10............... 52 Useful Life Remaining on Ion Exchange Resin ...............................................................................................3 9.. Tables......................................................6 9........................................................................................................................................ 57 11 Designing an Ion Exchange system ........................................................................... 64 Feed Water Composition and Contaminants ..........................................................................5 9...................................................................... 73 Calcium Carbonate (CaCO 3) Equivalent of Common Substances ................................................................... 64 12 Useful Graphs............................................................................................3 12........................... 86 Removal of Chlorine ...........................................................1 11.............................11 12.................................................... 76 Conductance vs...........................3 11................................................................................................................................................................................... 50 Resin Stability and Factors .............2 11.......... 77 Handling Regenerant Chemicals ...........6 11............ 66 Vessel Sizing .................................... 64 Selection of Layout and Resin Types (Configuration) ..............................................

.............. System loss of throughput capacity.......... List of conversion factors for common units to meq/L and mg CaCO 3/L.......... .. 38 Table 12... . 74 Table 32.......................................................... Concentration and density of HCI solutions............... Typical regeneration level ranges for single resin columns............... Results of treatment by the demineralization process. 34 Table 9................................................... and S........... ..... Acronyms and abbreviations common to ion exchange................... Main characteristics of sieves for bead size distribution analysis.............................................................................. ...................................................... 50 Table 16...................................................................... ... TDS range for weak acid cation softening............................................. ... ....................... ... 63 Table 23............................. Recommended impurity levels for NaOH....................... 44 Table 14............................................................................................ 9 Table 2... Failure to produce specified water quality.. 84 Table 42...................... 80 Table 38........... Concentration and density of NaOH solutions................................................ Characteristics of co-current regeneration system. 67 Table 25...............................S................................................... ..... 79 Table 37....... .................................I..................... 78 Table 34.......... .............................. Characteristics of blocked counter-current regeneration systems............... .. .......................................... ........... Increased pressure drop................................................................... 68 Table 27........... ...... 27 Table 4............................................................ ....................................... 83 Table 41... Recommended concentrations and flow rates for H 2SO4 regeneration.................... ...... Results of high TDS water softening using weak acid resin........ ......... ........... Design guidelines for operating DOWEX resins....................................... ....... ................................................................................ ....................... 79 Table 36................ .......................................................... . ..... ................... 72 Table 30............... Regenerant concentration and flow rate .................... 34 Table 10...................... 43 Table 13..... ..................................................................................... 66 Table 24........... .................................. ......... 52 Table 17.............................................................................................. Recommended particle size ranges for DOWEX™ MONOSPHERE™ 650C..... 28 Table 6..... ................................ 28 Table 5....................................... 52 Table 18........................ Regenerant concentration and flow rate ......................................... List of conversion factors for CaCO 3 equivalents.................................................................. Guidelines for strong acid cation resins............................................. 71 Table 29........... List of conversion factors for concentration units of ionic species........................... 30 Table 7............. 73 Table 31.. ..... Recommended impurity levels for H 2SO4...............................................TABLE OF TABLES Table 1......................... Analyses available from Dow Water Solutions........................ List of conversion factors for U............... Guidelines for amounts and concentrations of H 2SO4 in stepwise regeneration.................................. 82 Table 40......................................... 67 Table 26........ Characteristics of upflow counter-current regeneration systems................. 79 Table 35.............. Terms common to ion exchange......................... Results of dealkalization by the weak acid cation resin process............... 62 Table 22............ Recommended impurity levels for HCl....... units.................................... 75 Table 33......................................... 70 Table 28.. 52 Table 19... Basic types of demineralizers with DOWEX™ resin used..... 85 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 5 Water Conditioning Manual ..... 81 Table 39........... ... 37 Table 11............ ..... ......... Guidelines for strong base anion resins.... Concentration and density of NH 3 solutions......................... Guidelines for weak functionality resins........................................................................................................................... .... Recommended maximum free chlorine levels (ppm as CI 2)................. Results of dealkalization by the salt splitting process.... Concentration and density of NaCI solutions................................................................................... Typical regeneration efficiencies for different resin types and combinations................ Concentration and density of H 2SO4 solutions........... 32 Table 8....... ............................... 54 Table 20................. 61 Table 21......... Concentration and density of Na 2CO3 solutions............................. 44 Table 15.. Recommended impurity levels for NaCl.............................. . 17 Table 3...........

................................. Example of device for obtaining a sample from top to bottom of a resin bed........ .................................... Brackish (high TDS) softening capacity for DOWEX MAC-3 resin.... 53 Figure 24.................................. Co-current operational capacity data.... Solubility of oxygen in water as a function of temperature...................... 87 Table 45..............................................S....... .................................. temperature..................................... Levels of sodium sulfite required to remove dissolved oxygen.... 21 Figure 5.................................. ............ Correction of operating capacity for feed TDS.......... 49 Figure 21................ Solubility of CaSO 4 in solutions of H 2SO4 in water......... Hardness leakage in co-current operation for DOWEX MARATHON C-10............... 86 Table 44............... units.. ....................... .... Effect of chloride on capacity of DOWEX MARATHON A2 resin in the chloride cycle............................ ................... 88 TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 1.............................. Weak acid resin polisher on strong acid system or weak acid series system................................ . 43 Figure 20...................... .................... .. vertical cylindrical................... 33 Figure 17.. 76 Figure 27............... Graph for converting between conductance and dissolved solids.......... 35 Figure 18........................................................ Relationship between dissolved solids and conductance in demineralization operations........... 41 Figure 19....................... Correction of operating capacity for feed temperature.................................................... Diagram of backwash procedure..................................... Hardness leakage in co-current operation for DOWEX MARATHON MSC.... ......... Graph for converting between °C and °F... ..... .............. Amount of reducing agent to add for given chlorine level................. Dealkalization by the salt-splitting process.... 20 Figure 3.... 24 Figure 10................................................................ . ............. 49 Figure 22...... Tank dimensions and capacities............... Examples of devices for obtaining a core sample...... 22 Figure 6.............. 27 Figure 13... 85 Figure 30... .............. 51 Figure 23..................................... Approximation of useful life of in-use anion exchange resins.......... 56 Figure 26............. Operating capacity of DOWEX MARATHON resins for water softening............ Type 1 strong base anion resin: salt splitting capacity loss vs.... Correction of operating capacity for TH endpoint........................ ..............I.................. 77 Figure 29.......... .......... ...... Vessel design without a middle plate............................................... 77 Figure 28. Dealkalization by the weak acid cation resin process........ ..................... 86 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 6 Water Conditioning Manual ...Table 43...................................................... 22 Figure 7..... ................. Hardness leakage in co-current operation for DOWEX™ MARATHON™ C........................ ............ .................... ........ 21 Figure 4...... ............................ .................. Correction of operating capacity for resin bed depth................ ............. 25 Figure 12.. 29 Figure 14......................... in U.................. 31 Figure 15................ Correction of operating capacity for %Na in feed...... ............ ............................................... Correction of operating capacity for flow rate...... 56 Figure 25............................... 19 Figure 2......... ............ co-current regeneration)........... 31 Figure 16............................... 23 Figure 8...... Approximation of useful life of in-use cation exchange resins................... ........ 23 Figure 9...................... Service and regeneration cycles with UPCORE™ system................. 24 Figure 11............. ............... and S.............. Sodium cycle ion exchange process (water softening.................

medical research. agriculture. Removal of the hardness. later. Sulfonated coal. This reaction is shown below. Ferrous iron and other metals such as manganese and aluminum are sometimes present in small quantities. These metals are also exchanged but are unimportant in the softening process. calcium and magnesium ions in water are exchanged for sodium ions. mining. The introduction of synthetic organic ion exchange resins in 1935 resulted from the synthesis of phenolic condensation products containing either sulfonic or amine groups that could be used for the reversible exchange of cations or anions. 1. developed for industrial water treatment. and it has been used on an industrial basis since about 1910 with the introduction of water softening using natural and. Ion exchange occurs in a variety of substances.1 Cation Exchange Cation exchange is widely used to soften water.” The “sodium cycle” operation of cation exchangers is the term used when regeneration is accomplished with common salt. The utility of ion exchange rests with the ability to use and reuse the ion exchange material. was the first ion exchange material that was stable at low pH. conditions may be used whereby all cations in water may be exchanged for hydrogen ions. generally sulfuric acid (H 2SO4) or hydrochloric acid (HCl). food processing. The “hydrogen cycle” operation of cation exchangers is the term used when regeneration is accomplished with dilute acid. synthetic zeolites. This reaction is shown below.Introduction to Ion Exchange 1 1. In this process. Operation: CaSO4 + 2H R MgSO4 + 2H R + + – – Ca R 2+ 2+ – 2 – 2 + H2SO4 + H2SO4 Mg R DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 7 Water Conditioning Manual .1. produces “soft water. It has special utility in chemical synthesis. and a variety of other areas. Operation: 2Na R + Ca 2Na R + Mg + – + – 2+ 2+ Ca R 2+ 2+ – 2 – 2 + 2Na + + Mg R + 2Na Regeneration: 2NaCl + Ca R 2NaCl + Mg R 2+ 2+ – 2 2 2Na R + CaCl2 2Na R + MgCl 2 + – + – – where R = DOWEX™ strong acid cation exchange resin Alternatively. Ion exchange is used in water treatment and also provides a method of separation for many processes involving other liquids. This is water softening in its simplest form. or scale-forming calcium and magnesium ions.1 INTRODUCTION TO ION EXCHANGE What is Ion Exchange? Ion exchange is the reversible interchange of ions between a solid (ion exchange material) and a liquid in which there is no permanent change in the structure of the solid.

and increased fouling resistance. Operational parameters. you can determine which of the different methods of implementing ion exchange best suits your needs. As opposed to standard Gaussian-sized resins. etc. If you require additional information. Cl .3 Uniform Particle Size Resins Uniform particle size (UPS) resins have gained in popularity over the last 20 years for systems focused on achieving the highest purity water and/or the lowest cost of providing high-quality water. This manual describes many commercial ion exchange applications.1. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are also available on the web site or by request to our Dow Water Solutions Offices listed on the back cover. costs. When you discuss your water-treatment needs with these suppliers. This exchange. chemical handling. along with data on the right DOWEX resins for the job. and better separation when used in mixed-bed applications. 1. UPS resins lead to both higher-quality and lower-cost water purification. be sure to specify DOWEX resins to be assured of the ion exchange results you want. An example of typical anion exchange reactions is shown below.com. DOWEX™ MONOSPHERE™ and DOWEX MARATHON™ resins are produced using a UPS process that yields products with better kinetics. These advantages lead to higher regeneration efficiency and operating capacity. and equipment are given practical consideration. HCO 3 .) for hydroxide ions – (OH ). following cation exchange. and general technical papers are available on request or at www.dowex.2 Anion Exchange Anion exchange is the exchange of anions present in water (SO 4 . Operation: 2R OH + H2SO4 R OH + HCl + – + – 2– – – R 2SO4 + – + 2– + 2H2O R Cl + H2O Regeneration: R Cl + NaOH + – R OH + NaCl + – where R = DOWEX strong base anion exchange resin 1.2 Selecting DOWEX Resins Designers and manufacturers of water-treatment equipment include DOWEX ion exchange resins as part of a complete water-treatment plant. Using this information. stronger physical strength. UPS resins contain only beads that are produced in a very narrow particle size range. engineering brochures. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 8 Water Conditioning Manual .1. completely demineralizes water when carried to completion. a broad assortment of product-specific technical data sheets. lower pressure drop and ionic leakage.Introduction to Ion Exchange Regeneration: 2HCl + Ca R 2+ – 2 2H R + CaCl 2 or + – H2SO4 + Ca R 2+ – 2 2H R + CaSO4 + – where R = DOWEX™ strong acid cation exchange resin 1.

Terms. Also used to reduce compaction of the bed. A positively charged synthetic particle that can freely exchange associated anions based on differences in the selectivities of the anions. expressed as grams per unit volume in a specific ionic form. This is to enhance polymerized silica removal. Term Absolute density Adsorption Air mixing Alkalinity Definition Weight of wet resin that displaces a unit volume. Step just prior to regenerant injection where hot dilution water is added to the resin bed to heat the bed to the appropriate temperature. Term describing a specific group that imparts a weakly acidic exchange ability to some resins. Number of equivalents of exchangeable ion per unit volume. or dry weight of an ion exchange material in specified ionic form. Negatively charged synthetic particle that can freely exchange associated cations based on differences in the selectivities of the cations. depending on the need. Anion exchange resin Attrition Backwashing Base exchange Batch operation Bed Bed depth Bed expansion Bed volume Bed volume per hour Bed warm-up Boiler feed water Breakthrough CADIX Capacity Carboxylic Cation exchange resin DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 9 Water Conditioning Manual . Computer-Aided Design of Ion eXchange systems. Upward flow of water through an ion exchange resin bed to remove foreign material and reclassify the bed after exhaustion and prior to regeneration. AND ABBREVIATIONS Table 1 lists terms commonly used in ion exchange and Table 2 lists acronyms and abbreviations. and drained volume. Depth of ion exchange resin in a column. m /h/m . Separation and rise of ion exchange resin beads in a column during backwashing. Boiler feed water may possibly be raw water. Table 1. settled. Ion exchange resin contained in a column. Alkalinity is commonly expressed as “P” and “M” in parts per million (ppm) or mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Measure of the volume flow rate through an ion exchange material contained in a column 3 3 3 or operating unit. And Abbreviations 2 TERMS. bicarbonate. Also referred to as anion resin. Water used in steam boilers and some industrial processes. Also referred to as cation resin. Terms common to ion exchange. Computer software for designing ion exchange resin plants using DOWEX™ resins. Exchange of cations between a solution and cation exchange resin. expressed as BV/h. or gal/min/ft . and hydroxide present in water. “P” represents titration with a standard acid solution to a phenolphthalein endpoint. condensate. Process of using air to mix two ion exchange materials of different densities in a water slurry to yield a homogeneous mixed bed. usually measured as the backwashed. “M” represents titration to a methyl orange endpoint. and the liquid is decanted or filtered off after equilibrium is attained. This point is usually the limit of the exhaustion cycle and where the backwash cycle begins. Method of using ion exchange resins in which the resin and the solution to be treated are mixed in a vessel. Volume of effluent where the concentration of the exchanging ion in the effluent reaches a predetermined limit. Volume of ion exchange material of specified ionic form contained in a column or operating unit. treated water. unit wet weight. ACRONYMS. or mixtures. Attachment of charged particles to the chemically active groups on the surface and in the pores of an ion exchange resin. Amount of carbonate. Breakage and abrasion of resin beads occurring when the beads rub against other beads or other solids. Acronyms. See Exchanger bed.

See Salt splitting. which is used to regenerate anion beds. Also referred to as a decarbonator. Amount of time that the process liquid spends in the ion exchange bed. Obtained by backwashing an ion exchange resin bed. Formation of agglomerates in an ion exchange bed due to fouling or electrostatic charges. Creation of isolated paths of lower resistance in an ion exchange resin bed caused by the introduction of air pockets. Channeling prevents the liquid being processed from uniformly contacting the entire resin bed. vacuum. Also the ability of an ion exchange resin to resist inherent degradation due to the chemical structure of the resin. Exchange of cations for hydrogen ions by a strong acid cation exchange material in the hydrogen form. heat. Reduces CO2 to approximately 5–10 ppm but saturates water with air. Used to reduce carbon dioxide content of the effluent from hydrogen cation exchangers. Physical or chemical reduction of ion exchange properties due to type of service. which results in a bed that is graduated in resin bead size from coarse on the bottom to fine on the top. Determined by dividing the bed volume by the flow rate. Ability of a current to flow through water as a measure of its ionic concentration. Also referred to as caustic. Some effects are capacity loss. And Abbreviations Term Caustic soda Channeling Definition Sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Also referred to as counter-flow operation. excessive swelling. Acronyms. Ion exchange operation in which the process liquid and regenerant flows are in opposite directions. Anion exchange process for the removal or reduction of alkalinity in a water supply. Ability of an ion exchange resin to resist changes in its physical properties when in contact with aggressive chemical solutions such as oxidizing agents. Chemical stability Chloride anion dealkalization Classification Clumping Co-current operation Colloids Color throw Column operation Condensate polisher Conductivity Contact time Counter-current operation Crosslinkage Deaerator Dealkalization Decationization Decrosslinking Degasifier Degasifier. Also referred to as co-flow operation. dirt. Anion exchange system that is regenerated with salt and caustic and exchanges chloride ions for bicarbonate and sulfate ions in the water being treated. expressed in minutes. Preferred as a means of CO2 reduction when demineralizing boiler water make-up. Binding of the linear polymer chains in the matrix of an ion exchange resin with a crosslinking agent that produces a three-dimensional. or aggressive operating conditions. or other factors that result in uneven pressure gradients in the bed. This is less important when using uniform particle size resins. solution concentration used. normally downflow. Extremely small particles that are not removed by normal filtration. Use of a cation resin or mixed-bed column to remove impurities from condensate. See Degasifier. Color imparted to a liquid from an ion exchange resin. Most common method for employing ion exchange in which the liquid to be treated passes through a fixed bed of ion exchange resin.Terms. Alteration of the ion exchange structure by degradation of the crosslinkage by aggressive chemical attack or heat. Usually results in longer anion exchange resin life. This causes increased swelling of ion exchange materials. Reduces oxygen as well as CO2 and all other gases to a very low level. Actually a deaerator. Ion exchange operation in which the process water and regenerant are passed through the bed in the same direction. Eliminates water pollution and reduces corrosion problems when transferring water through steel equipment. particle size reduction. or combinations of the above. measured in micromhos/cm (μmho/cm) or microsiemens/cm (μS/cm). insoluble polymer. using consistent units. vacuum Degradation DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 10 Water Conditioning Manual .

Process by which a stream is treated twice in series by ion exchange resins. Weight of an ion exchange material. Removal of dissolved salts from a solution. Process of ionization of an electrolyte or salt upon being dissolved in water. The reactive groups on an ion exchange resin. divinylbenzene). and molecules move in a mix.g. will deionize water. Amount of exchange capacity present in a unit weight of dried resin. The stripping of sorbed ions from an ion exchange resin by passing solutions containing other ions in relatively high concentrations through the resin column. Removal of ionizable (soluble) constituents and silica from a solution by ion exchange processing. The solution resulting from an elution process. either as a two-step operation or as an operation in which a single bed containing a mixture of the two resins is employed. screen-wrapped pipe. This is the conventional direction of water flow in a co-current ion exchange column. A trademark of The Dow Chemical Company.Terms. Piping inside an ion exchange vessel that evenly distributes flow across the resin bed. normally expressed as an equivalent amount of physical crosslinking agent (e. forming cations and anions. Ion exchange resins used for treatment of water and other liquids. Process whereby ions. Operation of an ion exchange column in which the regenerant enters the top of the ion exchange column and is withdrawn from the bottom. Normally performed by passing the solution through the hydrogen form of cation exchange resin and through the hydroxide form of an anion exchange resin. Acronyms.. with the net effect being movement from a higher concentration zone to a lower concentration zone until the zones have equalized. 3 Deionized water Demineralization Density Desalination Diffusion Dissociation Distributor Divinylbenzene DOWEX™ resins Double pass Downflow Dry weight capacity Eductor Effective size Efficiency Effluent Eluate Elution Exchange sites Exchanger bed Exhaustion DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 11 Water Conditioning Manual . atoms. Cation and anion exchange resins. When the supply of ions on the ion exchange resin that are being exchanged for the ions in the liquid being processed is almost depleted. Measure of the quantity of regenerant required to remove a chemical equivalent weight of contaminant in the influent water. such as grated gravel. Water that has had all dissolved ionic constituents removed. when properly used together. this is usually expressed as pounds of salt per kilograin or kg salt per equivalent of hardness removed. which also acts as a liquid distribution system. The movement is random. Particle size expressed in millimeters equal to the 90% retention size determined from a particle size analysis. or perforated plate. For a sodium softener. See Deionization. Normally a cation exchange resin and anion exchange resin are followed by a mixed bed or another cation exchange resin and anion exchange resin step. Ion exchange resin contained in a suitable vessel and supported by material. Device that draws a solution into the water stream by using a flow of water to create a vacuum. usually expressed as wet g/L or lb/ft . The solution that emerges from an ion exchange column or vessel. Difunctional monomer used to crosslink polymers. Step in an ion exchange cycle in which the undesirable ions are removed from the liquid being processed. And Abbreviations Term Degree of crosslinking Deionization Definition Effective amount of crosslinking present in an ion exchange resin. the resin is said to be exhausted.

Acronyms. Atom or group of atoms on an ion exchange resin that gives the resin its specific chemical characteristics. both expressed as calcium carbonate in ppm or mg/L. Naturally occurring materials that possess ion exchange properties. Often present in ground waters in a reduced. Instrument used for measuring the relative density (specific gravity) of liquids. soluble form (such as ferrous bicarbonate) in quantities usually ranging from 0. Cation exchange resin operation in which the regenerated ionic form of the resin is the hydrogen form. High molecular weight polycarboxylic acid found in surface water supplies that contributes to organic fouling in ion exchange materials.1 ppm or mg/L.5–10 ppm or mg/L. It frequently contributes to organic fouling of ion exchange materials. A high molecular weight polycarboxylic acid often found in surface water supplies. Half of the sum of the product of ion concentrations and the square of their charges.Terms. Anion exchange operation in which the regenerated form of the ion exchange material is the hydroxide form. Separation of part or all of the solute molecules into positive (cationic) and negative (anionic) ions in a dissociating medium such as water. Solution entering an ion exchange column. Currently defined as the sum of calcium and magnesium concentrations. See Pressure drop. expressed in ppm or mg/L as calcium carbonate. Term applied to the bead structure of certain ion exchange resins that have a microporous matrix structure with small pores generally <10 Å. total Head loss Humic acid Hydraulic classification Hydrogen cation exchanger Hydrogen cycle Hydrometer Hydroxide cycle Influent Interstitial volume Ion exchange Ionic strength Ionization Iron DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 12 Water Conditioning Manual . Grains per gallon Greensands Hardness. And Abbreviations Term Fast rinse Film diffusion Fines Fouling Free mineral acidity Freeboard Fulvic acid Functional group Gel Definition Portion of the rinse that follows the slow rinse. Movement of ions through the liquid film on the surface of an ion exchange particle. Tendency of small resin particles to rise to the top of the resin bed during a backwash operation and the tendency of large resin particles to settle to the bottom. Term used to describe a cation resin regenerated with acid to exchange hydrogen ions + (H ) for other cations. Any relatively insoluble deposit or film on an ion exchange material that interferes with the ion exchange process. and more desirable ions are discharged into water. Iron in solution is susceptible to oxidation. Space between the particles in an ion exchange resin bed. HCl. Porous gel resins also exhibit good resistance to organic fouling. One grain per gallon is equal to 17. precipitating as a reddish-brown floc when contacted by air under normal wellwater conditions. Space provided above the resin bed in the column to accommodate the expansion of resin particles during backwashing. Greensand was the first ion exchange material used in softeners. Usually passed through the ion exchange bed at the service flow rate. The concentration of ions in solution usually expressed in terms of calcium carbonate equivalents. Process by which ionic impurities in water are attached to active groups on and in an ion exchange resin. Gel resins offer good operating capacity and regeneration efficiency. Small particles of an ion exchange resin that are undesirable. and nitric acid (HNO3). Due to the presence of acids such as H2SO4.

Caused by incomplete regeneration of an ion exchange bed. Ability of an ion exchange resin to resist breakage caused by physical manipulation or by volume changes due to either osmotic shock or iteration between two or more ionic forms. Ability of an ion exchange membrane to pass ions under the influence of an electric current. Complete ion exchange process consisting of a backwash. And Abbreviations Term Kinetics Definition Rate at which ions can be exchanged between a solution and a resin. often related to the electrolytic concentration. Layered bed Leakage (hardness. Molecular property in which the positive and negative electrical charges are permanently separated. Portion of the total exchange capacity of an ion exchange resin bed that is used in a practical ion exchange operation. Unit of resistance of a solution. sodium. Organic matter may come from natural sources such as swamps and be visible as color. Macroporous resins offer good resistance to physical. often described as SiO2 and referred to as dissolved or reactive silica. most ion exchange processes operate at one-half to one-third of the total capacity of the ion exchange system. Two ion exchange materials (e. Pollution by industrial wastes and household detergents are other sources of organic matter. Expansion or contraction of resin beads due to volume changes imposed by repeated applications of dilute and concentrated solutions. Thin sheet separating different streams.) Macroporous Macroreticular Membrane Mixed bed Molality Molarity Monomeric silica Nonionic Ohm Operating capacity Operating cycle Organic fouling Organic matter Osmotic shock Osmotic stability Particle diffusion Permeability pH Physical stability Polar Polarity DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 13 Water Conditioning Manual . Use of a mixture of cation and anion resins in the same column to produce water of extremely high quality. and the nature of the functional group doing the exchanging. weak and strong base anion resins) with sufficient differences in density and hydraulic characteristics to be layered in the same vessel. Commonly expressed in kilograins per cubic foot 3 (kgr/ft ) or milliequivalents per liter (meq/L). Number of gram-molecules weight of a solute per liter of solution. Kinetics is usually impacted by the diffusion rate of solution into the resin. Since complete regeneration is usually inefficient. Movement of ions within the ion exchange material toward exchange sites. in place of two separate vessels.g. See Macroporous. Compounds that do not have a net positive or negative charge. selectivity differences between the ions being exchanged. regeneration. thermal. Ability of an ion exchange material to resist physical degradation due to osmotic shock. which contains active groups that have a selectivity for anions or cations but not both.Terms. Term applied to the bead structure of certain ion exchange resins that have a tough. and service run. Simplest form of silica. Present in many ground and surface waters. rinse. and osmotic shock and chemical oxidation. Polar molecules ionize in solution and impart electrical conductivity. Molecular property in which the positive and negative electrical charges are permanently separated. Condition where a significant amount of organic molecules remains in the beads following a normal regeneration.. Number of gram-molecules weight of a solute per kilogram of solvent. etc. Acronyms. Macroporous anion resins also exhibit good resistance to organic fouling. rigid structure with large discrete pores. Negative logarithm (base 10) of the hydrogen ion concentration in water. silica.

Larger molecular weight silica compounds that result from the chemical polymerization of monomeric silica. respectively. Used qualitatively to describe that property of an ion exchange resin that allows solutes to diffuse in and out of the resin particle. These supplies require various kinds of treatment such as clarification and filtration. Amount of regenerant used per cycle. Untreated water from wells. Well waters usually contain silica in solution while surface waters may contain soluble. Conversion of salts to their corresponding acids or bases by passage through strong acid cation or strong base anion exchange resins. In many cases ion exchange resins are used to soften. Porosity is usually used with regard to large ions and molecules such as organic acids. Water meeting Health Department standards for use as drinking water.Terms. These waters may be hard and may contain considerable salts in solution. filtration. A material that is at a level or concentration higher than its saturation level tends to precipitate and form deposits. Resin composed of particles of a wide range of particle sizes. It is the reciprocal of Stoichiometry. See Monomeric silica. Acronyms. Includes flocculation. or completely deionize the water. Passage of water through an ion exchange resin bed to flush out excess regenerant. Displacement from the ion exchange resin of the ions removed from the process solution. Ability of an ion exchange resin to use variations in component concentrations and selectivity to allow a resin to be regenerated. May be performed either by co-current or counter-current operation. Present in most water supplies. The level or concentration of a material in a solvent at which the material has reached the limit of its solubility. Time between regenerations or the duration of the service cycle. Term describing a specific group that imparts a strongly basic exchange ability to some anion exchange resins. Polymer matrix or ion exchange material used to specifically remove organic species from the process liquid before the solution is deionized. Also referred to as regeneration dosage. Measure of the amount of capacity of an ion exchange resin compared to the amount of regenerant applied. Commonly expressed in lb/ft of resin or g/L of resin. or used to wash a product. Porosity is directly related to the water content and inversely related to the crosslinkage of a gel resin. or any treatment water receives prior to ion exchange. settling. colloidal. Loss in liquid pressure resulting from the passage of the solution through the bed of ion exchange resin. Any water mixed with a product. or becoming part of a product. Chemical used to convert an ion exchange resin to the desired ionic form for reuse. Lower ion leakages are typically obtained with counter-current regeneration at comparable regenerant dosages. And Abbreviations Term Polisher Polydispersed resin Polymeric silica Porosity Definition Mixed-bed ion exchange unit usually installed after a two-bed deionizer system to remove the last traces of undesirable ions. 3 Potable water Pressure drop Pretreatment Process water Quaternary ammonium Raw water Reactive silica Regenerant Regeneration Regeneration efficiency Regeneration level Reversible Rinse Run time Salt splitting Saturated Saturation level Scavenger Selectivity Silica DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 14 Water Conditioning Manual . dealkalize. surface sources. and suspended silica. Maximum amount of a substance that can be dissolved in a solvent. This is expressed as a ratio of equivalents of capacity to equivalents of regenerant and is therefore <100%. Difference in attraction of one ion over another to an ion exchange resin. or the sea.

Terms. Polymer containing styrene (vinylbenzene) crosslinked with divinylbenzene. Term describing a specific group that imparts a strongly acidic exchange ability to some cation resins. Resins employed in chloride anion dealkalizers and deionization systems. Part of the total cation exchange capacity that is capable of converting neutral salts to their corresponding acids. the resin removes both strong and weak acids from cation exchange resin effluent. Tendency of an ion exchange resin to expand or contract depending on the counterions associated with it. regenerated with salt (NaCl). Graded-particle-size. + Stratified bed Strong acid capacity Strong acid cation resin Strong base anion resin Strong base capacity STY/DVB copolymer Sulfonic Support media Surface water Swell Tertiary ammonium Tertiary effluent Throughput Total capacity Train Under drain DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 15 Water Conditioning Manual . This is expressed as a ratio of equivalents of regenerant to equivalents of capacity and is therefore >100%. It is the reciprocal of Regeneration efficiency. or wet volume basis. The resin usually receives its exchange capacity from quaternary ammonium groups. and advanced particle removal steps such as clarification and filtration. Measure of the amount of ion exchange resin beads that are unbroken. Single ion exchange system capable of producing the treated water desired. etc.). When regenerated with salt. Resins employed in softening and deionization systems. forming sodium salts (sulfates. carbonates. wet weight. converting the salt to its corresponding acid. Cation exchange resin. Water taken directly from surface sources such as rivers. etc. Method of transporting resin from one tank to another with water. quartz. Used to support the resin bed. with multiple trains being duplicates of the single system. And Abbreviations Term Slow rinse Sluicing Sodium form cation resin Sphericity Stability Stoichiometry Definition Portion of the rinse that follows the regenerant solution and is passed through the ion exchange material at the same flow rate as the regenerant. such as a strong acid cation resin bed followed by a strong base anion resin bed. Part of the total anion exchange capacity capable of converting neutral salts to their corresponding bases. Exchanges sodium ions (Na ) for 2+ 2+ metal cations (Mg . and seas. Waste water from a municipal water-treatment plant that has undergone sedimentation. Maximum exchange ability of an ion exchange resin expressed on a dry weight. Also referred to as Salt splitting capacity. The resin usually receives its exchange capacity from sulfonic groups. When regenerated with H2SO4 or HCl. lakes. high-density materials such as gravel. the chloride ions exchange for bicarbonate and sulfate anions. Also referred to as Salt splitting capacity. the resin will split neutral salts. See also Waste water. When regenerated with caustic soda. biological treatment. Term describing a specific group that imparts a weakly basic exchange ability to some anion resins. Measure of the quantity of regenerant required compared to the resultant capacity of the ion exchange resin. Ca . etc. Capability of a resin to resist chemical and physical degradation. See Layered bed. the sodium ions on the resin will effectively exchange for divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium. anthrafil. When regenerated with salt.). Piping inside an ion exchange vessel that evenly collects the treated water after it has passed through the resin bed. Amount of product water generated during the service cycle. Sluicing is usually used in mixed-bed deionization systems with external regeneration systems. Acronyms.

expressed as a percent of the wet weight. It usually receives its exchange capacity from carboxylic groups. cleansed of toxic or other undesirable elements. the resin will split alkaline salts. See Interstitial volume. Generally refers to water from a ground water source that has been accessed via a well. These resins are employed in deionizers when silica removal is not required.10. Amount of exchange capacity present in a unit volume of hydrated resin. Used to remove mineral acids from solution.g. Particle size expressed in microns (μm) or millimeters (mm) equal to the 50% retention size determined from a particle size analysis. the resin adsorbs strong acids such as HCl and H SO4 from the cation bed 2 effluent. Contaminated water that can often be recovered. Upflow Valence Void volume Volume mean diameter Waste water Water retention Water softening Weak acid cation resin Weak base anion resin Well water Wet volume capacity Zeolite DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 16 Water Conditioning Manual .. zeolite softener.Terms. Used in dealkalization and desalination systems and in conjunction with strong acid cation resins for deionization. See Effective size. When regenerated with soda ash. or otherwise purified with ion exchange processes. Amount of water. hot lime zeolite. Acronyms. normally with a uniformity coefficient of <1. Exchange of sodium for the hardness in water by ion exchange. Volume or weight ratio (>1) of the 40% retention size and the 90% retention size determined from a particle size analysis. A trademark of The Dow Chemical Company. or caustic soda. And Abbreviations Term Uniform particle size Uniformity coefficient UPCORE™ Definition Resin that has a very narrow range of particle sizes. Operation of an ion exchange column in which the regenerant enters the bottom of the ion exchange column and is withdrawn from the top.). When the well is close to surface water. UPCORE (up′ kō rā) systems are self-cleaning. etc. The resin usually receives its exchange capacity from tertiary amine groups. Number of positive or negative charges of an ion. retained within and on the surface of a fully swollen and drained ion exchange material. Regeneration efficiency and column leakage may be improved by this process. eliminating the need for backwash and increasing regeneration efficiency while minimizing leakage. The term is commonly used in connection with water softening by ion exchange (e. When regenerated with acid. This resin exhibits very high regeneration efficiency. converting the salt to carbonic acid. Packed bed. Mineral composed of hydrated silicates of aluminum and either sodium or calcium or both. counter-current regeneration technology in which process flow is downflow and regeneration is upflow after a compaction step. See Surface water. ammonia. then significant portions of the water obtained may be from the surface water source.

And Abbreviations Table 2. equal to 1 mg/L pounds per square inch pounds per square inch gauge pressurized water reactor reverse osmosis strong acid cation strong base anion sodium bisulfite sodium hexametaphosphate sodium metabisulfite specification salt splitting capacity Definition DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 17 Water Conditioning Manual . Acronyms. equal to 1 µg/L unit of concentration. Acronym/ Abbreviation A&E ASTM AVT BWR CIP CP Da degas demin DVB DWC FB FMA GAC gpm grpg H/A IX kgr ME OEM OF OS ppb ppm psi psig PWR RO SAC SBA SBS SHMP SMBS spec SSC architect and engineer American Society for Testing and Materials all volatile treatment boiling water reactor cleaning in place condensate polishing dalton degasifier demineralization divinylbenzene dry weight capacity free base free mineral acidity granular activated carbon gallons per minute grains per gallon hardness to alkalinity ratio ion exchange kilograins microscopic examination original equipment manufacturer organic fouling organic scavenger unit of concentration. parts per million.Terms. Acronyms and abbreviations common to ion exchange. parts per billion.

Acronyms.Terms. usually expressed as mg/L or ppm total exchangeable anion total exchange capacity total hardness total organic carbon total residual chlorine total suspended solids uniform particle size weak acid cation weak base anion weak base capacity water retention capacity whole uncracked beads wet volume capacity Definition DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 18 Water Conditioning Manual . And Abbreviations Acronym/ Abbreviation TBC TDS TEA TEC TH TOC TRC TSS UPS WAC WBA WBC WRC WUB WVC total bacteria count total dissolved solids.

DOWEX MARATHON C-10. Many of these resins are available in equipment offered by leading equipment manufacturers. DOWEX MARATHON MSC resins. The amount of regenerant applied to DOWEX MARATHON C resin determines to a degree the amount of soft water it will deliver. and DOWEX strong acid cation resins sold to the home water-softening market. magnesium. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 19 Water Conditioning Manual .2 Typical Reaction and Chemicals Used CaSO4 + 2Na R + – Ca R 2+ – 2 + Na2SO4 where R = DOWEX MARATHON C resin Ordinary salt (NaCl) is used almost exclusively to regenerate DOWEX MARATHON C resin. and sodium in the water are important and are affected by the softening process. Sodium cycle ion exchange process (water softening. Only calcium. Figure 1. such as sea water or other sodium salts. Hard Water UNIT REGENERATING UNIT IN SERVICE MARATHON C Resin MARATHON C Resin Regenerant Salt Soft Water Waste 3.1 SODIUM CYCLE ION EXCHANGE PROCESS (WATER SOFTENING) Ion Exchange Resins Specified Some resins used in industrial water softening include DOWEX™ MARATHON™ C. Other sources of sodium ion may be used. co-current regeneration). These resins soften hard-water supplies by exchanging the calcium and magnesium salts responsible for the hardness of water for very soluble sodium salts.Sodium Cycle Ion Exchange Process (Water Softening) 3 3. Capacity is also a function of the raw water total dissolved solids (TDS) content and other factors described below. A flow diagram of the process is shown in Figure 1.

correction factors for the specific conditions can be applied as described below. valves. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 20 Water Conditioning Manual . and accessories properly engineered for economical balance of resin capacity and chemical efficiency. chemical tank.1 Co-current Design 1. oxidants) may impact the choice of resin.4. The reference conditions are: • • • • • • Linear flow of 12 m/h (5 gpm/ft ) or 16 bed volumes/h Temperature 68°F (20°C) 500 ppm TDS feed 30-inch (75-cm) resin bed depth 10% NaCl regenerant at 25 min contact time Capacity total hardness (TH) endpoint of 3% (15 ppm CaCO 3) for co-current operation.4 Softener Design for Co-current and Counter-current Operation To design a co-current or counter-current plant. with piping. Hardness leakage in co-current operation for DOWEX MARATHON C. temperature. determine the resin operating capacity based on one reference set of operating conditions and then apply correction factors for the specific conditions of the design. and these conditions should be considered before proceeding with the design. 3. 2 The particular conditions applying to the softener (e.Sodium Cycle Ion Exchange Process (Water Softening) 3. Figure 2.g. From Figure 2 to Figure 4. and proper regeneration.3 Equipment Required Equipment includes a vessel to accommodate DOWEX™ MARATHON™ C resin. determine the level of regenerant required for the particular water feed TDS to give an acceptable hardness leakage. 3. To design co-current or counter-current plants under different operating conditions.

Sodium Cycle Ion Exchange Process (Water Softening) Figure 3. Hardness leakage in co-current operation for DOWEX™ MARATHON™ C-10. Figure 4. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 21 Water Conditioning Manual . Hardness leakage in co-current operation for DOWEX MARATHON MSC.

Figure 6.Sodium Cycle Ion Exchange Process (Water Softening) 2. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 22 Water Conditioning Manual . Operating capacity of DOWEX™ MARATHON™ resins for water softening. correction factors should be applied to the operating capacity curve as described below: 3. To design at other conditions. Use Figure 5 to determine the resin operating capacity at that level of regeneration. Correction of operating capacity for feed TDS. Correct the operating capacity for feed water TDS using Figure 6. Figure 5.

Correction of operating capacity for feed temperature. Correct the operating capacity for feed temperature using Figure 7. Figure 8. Correct the operating capacity for %Na/TH in feed using Figure 8.Sodium Cycle Ion Exchange Process (Water Softening) 4. 5. Correction of operating capacity for %Na in feed. Figure 7. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 23 Water Conditioning Manual .

Correct the operating capacity for TH endpoint (if desired) using Figure 9. With an increase in flow rate there is an increase in hardness leakage. This operating capacity correction is given in Figure 10. Figure 9. From the calculated resin operating capacity above. apply a capacity safety factor (if desired) and determine the resin volume required to produce the desired plant throughput. Choose a vessel dimension to give a service flow rate between 2–20 gpm/ft (5 and 50 m/h). Design of the vessel dimensions is described as follows: 1. Correction of operating capacity for flow rate. Figure 10. 2 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 24 Water Conditioning Manual .Sodium Cycle Ion Exchange Process (Water Softening) 6. Correction of operating capacity for TH endpoint. Correct the operating capacity for flow rate and adjust the resin volume accordingly. which may be contained within certain limits by reducing service exchange capacity.

The designer must balance these considerations. Modification of the vessel dimensions should be made by iteration using Figure 10 and Figure 11 until the final design is obtained. the minimum depth recommended. The capacity correction factors are shown for up to 10-ft (300-cm) beds. 3. so Figure 5 and through Figure 11 can be applied using the same methodology. so these figures are not used.4. Figure 11. leakages are very low (expect <1 ppm CaCO 3).5 Precautions To ensure consistent performance. If the water supply is high in iron. Correction of operating capacity for resin bed depth. maximum salt efficiency is obtained at lower regeneration levels. Leakage and capacity data presented here are based on resin bed depths of 30 inches (75 cm). stabilize with polyphosphate or remove iron by oxidation and filtration before softening. In general.Sodium Cycle Ion Exchange Process (Water Softening) The resin bed height correction is given in Figure 11. High levels of residual chlorine should be avoided in order to extend resin life. In designing counter-current softening systems. 3. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 25 Water Conditioning Manual .2 Counter-current Design Leakage data presented in Figure 2 through Figure 4 are based on co-current operation. The operating capacities for counter-current systems can be taken as the same as co-current. Average leakage for the run is lower for deeper beds due to continually improving water during exhaustion. supply the water softener with clean water to avoid fouling the resin and equipment. while maximum capacity results from higher levels.

This acid does not form precipitates with the hardness ions. This is best prevented by using a very dilute H 2SO4 solution and increasing the flow rate of regenerant solution.2 Typical Reactions and Chemicals Used Exhaustion: CaCl2 + 2(Na R ) = (Ca R 2) + 2NaCl Regeneration: Ca R + 2HCl = 2(H R ) + CaCl 2 Neutralization: H R + NaOH = Na R + H2O where R = DOWEX MAC-3 HCl regeneration followed by neutralization with NaOH is strongly recommended. The use of H 2SO4 is also possible. dilute mineral acid is used to regenerate hardness ions from the weak acid resin. makes it impossible to effectively regenerate the resin to the sodium form by using salt as the regenerant. but great care must be taken to keep calcium sulfate (CaSO 4. The alkalinity in the water being treated may substitute for NaOH if it exceeds the amount of calcium and magnesium in the water. This same selectivity. is also the basis for the two-step regeneration requirement. usually preceded by a softener using a salt-regenerated strong acid resin as the roughing stage. 4. This makes use of the resin’s very high affinity for hydrogen ions.000 ppm. The resin selectively removes calcium and magnesium ions from high TDS water. that the ability to remove hardness ions from brackish (high TDS) water becomes practical. On a practical basis. So much so. Conversion of the resin to the sodium form is then done by neutralization of the hydrogen form with a dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. replacing them with sodium ions. CaSO4 + 2Na R + – Ca R 2+ – 2 + Na2SO4 where R = DOWEX™ MARATHON™ C resin Weak acid resins exhibit much higher affinity for hardness ions than do strong acid resins. which allows this removal.Brackish Water Softening 4 BRACKISH WATER SOFTENING There are limits to the water quality that can be obtained by softening with a strong acid cation exchange resin. gypsum) from precipitating in and around the resin beads during regeneration. however. The resin removes hardness ions from water having a total dissolved solids (TDS) too high for complete hardness removal by strong acid cation resin. The high selectivity of the resin. Note that the best practice and our strong recommendation is to avoid the problems associated with H 2SO4 regeneration by using HCl. Regeneration of the weak acid resin to the acid form is most effective when HCl is used. Regeneration requires removal of the hardness ions with mineral acid solution (HCI preferred) and subsequent conversion to the sodium ion by neutralization with a base. 4.1 Ion Exchange Resin Specified DOWEX MAC-3 weak acid resin is used. Hardness leakages of less than 1 ppm can be obtained at TDS levels as high as 30. Regeneration with dilute mineral acid effectively and efficiently converts the resin to the hydrogen form. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 26 Water Conditioning Manual + – + – 2+ – + – + – 2+ – . such as NaOH. in fact. Instead. a 1 ppm hardness leakage level is obtainable with saltregenerated strong acid resin only at solution concentrations below 5000 ppm TDS. The hardness leakage is related to the TDS of the water being treated. since the equilibrium of the typical reaction shown in Section 3 and below is shifted to the left as the salt concentration (TDS) increases in the solution.

0 4.1 3 3 4.0 36. chemical tank. and then treatment with caustic. Table 3 offers guidelines for concentrations and flow rates to minimize this potential problem. Rinse. H2SO4 (%) 0. Figure 12 is a general flow diagram for this operation. and accessories properly engineered for economical balance of resin capacity and chemical efficiency and proper regeneration. Table 3. DOWEX MAC-3 resin undergoes significant volume change when converted from the hydrogen to the calcium form.8–1. it may be necessary to supply two regeneration systems.Brackish Water Softening Using H2SO4 requires very careful control of the concentration of acid and flow rates to keep precipitation of CaSO4 from occurring in the resin bed or unit piping. Because the regeneration uses two steps. In this service.3 Equipment Required A vessel is required that will accommodate DOWEX™ MAC-3 resin. Typically. Sufficient freeboard should be allowed in the tank to accommodate this volume change. In this scheme the sodium-form weak acid cation (WAC) resin is a polishing bed that reduces the hardness that leaks from the strong acid cation (SAC) bed.3 0. Recommended concentrations and flow rates for H 2SO4 regeneration. with piping. valves. secondly a rinse. Limit: 20.0 1.5 Flow Rate (gpm/ft ) 3 (m /h)/m 8. Figure 12. Weak acid resin polisher on strong acid system or weak acid series system. The tank height-to-diameter ratio should also be maintained close to 1 to allow relief of swelling pressures that develop. swelling will be in the range of 15% and will be as much as 50% when going to the sodium form. NaOH Ca H+ RNa SAC RNa WAC RCa WAC Soft Water LOADING 2NaR + CaCl2 CaR2 + 2HCl HR + NaOH CaR2 + 2NaCl 2HR + CaCl2 NaR+ HOH REGENERATION DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 27 Water Conditioning Manual . Regeneration of the weak acid cation resin is a three-step process: first with acid.000 ppmTDS Raw Water HCl.

dowwatersolutions.Brackish Water Softening 4. Table 4 shows the TDS range where weak acid cation softening is recommended.com/cadix. Feed Water ppm CaCO3 TDS <2000 700-5000 Hardness <700 <2000 Suggested Process Strong Acid Cation Resin Single Bed Strong Acid Cation Resin Series Bed Counter-current Regeneration 5-10.000 5-10. Results of high TDS water softening using weak acid resin. The hardness leakage is very low. Constituent Calcium Magnesium Sodium Total electrolyte Bicarbonate Carbonate Hydroxide Sulfate Chloride Nitrate M Alk P Alk Carbon dioxide pH TDS ppm as CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 — CaCO3 Typical Raw Water 1000 2000 22000 25000 2000 0 0 3000 20000 0 2000 0 10 7.2 25000 Softened Water <1 <1 25000 25000 2000 0 0 3000 20000 0 2000 0 10 7. Table 4. TDS range for weak acid cation softening. The dosage of mineral acid to obtain hardness leakage levels of less than 1 ppm is 110% of the theoretical amount of ions loaded on the resin.2 25000 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 28 Water Conditioning Manual . Table 5.1 Equipment Sizing Equipment sizing can be done using Dow’s CADIX software available at www.000 10-50.3.000 <500 500-2000 <2000 Weak Acid Cation Resin Single Bed Strong Acid-Weak Acid Cation Resin Series Operation Weak Acid Cation Resins Series Bed Table 5 illustrates the water quality that can be expected using a weak acid cation resin as a softener in high-TDS waters.

Figure 13. the 110% requirement is based on the total 3 3 exhaustion capacity.0 Ib NaOH/ft (112 kg/m ) for neutralization of the acid form of the resin to the sodium form in preparation for the next cycle.5 Ib HCI/ft (104 kg/m ) for stripping the hardness 3 3 and sodium ions from the resin. and about 7. Thus. must be regenerated free of sodium ions to ensure that the hardness ions have been removed.Brackish Water Softening Resin operating capacity as a function of total dissolved solids is shown in Figure 13. Brackish (high TDS) softening capacity for DOWEX™ MAC-3 resin. when exhausted to the mixed hardness-sodium forms. As a rule of thumb. The sodium form of the resin. this is about 6. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 29 Water Conditioning Manual .

NaCl. NaOH. and nitrate anions for chloride anions. may be added (usually 1 part NaOH to 9 parts NaCl) to improve capacity and reduce leakage of alkalinity and carbon dioxide by converting bicarbonate to carbonate (Table 6). a water softener should be placed ahead of the dealkalizer. 5.3 10 5. with piping. DOWEX MARATHON A2 Type II resin reduces the bicarbonate alkalinity of a water supply by exchanging bicarbonate. This regenerant should be filtered for best results.5 10 Dealkalized Water NaCl/NaOH Regeneration Nil Nil 200 200 0 20 0 0 180 0 20 10 0 8. sulfate.1 DEALKALIZATION: SALT SPLITTING PROCESS Ion Exchange Resin Specified DOWEX™ MARATHON™ A2 Type II strong base anion exchange resin in the chloride form is recommended. Table 6. The regeneration system may be built to accommodate both the softener and the dealkalizer. Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH) 2) precipitated from NaCl by NaOH can cause hardness leakage from the dealkalizer.Dealkalization: Salt Splitting Process 5 5. If a supply of soft water is unavailable. the dealkalizer should be preceded by a water softener using either DOWEX HCR-S or DOWEX MARATHON C strong acid cation resins. valves. Dealkalized Water Constituent Calcium Magnesium Sodium Total electrolyte Bicarbonate Carbonate Hydroxide Sulfate Chloride Nitrate M Alk P Alk Carbon dioxide pH Silica ppm as CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CO2 – SiO2 Typical Soft Water Nil Nil 200 200 150 0 0 25 25 0 150 0 10 7.5 10 NaCl Regeneration Nil Nil 200 200 30 0 0 0 170 0 30 0 20 5. chemical tanks.3 Equipment Required The equipment includes a vessel to accommodate DOWEX MARATHON A2 resin. and accessories properly engineered for optimum operation. Figure 14 is a general flow diagram for this system. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 30 Water Conditioning Manual . is used to regenerate DOWEX MARATHON A2 resin. For best results.2 Typical Reactions and Chemicals Used R CI + NaHCO3 2R Cl + Na2SO4 + − + – R HCO3 + NaCl R 2SO4 + 2NaCI + 2− + − where R = DOWEX MARATHON A2 resin Sodium chloride. Some caustic soda. carbonate. Results of dealkalization by the salt splitting process.

Subtract from this value the chloride content of the feed as ppm CaCO 3.Dealkalization: Salt Splitting Process Figure 14.S. Raw Water DOWEX SAC Softening Resin (Optional) DOWEX MARATHON A2 Dealkalizer Resin Regenerant Salt To Service Waste 5. Determine from Figure 15 the resin capacity for the TEA content as kgr/ft at the feed water chloride level. 3 Waste DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 31 Water Conditioning Manual . gallon (grpg). 2. Figure 15. Figure 15 shows the approximate capacity obtained at the recommended regeneration level as a function of the chloride content of the influent water.3. Determine the total anion content in the feed water as ppm CaCO 3. or divide by 17. The resulting number is the total exchangeable anion (TEA) content as ppm CaCO3. Effect of chloride on capacity of DOWEX™ MARATHON™ A2 resin in the chloride cycle. Dealkalization by the salt-splitting process.1 to obtain grains/U.1 Equipment Sizing 1.

Calculate the capacity required to handle the TEA content of the feed for the desired feed rate and cycle length. Regenerant concentration and flow rate NaCl 5% at 0.0 gpm/ft (4. Operation on hard water can give only marginal results and should be avoided when NaOH is used with NaCl for regeneration (Table 7). it is more easily handled by unskilled operators.0 (m /h)/m ) 3 3 3 5.0 (m /h)/m ).5 gpm/ft (4.6 Reference Documents DOWEX™ MARATHON™ A2 Product Information (177-01594) DOWEX MARATHON A2 Engineering Information (177-01693) DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 32 Water Conditioning Manual .5 Precautions Water must be clean and free of iron to avoid fouling of the resin and equipment. Size the bed to this volume. Calculate the flow rate per unit volume. If this number is outside the range of 0.7). modify the cycle length and resin volume to bring it within this range. The procedure lends itself to automated operation with very simple controls.4 General Advantages 3 This is the simplest of the dealkalizing processes. keeping bed depths ≥36 inches (0. Table 7. and it is especially good for smaller installations and other places where it is desirable to avoid the handling of acid. 5.91 m). 5. See handling precautions relating to NaOH (Section 12.Dealkalization: Salt Splitting Process 3. Note: These calculations can also be done via CADIX.5–3.0– 3 3 24. 5. While it is initially a larger investment than the hydrogen cycle weak acid cation resin process. gallons × minutes × grains grains minute cycle gallon = cycle = ft 3 × 1000 kilograin grains cycle ft 3 ft 3 4.

3 Equipment Required Equipment includes a vessel to accommodate DOWEX MAC-3 resin. chemical tanks and accessories properly engineered for economical balance of resin capacity and hydraulic properties. valves. This unit is usually followed by a degasifier unless the subsequent use of the product water does not require CO2 removal (e. 6. Dealkalization by the weak acid cation resin process. DOWEX MAC-3 resin followed by degasifier.. causing dosing.1 DEALKALIZATION: WEAK ACID CATION RESIN PROCESS Ion Exchange Resin Specified DOWEX™ MAC-3 weak acid cation (WAC) exchange resin is recommended. Data presented here and in Section 7 can be used together to design such a system. flow rates during regeneration must be high enough to prevent this precipitation. due to the precipitation problems that can occur with H 2SO4 and calcium that have concentrated on the resin. DOWEX MAC-3 resin followed by degasifier. Figure 16. a cooling tower). This operation is often used in conjunction with a strong acid cation exchange resin as a chemically efficient hydrogen cycle process. HCI is preferred over H 2SO4.Dealkalization: Weak Acid Cation Resin Process 6 6. This resin removes cations and associated alkalinity from water by converting alkaline salts of calcium and magnesium to the corresponding weak acid (dissolved CO 2) and subsequently removing the CO 2 by degasification. Degasifiercan often be eliminated in cooling tower applications.g. If H2SO4 is used as the regenerant. and polishing softener for low-pressure boiler feed make-up. Figure 16 shows the general flow diagrams for these systems.2 Typical Reactions and Chemicals Used 2 H R + Ca(HCO3)2 2H2CO3 + – Ca R 2+ − 2 + H2CO3 2H2O + 2CO 2↑ where R = DOWEX MAC-3 resin Mineral acids are used to regenerate DOWEX MAC-3 resin. DOWEX MAC-3 Resin Degasifier DOWEX MAC-3 Resin Degasifier DOWEX SAC Softening Resin NaOH DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 33 Water Conditioning Manual . with piping. 6.

Table 8. These effects must be considered during the design process. Changes in water temperature. 6.1 Equipment Sizing Use CADIX available at www.0 (m /h)/m ) 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 34 Water Conditioning Manual .dowwatersolutions.5 Degasified Effluent Nil Nil 50 0 50 0 0 0 25 25 0 0 0 10 7.1 Precautions Regenerant concentrations and flow rates must be closely controlled.0 (m /h)/m ) 0. and then application of the design regenerant level.8–1.1 (m /h)/m ) 5% at 1 gpm/ft (8. as well as TDS content.4.Dealkalization: Weak Acid Cation Resin Process 6. Alkalinity reduction is accompanied by a corresponding reduction in cations (Table 8).4 General Advantages Partial demineralization is accomplished with appropriate influent waters using a single ion exchange resin that operates at very high regeneration efficiency (near stoichiometric amounts). low-sodium waters.3.0% at 4. hardness and alkalinity levels. alkaline. Start-up of a weak acid cation resin dealkalizer to be run without mineral acid leakage requires exhaustion of the resin on the first cycle beyond the design endpoint. Regenerant concentration and flow rate H2SO4 H2SO4 HCl 0.5 6. Best results are obtained with hard. Weak acid cation resins are rate sensitive and operate best under constant conditions.5 gpm/ft (36. particularly if H 2SO4 is used (Table 9).com/cadix. will change the operating capacity of the resin. Typical Weak Acid Resin Effluent Nil Nil 50 0 50 0 0 0 25 25 0 0 0 160 5. Results of dealkalization by the weak acid cation resin process.3% at 1 gpm/ft (8.0 Constituent Calcium Magnesium Sodium Hydrogen Total electrolyte Bicarbonate Carbonate Hydroxide Sulfate Chloride Nitrate M Alk P Alk Carbon dioxide pH ppm as CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CO2 — Typical Raw Water 100 50 50 0 200 150 0 0 25 25 0 150 0 10 7. Table 9. flow rate or composition.

Unless the first 15% of the treated effluent is discarded. Figure 17. 6.8.8 (as shown in Table 8 where H/A =1) will be approximately 10% of the raw water concentration.5 Reference Documents DOWEX™ MAC-3 Product Information (177-01603) DOWEX MAC-3 Engineering Information (177-01560) DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 35 Water Conditioning Manual .Dealkalization: Weak Acid Cation Resin Process Resin capacity can be determined from Figure 17. Co-current operational capacity data. the average hardness leakage when the hardness to alkalinity ratio (H/A) is >0. Adding a strong acid cation exchanger in the sodium form to remove residual hardness can be justified when the hardness to alkalinity ratio is >0.

DOWEX MARATHON A2. sodium. The process converts all salts of calcium. and quality of effluent required. amounts and types of ion exchange resins and regenerants used.2 Typical Reactions and Chemicals Used 2H R + Ca(HCO3)2 + − Ca R 2+ – 2 + 2H2CO3 (H2CO3 H2O + CO2↑) where R = DOWEX MAC-3 resin 2H R + Ca(HCO3)2 + − + − Ca R 2+ − 2 + 2H2CO3 (H2CO3 Na R + HCl Mg R 2+ − 2 + − H2O + CO2↑) H R + NaCl 2H R + MgSO4 + − + H2SO4 where R = DOWEX MARATHON C. magnesium. The demineralization operation can be a sequential cation-anion process (single beds or layered beds) or an intimate mixture of cation and anion resins (mixed beds). and DOWEX MARATHON MSA Weak acid cation exchange resin: Strong acid cation exchange resins: Weak base anion exchange resins: Strong base anion exchange resins: These resins remove cations and anions from water. or DOWEX MARATHON MSA resin DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 36 Water Conditioning Manual . A degasifier may be inserted prior to the strong base anion resin to remove carbon dioxide and thus reduce NaOH chemical consumption. DOWEX MARATHON 11.1 DEMINERALIZATION (DEIONIZATION) PROCESS Ion Exchange Resins Specified DOWEX™ MAC-3 DOWEX MARATHON™ C. and DOWEX MARATHON MSC DOWEX MARATHON WBA and DOWEX MARATHON WBA-2 DOWEX MARATHON A. DOWEX MARATHON C-10.Demineralization (Deionization) Process 7 7. DOWEX MARATHON A2. DOWEX MARATHON C-10. then removes these acids with the appropriate anion exchange resin(s). 7. or DOWEX MARATHON MSC resin R: + HCl 2R: + H2SO4 R:HCl R2:H2SO4 where R = DOWEX MARATHON WBA or DOWEX MARATHON WBA-2 resin R OH + CO2 R OH + HCl 2R OH + H2SO4 R OH + SiO 2 + − + − + − + − R HCO3 + − + − R Cl + H2O R 2SO4 + + 2− + 2H2O − R HSiO3 where R = DOWEX MARATHON A. and other metal cations to their corresponding acids with cation exchange resin(s). DOWEX MARATHON 11. equipment configuration. Complete ion removal is determined by feed water composition.

Mixed beds normally require 15–20% higher regenerant dosages than individual beds. valves.g. The following illustrations show the basic types of demineralization processes and which of the constituents is removed by each of the demineralizing units.0 10 Typical Weak Base Anion Effluent after Degasification Nil Nil 0–5 0 0–5 0 0 0 0 0–5 0 0–5 0 5 7.Demineralization (Deionization) Process H2SO4 or HCl is usually used for cation resin regeneration at a rate of 2 to 4 ppm for each ppm of cation removed. Table 10. In Table 10. HCl and H 2SO4) removed by a weak base anion resin. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 37 Water Conditioning Manual .5 10 Typical Strong Base Anion Effluent Nil Nil 0–5 0 0–5 0 0 0–5 0 0 0 0–5 0–5 0 7–9 0–0.. flow controls. or 2 to 3 ppm for each ppm of either strong or weak acid anion removed by a strong base anion resin.0 10 Constituent Calcium Magnesium Sodium Hydrogen Total electrolyte Bicarbonate Carbonate Hydroxide Sulfate Chloride Nitrate M Alk P Alk Carbon dioxide pH Silica ppm as CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 CO2 — SiO2 Typical Raw Water 150 50 50 0 250 150 0 0 50 50 0 150 0 10 7. Results of treatment by the demineralization process. a typical water sample is analyzed before any treatment and after each of the three main steps in demineralization.. Also required in any demineralization system are appropriate piping.g.1 7. chemical regenerant storage. and other accessories properly engineered for economical balance of resin capacity and chemical efficiency.3 Equipment Required A demineralization system may consist of a number of individual ion exchange units (e. Caustic soda (NaOH) is used at a rate of 1 to 2 ppm for each ppm of acid (e. a two-step system would involve a cation vessel and an anion vessel) or a single vessel containing a mixture of cation and anion exchange resins (mixed bed). Typical Strong Acid Cation Effluent after Degasification Nil Nil 0–5 100 100 0 0 0 50 50 0 0 0 5 2. The analyses indicate which constituents are removed from the water at each stage of the process.

MARATHON C-10. Cl. ——————————Constituents Removed—————————— Cations Diagram (Ca. Mg. NO3) CO2 a Weak Acids SiO2 A MARATHON C MARATHON C-10 or MARATHON MSC MARATHON WBA or MARATHON WBA-2 MARATHON™ C MARATHON C-10 or MARATHON MSC MARATHON WBA or MARATHON WBA-2 — — 2 BED B MARATHON C MARATHON C-10 or MARATHON MSC MARATHON A MARATHON 11 or MARATHON MSA MARATHON C MARATHON C-10 or MARATHON MSC MARATHON A MARATHON 11 or MARATHON MSA MARATHON C MARATHON C-10 or MARATHON MSC MARATHON A MARATHON 11 or MARATHON MSA MARATHON A MARATHON 11 or MARATHON MSA MARATHON A MARATHON 11 or MARATHON MSA 2 BED MIXED BED C MARATHON C MARATHON C-10 or MARATHON MSC MARATHON WBA or MARATHON WBA-2 MARATHON A MARATHON 11 or MARATHON MSA MARATHON C MARATHON C-10 or MARATHON MSC MARATHON WBA or MARATHON WBA-2 MARATHON A MARATHON 11 or MARATHON MSA MARATHON A MARATHON 11 or MARATHON MSA 3 BED D MARATHON C MARATHON C-10 or MARATHON MSC MARATHON WBA or M ARATHON WBA-2 MARATHON C MARATHON C-10 or MARATHON MSC MARATHON A MARATHON 11 or MARATHON MSA MARATHON C MARATHON C-10 or MARATHON MSC MARATHON WBA or MARATHON WBA-2 MARATHON A MARATHON 11 or MARATHON MSA MARATHON A MARATHON 11 or MARATHON MSA 4 BED Degasifier MARATHON C MARATHON C-10 or MARATHON MSC MARATHON A2 E MARATHON C MARATHON C-10 or MARATHON MSC MARATHON A2 Degasifier + MARATHON A2 MARATHON A2 2 BED WITH DEGASIFIER Degasifier MARATHON C MARATHON C-10 or MARATHON MSC MARATHON WBA or MARATHON WBA-2 MARATHON A MARATHON 11 or MARATHON MSA F MARATHON C MARATHON C-10 or MARATHON MSC MARATHON WBA or MARATHON WBA-2 3 BED WITH DEGASIFIER Degasifier + MARATHON A MARATHON 11 or MARATHON MSA MARATHON A MARATHON 11 or MARATHON MSA G MAC-3 MARATHON C MARATHON C-10 or MARATHON MSC ANION SYSTEM AS IN A–F ABOVE MAC-3 MARATHON C MARATHON C-10 or MARATHON MSC As with appropriate anion system shown in A–F above. OR MARATHON MSC resin.Demineralization (Deionization) Process Table 11. a CO2 results from alkalinity converted by DOWEX MARATHON C. Na) Strong Acids (SO4. Basic types of demineralizers with DOWEX™ resin used. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 38 Water Conditioning Manual .

a weak base anion resin is used. They usually produce water free of suspended solids.7. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 39 Water Conditioning Manual . 7. when plant demands exceed 200 gpm. A mixed bed unit is required if water purity in excess of 5 MΩ. Water quality is often measured in terms of the amount of suspended solids. Improved regenerant efficiencies and. it is common to find mixed bed demineralizers widely used for small plant requirements because both the anion and cation resin can be contained in one unit and no degasifier is used. in some cases. it is almost certain that several units will be built into the demineralizer and one will probably be a degasifier. Upon exhaustion. If so. Note: CADIX can also be used to perform these calculations.5 Product Water Quantity 3 Usually.cm). depending on the type of system and the water supply. thus minimizing operating and waste disposal costs. On the other hand.cm is needed. 7. Counter-current operation is also advantageous in softening. If removal of carbon dioxide and silica is required. For that reason. Determination of dissolved solids by evaporation will include any organic matter that may be present in the deionized water. improved operating capacities over the corresponding strong acid or strong base units alone are attained. In general. Two of these techniques are outlined here. As opposed to the typical downflow service and regeneration of many systems.4 Product Water Quality If it is a process water.Demineralization (Deionization) Process 7. a strong base anion resin is chosen. The mixed bed may be the primary unit or a polishing unit following a multiple bed system. good resin separation is important.6. if the water demand is less than approximately 50 gpm (11.cm and represents approximately 0. are being increasingly utilized. 7. Demineralizers can produce waters with varied quality.6. The primary advantage of counter-current operation is that very low leakage can be obtained at moderate regeneration levels.1 Equipment Sizing See Section 11. the plant will benefit from the simplest piece of equipment at the expense of a higher chemical operating cost. The layered bed concept is made possible by the density and particle size differences between the resins used. 1 µS/cm is equivalent to 1 M Ω. the backwashing operation separates the resin layers that may have become partially mixed during service. 7.3. especially those techniques that demonstrate significant chemical regenerant utilization improvements. dissolved solids concentration. however. A cation layered bed is composed of a weak acid resin upper layer and a strong acid resin lower layer. while an anion layered bed uses either a weak base resin upper layer with a strong base resin lower layer or a strong base resin upper layer and weak base resin lower layer depending on the density of the resins. Since conductivity is the reciprocal of resistivity. it is likely that complete removal of carbon dioxide and silica is unnecessary. counter-current operation is typically downflow service and upflow regeneration. and conductivity ( µS/cm) or resistivity (M Ω.1 Counter-current Operation This term refers to the relative flow directions of the service and regeneration cycles. 7. In order for the full advantages of the weak acid and weak base resins to be realized. the use of layered beds allows some of the advantages of weak acid and weak base resins to be realized in the operation of a single cation or anion bed.5 ppm.2 Layered Beds A layered bed of ion exchange resin involves the use of two cation resins or two anion resins in a single unit.6 Other Demineralization Techniques The various ion exchange resin combinations indicated in the flow diagrams in Table 11 represent the majority of system designs employed today.4 m /h). Variations from these standard designs.

Demineralization (Deionization) Process 7.7 Reference Documents DOWEX™ MAC-3 Product Information (177-01603) DOWEX MAC-3 Engineering Information (177-01560) DOWEX MARATHON™ C Product Information (177-01593) DOWEX MARATHON C Engineering Information (177-01686) DOWEX MARATHON C-10 Product Information (177-01800) DOWEX MARATHON MSC Product Information (177-01786) DOWEX MARATHON WBA Product Information (177-01592) DOWEX MARATHON WBA Engineering Information (177-01691) DOWEX MARATHON WBA-2 Product Information (177-01788) DOWEX MARATHON A Product Information (177-01595) DOWEX MARATHON A Engineering Information (177-01687) DOWEX MARATHON 11 Product Information (177-01585) DOWEX MARATHON 11 Engineering Information (177-01690) DOWEX MARATHON A2 Product Information (177-01594) DOWEX MARATHON A2 Engineering Information (177-01693) DOWEX MARATHON MSA Product Information (177-01787) DOWEX MARATHON MSA Engineering Information (177-01725) DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 40 Water Conditioning Manual .

If feed flow is interrupted. No separate backwash step is needed. The top collector/distributor system in the vessel is surrounded by a shallow layer of floating inert material that allows free passage of spent regenerants and rinse water as well as resin fines and other suspended solids. the regenerant then passes upflow at a rate sufficient to maintain the resin in the packed state. 8. and other applications. Dow has developed a range of uniform DOWEX™ UPCORE Mono ion exchange resins for this system. system modifications are minimal and plant capacity can be nearly doubled. So the upflow compaction and regeneration steps serve two purposes: cleaning the vessel of resin fines and other particulates and reactivating the ion exchange sites on the resin. If existing co-current resin beds are converted to this counter-current technology. there is no danger that ionic stratification will be disturbed. the service (loading) cycle operates downflow. During upflow regeneration. The technology is self-cleaning and can be applied to new plant designs and also to rebuilding and upgrading existing installations. Figure 18. the resin bed is first lifted as a fixed bed and compacted against the floating inert resin layer with dilution water. The highly regenerated polishing zone at the bottom of the bed remains intact and uncontaminated by exhausted beads higher up in the bed. so the settled resin bed is insensitive to fluctuations in feed flow because the bed stays fixed against the bottom distribution system.The UPCORE™ Counter-Current Regeneration System 8 THE UPCORE™ COUNTER-CURRENT REGENERATION SYSTEM The UPCORE system from Dow Water Solutions is a modern downflow service. and there is a small freeboard above the resin bed to allow for resin movement and swelling. while retaining the normal-size resin beads in the vessel. Figure 18 illustrates service and regeneration cycles with the UPCORE system. PRODUCTION CYCLE Feed water Floating inert REGENERATION CYCLE Effluent waste Freeboard DOWEX UPCORE Resin Freeboard Product water Regenerant DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 41 Water Conditioning Manual . water softeners. Once compacted. Service and regeneration cycles with UPCORE system. Vessels designed for the UPCORE system are therefore straightforward and inexpensive.1 Process Description The vessel is almost completely filled with ion exchange resin. Suspended solids and resin fines are automatically removed during the compaction step of each regeneration cycle. UPflow COunter-current REgeneration packed bed technology for ion exchange demineralizers. With the UPCORE system.

particulates migrate upward and accumulate at the top surface of the resin bed. The resin bed is initially compacted against the inert beads by an upflow stream of water. The flow of displacement rinse water is in the upflow direction at a rate equal to that used during regeneration. Carryover of resin fines to the next vessel during the service cycle is thus prevented. resin fines and suspended materials (filtered out on the surface during the service cycle) are effectively removed from the resin bed because of a highly efficient hydrodynamic shear effect. there is no specific need for a separate backwash tank. Most importantly. water flows up from the bottom distributor system. the bed is allowed to settle. A displacement or slow rinse cycle follows the regeneration step of the UPCORE system. For more information on suspended solids removal in the UPCORE system. where they are removed in the next compaction step. As the freeboard moves upward through the resin bed. the bed falls to the bottom of the vessel layer by layer.2 Self-Cleaning Ability Resin beds operated with UPCORE™ technology are self-cleaning. At the start of the regeneration compaction step. Suspended solids in the feed water are filtered out during the service cycle and accumulate at the top surface of the resin bed. During settling. refer to A. Injection/displacement: Once compacted. the amount of freeboard. and the water temperature determine the flow rate needed for compaction. The water is normally demineralized (or decationized for the cation unit) to prevent ionic contamination of the polishing zone. Settling: After the displacement rinse is completed.The UPCORE™ Counter-Current Regeneration System 8. Step 5. These fines remain at the top of the packed bed during the subsequent downflow service run and are then swept from the bed during the compaction step of the next upflow regeneration cycle. 8. The resin particle size and density. Upflow displacement rinse follows. During the settling step. This settling results in a loosening of the bed and allows the resin fines to move with the freeboard and rise to the top. a classification of the resin takes place and any resin fines are kept in suspension. however. The layer of floating inert material and the correct choice of collector system allow the suspended solids and resin fines to pass through while retaining the normal-size resin beads. Because of the self-cleaning ability. the polishing zone is not disturbed by the settling phase. The total quantity of regenerant chemical per volume of resin is approximately half as much as the amount that is typically used for co-current designed systems. it should be decationized or demineralized for anion resins. Medete paper listed in Section 8. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 42 Water Conditioning Manual . Steps 2 and 3. To save service water. the flow is stopped and the resin bed is allowed to fall freely. Fast final rinse: The regeneration cycle is completed with a fast final rinse or the recirculation of rinse water between the cation and anion resin beds. This allows regeneration to take place at the optimum flow rate in terms of regenerant contact time and concentration. There is no need for backwashing facilities to prevent problems of resin fines or other particle accumulation. and in the final step. causing the resin bed to compact against the inert material at the top of the vessel. Controlling pressure drop reduces the risk of channeling of flow through the bed (which reduces operating capacity) and excessive resin attrition. the resin bed remains in place even if the flow rate is reduced. water flows down from the top of the vessel at a rate equal to the service flow. Step 4. Compaction: At the end of the service cycle. This ensures that pressure drop across the bed is kept at a constant level and does not continuously increase as it can in other counter-current designs. the final rinse can also be recirculated from the cation to the anion vessel at the service cycle flow rate.3 Regeneration Cycle Step 1. The water for the final rinse step can be filtered for cation resins.6. In the fast final rinse step. It takes between 5 and 10 minutes for the compacted bed to settle. It takes only 2 or 3 minutes for the bed to fully compact.

1 Co-current Regeneration System This is the simplest system where a resin is regenerated in the same downwards direction as the service flow (Table 12). The vessel has a large freeboard to allow expansion of the resin bed when backwashing is carried out to remove suspended solids and resin fines.4 UPCORE™ and the Layered Bed Anion Option A layered bed anion configuration is a highly cost-effective way to take advantage of the high exchange capacity of the weak base anion resin to remove free mineral acidity and high molecular weight dissolved organic species. Co-current regeneration systems will generally produce water of much lower quality than counter-current systems. Vessel design without a middle plate. This top layer of weak base resin serves to protect and optimize the capacity and service life of the strong base anion resin for silica removal. Furthermore. with typical leakage values approximately 10 times higher. the UPCORE system can be installed in layered bed configurations without major modification to existing vessels. Only a single vessel is needed. 8.5. and the vessel can be designed without a middle plate (Figure 19) because the separation of the resins is ensured by the difference in the particle size distribution and resin density. The weak base naturally floats on top of the strong base resin. Advantages Proven process Reliable Easy resin cleaning Disadvantages High chemical cost Lower water quality Lower productivity DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 43 Water Conditioning Manual . The purpose of this review is to describe the different technologies and to compare their characteristics and performance. LAYERED BED Floating inert Freeboard Weak functional resin Strong functional resin 8. and it is possible to readily optimize the ratio of layered resin volumes in the event of changes in the raw water supply source.5 Comparison with other Regeneration Systems Ion exchange regeneration technology has developed over the years from the early co-current regenerated systems to counter-current block systems and counter-current packed bed technology. including the Dow UPCORE system.The UPCORE™ Counter-Current Regeneration System 8. Characteristics of co-current regeneration system. Table 12. Figure 19.

Characteristics of blocked counter-current regeneration systems. the regenerant is applied in the opposite direction to the service flow. Conditions that would disrupt the resin bed configuration must be avoided.2 Counter-current Regeneration Systems In these systems. Table 14. Backwash frequency also must be minimized. In order to obtain low leakage levels from a counter-current regenerated resin system. and inert mass blocked. Block systems and packed beds are the main types of counter-current systems: Blocked systems: These systems include air hold down.5.5. and reduced waste water.3 UPCORE™ Packed Bed System This system has upflow regeneration and downflow service. The UPCORE system offers all the advantages of counter-current regeneration technology in addition to: • • • • • • Simple construction and control Self-cleaning mechanism Insensitivity to production flow variations and stops No risk of carry-over of resin fines Layered bed anion design without the need for a separating nozzle plate Economically more suitable for co-current retrofits DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 44 Water Conditioning Manual . higher chemical efficiency. The service flow is downwards and regeneration is upflow (Table 13). To avoid disturbance of the resin polishing zone at the bottom of the vessel. The regenerant passes up through the resin and out of a collector system in the middle part of the vessel. Table 13. water flow. the contaminating ions must be kept from contacting the resin in the effluent end of the column during regeneration and rinse. This has the advantage of providing better water quality (lower ionic leakage). or an inert mass in the top part of the vessel. Characteristics of upflow counter-current regeneration systems. water hold down. Advantages Optimized chemical efficiency Excellent water quality High productivity Disadvantages Sensitive to flow rate Risk of fines carry over Intermediate plate needed for layered beds Suspended solids accumulate in the resin bed External backwash operation required Extra capital cost for backwash vessels 8. the resin bed is held down (blocked) by air pressure. Advantages High chemical efficiency Excellent water quality In situ backwash Disadvantages High capital cost Complex regeneration Sensitive system (intermediate distributor) Backwash required every 10-15 cycles requiring double regenerations Upflow service packed bed systems: These systems may be upflow service with downflow regeneration or downflow service with upflow regeneration (Table 14).The UPCORE™ Counter-Current Regeneration System 8.

The UPCORE™ Counter-Current Regeneration System Converting a co-current system to UPCORE™ offers the following advantages: • • • • • • • 8. A. Cambridge. UK.6 Reduce regenerant chemical costs up to 55% Nearly double the plant capacity Almost 50% less system downtime Better water quality (< 2 µS/cm) Effluent volume reduction of up to 50% Less regeneration time and expense Service water consumption savings of up to 50% Reference Documents Medete. p. 69. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 45 Water Conditioning Manual . Proceedings of IEX 2000. July 2000..

2 Safety Aspects on Handling Ion exchange resins are generally not classified as hazardous materials. Frozen resin should be thawed out completely under room-temperature conditions before loading and use.1. Upon reactivation of the vessel. If resin beads are allowed to become dry. After exhaustion and a thorough backwash. the concentrated brine solution will prevent freezing. unopened packaging in a cool.1 Storage of New. these resins are susceptible to bead breakage due to rapid reswelling of the resin beads. When sampling and installing. up to 120°F (50°C). Apply a 15–25% NaCl solution to the bed and fill the vessel so that no air is present. they should be hydrated with a saturated NaCl solution. Reference Document: Tech Facts 177-01750Storage of Used Resin As with new resins. so frozen resin must be thawed before safe loading can take place. Storing anion resins in the hydroxide form longer than 1 year is not recommended. An indoor storage facility with climate control between 32–90°F (0–30°C) should be used for the best results. dry area. The salt can then be removed by successive dilutions to prevent rapid change in osmotic pressures and resulting bead breakage. Storage temperatures below 32°F (0°C) can cause resin freezing. The recommended procedure is as follows: 1. used resins should be stored under climate-controlled conditions. The salt solution will minimize biogrowth. the beds must undergo a double or triple regeneration. and temperatures below 0°F (–18°C) should be avoided. 4. the resin will need to be rehydrated by successive washes of less concentrated salt to minimize osmotic shock.1 ION EXCHANGE RESIN OPERATIONAL INFORMATION Storage and Handling of Ion Exchange Resins 9. Care should also be taken to clean up spills of ion exchange resins because the small beads are very slippery when stepped on. handling. Prior to service. it is best to store all resins under similar conditions. Storage temperatures above 90°F (30°C) can cause premature loss of capacity for anion resins. the resin is ready for lay-up. Biological growth problems can be caused by inactivity of used resin during extended storage. The high osmotic pressure will minimize the rapid reswelling. care should be taken that resins are not exposed to air because they will dry out and shrink. resin can emerge with considerable force in some cases. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 46 Water Conditioning Manual . In order to minimize the potential for biofouling. particularly those stored in the hydroxide form. When rehydrated. inactive systems should be stored in a biostatic solution such as concentrated NaCl.1. Resins should be stored in their original. Unused Resin Standard demineralizing and softening resins experience minimal change in chemical properties over a 2year shelf life. although resins in the hydrogen or hydroxide form are irritating to the eyes. Tests of DOWEX resins under repeated freeze-thaw cycles show that bead damage can occur.Ion Exchange Resin Operational Information 9 9. Reference Document: Tech Facts 177-01750 9. 2. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are available from The Dow Chemical Company. 3. In addition to minimizing biogrowth. Additionally. to maximize the life of the resins. This complete exhaustion is acceptable for most demineralizer applications but undesirable for very high purity applications. and processing of the resins. Although cation resins can withstand higher temperatures. where feasible. A certain amount of attention should be paid during storage.

2.the resins prior to backwash. Close vessel and carry out double regeneration. counter-current regeneration systems.2 Loading/Unloading Resins Loading and unloading ion exchange resins from vessels can be done in a variety of ways. 4. for strong base anions.5–2 m/h) for 30 min. make a detailed inspection of the empty vessel. Load the ion exchange resin by pouring it from the top or by the use of a vacuum eductor. the fully regenerated hydroxide form.3 Loading Procedure for Layered-Bed Anion Resins For co-current and block systems: 1. 2. 3. and nozzles for damage or plugging. temperature. the procedure is the same as above with the following modifications: 1. and perform a spark test. if an overnight soak is not feasible. taking the volume of the resins in the most swollen form. Backwash at 2. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 47 Water Conditioning Manual . depending on the equipment design and procedures developed at the site. Inspect the rubber lining. 2. This will allow the resin to be wetted during operation. splash-plates. as resin loss will occur.1 Preliminary Inspection 1. Backwash expansion as a function of flow. 9. Fill vessel with sufficient water (approximately 1/3 vessel height) to allow settling and avoid resin damage. For packed-bed.2. 4. the exhausted form. 2. 6. Add the floating inert resin and then load the remaining resin on top. Remove all debris of previous resins or foreign material. This will allow the resin to be wetted during operation. Alternatively. Before loading the resins. For a strong acid cation. With 3 ft (1 m) of water above the strong base anion. 2 3.75 gpm/ft (1. Clean up distributors and inspect all laterals. Backwash at 0. if present. 3. Backwash the resins for 30 min. and for weak base anions. load weak base anion resin and soak overnight 2 to ensure wetting of the resin.5 gpm/ft (6–8 m/h) for 30 min. but care should be taken that a backwash is not performed on unwetted resin. this is the fully regenerated hydrogen form. Fill vessel with sufficient water (approximately 1/3 vessel height) to allow settling and avoid resin damage. but care should be taken that a backwash is not performed on unwetted resin. 9. 4. Close vessel and carry out double regeneration on both resin components. 3. as resin loss will occur. check the pressure loss of the empty vessel at nominal flow rate and observe the flow patterns for uniformity.5–3. the bed can be operated for one cycle before a backwash is performed.Ion Exchange Resin Operational Information 9. 5.5–0. Reference Document: Tech Facts 177-01756 9. 2. and ionic form is available on the individual datasheets for DOWEX™ resins. Whenever possible. for integrity. One simple means of transferring resin is through the use of eduction systems. if possible.2 Loading Procedure for Single-Bed Ion Exchange Vessels For co-current and block systems: 1. 5. according to the manufacturer’s recommended flow rates. Load strong base anion resin in the chlorine form. Add approximately half of the resin and backwash as above. Note: Weak base anion resins should be stored in solution overnight to wet. The freeboard should be calculated on the basis of the total resin bed height. the bed can be operated for one cycle before a backwash is performed. if an overnight soak is not feasible.2. Alternatively.

the procedure is the same as above with the following modifications: 1. 2 5. silica. this is the fully regenerated hydroxide form. Rinse resins with flow from top and bottom. 4. For regenerable mixed bed. carry out double regeneration on both resin components. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 48 Water Conditioning Manual . Several devices have been developed and used over the years to get such a core sample (Figure 20). the mixed bed should be run for a minimum of 5 h and then a further 15-min air mix should be carried out at the end of the service run before backwashing to optimize resin mixing. and TOC (if necessary) are achieved. Ensure that the resin surface is even and at the correct level. (5–10 cm) above resin surface and fill remaining cation resins up to the level of the central collector (if in the hydrogen form) or 1–2 in. 2. and for the weak base anion. Do not try to separate new or freshly regenerated resins. 2. (5 cm) above the resin bed and air mix for 15–20 min.4 Loading Procedure for Regenerable Mixed-Bed Resins These procedures are specifically designed for equipment which is internally regenerated.5 Start-up Operation Start the run and monitor rinse down until the specified conductivity. Carry out a second backwash for 10 min and settle. load anion resin. (3–5 cm) below if in the sodium form. If anion resin is in the chloride form or cation resin is in the sodium form. with an interface collector between the cation and anion layers. Load cation resin to about 2 in. (5 cm) below final desired level. for 30 min. For the strong base anion. 2 3. To eliminate this. resin clumping may still be present if the required water quality is not reached. counter-current regeneration systems. the exhausted form. The freeboard should be 5% of the total resin bed height.2. Settle and drain bed to 2–4 in.3 Resin Sampling A representative sample of ion exchange resins in vessels is necessary for accurate resin analyses. With 3 ft (1 m) of water above the cation resin. Before adding the weak base resin. 7. add the floating inert resin on top of the strong base anion and then load the weak base resin on top. Reference Document: Tech Facts 177-01757 9. 9. 8. 6. with removal of rinse water through the central collector. Backwash cation at 5–6 gpm/ft (12–15 m/h) for 30 min. Ideally. 1.2.Ion Exchange Resin Operational Information For packed-bed. Fill vessel with sufficient water (approximately 1/3 vessel height) to allow settling and avoid resin damage. Backwash at 2 gpm/ft (5 m/h) for 5 min. Reference Document: Tech Facts 177-01763 9. taking the volume of the resins in the most swollen form. a sample is taken throughout the vessel and mixed well to represent the overall bed. Reduce water level to about 2 in.

Other required equipment: • Clean 2–3 gal (approximately 10-L) plastic bucket • Plastic 1 qt (1-L) sample jars • Plastic storage bags for secondary leak containment Figure 21. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 49 Water Conditioning Manual . Build the device as shown in Figure 21. A rubber ball may be substituted in place of the stopper. USING GRAIN THIEF USING SIPHON HOSE Fluidized bed level Drained bed level Slow backwash An example procedure to obtain a representative sample of a resin bed from the top of the bed to the bottom with minimum equipment expense is as follows: 1. Example of device for obtaining a sample from top to bottom of a resin bed. It is important that the lower stopper be rounded or it will not seat properly.Ion Exchange Resin Operational Information Figure 20. but its diameter must be larger than the pipe diameter. Examples of devices for obtaining a core sample.

Remove the lower stopper and allow the resin to discharge into the bucket. and bed identification and number. rinse the resin to ensure the resins are at neutral pH. This must be done slowly to allow the resin level to equalize in the pipe. Inserting the device too fast will result in a sample of only the bottom portion of the bed. label the bottle with company name. Allow the lower stopper to extend 6 in. Remove the upper stopper. Proper labeling is essential. 10. insert the device into the resin bed slowly. resin name. Pushing down on the pipe will aid in seating the stopper. If resins are to be shipped for testing. (15 cm) from the bottom of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe. (5 cm). For questions about Dow’s resin testing services. 6.4 Analytical Testing of Ion Exchange Resins Dow Water Solutions tests new and used ion exchange resins under the SOS Services program. Use the upper stopper to hold the string in this position. Remember to include system information as well as which tests should be performed on the resin. It is not always necessary to remove the manway. 3. 5.Ion Exchange Resin Operational Information 2. Repeat the procedure as many times as required to obtain approximately 1 qt (1 L) of resin. When the device hits bottom. Pour collected resin into 1 qt (1 L) plastic sample bottles. Using a slow up-and-down motion. If necessary. Table 15 lists the analyses available. If there is a nozzle larger than 2 in. Make sure that no free acid or caustic is present. 8. 4. As solids accumulate at the top of the bed and move DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 50 Water Conditioning Manual . Open access to the resin vessel. the ion exchange resin bed will act as a filter during the service cycle. 9. Also indicate whether the sample is regenerated or exhausted. it can be used for this procedure. 7. This is a good time also to measure the resin depth and inspect the upper distributors. contact name and phone number. please contact your Dow representative and ask about SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION SERVICES (SOS). Seal the sample bottles with tape and place in plastic storage bags for secondary leak containment prior to packaging. plant name. pull it back 2–3 in. Pour deionized water in the top of the pipe to rinse the resin out of the pipe. Table 15. Stretch the string tight and insert the upper stopper to hold it. (5–8 cm) and pull the string to seat the lower stopper. Remove the device from the bed and lower the bottom end of the pipe to a person on the floor.5 Backwash of an Ion Exchange Resin Bed If suspended solids in the feed stream are not completely removed by pretreatment. Reference Document: Tech Facts 177-01758 9. Send the resin samples to your resin testing supplier. Drain the excess water in the vessel to resin level. Analyses available from Dow Water Solutions. Identification of Fouling Organic fouling Calcium fouling Iron fouling — — — — — — Standard Characteristics Total exchange capacity Total exchange capacity as received (TEC as received) Strong base (salt-splitting) capacity (SSC) Strong base (salt-splitting) capacity as received (SSC as received) Weak base capacity (WBC) Water retention capacity (WRC) Water retention capacity as received (WRC as received) Microscopic bead examination Particle size distribution Dynamic Performance Anion resin kinetic response Weak base operating capacity Weak base rinse volume — — — — — — Reference Document: Service Information 177-01767 9.

the resin bed is backwashed prior to regeneration to remove the filtered solids and reclassify the bed. This problem is alleviated by keeping the column under pressure during backwash. (30 cm). Expand the resin bed with a uniform flow of water sufficient to wash out particulates: • 80–100% bed expansion for conventional polydispersed resins • 60–80% bed expansion for uniform particle sized resins 2. Failure to adjust flow rates of the backwash operation with temperature fluctuations can result in either insufficient backwash or loss of resin. Diagram of backwash procedure. causing a portion of the bed to be unused. 4.Ion Exchange Resin Operational Information down into the bed. When the backwash flow is controlled at the backwash inlet. For this reason. Backwash outlet Backwash collector Freeboard Regenerant inlet IX Resin Expanded IX Resin 30 cm IX bed depth Underdrain distributor Backwash inlet Reference Document: Tech Facts 177-01753 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 51 Water Conditioning Manual . The percent expansion for an ion exchange vessel can be calculated using the formula below: % Expansion = Backwash recommendations are as follows: Fluidized Height × 100 Settled Bed Depth 1. The backwash flow rate must be sufficient to expand the resin bed and remove the particulate without losing resin from the top of bed. Continue flow for two to three displacements of the unit freeboard volume. Use degassed backwash water or operate the backwash under pressure. or adjust the backwash flow rate according to the fluctuating water temperature. 3. thus affecting the expansion of the resin bed during the backwash operation. Maintain constant backwash water temperature year round. Backwash flow rates as a function of temperature are given in the individual datasheets and engineering brochures for DOWEX™ resins. Figure 22. 5. Position the backwash expansion outlet distributor at the recommended expansion point plus 12 in. water viscosity will change with temperature. ultimately resulting in a lower bed capacity. the backwash flow should be sufficient to expand the cation resin a minimum of 20% for proper removal of particulate from the mixed bed. causing the evolution of dissolved gases in and around the resin particles. For mixed beds. These gases tend to adhere to the resin particles and float them from the column. water can begin to channel through the resin bed. 6. In locations where water temperature fluctuates seasonally. increasing as the temperature drops. pressure is sometimes released within the resin bed.

Resin Type Weak base anion Weak acid cation Maximum 212°F (100°C) 250°F (120°C) These temperature maxima are intended only as guides. Thus.1 Temperature All ion exchange resins have a recommended maximum operating temperature as indicated in their product datasheets. Resin Type Type 1 Type 2 Acrylics Cl Form Maximum 212°F (100°C) 160°F (70°C) 120°F (50°C) OH Form Maximum 140°F (60°C) 95°F (35°C) 95°F (35°C) Table 18. a temperature limitation does not mean that the resin will be unstable above and stable below this temperature. a number of factors that can impact resin life. which will result in loss of capacity and reduced resin life (Figure 23). Major factors are described in the following sections. Guidelines for weak functionality resins. There are. an occasional excursion for a brief time to a temperature above the maximum may result in little or no loss in performance. the resin will often lose its functional groups. Operation of ion exchange resins at elevated temperatures can cause degradation of the functional sites and loss of ion exchange capacity. Table 16. When exposed to higher than the recommended temperature. It should also be recognized that thermal degradation is proportional to the product of time and temperature.Ion Exchange Resin Operational Information 9.6. 9. Guidelines for strong acid cation resins. the following guidelines have been established to minimize the chances of premature degradation (Table 16 through Table 18). however. Resin Type 8% gel 10% gel Macroporous Na Form Maximum 250°F (120°C) 265°F (130°C) 300°F (150°C) H Form Maximum 250°F (120°C) 265°F (130°C) 300°F (150°C) Table 17. however.6 Resin Stability and Factors Ion exchange resins are manufactured for extended use. Thus. For DOWEX™ resins. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 52 Water Conditioning Manual . Guidelines for strong base anion resins.

nitric acid (HNO 3). unless heavy metals and/or elevated temperatures are also present to accelerate degradation. Chemical attack on a cation exchange resin usually results in the destruction of the polymer crosslinks. Cation exchange resins are more thermally stable than anion exchange resins. which weakens the bead structure. resulting in an increase in water retention capacity and a decrease in the total wet volume exchange capacity. or by chemically attacking the functional groups. particularly with anion exchange resins.Ion Exchange Resin Operational Information Figure 23. Type 1 strong base anion resin: salt splitting capacity loss vs. and the resin becomes bifunctional. the following guidelines for feed water chlorine levels will maximize the life of cation resins (Table 19). Although weak base anion resins are more stable than strong base anion resins. but the quaternary ammonium strong functional group (trimethylamine for type 1 anion resins) splits off. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 53 Water Conditioning Manual . chromic acid (H2CrO4).6. temperature. Dissolved oxygen by itself does not usually cause any significant decline in performance. Reference Document: Tech Facts 177-01751 9. Although it is not possible to accurately predict resin life when other factors are considered. meaning it has both strong base and weak base capacity. One of the most common oxidants encountered in water treatment is free chlorine (Cl 2). and HCl can also cause resin deterioration. The decline in strong base (salt splitting) capacity may not be noted until more than 25% of the capacity has been converted. When this occurs. Alternately. the strong base functional groups are converted to weak base tertiary amine groups. the resin tends to retain sodium and requires a greater than normal volume of rinse water following regeneration. When a strong base anion resin experiences chemical attack.2 Oxidation Exposing an ion exchange resin to a highly oxidative environment can shorten resin life by attacking the polymer crosslinks. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). they can oxidize and form weak acid groups. the polymer chain usually remains intact.

Ion exchange resins do provide some colloidal silica reduction through the filtration mechanism.1 Absent Gel High Crosslink 0. can sometimes cause operating difficulties with cation exchange resins. the first third of the regenerant).3 Fouling Irreversible sorption or the precipitation of a foulant within resin particles can cause deterioration of resin performance. FILMTEC™ reverse osmosis membranes offer the additional advantage of substantial reduction (98%+) of reactive silica as well. To avoid this.8 0. Reference Document: Tech Facts 177-01754 9. which reduces efficiency. proper resin selection can minimize resin fouling.3 0. The effect of free Cl2 is additive. Silica is a problem for high-pressure boilers.1 < 0. causing precipitation on the blades.5 < 0. Reference Document: Tech Facts 177-01762. To be confident that the right amount is dumped. so the reduction in resin lifetime should be proportional to the increase in the level of chlorine in the feed.g. Both reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration are effective in removing colloidal silica. For example. Extensive experience in deionization has demonstrated that it is better to prevent fouling by removing the foulant before the water flows through the resin beds. an elution study can be performed. shorter resin life will be expected. most of the impurities from the strong base anion resin are dumped to the drain before the thoroughfare begins (generally. Feed Temperature °F (°C) 40–50 (5–10) 50–60 (10–15) 60–70 (15–20) 70–85 (20–30) >85 (>30) Gel Standard Crosslink 0. silica can be removed by strong base anion exchange resins operated in the hydroxide cycle.6 0. Precipitation of inorganic materials. the lifetime would be reduced to about 6 years if the level of free Cl 2 were to increase 5 times to 1 ppm.2 0.2 ppm free Cl 2 in the feed. CaSO 4. so they tend to be less prone to silica precipitation. but they are not very efficient at this process. See Section 10. if a standard gel cation treating water at 40– 50°F (10–15°C) has a lifetime of 10 years with the recommended <0.5 0.Ion Exchange Resin Operational Information Table 19.2 0. 177-01764 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 54 Water Conditioning Manual . Where fouling conditions are likely. Both types of silica. (reactive silica) and as a polymer (colloidal silica).5 When strong acid cation resins are operated in higher chlorine environments. Although fouling rarely occurs with cation exchange resins. Silica fouling: Silica (SiO 2) exists in water as a weak acid. Demineralizers with weak and strong base anion units can experience silica fouling because of the use of waste caustic from the strong base anion vessel to regenerate the weak base anion resin during thoroughfare regeneration. In the ionic form. The fouling of anion exchange resins due to the irreversible sorption of high molecular weight organic acids is a well-known problem.0 0.3 0. difficulties due to the presence of cationic polyelectrolytes in an influent have been known to occur. can cause this problem. rather than try to clean the foulant from the resin.1 Macroporous 1. e. Colloidal silica exhibits virtually no charged ionic character and cannot be removed by the ionic process of ion exchange.1 < 0.6. Silica can exist as a single unit. Coagulation techniques in clarifiers can be very effective at removing colloidal silica. Layered bed configurations with weak and strong base anions in the same vessel generally operate with lower caustic concentrations and more uniform flow rates. Recommended maximum free chlorine levels (ppm as CI 2). colloidal and reactive.

but they are more prone to fluidization during backwash. In addition. Generally. The broken beads will maintain the same operating capacity as whole perfect beads. The approximate useful life of cation exchange resins may therefore be evaluated by comparing the water retention capacity to the original resin.6. particularly those which pass a number 30 sieve (smaller than approximately 600 μm) are more resistant to breakage than larger particles. Anion resins degrade by loss of total capacity and strong base (salt splitting) capacity. such as a crushing valve. such as NaOH and H2SO4. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 55 Water Conditioning Manual . there may be significant reduction in particle size and an increase in resin fines. Anion exchange resins are less stable although generally adequate for use in radiation fields. cation exchange resins are adequately stable for almost all reasonable applications involving radioactivity. 9. Over time. causing increased pressure drop across the resin bed during system operation and subsequent resin losses during backwash and regeneration. Smaller beads. 9.6 Radiation Since ion exchange resins are organic polymers.7 Useful Life Remaining on Ion Exchange Resin The degradation mechanism for cation resins is de-crosslinking of the polymer matrix. a pump impeller. Radiation damage shows up as a de-crosslinking of the resin. Figure 24 and Figure 25 show these relationships.4 Osmotic Shock The alternative exposure of resins to high and low concentrations of electrolytes can cause resin bead cracking and splitting due to the alternate contraction and expansion of the bead. 9.6. and may be lost. they can be affected by radiation. Ion exchange resin particle size is an important factor related to osmotic shock. resulting in increased pressure drop across the bed.5 Mechanical Attrition The physical stability of most currently used ion exchange resins is adequate to prevent attrition losses in column operations. Large beads are more subject to mechanical attrition than smaller ones. Bead breakage due to mechanical attrition can occur when the resin is subjected to unusual mechanical forces. so the useful life can be assessed by comparison of the remaining salt-splitting capacity with that of the original resin. leading to an increase in swell and water retention capacity.6. The resistance that a particular ion exchange resin has to osmotic shock can be determined by subjecting the resin to repeated cycles of high and low concentrations of electrolytes. or an abrasive action during the movement of resin particles from one vessel to another. the small fragments will fill the void spaces between the whole resin beads.Ion Exchange Resin Operational Information 9.

(based on water retention capacity) Figure 25. Approximation of useful life of in-use cation exchange resins. (based on remaining salt splitting capacity) DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 56 Water Conditioning Manual .Ion Exchange Resin Operational Information Figure 24. Approximation of useful life of in-use anion exchange resins.

Ion Exchange Cleaning Procedures 10 ION EXCHANGE CLEANING PROCEDURES

10.1.1 Removal of Iron and Manganese from Cation Resins Iron has a complex chemistry and may be present as inorganic precipitates (oxides/hydroxides), as cationic species, or as organometallic complexes. In water-treatment applications, iron is generally converted to the less-soluble Fe (III) form within the resin bed. Manganese also may be present as inorganic precipitates. Three possible cleaning procedures are described: Air brushing: This is used in condensate polishing and other water-treatment applications such as makeup demineralization to remove insoluble, particulate iron (crud). 1. Exhaust the resin. 2. Air-brush the bed and then backwash for 30 min. 3. Regenerate the resin as normal. If the particulates are large, backwashing may not be effective in removing them. In this case, the solids can be driven down to the bottom of the bed and removed through the screen/drain using the following procedure: 1. Air-brush the bed for 30 s at a rate of approximately four volumes air per min per volume resin and then drain the bed for 30 s, adding more water at the top. 2. Repeat step 1 about 10–20 times. 3. Regenerate the resin as normal. If soluble iron is also present, air-brushing should be followed by acid treatment. HCl treatment: This is used to remove crud and soluble contaminants. If possible, the acid injection in step 2 and the displacement step 4 should be made upflow into the resin bed to move the bed and increase contacting. If only downflow injection is possible, a normal backwash should be made first to loosen the bed prior to the treatment. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Exhaust the resin and backwash. Pass two bed volumes of 10% HCl solution with a contact time of 30 min. Leave to soak for 2–4 h. Displace with two to three bed volumes of water. Rinse out with three to five bed volumes of deionized water fast rinse (downflow).

Note: HCl is very corrosive and can cause severe burns on contact. Avoid inhalation of the fumes and provide adequate ventilation when handling the acid. Refer to the manufacturer’s safety information. The acid can also cause problems with materials of construction, so ensure that the acid is compatible with the plant equipment before use. Reference Document: Tech Facts 177-01852 Reducing agent treatment: This treatment uses a reducing agent (sodium dithionite, Na 2S2O4) to convert Fe(III) to the more soluble Fe(II). It is used in water softening and other applications, where acid can damage the materials of construction. If possible, steps 2, 4, and 6 should be made upflow into the resin bed to increase contact. If only downflow injection is possible, a normal backwash should be made first to loosen the bed prior to the treatment. Do not use air-brushing to agitate the resin bed because this will impair the reducing agent performance. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Exhaust the resin and backwash. Pass one bed volume of 5% Na 2S2O4 solution with a contact time of 30 min. Leave to soak for 2 h. Pass one bed volume of 5% Na 2S2O4 solution with a contact time of 30 min. Leave to soak for up to 24 h if possible. Displace with two to three bed volumes of water. Rinse out with three to five bed volumes of deionized water fast rinse. Double regenerate the resin (same NaCl concentration, double time). 57 Water Conditioning Manual

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Ion Exchange Cleaning Procedures 10.1.2 Removal of Barium, Strontium, and Calcium Sulfates from Cation Resins Precipitation of BaSO 4, SrSO 4, and CaSO 4 into a cation resin bed is a potential problem with H 2SO4 regeneration. Removal of the calcium with HCl is only partially effective because the solubility of CaSO 4 in this media is also relatively low. A more effective treatment is to use a complexing agent for calcium removal: 1. Carry out the normal regeneration sequence for the cation. 2. Pass upflow one bed volume of 10% sodium citrate over 20–30 min. 3. Leave to soak overnight with occasional air injection if possible to facilitate contact of the citrate with the resin. 4. Displace/rinse the citrate downflow with minimum five bed volumes of deionized water. 5. Backwash the resin and then carry out a double regeneration (same acid concentration, double injection time). Reference Document: Tech Facts 177-01832 10.1.3 Removal of Iron from Anion Resins Two possible cleaning procedures are as follows: Acid Wash with HCl at high concentration: The acid concentration should be increased gradually to avoid excessive osmotic stress to the resin: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Exhaust the resin. Pass upflow one bed volume of 5% HCl solution with a contact time of 30 min. Pass upflow one bed volume of 10% HCl solution with a contact time of 30 min. Leave to soak for 2–4 h. Displace upflow with two to three bed volumes of water. Rinse out with three to five bed volumes of deionized water fast rinse (downflow). Double regenerate the resin (same NaOH concentration, double time).

Reducing agent treatment: The same procedure can be used as for cation resins described above (Section 10.1.1). Reference Document: Tech Facts 177-01846 10.1.4 Removal of Calcium and Magnesium from Anion Resins Calcium fouling can occur on anion resins if raw filtered water is used as the dilution source for the NaOH regenerant instead of decationized, softened, or deionized water. If calcium (and magnesium) are present in the NaOH, then they are likely to precipitate with the bicarbonates/carbonates that are being driven off of the exchange sites. The result is extremely prolonged rinse times, which render the ion exchange process inoperable. Calcium can also be deposited during brine cleaning of mixed bed anions (especially for primary working mixed beds), when a NaCl/NaOH mixture is introduced to remove organic fouling. If the cation component of the mixed bed is not regenerated prior to the brine treatment, the formation of Ca(OH) 2 and Mg(OH)2 can occur because the alkaline brine mixture is often prepared by introducing NaOH to the mixed bed vessel and adding salt pellets via the top manway. Therefore, it is critical to first regenerate the cation resin. The acid concentration should be increased gradually to avoid excessive osmotic stress to the resin: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Exhaust the resin. Backwash the resin for approximately 15 min, with air injection if necessary. Pass upflow one bed volume of 2% HCl solution with a contact time of 30 min. Pass upflow one bed volume of 10% HCl solution. Leave to soak 4–16 h with occasional air injection to facilitate contacting of the acid with the resin. Displace/rinse the acid downflow with minimum five bed volumes of deionized water. Backwash the resin and then carry out a double regeneration (same caustic concentration, double injection time). 58 Water Conditioning Manual

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Ion Exchange Cleaning Procedures Reference Document: Tech Facts 177-01833 10.1.5 Removal of Silica and Organics from Anion Resins If silica and organic levels in the feed water are high, it is advisable to carry out regular brine treatments with hot caustic soda, if possible, as part of a preventative maintenance program, because heavily fouled resins may not be completely restored with this treatment. An alternative is to install an organic filter as pretreatment to the demineralization line: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Exhaust the resin. Try to warm the resin bed by recirculating warm water (approximately 120°F (50°C) if possible). 2 Pass upflow one bed volume of 10% NaCl + 1% NaOH solution at 1.2–2.0 gpm/ft (3–5 m/h). Leave to soak for 4–16 h. Displace upflow with one bed volume of water, leave for 4 h. Displace upflow with tow to three bed volumes of water. Rinse out with three to five bed volumes of deionized water fast rinse (downflow). Double regenerate the resin (same NaOH concentration, double time).

Expect the first run to give an earlier conductivity break. Note: Cation effluent or soft water must be used for the solution’s make-up and rinse. Hot solutions will increase the efficiency of the clean-up and regeneration. Recirculation of the cleaning solution, for the contact time specified, will also increase the efficiency of the clean-up. For silica fouling alone, warm (95°F/35°C) or hot (120°F/50°C) caustic is effective. Reference Document: Tech Facts 177-01843 10.1.6 Removal of Biological Growth from Ion Exchange Resins Ion exchange resins in continuous operation are subjected to extreme changes in pH during regeneration. As a result, biological growth is not a common problem in most demineralizers. Most biological growth problems are caused by inactivity of the resin during extended storage. In order to minimize the potential for biofouling, inactive systems should be stored in a biostatic solution such as 15–25% NaCl. In cases where biological growth has occurred, an extended air scour followed by double regeneration may be able to restore the resins to a usable condition. If this procedure is not successful, there are two other procedures that can be used. Oxidative damage can occur from each type of treatment, so it is important to control the concentration, temperature, and contact time of the chemical. Peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide treatments: Peracetic acid (CH 3COOOH) has a wide-band action for removing microorganisms and is an effective treatment for both cation and anion exchange resins. H2O2 is less effective and requires a higher concentration: 1. Put resin into exhausted form. 2. Prepare peracetic acid solution of 0.2% concentration or 2% H 2O2. 3 3. For anion resins, apply 57 g peracetic acid/ft resin (2 g/L) by passing one bed volume of the solution at ambient temperature through the resin bed during a 30–60 min contact time. Measure the peracetic acid or residual H 2O2 in the effluent and stop when it reaches a level of approximately 10% of the inlet concentration. 3 4. For cation resins, 57–113 g peracetic acid/ft resin (2–4 g/L) can be applied using one to two bed volumes of the 0.2% solution over 30–60 min. 5. Rinse out with four bed volumes of deionized water over a period of about 1 h, until no peracetic acid is detectable in effluent. 6. Make a double regeneration of the resin.

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Ion Exchange Cleaning Procedures Chlorine treatment: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl•5H 2O or bleach cleaning is a very intense treatment for sterilizing and removing organic contaminants on cation exchange resins. pretreat with about two bed volumes of 10% HCl solution. 4. Take care to allow for resin swelling. Note that chlorine can be explosive under certain conditions. 6. repeating step 4. 3.05% concentration (500 ppm). pretreat with about two bed volumes of 10% HCl solution. For the most effective treatment. apply more solution. Apply 143 g free Cl 2/ft (5 g/L) resin by passing two bed volumes of the NaOCI solution at ambient temperature down through the resin bed with a 30–45 minute contact time. Use a sodium hypochlorite solution of 0. 3 4. The recommended procedure for cation resins is as follows: 1. Perform a final rinse with three to four bed volumes of deionized water (until no Cl 2 is detectable in effluent). Reference Document: Tech Facts 177-01744 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 60 Water Conditioning Manual . 2. 3 3. Use a sodium hypochlorite solution of 0. Measure the effluent and stop if free Cl2 reaches a level of about 10% of the inlet concentration. If the resin has iron or other metal contamination. 5. 2.10% concentration (1000 ppm). Allow the resin to soak in the solution for 1–2 h. Rinse out with three to four bed volumes of deionized water (until no Cl 2 is detectable in effluent). Ensure that the resin is completely exhausted by treating with brine solution (for strong acid cation + resins) or caustic (for weak acid cation resins) because any residual H on the resin can lead to the generation of free Cl2. If the resin has iron or other metal contamination. The recommended procedure for anion resins is as follows: 1. Put resin into exhausted (Cl) form. Rinse out with one to two bed volumes of deionized water. Regenerate the resin (hydrogen form). Apply 57 g free Cl 2/ft (2 g/L) resin by passing two bed volumes of the NaOCI solution at ambient temperature through the resin bed with a 30–45 minute contact time.

decationized water for anion resin. then increase regeneration level or evaluate potential for upgrading system to UPCORE™ See Table 21. failure to produce specified water quality. Use softened water for cation resins. flow rates. Measure resin bed depth. System loss of throughput capacity. See Table 22. Obtain a current water analysis to confirm (the computer design program CADIX has this functionality). Add more resin as required. Repair or replace if necessary. Table 20. See Section 9. demineralized water for mixed-bed resin See “Resin degradation/fouling” below. etc.Ion Exchange Cleaning Procedures 10. Early breakthrough due to decreased water quality Low flow rate due to pressure drop increase Resin loss Inadequate regeneration Leaking/by-pass of regenerant valves Resin degradation/fouling DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 61 Water Conditioning Manual . If a sudden high loss of resin occurs. clean or replace resin as appropriate. conductivity meter. and concentration Check and adjust all valves. in the same form that the resin was supplied. Take sample and confirm with resin analysis.4 and Section 10. Symptom Loss of throughput capacity Possible Causes Faulty or inaccurate measurement system (flow meter.) Inappropriate rinse water quality Long rinse down Change in water composition/increase in influent TDS Remedies Check measurement system. Increased pressure drop. Failure to produce specified water quality.2 Ion Exchange Troubleshooting The three prime problem areas are system loss of throughput capacity. check vessel and distribution system for leaks Check for correct resin contact time. and increased pressure drop.

high conductivity. Adjust regenerant conditions or operating conditions to compensate. clean or replace resin as appropriate. Check and adjust all valves. check/repair degasifier function. Take sample and confirm with resin analysis. clean or replace resin as appropriate. etc.Ion Exchange Cleaning Procedures Table 21. If pH <9 and CO2 is present in effluent. In high silica waters. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 62 Water Conditioning Manual . high pH from anion resins Organic fouling. Check for correct resin contact time. Repair or replace if necessary. If pH <4 and CO2 is present in effluent. high pH. Measure pH from weak base anion unit. See guidelines for regenerant quality. Investigate cause (e. broken strainers or traps). See high pressure drop causes Increase service water flow rate to minimum operating guidelines to prevent channeling Take sample and confirm with resin analysis. Replace anion. Failure to produce specified water quality. check and repair degasifier function. regenerant from strong base anion resin must be initially dumped before applying to weak base anion.g. Low regeneration temperature or lack of bed preheating Low pH. Measure pH from weak base anion unit. Clean and check acid injection concentrations or implement step-wise regeneration. flow rates.4 and Section 10.) Valve leakage Inadequate regeneration Internal distributor blocked Flow rate above normal Channeling Low service water flow rate Resin degradation/fouling Remedies Check measurement system. loss of strong base capacity Premature sodium break from cation Strong acid cation resin incursion (cross contamination) Check cation for calcium sulfate precipitation and regeneration sequence. silica leakage from anion resins Sodium leakage. See Section 9. and concentration Repair/clean distributor. silica leakage from anion resins Sodium leakage. Symptom High conductivity/ leakage of target ions Possible Causes Faulty or inaccurate measurement system (conductivity meter. Reduce flow or change to larger bead resin. Review pretreatment and modify as appropriate. Poor regenerant quality Hardness leakage from cation resins CO2 leakage from weak anion resins Silica leakage from weak base anion CO2 leakage from strong anion resins Silica leakage from strong base anion resins Silica leakage from strong base anion resins CaSO4 precipitation Faulty degasifier for systems with strong base anion Silica precipitation Faulty degasifier Presence of colloidal silica High feed water temperature Adjust regenerant conditions or operating conditions to compensate.

Ion Exchange Cleaning Procedures Table 22. Increased pressure drop.
Symptom Increased pressure drop/restricted flow Possible Causes Valve(s) partially closed Internal distributor blocked Flow rate above normal Low feed water temperature Increased amount of suspended solids in the influent Fouling, precipitation, or biogrowth in resin bed Compacted bed Resin fines Remedies Check and adjust all valves. Repair/clean distributor. Reduce flow or change to larger bead resin. Reduce flow or change to larger bead resin. Increase backwash time and frequency.

Take sample and confirm with resin analysis, clean or replace resin as appropriate. See Section 9.4 and Section 10. Extended backwash or air brush during backwash. Increase backwash rate to expand bed to a point 6–12 inches (15–30 cm) below the outlet header. Remove or change backwash outlet screens. Take sample and confirm with resin analysis and replace resin. Replace with correct resin type. Inspect and repair. Re-adjust volume according to guidelines.

Resin oxidative damage Inappropriate resin choice Broken under drain or resin sub-fill system Excessive resin volume in vessel

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Designing an Ion Exchange system 11 DESIGNING AN ION EXCHANGE SYSTEM

An entire ion exchange water treatment system consists of a pretreatment section, the ion exchange section, and an ion exchange polishing section, which is usually a mixed bed. This section gives general information on designing the ion exchange and polishing sections using DOWEX™ ion exchange resins. Ion exchange system performance is typically characterized by three parameters: volume treated per cycle (or throughput), water quality, and chemical consumption (efficiency). The goal of the designer of an ion exchange system is to ensure that the correct water quality and quantity is delivered with optimized regenerant consumption and capital cost. The optimum design depends on the relative importance of these parameters. Each is described in this section. Dow offers the CADIX (Computer Aided Design of Ion eXchange) computer program to aid designers. 11.1 Product Water Requirements The required water quality will help define the regeneration system, plant configuration, and resin choice. For high-quality water, a counter-current regeneration system should be used, which should provide a water quality of <0.5 M Ω·cm (2 µS/cm) and residual silica of 20 to 50 ppb as SiO 2, with a typical endpoint of 1 MΩ·cm (4 µS/cm) conductivity or a maximum endpoint value of 0.3 mg/L SiO 2 above the average silica leakage. Co-current regeneration systems will typically give leakages about 10 times higher than counter-current systems. Details of different regeneration systems are described in Section 8 The UPCORE™ Counter-Current Regeneration System. A polishing mixed bed will be required if the product water specification is below that achievable from the demineralization plant alone or if a higher degree of safety is required to ensure water quality. The mixedbed outlet water should be about 0.025 M Ω·cm (0.10 µS/cm) at 75°F (25°C) and 10 to 20 ppb as SiO 2. 11.2 Feed Water Composition and Contaminants Feed water composition and temperature are usually given parameters. These parameters and the product water requirements influence the choice of system configuration. See Section 11.3. The level of feed water contaminants depends on the efficiency of the pretreatment, and specific rawwater quality requirements will define the necessity of a pretreatment. Suspended solids, oils, organic matter, and certain inorganic substances (e.g. Fe, Mn) in the raw water must be limited to ensure troublefree plant performance. Flocculation problems can also affect the resins, and chlorine will oxidatively degrade the resins. Should the resins become fouled, there are a number of cleaning procedures described in Section 10.2. 11.3 Selection of Layout and Resin Types (Configuration) The plant configuration will depend on the feed water composition, the water quality required, and the economics of operation. The following general guidelines are given to help with configuration and resin selection. Because of the improved performance of the uniform DOWEX MARATHON™ resins, these resins are recommended over standard (polydispersed) resins. The uniform DOWEX UPCORE Mono resins are designed for plants using the UPCORE system. Strong acid cation resin: This resin is used for water softening in the sodium cycle (see Section 3 Sodium Cycle Ion Exchange Process (Water Softening)) and for demineralization when the temporary hardness in the feed is <40%. For small plants and with HCl as regenerant, a strong acid cation resin also offers a simple effective solution on waters with >40% temporary hardness. DOWEX MARATHON C is the resin of choice for most applications. DOWEX UPCORE Mono C-600 is the resin of choice for UPCORE systems (see Section 8 The UPCORE Counter-Current Regeneration System). Weak acid cation resin: This resin is used as a single resin for dealkalization in the hydrogen cycle (Section 5 Dealkalization: Salt Splitting Process) and for brackish water softening in sodium cycle (Section 4 Brackish Water Softening). In demineralization, the use of a weak acid cation prior to a strong cation is preferred with feed waters containing a high proportion of temporary hardness (>40%) and low DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 64 Water Conditioning Manual

Designing an Ion Exchange system free mineral acidity (FMA). This configuration has advantages in terms of regeneration efficiency and operating capacity. With H2SO4 regeneration, two separate cation columns should be used in order to allow acid dilution at the weak acid resin inlet. For counter-current regeneration, a double compartment, layered bed cation with a facility for acid dilution at the WAC inlet can be used, but it is more complex to operate. Selected resins are DOWEX™ MAC-3 or DOWEX UPCORE™ MAC-3 for UPCORE systems. Strong base anion resin type 1: A type 1 strong base anion as a single resin is particularly recommended for treating low FMA water with high silica and where low silica leakage is required (about 20 ppb in counter-current operation). The resin can be regenerated at up to 122°F (50°C) for more effective silica removal. DOWEX MARATHON™ A is designed for general demineralization. DOWEX UPCORE Mono A500 or DOWEX UPCORE Mono A625 are recommended for UPCORE systems. Strong base anion resin type 2: A type 2 strong base anion resin is well suited for small plants because of its excellent regeneration efficiencies for water compositions where CO 2 and SiO 2 are <30% of the total feed anions. Type 2 anion resins have much better operating capacity and regeneration efficiency than type 1, but they are limited to lower temperature operation (<95°F/35°C caustic treatment) and have a higher SiO 2 leakage (about 50 ppb in counter-current operation). DOWEX MARATHON A2 is the resin of choice for general demineralization. DOWEX UPCORE Mono A2-500 is recommended for the UPCORE system. Weak base anion resin: This type of resin is used as a single resin to obtain partially deionized water without removal of CO 2 and SiO 2. For complete demineralization, the combination of weak base and strong base anion resins is an excellent choice for larger plants because it provides optimum operation costs. The weak base has very high regeneration efficiency and provides additional capacity to the system. The weak and strong anion resin combination is well suited to treat waters with low alkalinity or degassed feed when the FMA (Cl + NO 3 + SO 4) is typically >60% of the total anions. Weak base anion resins are particularly effective at handling natural organics, which are usually high molecular weight, weakly acidic compounds that affect both weak base and strong base anion resins. In a weak base/strong base anion configuration, some of the organics will pass through the weak to the strong base. The design should therefore account for SBA organic loading at the end of the cycle because the resin will require additional NaOH to desorb the organics. There are important differences in loading capacity or reversibility to organics between different anion resin types. The weak and strong anion resins can either be designed in two separate vessels or for counter-current regeneration in one vessel with or without a separation nozzle plate. For separated anions, DOWEX MARATHON WBA and DOWEX MARATHON A are recommended. DOWEX MARATHON WBA and DOWEX MARATHON A LB are designed to be used together as a layered bed in a single column without a nozzle plate. For UPCORE systems, the resins are DOWEX UPCORE Mono WB-500 and DOWEX UPCORE Mono A-500 or DOWEX UPCORE Mono A-625. 11.4 Chemical Efficiencies for Different Resin Configurations Because of differences in the regenerability of strong and weak functionalized resins, the configurations described in Section 11.3 above will have different chemical efficiencies. The chemical efficiency of regeneration (also known as stoichiometry) for an ion exchange resin is defined as:

Chemical efficiency =

Amount regenerant chemical added (eq/L) × 100% Resin operating capacity obtained (eq/L)

Because the resin usage of the regenerant chemical is non-ideal, the chemical efficiency is always >100%. Therefore, the efficiency becomes worse as the value increases. Table 23 gives typical regeneration efficiencies for different resin types and combinations in co-current and counter-current regeneration systems.

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. if the total CO 2 is greater than 50–100 ppm (mg/L). the economic balance is not in favor of a degasifier for small plants 3 (up to approximately 45 gpm or 10 m /h).6 Resin Operating Capacities and Regenerant Levels In co-current operation. Ionic leakage and operating capacity curves are available as a function of feed composition and regenerant levels in the engineering brochures for DOWEX™ resin or from the CADIX computer design program.Designing an Ion Exchange system Table 23. and this should be balanced against the cost of the degasifier. Regeneration System Co-current HCl Counter-current HCl Co-current H2SO4 Counter-current H2SO4 Weak acid cation Weak acid + strong acid cation Strong base anion type 1 Strong base anion type 2 Weak base anion Layered bed anion Co-current Counter-current Co-current Counter-current Typical Regeneration Efficiency (%) 200–250 120–150 250–300 150–200 105–115 105–115 250–300 140–220 150–200 125–140 120–150 120–130 Resin Type/Configuration Strong acid cation 11. the chemical efficiency of the system (Section 11. Atmospheric degasifiers usually reduce residual CO 2 down to 5 ppm (mg/L).5 Atmospheric Degasifier The decision to install an atmospheric degasifier is principally economic. For larger plants. 11. The regenerant levels and the feed water composition will then define the resin operating capacity. Typical regeneration efficiencies for different resin types and combinations. Although high regenerant levels result in increased capacity and lower ionic leakages. Removing carbon dioxide before it reaches the anion resins will reduce NaOH chemical consumption.4) becomes worse. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 66 Water Conditioning Manual . A vacuum degasifier is used for systems requiring very low levels of residual CO 2. This reduces the CO 2 to below 1 ppm (mg/L). the product water quality requirements will define the minimum levels of acid and caustic regenerant to be used. Generally. A residual value of 10 ppm (mg/L) CO2 is recommended as a safety margin for design. the payback time for a degasifier should be short.

5% and 2/3 at 3.0% 1% or use HCl The specifications on the purity of the regeneration chemicals must ensure trouble-free operation of the ion exchange resins after regeneration.6 5–7.8–1.8 0.5 8.5 8. Typical safety margins are 5% for cation resins and 10% for anion resins.5–3. 11.2 0. The vessel should have distribution/collector systems that give good distribution of fluids during all phases of the operation.5–0. A safety factor should be applied to operating capacity figures to compensate for non-ideal operating conditions and resin aging on a working plant. Calcium in Feed Water (%) Ca <15 15< Ca <50 50< Ca <70 Ca >70 Amount and Concentration of H2SO4 3% 1/3 at 1.75–5 2–2.5 3. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 67 Water Conditioning Manual .5 ft (3. Guidelines for amounts and concentrations of H 2SO4 in stepwise regeneration. Recommendations on the quality of regeneration chemicals are provided in Section 12. Once the operating capacity has been determined. For this reason. Table 24.5–26 11–17.Designing an Ion Exchange system As a guide.5 5–7.4–0.0% 1/2 at 1.5 9.6 (lb/ft ) 3 Typical Operating Capacity (kgr/ft ) 3 (g/L) (eq/L) The choice between HCl and H 2SO4 is principally economic.5–0. Regenerant Level Regeneration System Co-current regeneration HCl H2SO4 NaOH Counter-current regeneration HCl H2SO4 NaOH 2. Table 25.5 m) is recommended.5 80–120 150–200 80–120 17.2 0. HCl is a trouble-free regenerant with high efficiency. Typical regeneration level ranges for single resin columns.8 40–55 60–80 30–45 17.5% and 1/2 at 3.5–13 0.8 0. Table 24 gives an overview of typical regeneration levels for single resin columns used in cocurrent and counter-current regeneration systems with the corresponding resin operating capacities.8–1.4–0. H2SO4 is less efficient and has lower operating capacity. the required resin volume can be calculated from the throughput (volume treated per cycle) as follows: Resin volume (L) = Feed salinity (eq/m3 ) × Throughput (m3 ) Resin operating capacity (eq/L) The resin volume then allows design of the vessel sizing.7 Vessel Sizing The vessels should be made from typical.5–13 0.5–26 11–17. well-known materials of construction such as rubber-lined carbon steel or fiberglass. particularly if stepwise regeneration is required in high hardness waters to avoid CaSO 4 precipitation. Installation of sight-glasses is advised in order to check resin levels and separation in the case of layered beds and mixed beds. Guidelines for amounts and concentrations of H2SO4 in stepwise regeneration are given in Table 25. a maximum vessel diameter of 11.5–12.

the ratio of resin height to diameter (H/D).2 m) for co-current and block regeneration systems and 6. Some applications may function outside of the guidelines. and the linear velocity.6 ft (800 mm) 4 ft (1200 mm) 2. Parameter Swelling Strong acid cation Na → H Weak acid cation H → Ca Strong base anion Cl → OH Weak base anion free base (FB) → HCl Bed depth.6 ft (800 mm) 2 ft (600 mm) 4–10 gpm/ft (10–25 m/h) 4–8 gpm/ft (10–20 m/h) 2–6 gpm/ft (5–15 m/h) 1. Design guidelines for operating DOWEX™ resins.7 psi (1 bar). These values are offered as guidelines only and should not be regarded as exclusive. while limiting the pressure drop across the resin bed to approximately 14.2–4 gpm/ft (3–10 m/h) 2 2 2 2 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 68 Water Conditioning Manual . Table 26. The optimum column diameter must be a balance between the resin bed height.5 ft (2 m) for countercurrent packed bed systems.4–4 gpm/ft (1–10 m/h) 2–8 gpm/ft (5–20 m/h) 2 2 2 2 Guideline 5–8% 15–20% 15–25% 15–25% 2. and service and regenerant flow rates are listed in Table 26. H/D should be in the range 2/3 to 3/2. minimum Co–current single resin Counter–current single resin Layered bed strong base anion resin Layered bed weak base anion resin Backwash flow rate Strong acid cation Weak acid cation Strong base anion Weak base anion Flow rates Service/fast rinse Service/condensate polishing Co–current regeneration/displacement rinse Counter–current regeneration/displacement rinse Total rinse requirements Strong acid cation Weak acid cation Strong base anion Weak base anion 2–6 bed volumes 3–6 bed volumes 3–6 bed volumes 2–4 bed volumes 2–24 gpm/ft (5–60 m/h) 30–60 gpm/ft (75–150 m/h) 0. the minimum bed height requirements. Typical resin bed depth is 4 ft (1.Designing an Ion Exchange system The design of the vessels should give a maximum resin bed depth. Vessel sizing should be adjusted to allow for resin expansion if backwashing is performed (80–100% of the settled resin bed height). Resin swelling during service.

it may be more appropriate to have 3 lines (2 x 50% in parallel.2–1. the number should be rounded down to obtain the optimum number of lines.0 g SiO 2/L anion resin at end-of-cycle. 1 in standby) to reduce system redundancy. a 10-h run length with a 3-h regeneration time gives a ratio of 4. 11. For example. The optimum number of lines with minimum redundancy can be calculated using the following formula: run length (throughpu t)(h) + regenerati on time (h) number of lines = regenerati on time (h) If the equation predicts a non-integer result.8–1. The simplest layout with 2 lines (1 in operation. In designing an ion exchange system.8 Number of Lines Based on the flow rate and throughput required.9 Mixed Bed Design Considerations Below are some general guidelines for designing a working mixed bed downstream of a demineralization plant: • • • • • • Resin volume ratio of cation to anion should be in the range 40:60 to 60:40. Minimum cation resin bed depth of 1. With 3 large plants (>1800 gpm or 400 m /h).8–1. however.3.6 lb H 2SO4/ft (120–160 g/L) cation and 3 0. Maximum service run length <4 weeks. Flow rate of 20–40 bed volumes per hour. it is important to ensure that there is enough time for the standby lines to complete regeneration before they are required to go back on-line. 3 3 Regenerant levels of 0.Designing an Ion Exchange system 11. and reduce vessel sizing. so the number of lines with minimum redundancy would be 4.0 lb HCl/ft (80–100 g/L) or 1. the number of lines operating at the same time needs to be defined.5 ft (450 mm). DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 69 Water Conditioning Manual .0 lb NaOH/ft (80–100 g/L) anion. Maximum silica loading <1. optimize flow conditions. 1 in standby) can be used in most cases.

125 0.064 0.650 0. Tables. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 70 Water Conditioning Manual .037 0.00 0. Nominal Sieve Opening mm 2.500 0. TABLES.076 0.043 0.390 0.247 0.210 0. Standard Mesh Number 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 100 120 140 170 200 230 270 325 400 Due to the narrow particle size distribution of DOWEX uniform particle sized (UPS) resins.1 Particle Size Distribution Test methods to establish and/or express the size distribution of DOWEX™ Gaussian (conventional) ion exchange resins are based on the “U.178 0.044 0.053 0.S.900 0.297 0.420 0.1. Main characteristics of sieves for bead size distribution analysis.00 1.089 0.S.250 0.A.810 0.074 0. Standard Sieves does not provide sufficiently detailed information to describe the particle distribution effectively.131 0.68 1. Table 27.150 0.053 0. AND OTHER INFORMATION 12.S.215 0.A.19 1.510 0.41 1. which are expressed as a percentage.038 Opening Tolerance ± μm 70 60 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 19 16 14 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 Nominal Wire Diameter mm 0.025 U.841 0.340 0.725 0. Standard Series” of sieves.Useful Graphs.354 0.595 0. upper and/or lower maximum limits may be given.707 0.450 0.104 0. and Other Information 12 USEFUL GRAPHS.5 80 0. Table 28 gives an example.110 0.290 0. the conventional method of using U.030 0. In addition. Table 27 gives the main characteristics of sieves of interest to the analysis of bead size distributions.091 0. The particle size distribution for DOWEX UPS resins is therefore given as a mean particle size covering a specified range and a uniformity coefficient which is <1.064 0.180 0.152 0.

and Other Information Table 28. No more than 0. Recommended particle size ranges for DOWEX™ MONOSPHERE™ 650C. max Less than 300 μm (50 mesh). DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 71 Water Conditioning Manual . Parameter Mean particle size Uniformity coefficient.Useful Graphs.5% This resin therefore has a mean particle size between 600 and 700 μm with 90% of the beads within ±100 μm of the mean. max Greater than 840 μm (20 mesh).2% of the bead population is below 300 μm. max DOWEX MONOSPHERE 650C 650 ± 50 μm 1.1 5% 0. Tables.

1 from → to ← PRESSURE DROP psi/ft multiply by divide by 22. and Other Information 12. to convert S.8361 FLOW RATE gal/min = gpm gal/min = gpm gal/day = gpd gal/day = gpd m /h L/s m /day L/h m /h m /day m /h 3 3 3 3 3 0.227 0.) U.K.0 0. units.0648 28. Units To convert non-metric units to S.134 Ib/in (psi) Ib/in (psi) CHEMICAL DOSAGE 3 lb/ft g/L 103 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 72 Water Conditioning Manual .0929 0.3 100. Tables.0006452 0.063 0.04788 0.2 Conversion of U.3048 0.895 L/L 0. multiply by the factors given. List of conversion factors for U.I.73 3785 0.273 yd VOLUME 3 in ft 3 3 liter (L) liter (L) liter (L) liter (L) liter (L) 0.6 4.0254 0.I.S.785 million gal/day = mgd gal/day = gpd Imp gpm FLOW VELOCITY 2 gpm/ft gpd/ft 2 yd Imp.35 453.) foot (ft) yard (yd) multiply by divide by 0.9144 VISCOSITY poise Pascal-second (Pa·s) 0. units.01639 28.32 764. and S.70 gram (g) gram (g) gram (g) 0.I. gallon (U.546 3. divide by the factor given.02 kiloPascal (kPa) kiloPascal (kPa) kiloPascal (kPa) bar kiloPascal (kPa) 101.S.62 to from meter (m) meter (m) meter (m) to from kPa/m AREA 2 in ft 2 2 m m m 2 2 2 0.Useful Graphs. units to the nonmetric unit. Table 29.S. from → to ← LENGTH inch (in. gallon (gal) MASS grain (gr) ounce pound (Ib) PRESSURE atmosphere (atm) bar Ib/ft 2 2 2 m/h L/m h 2 2.069 6.003785 0.6 SERVICE FLOW RATE 3 gpm/ft RINSE VOLUME 3 gal/ft (m /h)/m 3 3 8.158 157.I. and S.445 1.

0 60.0588 0.3 Conversion of Concentration Units of lonic Species The following table gives multiplication factors for the conversion of concentration units of ionic species given as gram of the ion per liter (g/L) into equivalent per liter (eq/L) or of gram of CaCO 3 equivalents per liter (g CaCO3/L).9 18.0167 0.0538 0.1 81.0314 1.0079 0. List of conversion factors for concentration units of ionic species.4 40.0 81.8 24.0 31.69 4.0 62.8 55.0 18.25 0.1 32.0 97.8 1.1 40.0556 0.0 9.0208 0.0 129 17.28 2.56 2.6 12.0 35.1 23.0 5. Table 30.0123 0.63 0.83 2.0315 0.5 19.0333 0.0 17.5 39.6 1.52 1.18 0.0164 0.0 91 97.1 10 0.0 137.10 1. and Other Information 12.14 0.13 0.81 1. Conversion to lonic Weight Compound POSITIVE IONS Aluminum Ammonium Barium Calcium Copper Hydrogen Ferrous iron Ferric iron Magnesium Manganese Potassium Sodium NEGATIVE IONS Bicarbonate Carbonate Chloride Fluoride lodide Hydroxide Nitrate Phosphate (tribasic) Phosphate (dibasic) Phosphate (monobasic) Sulfate Bisulfate Sulfite Bisulfite Sulfide NEUTRAL Carbon dioxide Silica Ammonia a a Formula g/mol Equivalent Weight g CaC03/L eq/L Al 3+ + 27.0 62.0146 0.0588 Calculations based on conversion to monovalent species DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 73 Water Conditioning Manual .50 1.58 1.0 48.0000 0.0 68.0358 0.52 1.5 19.0 17.0 1.04 0.0103 0.1 63.79 2.0526 0.1 80.0 60.7 48.2 27.0227 0.7 20.9 39.3 54.0 27.0 31.1 23.0 44.0364 0.1 – NO3 3– PO4 2– HPO4 – H2PO4 2– SO4 – HSO4 2– SO3 – HSO3 2– S CO2 SiO2 NH3 44.0 95.0500 0.111 0.0103 0.73 2.0 35.0820 0.0 96 97.Useful Graphs.0435 NH4 Ba Ca Cu H Fe Fe 2+ 2+ 2+ + 2+ 3+ 2+ 2+ Mg Mn K + + Na HCO3 CI F I – 61.78 0.0 60.0282 0.0 30.0 18.62 3.67 1.82 1.0256 0.04 0.41 2.0250 0.94 0.94 0.39 2.0625 2– CO3 – – – – OH 17.82 1.0 97.0161 0.0 55.57 50. Tables.0208 0.0 129 61.0 1.

9 meq/L 45.000 parts of water grains CaCO3/gallon (U. Multiply by the conversion factor to obtain mg CaCO 3/L or meq/L.357 1 grain/U. -3 -6 Still widely used concentration units are: • • • • • • kilograins of CaCO3 per cubic foot (kgr/ft ) 1 French degree = 1 part CaCO 3 per 100.342 0.000 parts of water 1 German degree = 1 part CaO per 100. Unit kgr/ft 3 mg CaCO3/L 2288 17.020 0.0 17. List of conversion factors for common units to meq/L and mg CaCO 3/L.3 10. S.285 0. -3 As equivalents (eq) or milliequivalents (meq = 10 eq) of the ionic species per liter (L) or cubic meter 3 (m ) of water. and Other Information Concentrations of ionic species in water have been expressed in different units in different countries. Concentrations should normally be expressed in one of the following ways: • • As grams (g). Divide by the conversion factor to obtain the different units from numbers expressed as mg CaCO 3/L or meq/L.S. gallon ppm CaCO3 1 English degree 1 French degree 1 German degree DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 74 Water Conditioning Manual .8 0. Table 31. milligrams (mg = 10 g) or micrograms (μg = 10 g) of the (ionic) species per liter (L) or 3 cubic meter (m ) of water.) ppm CaCO3 1 English degree (Clark) = 1 grain CaCO 3 per (British) Imperial gallon of water 3 Table 31 gives the conversion factors for commonly encountered units to milliequivalents/liter (meq/L) and mg CaCO3/L.Useful Graphs.200 0.0 14. Tables.1 1.

1 126.56 1.25 0.88 1.3 46.0 85.1 50.7 119.1 84.0 34.3 169.60 1.47 1.8 89.3 151.06 1.1 120. and Other Information 12.9 120.87 3.0 74.9 163.2 142.52 1.0 66.5 40.14 0.36 1.68 1.1 86.94 1.2 47.1 51.2 58.68 1.79 1.0 53.0 Substance to CaCO3 equivalent CaCO3 equivalent to Substance 0.58 0.40 1.0 58.46 0.0 27.84 0.39 0.9 399.0 143.55 2.03 1.09 1.0 63.9 40. (anhydrous) Disodium phoshate Disodium phos.Useful Graphs. List of conversion factors for CaCO 3 equivalents.2 73.3 116.0 106.14 0.94 0.71 1.85 1.11 0.1 28.2 310.40 0.5 37.41 0.0 58.9 44.0 101.42 1.34 0.00 0.7 20.80 1.29 1 .8 60.0 166.0 40.79 0.95 0.92 2.70 2.88 1.3 169.47 0.60 0.1 111.2 42.1 172.0 138. Multiply by Molecular Weight 342.70 0.0 143.9 233.59 0.4 Calcium Carbonate (CaCO 3) Equivalent of Common Substances Table 32.67 0.66 0.3 262.0 142.35 1.89 3.3 62.43 0.33 0.9 30.0 358.0 17.0 126.92 0.0 71.80 1.42 1.62 1.6 29.4 162.74 0.06 1.20 2. Tables.19 1.4 47.74 0.3 95.4 246.2 164.1 Compounds Aluminum sulfate (anhydrous) Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum oxide (alumina) Sodium aluminate Barium sulfate Calcium bicarbonate Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate (anhydrous) Calcium sulfate (gypsum) Calcium phosphate Ferrous sulfate (anhydrous) Ferric sulfate Magnesium oxide Magnesium bicarbonate Magnesium carbonate Magnesium chloride Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium phosphate Magnesium sulfate (anhydrous) Magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts) Manganese chloride Manganese hydroxide Potassium iodine Silver chloride Silver nitrate Silica Sodium bicarbonate Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide Sodium nitrate Tri-sodium phosphate Tri-sodium phos.5 40.7 54.80 0.3 146.05 1.1 56.1 136.58 0.83 0.35 0.0 26.52 0.40 0.9 60.26 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 75 Water Conditioning Manual .09 2.97 0.7 81.62 1.5 125.33 1.26 0.0 68.2 123.83 0.75 2.17 0.0 55.48 0.1 78.32 2.2 43.0 85.13 0.53 1.4 166.1 100.0 102.3 84.00 1.90 1.91 0.95 0. (anhydrous) Monosodium phosphate Monosodium phos.0 380.0 84.30 0.7 76.25 1. (anhydrous) Sodium metaphosphate Sodium sulfate Sodium sulfite Formula Al2(SO4)3 AI(OH)3 Al2O3 Na2Al2O4 BaSO4 Ca(HCO3)2 CaCO3 CaCl2 Ca(OH)2 CaO CaSO4 CaSO4•2H2O Ca3(PO4)2 FeSO4 Fe2(SO4)3 MgO Mg(HCO3)2 MgCO3 MgCl2 Mg(OH)2 Mg3(PO4)2 MgSO4 MgSO4•7H2O MnCl2 Mn(OH)2 KI AgCI AgNO3 SiO2 NaHCO3 Na2CO3 NaCI NaOH NaNO3 Na3PO4•12H2O Na3PO4 Na2HPO4•12H2O Na2HPO4 NaH2PO4•H2O NaH2PO4 NaPO3 Na2SO4 Na2SO3 Equivalent Weight 57.68 1.72 1.

Graph for converting between °C and °F. unit is °C. Figure 26. Tables.Useful Graphs. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 76 Water Conditioning Manual . and Other Information 12.I.5 Conversion of Temperature Units Conversion of temperature units between °C and °F can be made graphically using the grid below or by mathematical conversion using following equations: degrees Celsius (°C) to degrees Fahrenheit (°F): (9/5 x °C) + 32 = °F degrees Fahrenheit (°F) to degrees Celsius (°C): 5/9 (°F – 32) = °C The S.

Useful Graphs. Graph for converting between conductance and dissolved solids.6 Conductance vs. Figure 28. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 77 Water Conditioning Manual . Tables. Total Dissolved Solids Figure 27. Relationship between dissolved solids and conductance in demineralization operations. and Other Information 12.

Recommended Maximum Level 0.7. Recommended impurity levels for HCl. harmful amounts of acid or base can be present. Even after dilution to their operational concentrations or in the waste after regeneration. The presence of these ionic species decreases regeneration efficiency and/or increases leakage of these species during the operational cycle. producing severe burns. Table 33. and the manufacturer's guidelines for handling these products should be carefully followed. or disposing of acidic or basic regenerants.7 Handling Regenerant Chemicals 12. transporting. muriatic acid): Both as a gas and in solution.4% 5 ppm (mg/L) ~0 None Impurity Fe Other metals. NaOH containing 2% NaCI will reduce the efficiency by 5 to 10% and cause higher CI leakage from the strongly basic anion exchange resin. They should also be free of ionic species other than the active regeneration agents. Figures for impurity levels are based on 100% regeneration chemical.01% 10 ppm (mg/L) 0. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 78 Water Conditioning Manual . Avoid inhalation of the fumes and provide adequate ventilation when handling the acid. For example. The specifications for and purity of the regenerant chemicals must ensure trouble-free operation of the ion exchange resin after regeneration. Swallowing may cause severe injury or death. Contact with eyes can cause severe damage and blindness. Mucous membranes of the eyes and the upper respiratory tract are especially sensitive to high atmospheric concentrations of HCl. Cl2) Suspended matter as turbidity Inhibitors Sulfuric acid (H2SO4): H2SO4 is very dangerous when improperly handled. regenerants should contain minimal levels of impurities. Adequate personal protection should be provided when using these chemicals.1 General Precautions Sufficient precautions should be taken when handling. Tables.01% 0. and under certain conditions regenerant quantity can be reduced by using spend regenerant from previous regeneration. and Other Information 12. Inhaling vapors from hot or concentrated acid may be harmful. Hydrochloric acid (HCI. as SO3 Oxidants (HNO3. Recommendations on the quality of regeneration chemicals are given below. the chemicals must be free of suspended materials or other materials that may be precipitated and/or absorbed by the resin. Therefore. HCI is very corrosive and can cause severe burns on contact. In counter-current operations where low leakage levels are required. total Organic matter H2SO4. Concentrated solutions are rapidly destructive to human tissues.Useful Graphs. The recommended qualities should prove sufficient for all ion exchange resin applications.

Table 35. salt): NaCl does not require special handling precautions. Regular diaphragm-cell grade NaOH can contain over 2% NaCI and over 0. Avoid inhalation and provide adequate ventilation when handling ammonia solutions.51% 1.5% DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 79 Water Conditioning Manual .1% (1000 mg/L) NaClO3.Useful Graphs. Recommended impurity levels for H 2SO4. and Other Information Table 34. containing 20 to 30 wt % NH 3.0% 1.2 ppm (mg/L) 0. Recommended impurity levels for NaOH.01% ~0 None 20 ppm (mg/L) Impurity Fe Nitrogen compounds As Organic matter Suspended matter as turbidity Inhibitors Other heavy metals Sodium hydroxide (NaOH. Great care must be taken when handling the anhydrous material or when preparing or handling NaOH solutions. Tables. Sodium chloride (NaCl. Impurities are normally minimal and cause no potential problem for the regeneration of weak base anion exchange resins. Recommended impurity levels for NaCl. Recommended Maximum Level 1% 2+ Impurity SO4 Mg 2– 3+ Ca 0. Recommended Maximum Level 49 .000 ppm (mg/L) 0. caustic soda): NaOH can cause severe burns on contact with skin or eyes or when taken internally.2% 5 ppm (mg/L) 5 ppm (mg/L) 50 ppm (mg/L) 250 ppm (mg/L) Impurity NaOH NaCl NaClO3 Na2CO3 Fe Heavy metals (total) SiO2 Na2SO4 Ammonia (NH 3): Ammonia gas or fumes from concentrated solutions can cause serious irritation to eyes and the respiratory tract. Table 36. Ammonia is mostly offered as a solution in water. Mercury-cell grade NaOH or rayon-cell grade NaOH (purified diaphragm cell) will normally meet the specifications below. Recommended Maximum Level 50 ppm (mg/L) 20 ppm (mg/L) 0.

8 13.36 8.70 7.87 104.63 12.0 4.5 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 ————— Concentration ————— g HCl/L 5.7 1.39 35.01 10.028 1. g HCI/100 g Solution Weight % 0.3 4.552 0.48 4.7 18.3 2.44 10.13 0.25 0.048 1.3 10.098 1.2 eq/L 0.88 3.0 22.179 1.30 0.63 3.01 6.139 1.833 0.26 3.001 1.2 15.8 268.69 1.60 0.129 1.09 20.0 14.22 0.088 1.692 0.16 25.9 397.108 1.04 1.119 1.8 Concentration and Density of Regenerant Solutions Table 37.83 2.8 479.413 0.8 219.006 1.008 1.31 83.78 0.2 2.5 318.0 2.058 1.72 51.04 8.43 0.53 40.10 4.69 0. Tables.5 1 1.37 6.0 149. and Other Information 12.5 2 2.137 0.5 172.5 424.5 0.0 1.5 2.68 2.5 3 3.042 0.5 11.169 1.003 1.0 9.0 24.7 3.50 0.3 1.04 93.149 1.0 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 80 Water Conditioning Manual .078 1.40 1.57 2.0 23.28 2.033 1.98 2. Concentration and density of HCI solutions.018 1.5 195.023 1.87 3.16 10.7 5.13 lb/gal 0.038 1.0 2.7 370.17 0.274 0.9 344.8 ——— Density ——— kg/L 1.34 0.12 1.87 1.198 ° Baumé 0.4 15 17.973 1.159 1.73 5.15 61.89 11.7 19.03 15.07 3.043 1.74 9.68 72.7 2.6 243.65 1.4 1 7 8.011 1.084 0.22 1.Useful Graphs.8 127.45 3.015 1.38 13.46 1.068 1.4 451.8 21.6 293.189 1.28 30.013 1.

5 1 1.71 1.13 4.255 0.1 51.610 1.8 63.109 1.4 64.499 1.219 1.012 1.6 66.6 23.008 1.0 15.90 2.830 1.8 899.6 13.5 37.64 3.815 1.6 5.052 1.623 0.0 365.80 0.4 14.9 12.205 0.2 12 18.349 1. Concentration and density of H 2SO4 solutions.309 0.084 0.24 30.7 439.65 7.1 9.5 7.256 1.906 1.6 0.837 1.095 1.0 25.6 521.2 5.9 60.4 9. g H2SO4/100g Solution Weight % 0.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 92 94 96 98 100 ————— Concentration ————— g H2SO4/L 5.89 1.5 794.059 1.042 0.3 65.5 8.3 14.7 68.045 1.303 1.27 1.5 48.18 2.49 1.125 1.4 202.46 8.1 697.032 1.9 11.24 1.1 30 37 37.4 14.445 1.777 1.4 lb/gal 0.4 1010 1127 1252 1382 1511 1634 1678 1720 1763 1799 1831 eq/L 0.6 153.553 1.6 4.395 1.025 1.669 1.9 2.080 1.6 14.5 228.169 0.2 30.61 0.2 9.0 14.127 0.6 12.31 106 129.018 1. and Other Information Table 38.97 10.60 62.1 69.62 4. Tables.Useful Graphs.4 41.54 41.1 11.7 20 29.1 44.3 1.4 20.039 1.944 ° Baumé 0.2 607.43 0.72 1.01 10.12 20.5 28.13 3.2 35.34 73.3 ——— Density ——— kg/L 1.05 15.70 0.140 1.52 0.7 15.52 1.0 5.002 1.066 1.16 95.15 84.8 6.005 1.3 8.9 4.8 12.868 1.3 10 17.7 57.05 1.3 34.9 65.9 1.5 5 7.4 54.07 1.8 3.342 0.4 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 81 Water Conditioning Manual .413 0.102 0.727 1.7 33.8 33.0 10.00 51.95 2.824 1.3 177.

9 20 35.11 9.010 1. Tables.8 398.8 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 82 Water Conditioning Manual .9 135.525 ° Baumé 0.9 75.907 1.430 1.328 1.35 0.7 4.3 8.0 3.65 5.39 4.0 33 41.197 1.253 0.0 6.47 2. Concentration and density of NaOH solutions.7 31. g NaOH/100g Solution wt % 0.30 0.510 0.043 1.038 1.5 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 30 40 50 ————— Concentration ————— g NaOH/ L 5.153 1.96 14.1 lb/gal 0.1 3.7 eq/L 0.5 2.8 43.026 1.8 1.6 5.4 5.53 0.0 215.015 1.7 63.17 0.098 1.065 1.2 17 19.076 1.3 3.1 1.641 0.17 2.03 4.13 0.26 0.1 11.3 19.3 89 98.88 2.175 1.7 161.70 5.021 1. 8 110.219 1.77 3.9 2.2 21.63 0.39 6.22 0.3 571.084 0.131 1.73 0.054 1.2 20.4 1.5 3 3.7 52.6 23.5 243.4 188.9 762.5 12.109 1.32 1.04 1.825 0.087 1.032 1.381 0.37 ——— Density ——— kg/L 1.004 1.02 10.126 0.925 1.5 49.774 0.9 10.44 0.10 15.65 1.042 0.9 14. and Other Information Table 39.60 1.9 7.4 25.5 1 1.5 2 2.Useful Graphs.

08 5.94 19.98 4.973 0.16 1.64 0.6 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 83 Water Conditioning Manual .5 20.2 85 95.33 0.883 ° Baumé 10.4 282. Tables.87 3.62 6.25 1.929 0.7 23.80 9.083 0.8 29.9 25.969 0.8 16 lb/gal 0.6 218.17 0.4 ——— Density ——— kg/L 0. Concentration and density of NH 3 solutions.82 1.82 10.1 15.41 0.8 12.8 167.7 1.7 12 17.943 0.5 12.6 39.990 0.58 1.3 1.30 2.74 2. and Other Information Table 40.9 11.977 0.1 2.981 0.8 114.57 0. g NH3/100g Solution Weight % 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 28 32 ————— Concentration ————— g NH3/L 9.69 7.965 0.6 eq/L 0.4 15.8 77.985 0.4 251.994 0.5 19.25 0.898 0.958 0.0 149.3 13.0 1.9 14.5 1.3 18.6 21.9 2.8 14.936 0.43 3.3 28.961 0.8 58.53 5.49 0.8 13.910 0.4 67.73 0.2 12.950 0.923 0.2 48.Useful Graphs.3 184.75 8.0 132.

Concentration and density of NaCI solutions. g NaCl/100g Solution Weight % 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 ————— Concentration ————— g NaCl/L 10.3 154.2 30.35 2.4 15.49 3.3 311.25 0.523 0.7 107.6 203.62 0.071 1.8 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 84 Water Conditioning Manual .34 0.93 4.6 20.71 0.086 1.0 3.3 eq/L 0.64 3.Useful Graphs.9 4.89 1. Tables.180 1.07 1.101 1.1 178.116 1.132 1.0 3.06 3.2 19 18.6 251 283.703 0.172 0.148 1.64 1.020 1.049 1.17 0.08 0.6 41.9 2.034 1.1 51.49 1.5 73.041 1.4 84.164 1.7 62.33 lb/gal 0.5 22.53 0.013 1.70 1.1 2.83 2.056 1.7 229.29 1.80 0.027 1.38 4.23 2.5 13.26 1.1 23.197 ° Baumé 0.005 1.346 0.45 1. and Other Information Table 41.1 130.92 2.09 1.7 8.5 95.1 20.8 9 7.885 1.6 11.85 5.44 0.6 9.063 1.8 5.59 ——— Density ——— kg/L 1.

44 0.63 1.05 lb/gal 0.3 134.6 52.169 1. CaSO4 precipitation should be prevented in an ion exchange bed.4 2.146 1.583 0.9 41.26 0.040 1.9 Solubility of CaSO 4 CaSO4 is only very slightly soluble in water and dilute H 2SO4.385 0.85 2.191 0.0 214.8 4.071 1.6 75.050 1.4 9. Figure 29. and Other Information Table 42.193 ° Baumé 1.0 23.6 10 18.3 5. Concentration and density of Na 2CO3 solutions. where it may occur when H 2SO4 is used to regenerate a cation exchange resin.55 3.084 0.785 0.7 eq/L 0.4 13.124 1.34 1.1 20. Precipitation can be avoided by step-wise regeneration as discussed in Section 11.103 1.3 110.08 2. Tables.6 7.009 1.991 1.92 1.0 8.53 1.061 1.03 3.5 63.092 1.9 160.82 0. Solubility of CaSO 4 in solutions of H2SO4 in water.0 85 98.4 30.35 0.6.53 0.4 12.0 12.20 1. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 85 Water Conditioning Manual .63 0.082 1.53 4. g Na2CO3/100 g Solution Weight % 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 ————— Concentration ————— g Na2CO3/L 10.5 187.4 21.72 0.42 1.17 0.13 1.8 11.70 ——— Density ——— kg/L 1.Useful Graphs.029 1.019 1.

14 0.4 0.57 0.87 mg Na 2SO3 is necessary per mg dissolved oxygen.4 2.5 lb/1000 gal 0.698 cm /L DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 86 Water Conditioning Manual .019 0.10 Removal of Oxygen Figure 30. Levels of sodium sulfite required to remove dissolved oxygen.0 10.29 0.4 4.Useful Graphs.1 2.3 1 cm dissolved oxygen per liter = 1. Table 43 shows levels of Na 2SO3 required to remove different amounts of dissolved oxygen. Table 43.3 22. Dissolved oxygen can be reduced by using sodium sulfite according to following reaction: 2 Na2SO3 + O2 → 2Na2SO4 Based on this equation. Na2SO3 (theoretical amount) mg/L 1.43 0.19 0.3 112.038 0.0 2.5 1.72 1.5 56.6 11. Tables.5 5.0094 0.028 0.3 0. and Other Information 12.047 0.0 5.94 Dissolved Oxygen cm /L 0.2 0.094 0.9 7.2 14. Solubility of oxygen in water as a function of temperature.0 a 3 3 a mg/L 0.43 mg/L 3 1 mg dissolved oxygen per liter = 0. a minimum of 7.1 0.47 0.3 3.

12 8.0075 0.015 0.09 0.78 3.Useful Graphs.64 4. Chlorine levels in water can be reduced using sulfur dioxide or sodium sulfite according to following reactions.03 0.06 0.11 Removal of Chlorine Chlorine is a strong oxidant and may readily degrade ion exchange resins.00075 0.90 17.73 3. Na2SO3 + Cl2 + H2O → 2HCl + Na 2SO4 SO2 + Cl2 + 2H 2O → 2HCl + H 2SO4 The minimum amount of reducing agent is:1. and Other Information 12.075 0.91 g of SO2 This leads to the following amounts of reducing agents to add per 1000 L of water for the given chlorine levels: Table 44.0038 0.0015 0.10 SO2 (theoretical amount) lb/1000 gal 0.038 0. Amount of reducing agent to add for given chlorine level.045 0. Tables. Na2SO3 Cl2 mg/L 0.0225 0.55 9.82 2.89 1.075 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 87 Water Conditioning Manual .56 5.78 g of Na 2SO3 or 0.18 0.45 0.030 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 10 (theoretical amount) g/1000 L 0.015 0.1 0.91 1.34 7.15 g / 1000 L 0.0075 0.80 lb/1000 gal 0.

1 ft 10 in. m per m depth 2 or Area in m 0.52 4.33 1. 1 ft 7 in.04 9.6 4.92 1.4 1.7 2.5 1. 1 ft 5 in.54 86. 1322.8 2. gal per foot of depth 5.79 13.3 1.39 0.3 12.0 846. vertical cylindrical.5 647. 6 ft 0 in.7 211.46 3. Tables. 12 ft 0 in. in U. 11 ft 6 in.9 165. 1 ft 4 in.48 44.87 6. 1 ft 2 in.99 19. 3 ft 6 in.03 103.S.0 424.40 1.1 176.63 23.2 1.31 5.79 0.8 1.3 0. units.77 2.9 777.73 16.1 2. 6 ft 6 in. 2 ft 0 in.14 3. 15 ft 0 in.9 2.27 56.62 12.9 330.2 4.0 918.7 1.6 21.95 1. 2 ft 6 in.97 94.3 2.18 10.5 248. 1 ft 6 in.4 2.5 0. Tank dimensions and capacities.27 33.07 1. 5 ft 0 in.97 2. 1235.0 1.9 3.6 18.28 0.9 177.72 52. 1 ft 11 in.2 587.89 8.58 1. 10 ft 6 in.2 3.07 8.6 3.57 15.0 2.18 2.91 7.6 0.64 0.77 1.9 1. Diameter in m 0.8 4.2 11. 14 ft 0 in.50 0.Useful Graphs.41 2. 10 ft 0 in.91 5. 1152.76 28.1 122.27 2.01 2.8 0.75 21.16 6. 14 ft 6 in.7 132.0 992.64 2.62 70. and Other Information 12.61 7.84 3. 11 ft 0 in.44 11. 1 ft 9 in.6 13.I. 7 ft 0 in. 8 ft 0 in. 3 ft 0 in.07 9.50 36.88 71.59 95.4 3.9 1071.32 17.07 0.2 0.7 143.2 2.6 1.8 5.88 78.0 146.18 50.22 14.12 Tank Dimensions and Capacities Table 45. 13 ft 0 in.4 0.2 16.0 119.5 376.7 710.00 9. 1 ft 1 in.7 U.5 475.1 19.89 3.73 6.90 19. 9 ft 0 in.9 530. 9 ft 6 in.54 2.75 63.0 4.16 4.23 1. 1 ft 3 in.9 113. 4 ft 0 in.5 2. 13 ft 6 in.08 10.9 15.4 4.18 38.2 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 88 Water Conditioning Manual .1 153.13 0.2 287.58 23.79 0. and S. 8 ft 6 in. Cubic feet per foot 2 depth or Area in ft 0. 12 ft 6 in.13 1.2 3 Diameter in ft 1 ft 0 in.80 4.6 2.14 4. 1 ft 8 in.7 0. 5 ft 6 in.54 1. 4 ft 6 in. 7 ft 6 in.0 3.1 1.S.0 5.

0 eq/L capacity.4 lb 1 gallon of water weighs 8. At 20˚C: 1 cubic foot of water weighs 62. Therefore a cubic foot of DOWEX MARATHON C sodium contains 2.31 lb per year 3 3 100 m /h is 876. Volume of a sphere: V = 4/3πr 3. If the resin were in the barium form. (52-cm) diameter. and Other Information 12. where: r = radius Surface area of a sphere: A = 4πr 2 Area of a circle: A = πr 2 How much is 1 part per billion? You win the lottery of $10 million and find a penny on the way to the bank.57 lb of barium ions at full loading (137 g/L resin).000 m per year 3 100 m /h for one year with 1 ppm is 876 kg per year 3 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 89 Water Conditioning Manual . A standard 5 ft fiber drum weighs 15 lb (6.87 lb of sodium ions.6 kg). diameter = 617 mL of resin per foot of height 3 cm diameter = 7 mL of resin per cm of height 4 cm diameter = 12.8 kg) and is 30 in. The penny is one part per billion (1 ppb).5-in. (76 cm) high with a 20.13 Other Information A typical cubic foot of standard ion exchange resin contains approximately 300 million beads.600 gal per year 1 gpm for one year with 1 ppm is 4. One liter contains approximately 10 million beads. it would contain 8.Useful Graphs. One liter contains 46 g of sodium ions. diameter = 154 mL of resin per foot of height 2 in.6 mL of resin per cm of height 1 gpm is 525. A standard wood pallet weighs approximately 30 lb (13.33 lb 1 cubic centimeter of water weighs 1 gram 1 liter of water weighs 1 kilogram 1 cubic meter of water weighs 1 metric ton 1 metric ton = 2240 lb For a column with a diameter of: 1 in. DOWEX™ MARATHON™ C sodium form has 2. That is one bead per person living in the United States. Tables.

ISBN 3-11-010341-9. 1991. Ion Exchangers... Some are included in various sections of this manual. Volume 14. Ellis Horwood Limited. Walter de Gruyter & Co. 1991. M.. NY. 1968. New York. Ion Exchange Troubleshooting. DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 90 Water Conditioning Manual . applications. Tall Oaks Publishing. Samuel B. 1984. John Wiley & Sons. Dorfner. Germany.” Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. ISBN 0-927188-00-7. Demineralization by Ion Exchange. Owens. D. Ion Exchange Technology. 1985. ISBN 0-12-058950-8... Applebaum. Naden. Charles. and test procedures. Dean L. Ion Exchange Training Manual. ISBN 0442-00652-7.dowwatersolutions. others are listed below. NY.. Voorhees. Practical Principles of Ion Exchange Water Treatment. George P. “Ion Exchange. New York. Great Britain..Bibliography 13 BIBLIOGRAPHY There are many references available that describe ion exchange resin technology. NY. NJ. Berlin. Konrad. New York.com. Academic Press Inc. 1995. Dow Water Solutions website www. Dickert. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Inc. Simon. ISBN 0-85312-770-0. Chichester. and Streat.

exchange F Feed water composition · 64 contaminants · 64 FILMTEC reverse osmosis membranes · 54 Fouling · 54 B Backwash · 42. 58 L Layered beds · 36. and S. 43 Layout · 64 Life. mechanical · See Mechanical attrition E Exchange capacity · See Capacity. 87 Cleaning procedures · 57–60 Co-current regeneration · 20 UPCORE system · 43 Co-flow regeneration · See Co-current regeneration Conversion calcium carbonate equivalents · 75 conductance vs TDS · 77 ionic concentration units · 73 temperature units · 76 U. 39. 42. 68 brackish water softening · 27 dealkalization · 30 O Operating capacity · See Capacity.Index 14 INDEX SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION SERVICES · 50 DOWEX MAC-3 ion exchange resin · 26 DOWEX resins · 8 DOWEX UPCORE Mono resins · 41 A Abbreviations · 9 Acronyms · 9 Air brushing · 57 Analysis · See Resin analysis Anion exchange · 8 Anion resins · 58–59 Attrition. 50 Barium sulfate · 58 Bibliography · 90 Biological growth · 46.I. 52 operating · 22–25. 54. 37. 66 Calcium · 58 Calcium sulfate · 58. 66 tank · 88 Carbon dioxide · 39 Cation exchange · 7 Cation resins · 57–58 Chlorine · 25. 85 Capacity exchange · 43. 32.S. system · 20. resins · 47 M Magnesium · 58 Manganese · 57 MARATHON resins · 8 Mechanical attrition · 42. 55 Mixed beds · 36. 34. 60. units · 72 Counter-current regeneration · 25. 59 Brackish water softening · 26–29 H Hydrogen cycle ion exchange · 7 C CADIX software · 28. 57. 39 UPCORE system · 44 Counter-flow regeneration · See Counter-current regeneration I Iron · 25. operating · 55 Loading/unloading. 39. 29. 66 Deionization · See Demineralization Demineralization · 36–40 Design. 64. 64. 39. 53. 69 Mono ion exchange resins · See DOWEX UPCORE Mono resins MONOSPHERE resins · 8 D Dealkalization · 30–35 Degasifier · 36. 67. 39. operating Operational information · 46 Organics · 59 Osmotic shock · 55 Oxidants · 53 Oxidation · 53 Oxygen · 86 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 91 Water Conditioning Manual .

59 Sizing. 54. resins · 46 Strontium sulfate · 58 System design · See Design. 80–85 conditions · 66–69 efficiency · 34. concentration and density · 80 Uniform particle size resins · 8 UPCORE system · 41 regeneration cycle · 42 self-cleaning · 42 W Water softening · See Sodium cycle ion exchange Weak acid cation resin · 33–35 DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 92 Water Conditioning Manual . system R Radiation · 55 Regeneration chemicals · 66–69. 64 T Tank capacity · See Capacity.Index P Packed beds · 44 Particle size distribution · 70 Product water requirements · 64 Stability · 52–56 temperature · 52 Storage. 65 Resin analysis · 50 Resin selection · 8. tank Terms · 9 Troubleshooting increased pressure drop · 63 throughput capacity · 61 water quality · 62 U S Safe handling regenerant chemicals · 78 resins · 46 Salt-splitting process · 30–32 Sampling · 48 Silica · 39. 19–25 Softening · See Sodium cycle ion exchange Solutions. vessel · 67 Sodium cycle ion exchange · 7.

+81 3 5460 2100 Fax +81 3 5460 6246 Contact the Customer Information Group Dow China Dow Chemical (China) Investment Company Ltd. ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE EXPRESSLY EXCLUDED. and the United Kingdom Warning: Oxidizing agents such as nitric acid attack organic ion exchange resins under certain conditions. ™ Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company ("Dow") or an affiliated company of Dow ® Form No. Because use conditions and applicable laws may differ from one location to another and may change with time. +800 3 694 6367 Fax +32 3 450 2815 Contact the Customer Information Group Dow Pacific Customer Information Group – Dow Water Solutions All countries except Indonesia and Vietnam: Toll free phone: Toll free fax: All countries: Tel. Spain. France. Box 1206 Midland. MI 48641-1206 USA Tel. Ireland. Before using strong oxidizing agents. Germany. Hungary. Denmark. NO WARRANTIES ARE GIVEN. Seller assumes no obligation or liability for the information in this document.A. Dow Water Solutions Tennoz Central Tower 2-24 Higashi Shinagawa 2-chome Shinagawa-ku. Dow Water Solutions Rua Alexandre Dumas. Belgium. Finland.Dow Water Solutions Offices.dowwatersolutions. 1-800-447-4369 Fax (989) 832-1465 Contact the Customer Information Group Dow Japan Dow Chemical Japan Ltd. This could lead to anything from slight resin degradation to a violent exothermic reaction (explosion). +86 21 2301 9000 Fax +86 21 5383 5505 Contact the Customer Information Group Dow Latin America Dow Quimica S. One Corporate Avenue No. Norway. Customer is responsible for determining whether products and the information in this document are appropriate for Customer’s use and for ensuring that Customer’s workplace and disposal practices are in compliance with applicable laws and other governmental enactments. Notice: No freedom from any patent owned by Seller or others is to be inferred. Tokyo 140-8617 Japan Tel. Hu Bin Road Shanghai 200021 China Tel. 1671 Sao Paulo – SP – Brazil CEP 04717-903 Tel. Italy. +32 3 450 2240 † Tel.com † Toll-free telephone number for the following countries: Austria. 177-01766-1105 . +60 3 7958 3392 Fax +60 3 7958 5598 Contact the Customer Information Group Dow North America The Dow Chemical Company Dow Water Solutions Customer Information Group P. Sweden. 222.O. consult sources knowledgeable in handling such materials. The Netherlands. For more information call Dow Water Solutions: Dow Europe Dow Customer Information Group Dow Water Solutions Prins Boudewijnlaan 41 B-2650 Edegem Belgium Tel. Switzerland. Dow Water Solutions 23/F. 55-11-5188 9277 Fax 55-11-5188 9919 Contact the Customer Information Group Internet www. Portugal.

Dow Liquid Separations DOWEX Ion Exchange Resin Guide to Condensate Polishing May 2003 .

Condensate Polisher Performance–DOWEX MONOSPHERE* Resin– Simulated Condenser Seawater Leak Studies Figure 11. Battery of Condensate Polishers Figure 4. Effluent Iron from New Resin Beds vs. Typical Bulk Properties (OH. Cross-Linkage Figure 9. Typical External Regeneration System Figure 5. Resin Beads with Gaussian and Narrow Size Distributions Figure 10. 177-01331-503 . Ethanolamine and Other Alternative Amines Use of Boric Acid in PWR Secondary Cycles for Intergranular Attack and Stress Corrosion Cracking Control Factors Affecting Resin Performance Resin Characteristics (Cation and Anion) Particle Size Uniformity Particle Size Uniformity and Separability for Regeneration Filtration Capacity Selectivity Bead Integrity Kinetics Oxidative Stability Rinse and Regeneration Efficiency Color Resins Specifications Can Help You Select the Right Resin System Operating Considerations Temperature Organics Regeneration Separation Regenerants Remixing Resin System Operation Dow Technical Backup References Figures Figure 1. Typical Steam Turbine Loop Figure 2. Results Summary for the Controlled Aging Studies (150˚F/65˚C) for Several Prototypes of the DOWEX MONOSPHERE 575C versus the DOWEX MONOSPHERE 650C Cation Resins 3 3 4 4 5 5 7 7 8 9 9 10 10 11 13 13 13 15 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 20 20 20 3 5 6 6 7 7 9 10 13 14 14 16 16 17 19 5 8 8 8 12 Page 2 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins Form No. Anion Rinse Down Curves–DOWEX MONOSPHERE Resins vs. EPRI Guidelines to Maximum Impurity Levels in PWR Steam Generator and BWR Reactor Water Systems Table 2. Gaussian Gel Resins Figure 15. Terminal Settling Velocity Distributions and After-Backwash Column Profiles for Gaussian and Narrow Size Distribution Resins in Mixed Beds Tables Table 1. Sodium Ion Leakage Based on Equilibria with Hydrogen Ion Figure 13.Form) for DOWEX Anion Exchange Resins Table 4. Cation-Anion-Cation Stacked Bed Figure 7. Typical Ratios of Cation to Anion Resin Used in Mixed Bed Condensate Polishing Table 5. Condensate Polisher Performance–DOWEX MONOSPHERE Resin– During Actual Condenser Leak Figure 12.Table of Contents An Introduction to Condensate Polishing Condensate Polishing–A Preventative Approach The Role of Ion Exchange in Condensate Polishing The Purpose of This Guide The Type of Condensate Polishing Operation Depends on the Operating Parameters Boiler Pressure Condensate Polishing Systems Currently Used or Proposed for Operation Cation Exchange–“Condensate Scavenging” Cation/Anion Mixed Bed Lead Cation Resin Followed by Mixed Bed of Strong Cation/Strong Anion Resins Cation-Anion Stacked Bed (Tripol System) Operating Cycle Options DOWEX* Resin Selections for Condensate Polishing Hydrogen Cycle Operation BWR Primary Cycle–Neutral pH Condensate Hydrogen Cycle with All Volatile Treatment (AVT) The Ammonia Cycle with All Volatile Treatment (AVT) Morpholine. Control Resin Bed–Nine Mile Station Unit 2 Figure 8. Chloride Ion Leakage Based on Equilibria with Hydroxide Ion Figure 14. Particulate Filtration in a Typical Cation/Anion Mixed Bed Figure 3. Cation Resin Selectivity vs. Lead Cation Resin with Mixed Bed Condensate Polisher Figure 6. Typical Bulk Properties (H+ Form) for DOWEX Cation Exchange Resins Table 3.

the operation is commonly referred to as the “make-up water demineralizer” system. Typical Steam Turbine Loop Saturated Steam ▼ ▲ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ HP Turbine IP Turbine LP Turbine ▼ Blowdown ▲ Economizer ▼ Condenser ▲ ▲ Cooling Water Hotwell Reheat Steam Boiler Make-Up Demineralization Water System Raw Water ▼ Deaerator ▲ ▲ L-P Heaters ▲ ▲ ▼ ▼ Condensate Storage H-P Heaters ▲ ▲ ▲ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ Condensate Polishers ▼ ▼ Page 3 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins ▲ ▲ Form No. corrosion of metal surfaces and careless repair work. the other being the condensate return stream. however. As shown in this diagram. where condensate represents the bulk of boiler feedwater. Figure 1 is a block diagram of a typical steam-condensate loop. Within this cycle. condensate polishing is an operation that cannot be taken casually or ignored. and dissolved. critical and supercritical steam generators. In fact. The low-pressure steam is then condensed in a heat exchanger system where it is recovered in hotwells and routed to storage tanks. Under normal conditions the raw condensate is considered high quality with respect to dissolved contaminants. purification or “polishing” of the return condensate is an essential ingredient to guarantee a high quality feedwater stream to the downstream boiler. These include a return condensate stream with a limitless inventory of impurities – solid. corrosion products are picked up as the steam and condensed water pass through piping. In some cases. so a continuous make-up water source is required to maintain the total energy within the cycle. the condensate polishing system must deal principally with impurities that arise inside the steam system itself. This condensed water or “condensate” is then recycled to the boiler and converted back into steam. The continuous cycling or re-circulation of the steam and condensate is commonly referred to as the steam-condensate loop or steam-condensate cycle. reverse osmosis (RO) membranes or a combination thereof. Figure 1. gel-like. To this end. steam from the boiler passes through a series of turbines and expends most of its’ energy. For these reasons. lake or well is used as the source for make-up water. In order to maintain a feedwater stream with a low level of dissolved solids the raw water is demineralized using ion exchange (IX) resins. demineralization of the make-up water is accomplished via evaporation. such as vacuum-induced leaks. the make-up water is injected into the condenser hotwells or storage tanks. 177-01331-503 . heat exchangers and other associated equipment in the steam-condensate loop. These impurities originate from a host of sources. rather than those that figure in the raw water analysis. A far more serious threat is the inleakage of dissolved contaminants that occurs when cooling water in the condenser system leaks into the condensate stream. The boiler make-up water is only one determinant of feedwater purity. Recovering and recycling the return condensate stream is an obvious way to significantly reduce the cost of operation. In most cases. A local river. Unlike treatment of make-up water. making it the major potential source of contaminant introduction. nuclear-fueled boiling water reactors (BWR) and pressurized water reactors (PWR). The Role of Ion Exchange in Condensate Polishing The role of ion exchange technology is fundamental to condensate polishing. condensate purity is of greatest concern in high-pressure utility units. And condensate polishing is a unique application for ion exchange resins. some water is lost due to leaks and boiler blowdown. This includes power generating facilities using once-through steam generators (OTSG). Regardless of the technology.An Introduction to Condensate Polishing Condensate Polishing – A Preventative Approach Condensate polishing is an important part of water treatment for any utility or industrial power generating system.

In addition. Condensate “scavenging” is often used to remove corrosion products from condensate returning from the turbine. Condensate scavenging uses a cation resin deep bed operated in the sodium or amine form to filter the particulate matter. High flow rates and proper bead size are critical to obtain in-depth filtration. In these low pressure systems. More discussion on this topic is provided in the section on “Operating Cycle Options”. 177-01331-503 . The Type of Condensate Polishing Operation Depends on the Operating Parameters Boiler Pressure Low Pressure. The filtration capacity of a deep bed is increased via this mechanism. They have stringent feedwater quality requirements and full-time condensate polishing requirements. Depending on the feedwater composition and concentration. and 2) the use of powdered ion exchange resin presented as a precoat on a filter element. No additional information is presented in this publication for powdered resin systems. chemicals may be added to the boiler water to control corrosion. condensate polishing is normally not required. boiler feedwater is treated to prevent hard scale formation and corrosion in the boiler. At steam pressures below 600 psig (41 bar).Another aspect of condensate polishing is high flow rate design. This method also removes hardness ions. Part of the requirement of “condensate grade” resins include a specification on bead size distribution to balance the pressure drop and filtration characteristics with those of the surface area available for mass transfer and ion exchange kinetics. but all volatile treatment (AVT) may also be used. For deep-bed systems the removal of suspended corrosion products occurs by in-depth filtration.400 psig (41 to 165 bar) pressure range do not require condensate polishing.250 psi (86 bar). and removal of particulate matter are required. Even under high flow rate conditions the dissolved ionic contaminants should be easily removed by deep-beds of ion exchange resins. Powdered resin precoat systems offer good filtration but are limited in their demineralization capacity since the resins volume are restricted by the available precoat depth on the septum filter. For boiler pressures of 600 to 2. control of corrosion. In some cases. For example. Included are operating cycle options and a section on the factors that affect resin performance. control of silica. This means the suspended particulates penetrate deep into the bed of the ion exchange beads instead of their accumulation on the top surface of the bed. Medium Pressure. water temperatures are often high and in some systems can approach the temperature limits of the resins. This provides a means of extending the service cycle run length and reducing the costs associated with regeneration. While many systems in the 600 to 2. because full-flow polishing of the large flows of condensate may be necessary.400 psig (41 to 165 bar). nuclear-fueled boiling water reactors (BWR) have historically been “zero solids” systems. is used. The Purpose of This Guide The primary emphasis in this publication is on the application of ion exchange resins to deep bed condensate polishing operations. even though the boilers used are typically in the range of 1. Page 4 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins Form No. Gross particulate filtration and decarbonation are also employed. Normally the mixed bed consists of cation resin initially in the hydrogen form and anion resin in the hydroxide form. there are exceptions. The original designs for condensate polisher systems incorporated two approaches: 1) the use of deep beds of bead type ion exchange resins. Some type of chemical addition. such as phosphate addition. Neither AVT nor phosphate chemistry is practical in BWR primary systems since condensate circulating through the nuclear reactor has the potential for induced radioactivity. AVT uses ammonia or other volatile amines to adjust water pH and control corrosion. In all designs the purpose of the condensate polisher is twofold: removal of suspended solids by filtration and removal of dissolved solids by ion exchange. Boiler water salts are kept from the steam cycle by control of the entrainment carryover and by boiler blowdown. Control of silica is necessary to prevent silica from volatilizing with the steam and depositing on the turbine blades. the cation resin is used in an amine form after an initial period in the hydrogen form. A more recent development is the combination of a non-precoat filter system followed by a deep-bed ion exchange resin system. Also presented are the various condensate polishing systems in use or under development and the types of steam generator systems most likely to use them. Makeup feedwater demineralization with an anion bed can control silica levels in the water if it cannot be controlled economically with boiler blowdown. Phosphates are typically used.

and for the removal of contaminant ions as a result of condenser inleakage.) ▲ ▲ Figure 2. Recognize that the values shown in Table 1 represent the maximum allowable levels to satisfy Action Level 1 status.450 psi (169 bar). Deep-bed. Cation Exchange — “Condensate Scavenging” Used mainly with industrial low. plant chemists are striving for less than 1 ppb concentration levels for all contaminant ions listed in Table 1. at least 9.). hydrazine is added to scavenge trace amounts of dissolved oxygen and maintain reducing conditions. Demineralization of make-up water becomes mandatory to satisfy the water quality requirements of the major contaminant ions. The choice of cation resin ionic form depends on the chemistry of the circulating water system. in-depth filtration (see Figure 2) is accomplished by maintaining the flow rate high enough to keep surface filter cakes from forming.and medium-pressure boilers. EPRI Guidelines for Maximum Impurity Levels in PWR Steam Generator and BWR Reactor Water Systems Parameter Sodium Chloride Sulfate Action Level 1 PWR Steam Generator 5 ppb 10 ppb 10 ppb Action Level 1 BWR Reactor Water – 5 ppb 5 ppb Underdrain Distributor Resin Removal Polished Condensate Out (Particulate shown in gray.High Pressure. such as sodium and silica.8-9. In North America. the flow velocity is about 50 gpm/ft2 (120 meters/hr. Full-flow condensate polishing is a critical operation for the removal of soluble and insoluble corrosion products. systems employ disposable mixed bed resins. because ion leakage from either cation or anion resin is quickly removed from the water by the other resin. As pressure increases beyond 2.” This type unit is primarily for the removal of corrosion products from the condensate.3 for all-ferrous systems and 8. 177-01331-503 . In actual practice. In some cases. Table 1 provides a summary of the year 2000 revision by EPRI for the recommended guidelines of the major contaminant ions in PWR steam generator and BWR reactor water systems. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) continues to work closely with the utility industry to help define the water quality requirements for PWR secondary cycles and BWR primary cycles. In addition to AVT chemistry. Condensate Polishing Systems Currently Used or Proposed for Operation Ion exchange resins can be used in a number of ways to treat condensate. Table 1. a deep bed of a strong acid cation exchange resin operated in the sodium or amine form can act as a “condensate scavenger. a mixed bed condensate polishing system consists of several vessels operating in parallel (see Figure 3). water chemistry becomes “zero solids chemistry”. Cation/Anion Mixed Bed The most common ion exchange system used in condensate polishing is a mixed bed of strong acid cation exchange resin and strong base anion exchange resin. Used resins are transferred to a separate system for cleanup and regeneration. The optimum pH range depends on the materials of construction. pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants using recirculating-type steam generators (RSG’s) have focused their secondary cycle water chemistry program on the minimization of insoluble corrosion product transport and sodium-tochloride molar ratio control in the tubesheet crevice areas of the steam generator. Typically. Chemical treatment of the boiler or steam generator system shifts from phosphate to AVT using ammonia or amines such as morpholine or monoethanolamine to elevate pH and control corrosion in the high temperature and wet-steam areas of the steam-condensate loop. Using a bed depth of approximately 3 feet (1 meter) allows pressure drop across the bed to be maintained at economically acceptable levels. An understanding of the design and operational limitations of the deep-bed condensate polishing system becomes the most critical aspect of that effort. Particulate Filtration in a Typical Cation/Anion Mixed Bed Raw Condensate In ▲ Inlet Distributor Page 5 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins ▲ Resin Return Form No. Mixed beds produce very high quality demineralized water.2 for systems containing copper. Insoluble particulate corrosion products are filtered in-depth on the resin bed and some hardness ions are interchanged with the cation on the resin. In most cases. Several of the most widely used approaches will be presented in some detail and the main features and limitations of each will be described. A shift to the use of organic amines (monoethanolamine in most cases) for pH control and procedural changes in the resin regeneration process have been instrumental in achieving the desired improvements in secondary cycle water chemistry.

A typical external regeneration system is shown in Figure 4. This is the most widely used system today in North America and requires these basic steps. where disposal costs of radioactive waste regenerants would be prohibitive. and highly regenerated resins by the resin supplier. many types of resin transfer and separation systems have been developed over the years. One regeneration system can service multiple condensate polisher vessels. In external regeneration. Figure 4. (2) cleaned to remove the particulate contaminants collected by filtration from the condensate. resin regeneration crossover. (3) separated as completely as possible for the regeneration. Several systems and techniques will be discussed in a later section covering system design parameters. Battery of Condensate Polishers Raw Condensate ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ Polished Condensate External regeneration or regeneration of each resin outside of the condensate polishing vessel has proven to be the most practical approach. To accomplish these steps. Typical External Regeneration System CATION REGENERATION TANK ▲ ANION REGENERATION TANK ▲ ▲ ▲ RESIN STORAGE TANK ▲ Exhausted Resins ▲ Vent ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ Vent ▲ ▲ ▲ Caustic ▲ Acid Anion Resin Transfer ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ Water Water Air Cation Resin Air Anion Resin Water Chemical Wastes Wastewater Page 6 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ Bypass Valve Mixed Cation/Anion Bed Mixed Cation/Anion Bed Mixed Cation/Anion Bed ▲ Vent ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ Regenerated Mixed Resin ▲ ▲ Form No. (4) regenerated independently with the appropriate chemical solution. and regenerant quality problems. A second approach. This approach requires the manufacture and shipment of very clean. (5) rinsed thoroughly with demineralized water. (7) transferred to the next available condensate polisher while exercising care to minimize resin separation. Isolation of the regenerant chemicals from the recirculating water loop significantly reduces the incidence of condensate contamination by regenerants. Disposable mixed bed systems are commonly used for condensate polishing in BWR’s. 177-01331-503 . is the use of a disposable mixed bed. as well. the only interruption in polisher service is for transfer of the used resin to the regeneration system and the introduction of newly regenerated resin to the condensate vessel. The used resins must be: (1) transferred completely from the operating vessel to the regeneration system.Figure 3. (6) remixed carefully. which eliminates resin separation. The amount of time that the polisher is offline is reduced.

eliminating solids contamination of the mixed bed.1 Figure 5. mixed bed run lengths can be extended to months. Cation-Anion Stacked Bed Raw Condensate ▲ Lead Cation Bed Lead Cation Bed ▲ ▲ Mixed Cation/Anion Bed Mixed Cation/Anion Bed ▲ ▲ Resin Transfer ▲ Polished Condensate Page 7 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ Lead Cation Resin Resin Transfer Anion Resin Trail Cation Resin Polished Condensate Form No. and cation resins (see Figure 6). Cation-Anion-Cation Stacked Bed (Tripol System) This process uses a single tank with compartments to contain separate layers of cation. When this condensate is processed through a condensate polisher the amine involved is readily exchanged onto the cation resin. the service cycle run time is terminated at the amine break and the polisher bed is taken off-line for resin regeneration back to the active (H/OH) form. Final water quality produced depends on the trailing cation resin regenerant rinse-down. Regeneration of the lead cation can be done on a more frequent basis than the mixed bed. In most cases. The resins are never mixed.2 to 1 ppm depending on the plant chemistry program. One suggested technique for increasing the run time on the mixed bed polisher is to treat the condensate with a hydrogen form cation resin to remove the amine prior to contact with the mixed bed (see Figure 5). 177-01331-503 ▲ . Eventually.Lead Cation Resin Followed by Mixed Bed of Strong Cation/Strong Anion Resins When AVT is used to control pH and corrosion in a steam-condensate cycle the amine will carry overhead and transport with the steam. with each resin going to its own external regeneration vessel. Lead Cation Bed with Mixed Bed Condensate Polisher Raw Condensate ▲ Figure 6. Leakage from the lead cation is polished in the trailing cation resin. The lead cation resin is typically not run past the ammonia break in AVT systems. and on the leachable characteristics of both cation resins. Corrosion products are also removed by the lead cation bed. the cation resin becomes sufficiently exhausted to the amine form resulting in an amine breakthrough in the condensate polisher effluent stream. Ultimately the amine-laden steam condenses thereby creating a condensate with amine levels ranging from 0. By taking this amine load off the mixed bed. anion. thereby reducing the difficulties of mixed bed regeneration.

while in others it is based on a 1:1 (H/OH) ratio by equivalents.0 1.9 1. As indicated in Table 4. Diameter (microns) 550 650 750 550 500 750 – 850 750 – 850 750 – 850 Table 3.0 0. Table 4.1 1. Typical Ratios of Cation to Anion Resin Used in Mixed Bed Condensate Polishing Cation/Anion Ratio By Volume (H+/OH-) 2:1 1:1 or 2:3 Cation/Anion Ratio By Equivalent (H+/OH-) 1:1 Plant Type Nuclear BWR Nuclear PWR/Fossil Nuclear PWR Notes Hydrogen Cycle with Neutral pH Feed Hydrogen Cycle with Elevated pH Feed For plants with seawater or high TDS Cooling water source Page 8 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins Form No. In some cases the ratio is based on volume.8 1.6 Water Retention Capacity (%) 41 – 46 46 – 51 46 – 51 51 – 57 50 – 54 47 – 51 48 – 54 50 – 56 Avg.6 2. 177-01331-503 . In some situations.1 1. Typical Bulk Properties (H+ Form) for DOWEX Cation Exchange Resins Resin Uniform Size Resins MONOSPHERE 575C MONOSPHERE 650C MONOSPHERE 750C GUARDIAN* CR-1 MONOSPHERE MP-525C Gaussian Size Resins HGR-W2 HCR-W2 MSC-1 C Copolymer Type 12% gel 10% gel 10% gel 8% gel 20% macro 10% gel 8% gel 20% macro Total Exchange Capacity (eq/liter) 2.0 1.8 1.1 0.8 Water Retention Capacity (%) 55 – 65 55 – 65 65 – 75 50 – 60 60 – 68 65 – 72 Avg.Form) for DOWEX Anion Exchange Resins Resin Uniform Size Resins MONOSPHERE 550A MONOSPHERE 700A MONOSPHERE MP-725A Gaussian Size Resins SBR-C SBR-P-C MSA-1-C Copolymer Type gel gel macro gel gel macro Total Exchange Capacity (eq/liter) 1.Operating Cycle Options DOWEX Resin Selections for Condensate Polishing Tables 2 and 3 provide a listing of the DOWEX cation and anion exchange resins that are commercially available for use in condensate polishing. Table 2. Typical Bulk Properties (OH. there may be more than one choice and an actual field trial would be necessary to determine the best resin selection.7 1.15 2. Diameter (microns) 590 700 690 700 – 800 700 – 800 700 – 800 Table 4 gives examples of the different ratios of cation and anion resin used in condensate polishing applications. The best choice of resins will depend on the chemistry of the operating cycle and the design and operating characteristics of the specific plant. the ratio selection depends on the type of operating cycle and source of condenser cooling water.

such as DOWEX HGR-W2 (see Figure 7). i.5 ppb. The filtering ability of a deep-bed of cation and anion exchange resin is considerably greater than that of inert media. In an ultrasonic resin cleaner (URC) the resins pass downward through a tall. Despite this. can remove more insoluble iron from the resin resulting in an improvement in feed water iron to less than 1. Figure 7. the condensate polisher serves primarily as a filter for crud removal.5 to 3 ppb.e. (ppb) 10 11 12 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 1/ 2/ Page 9 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins 12 3/ Form No. The trial3 clearly showed a significant improvement in iron removal capability compared to a conventional cation resin. hydrogen ions are released and acids are formed. the low concentration of dissolved solids in the condensate results in very little exhaustion of the ion exchange resin. The manufacturing process incorporates a proprietary technology to chemically “stabilize” this product. Note that this falls short of the 0. The hydrogen and hydroxide ions combine to form water. etc. Recycle of the cleaning water minimizes wastewater generation. BWR market because of its enhanced crud removal characteristics (see Table 2). but low enough to avoid bead breakage. Energy input must be sufficient to break crud loose from the surfaces of the resin beads. These acids are immediately exchanged onto the anion exchange resin in the mixed bed and hydroxide ions are released. The cleaning method most common in North America employs ultrasonic energy. Effluent Iron Comparison from Field Trial at Nine Mile Station. Because the quantities of insoluble corrosion products (crud) are much higher in relation to dissolved solids. of the same particle size. Crud and resin fines are drawn off at the column top. slender vessel having ultrasonic transducers on its wall.S.2 Another area of development in BWR condensate polishing relates to a different design for the cation resin. The DOWEX GUARDIAN CR-1 is a commercially available cation resin product used in the U. The result: effluent water of exceptional quality. In general. for the evaluation of several lower cross-linked cation resins. such as sodium. thirty days is a typical service cycle run time of a BWR condensate polisher bed and after removal from service the resin is transferred to an external cleaning station.5 to 1.Hydrogen Cycle Operation Hydrogen cycle operation literally means the cation resin in the mixed bed always has some hydrogen exchange capacity – even at the endpoint that triggers the end of the service cycle. When cations.. Results from a full-scale installation at a BWR station in the southeastern region of the United States indicate that ARCS. Over a decade of Dow research has been dedicated to the manufacture of cation resin beads with enhanced crud removal capability. Activity continues in Japan and the U.S. BWR Primary Cycle – Neutral pH Condensate In BWR primary cycles the condensate is kept near neutral pH conditions. used consistently. A promising alternative system – the Advanced Resin Cleaning System (ARCS) – is a vibrating screen assembly for separating cleaned resin beads and fines from transfer and cleaning water. such as sand or coal. Under normal conditions. A full-scale field trial at a BWR station in the northeastern region of the United States began in January 1998. HCl. are exchanged onto the cation resin. This is due to the highly charged surface of the resin particle. 177-01331-503 . Unit II Control Resin (Charge #2) DOWEX HGR-W2 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 98 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 /9 /9 /9 /9 /9 /9 /9 /9 /9 /9 /9 98 /9 /9 /9 9/ 28 25 25 22 20 17 15 12 /7 /4 /2 0/ 27 24 24 9/ /3 21 4/ /9 9 Test Resin (Charge #9) DOWEX GUARDIAN CR-1 Test Resin (Charge #3) DOWEX GUARDIAN CR-1 Iron Conc.5 ppb level now targeted by North American industry guidelines. the URC method enables polishers to reduce insoluble iron to about 2.

The cation resin. the selectivity for sodium relative to ammonia is about 0. Because this on-line ammoniation competes with the selectivity for sodium. For instance.8 1. NH4+. A 1996 survey4 of PWR stations in North America indicated that only 45-65% of the cation resin converts to the amine form prior to the onset of amine breakthrough.” Some operations start with pre-ammoniated resins to eliminate step-change increases in sodium leakage. a resin volume ratio of 2:1 cation to anion resin has been employed.0 1. DVB 20 18 16 14 12 10 H+ DOWEX MSC-1 20 Na+ NH4+ DOWEX HGR-W2 DOWEX MONOSPHERE 650C 10 DOWEX HCR-W2 8 8 6 4 0.6 2. the amount of sodium on the cation resin. in the hydrogen cycle is at a solution concentration of only 10-7 equivalents per liter.71 to 0.6 1. The amine used in AVT exchanges onto the functional site of the cation exchange resin. The concentration of sodium in the spike is a function of the amine type and its’ concentration in the condensate. 177-01331-503 . Figure 8.2 2.Hydrogen Cycle with All Volatile Treatment (AVT) With AVT in the steam-condensate cycle. While increased run length and reduced regeneration costs are very attractive.4 1. a lot more work is still required to truly understand the selectivity properties in multi-component systems.chemistry.8 3. A cation resin with higher capacity and smaller diameter is now available commercially as DOWEX MONOSPHERE 575C (see Table 2). sodium leakages will be much greater (as much as 100x) with ammonia cycle operation. Suffice to say. the driving force for the uptake of contaminant ions is significantly reduced by virtue of hundredfold increases in the competing ion concentrations. H+. If the TDS of the cooling water is high. However. ion exchange shifts from H+/OH. This spike occurs because residual sodium left on the cation resin after regeneration will be displaced from the resin by the amine. the operation of the condensate polisher is referred to as the “hydrogen cycle”. More discussion on this topic is provided in the section on “Factors Affecting Resin Performance. and the selectivity of the cation resin for the amine relative to the sodium. the competing ion. in the condensate return stream.8 2. Consequently. as with seawater. the load on the cation exchange resin is near a 1 ppm concentration level which under normal conditions is many orders of magnitude greater than the steady-state amount of contaminant ions.chemistry to NH4+/OH. now in the ammonium form.2 1. an increase in the percentage of anion resin in the mixed bed may be necessary to provide more protection from influent anions (see Table 4). as shown in this figure. there is a risk. The combination of greater surface area and density of exchange sites enables greater utilization of the fixed volume of cation resin. in the ammonia cycle. Many stations that choose to operate in the ammonia cycle use a 20% cross-linked macroporous cation resin due to a belief that this resin offers a higher selectivity coefficient for sodium relative to ammonia.0 Selectivity Page 10 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins Form No. When operating in the ammonia cycle. Cation Resin Selectively vs.4 2. In contrast. it is essential to minimize the sodium residual on the cation resin during the regeneration cycle. The literature5 contains data that states the resin’s preference for one cation over another is a function of the degree of cross-linkage within the resin matrix. manpower and waste disposal. is at a solution concentration near 10-5 equivalents per liter. This can be achieved with the proper choice of resin products and regeneration procedures. exchanges ammonium ions for contaminating ions. When the service cycle run time is terminated at or before the onset of amine breakthrough. The Ammonia Cycle with All Volatile Treatment (AVT) Operating the polishers past the ammonia break is one way to reduce the operating costs in a system with AVT chemistry. such as sodium. Namely. Extending the run time reduces the frequency of regeneration thereby reducing the costs associated with regeneration chemicals. The drawback of this method is loss of hydrogen capacity as part of the total run length. Cross-Linkage 24 22 Cross-linkage as Percent.0 2. In order to extend the service run time of the condensate polishers in hydrogen cycle operation. such as sodium. Hydrogen cycle operation is necessary to prevent the occurrence of the sodium “spike”. Figure 8 shows this data as the relationship between the cross-linkage and ion selectivity. the competing ion.72 for both the 20% macroporous and the 10% gel cation resins. With hydrogen cycle operation the utilization of the cation resin is limited.

In addition. the most popular amine selection for PWR stations in North America is monoethanolamine (ETA). Carbonate is a divalent ion. At temperatures in excess of 120˚F (49˚C). In work reported by Sadler. such as morpholine or monoethanolamine. In the subsequent rinse steps.7 In other EPRI workshops for condensate polishing it has been reported that cation resins with a 20% cross-linked macroporous structure have a much greater selectivity for sodium relative to morpholine compared to gel resins. But with operation in the ammonia cycle. The deterioration of strong base anion exchange resin usually results in the formation of some weak base functionality. The selectivity. Ethanolamine and Other Alternative Amines The preferred amine for pH control. service cycle where the OH. even broader protection was deemed necessary. particularly with respect to surface kinetics. Page 11 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins Form No.ions. effective capacity for silica. a 10% cross-linked cation gel resin had approximately equal selectivity for morpholine and sodium. in reference to the sodium ion. etc – as well as steam-turbine design features. other studies have provided data to indicate the sodium selectivity of a cation resin in a morpholine environment depends on many factors including the quantity of sodium on the cation resin and the presence of other cationic species. depends on the system – component materials. use of condensate polisher.ion is at a solution concentration near 10-5 equivalents per liter). The anion resin’s selectivity for silica is also affected by temperature. For a wider pH control over all parts of the cycle.Operating in the ammonia cycle also affects the operation of the anion exchange resin. Improvement in corrosion protection throughout the steam-condensate circuit has been demonstrated in PWR stations in France and the United States by raising the pH by one unit. formerly ammonia. Despite this demonstrated superiority of morpholine over ammonia. If sulfuric acid comes in contact with the anion resin due to cross-contamination during the regeneration. which the cation resin exhibits for morpholine. the carbonate ion will selectively displace chloride and sulfate ions from the strong base functional sites of the anion resin.e. Weak base sites are kinetically slower than strong base sites. The anion resin in a condensate polisher also serves to protect against silica contamination sourced from condenser inleakage and/or make-up water. which then neutralize feed water acids. will cause impaired performance of the anion resin during rinse-down operations. the 10% gel cation resin performed equal to the 20% macroporous cation resin with respect to sodium breakthrough. is still a subject of much debate. Consequently. because of morpholine adsorption and exchange onto the cation resin.. Consequently. However. silica can hydrolyze from the resin. not to mention the ability to manage condenser inleakage situations. This phenomenon. sulfuric acid can be hydrolyzed from either two adjacent bisulfate ions or from the weak base sites of the resin. such as ammonia. In the presence of the ammonium ion. organic amines have a greater preference for water than for steam in a two-phase fluid. many PWR stations have switched to using organic amines. organic amines yield higher pH and provide greater protection for extraction lines. resulting in increased sulfate leakage. heater shells and other wet-steam regions where flowaccelerated corrosion (FAC) is likely to occur. and consequently it is much more selectively held by the anion resin in dilute solutions of monovalent ions (i. adopted by some two dozen plants. too. leaving little. One study8 in particular used pilot-size column experiments and a 10:1 equivalent ratio of morpholine to ammonia as the influent stream. silica leakages may be much greater with ammonia cycle operation. As a result. leakage of sulfate ions. So the already low silica selectivity of the anion resin is further compounded by the high pH conditions. and therefore. the concentration of hydroxide ions is roughly 100 times greater than that in the hydrogen cycle. The amines protect the metal surfaces by disassociation to form OH. dissolved carbon dioxide ionizes to form the carbonate ion. silica leakage may increase due to lower selectivity. Morpholine has been used with very good success in nuclear plants and in some industrial boiler applications without condensate polishing. if any. Morpholine. Data is available on the use of morpholine in systems using condensate polishers. This situation was especially true of plants using deep-bed polishers.6 Morpholine is exchanged onto a cation exchange resin in much the same manner. Interestingly. then the anion resin is converted to the bisulfate form. the accumulation of any of the variety of aromatic-based organic species on the anion resin surfaces can eventually impact the resins’ surface kinetic properties. Today. Aging is another consideration of anion exchange resin. as is ammonia. With lower volatility compared to ammonia. 177-01331-503 . Any of these conditions may dictate a condensate polisher design with a higher percentage of anion resin. At temperatures above 140˚F (60˚C).

07 1. a 1996 survey9 of all U. the rate of flow velocity change when switching to the full-flow service condition.59 0 2. Table 5. all prototype samples of the DOWEX MONOSPHERE 575C resin showed improved compatibility in both the ammonia and ethanolamine environments.03 2.386 1.14 2.09 1.092 1.11 1.82 15.892 1.155 1.110 2.214 1.190 1.343 1. Results Summary for the Controlled Aging Studies (150˚F/65˚C) for Several Prototypes of the DOWEX MONOSPHERE 575C versus the DOWEX MONOSPHERE 650C Cation Resins Net Anion cation kinetic TOC MTC (ppb) (10-4 m/s) 0 2.041 1.14 797 2. The severity of these steam generator sulfate disturbances vary depending on the length of the pre-service rinse.While ETA has provided enormous benefits in reducing the transport of corrosion products to steam generating and downstream components.09 1.330 1.14 3. many PWR stations have moved to operating without the deep-bed polishers (100% by-pass).505 1. Several samples of the DOWEX MONOSPHERE 575C cation exchange resin were included in this study to measure the impact.118 1. As a result. As shown in Table 5.494 2.410 1.14 972 2. not all stations fell victim to resin performance difficulties following their switch to ethanolamine chemistry.206 2.02 1.99 2.14 834 2.10 Each resin system was sampled at regular intervals over a period of 12 weeks. This finding prompted a research effort in accordance with EPRI to study the properties of DOWEX MONOSPHERE 650C resins under controlled laboratory conditions in separate environments of deionized water.71 13.43 0 2. Work is still in progress.84 0 2. Even still.02 0 2.06 2.02 2.14 2.309 1. a few common pitfalls exist. sluggish rinses of the anion resin have become more commonplace. TOC leachables from the cation resin and surface kinetic properties of the anion resin were the key parameters of interest.03 1. operating with a long.06 1.90 5.79 13.14 925 2. if any.054 1.95 5.01 0 2.58 18. In fact.92 0 2.14 745 2. 54°C) were the ones that reported more of the resin performance problems.386 1.192 2.160 1.82 7. or have begun intentionally skipping the regeneration of their anion resin. Following a chemical regeneration of the cation and anion resins.94 1.14 2. however.319 2.14 785 2. PWR stations indicated that the stations processing higher temperature condensate (>130˚F.92 6.88 0 2. ammonia and ethanolamine.85 Net Anion cation kinetic TOC MTC (ppb) (10-4 m/s) 0 2.423 1.06 2.905 2.93 2. In comparing the two cation resin types. the ethanolamine environment is clearly the most unfavorable resulting in the greatest impairment of anion surface kinetics and all the cation resins showing the highest degree of TOC leachable release.63 Resin designation DOWEX MONOSPHERE 650C DOWEX MONOSPHERE 575C DOWEX MONOSPHERE 575C DOWEX MONOSPHERE 575C Cation Aging time resin ionic form (weeks) 0 Hydrogen 6 “ 9 “ 12 “ 0 Hydrogen 6 “ 9 “ 12 “ 0 Hydrogen 6 “ 9 “ 12 “ 0 Hydrogen 6 “ 9 “ 12 “ Cation resin ionic form Ammonium “ “ “ Ammonium “ “ “ Ammonium “ “ “ Ammonium “ “ “ Cation resin ionic form Ethanolamine “ “ “ Ethanolamine “ “ “ Ethanolamine “ “ “ Ethanolamine “ “ “ Page 12 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins Form No.64 0 2. of a resin with higher cross-linkage.310 1. steam generator sulfate excursions and long. All experiments were controlled at 150˚F (66°C) and kept under deoxygenated conditions.92 Net Anion cation kinetic TOC MTC (ppb) (10-4 m/s) 0 2. Although different stations appear to have different problems. and other system related factors.405 1.068 2. some stations continue to experience difficulty in maintaining the desired secondary cycle chemistry under full-flow condensate polishing conditions.795 1. Resin sampling and analysis from polisher systems at many PWR stations clearly show that long rinse time is symptomatic of anion resin with impaired surface kinetic properties.14 913 2. to identify the root cause of premature impairment of anion resin kinetics for systems with ethanolamine chemistry and elevated condensate temperature.14 1.00 1.S. 177-01331-503 .09 1. extended pre-service rinse.89 0 2.191 1.236 2.

and the pressure drop across the resin. Laboratory studies from several years back indicated that boric acid could help control IGA and/or SCC – possibly by neutralizing a caustic environment or reinforcing the oxide film. – SCC ensues. the design parameters of the system within which it will operate. bead integrity. Figure 9 illustrates the difference in the particle size distribution between the Gaussian and uniform bead types. The breakthrough of boric acid creates acid pH conditions. Kinetics are determined by both the rate at which ions are transported across the surface of the resin bead and the rate of diffusion of the ion into the resin particle. These characteristics are to some degree interrelated and some overlap may occur in the description. degradation in performance of this costly component continues to limit secondary-cycle reliability. the ability of ion exchange resins to remove ionic impurities to extremely low levels depends in part on kinetics. the strong base anion resin seems to undergo partial conversion to the borate form. The introduction of resins with a narrow bead size distribution has been shown to offer many advantages over Gaussian distribution resins. Although results have been modest. many plants have adopted this inhibitor by maintaining 5-10 ppb boron in the steam generator. Figure 12 illustrates the dependence of sodium leakage on effluent pH. and on the manner in which the operation is controlled. and color. the borate break occurs early on in the service cycle. a larger driving force for sodium ion displacement. consequently.With boric acid addition to the secondary cycle. In general. 177-01331-503 . Factors Affecting Resin Performance The performance of an ion exchange resin in a particular system is strongly dependent on the inherent characteristics of the resin itself. Particle Size Uniformity Particle size uniformity affects a number of resin characteristics including the kinetics of reaction. These advantages will be discussed in detail in later sections. etc. Figure 9. Specifically. disruption of the protective metal oxide film. Page 13 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins Form No. ionic capacity and filtration. Crud transported to these crevice regions aggravates the problem by further constricting these narrow openings.Use of Boric Acid in PWR Secondary Cycles for Intergranular Attack and Stress Corrosion Cracking Control Another key aspect of secondary-side chemistry optimization relates to corrosion within the steam generator. the anion resin shows a relatively low selectivity for borate species. Under the right conditions – extreme local pH. This promotes concentration of impurities in these crevice regions and sets the stage for IGA. rinse and regeneration efficiency. Resin Beads with Gaussian and Narrow Size Distributions % of Volume in Screen Range 50 40 30 20 10 0 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 Screen Size % of Volume in Screen Range 50 40 30 20 10 0 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 Screen Size Gaussian Size Distribution Narrow Size Distribution In high flow rate applications. oxidative stability. While significant progress has been made. selectivity. kinetics. the separability of one resin from another. and therefore. incidents of intergranular attack (IGA) combined with stress corrosion cracking (SCC) continue to increase. Resin Characteristics (Cation and Anion) Resin characteristics having the most significant impact on performance in a condensate polisher include particle size and bead uniformity. Flow-restricted regions such as tube intersections with support plates and tubesheets are likely trouble spots.

Figure 10 shows that the sulfate leakage remained very low when the system was operating in the hydrogen cycle due to the fast kinetics of the uniformly sized resins.6 0. the surface exchange rate and surface area become important. Cation conductivity.10 Sulfate in Polisher Effluent 0.5 m3/h) 0. In addition. first toward the end of the hydrogen cycle and again toward the end of the ammonia cycle. Condensate Polisher Performance – DOWEX MONOSPHERE Resin – Simulated Condenser Seawater Leak Studies 1000. A solution containing 120 ppb sulfate was injected at two times during the service run.2 Polisher Effluent 0. Page 14 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins Form No. Therefore.00 Ammonia Cycle Condensate 90°F (32°C) 1000 gpm (227 m3/h) Ion Levels. by selecting resins with high bead size uniformity. The higher sulfate peak (exaggerated by the log scale on the graph) is caused by the higher pH during the ammonia cycle. Since smaller beads have greater specific surface area.0 Cation Conductivity.4 Hotwell Polisher Influent 0. Condensate Polisher Performance – DOWEX MONOSPHERE Resin – During Actual Condenser Leak 1. 177-01331-503 . shows the excellent kinetic response even more clearly.At the very low ionic concentrations encountered in the condensate. Figure 10. ppb 10.8 DOWEX MONOSPHERE Resins 650C/550A Mixed Bed Condensate 100°F (38°C) 500gpm (113. the overall kinetics will be better. kinetically slower beads are eliminated. The polisher contained uniformly sized resins. To simulate the effects of a seawater condenser leak.01 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Days in Service Figure 11 presents data obtained during an actual condenser leak in a Southeast fossil fuel plant. hours 10 12 14 16 18 In any particle size distribution. the larger beads will be kinetically slower than the smaller beads. The better the particle size uniformity for a given average particle size. the fewer number of large. slow-acting beads present.0 -2 0 2 4 6 8 Time. a fossil fuel facility injected a sulfate solution into the feedwater to their condensate polisher.00 Sulfate in Polisher Feed 0. which effectively measures anion concentrations. the larger. their kinetics are faster. Figure 11. In the ammonia cycle the resins response to the simulated sulfate was also rapid.00 DOWEX MONOSPHERE Resins 650C/550A Mixed Bed Hydrogen Cycle 100. micromhos 0. Figures 10 and 11 illustrate the excellent kinetic behavior of uniformly sized resins during simulated and actual seawater condenser leaks at two utilities.00 1.

0 20.0 to 7.0% pH = 9. For example. Resin cross-contamination causes ion leakage problems during the subsequent operating cycle. Figure 13 presents this same type of data for chloride leakage based on its equilibrium with the hydroxide ion. The ability to separate one resin from another by backwash depends on differences in their particle size and density. 177-01331-503 . a gel cation exchange resin having 10% cross-linkage. More highly cross-linked gel resins have higher total capacities (see Table 2). This demonstrates the importance of effectively separating the cation from the anion resin and minimizing the crosscontamination of cation resin with regenerant NaOH.7 pH = 7.0 pH = 7. The number of “pinch points” between resin beads in a given volume of resin is related to the ability of the resin to filter. regenerant dosage and concentration.8% 1. total and operating. This becomes especially true following a service cycle with condenser inleakage. By controlling the uniformity of the particle size within each of the resin types.0 180.0% 8.0 pH = 6. whereby the anion resin has been subjected to a higher than normal amount of chloride. This can make separation difficult or impossible.0 160.0 pH = 8.0 10.” Filtration In a condensate polisher. Total capacity is inherent in the resin type.5 pH = 6.11 Resins with uniform particle size distribution and smaller average diameter can provide better filtration than larger diameter resins with a Gaussian distribution.0 30.0 100.0% 4.0 40. but can vary with changes in resin cross-linkage and water retention capacity. effective removal of chloride during regeneration is essential to minimize subsequent chloride leakage during the service.0 70.0% Percent of Sodium Form Cation Resin Percent of Chloride Form Anion Resin Page 15 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins Form No. Selectivity The selectivity of an ion exchange resin is a measure of preference the resin exhibits for the various ions of the appropriate charge.0% 12.0 0.0% 2. More details on resin separability will be presented later under “System Operation Considerations.0 0. Smaller resins provide more pinch points and greater filtration.0 20.0 60. it is possible to optimize the resin separability by backwash fluidization.4% 0. Filtration is a function of the particle size and particle size distribution. Large. Because of the high selectivity that the anion resin has for chloride ion. low-density anion beads can fluidize during backwash at the same level as small.0 90. Operating capacity is not only a function of total capacity but is also dependent on the regenerability of the resin which relates to resin particle size uniformity.6% 2.4% 2. Figure 12 presents sodium leakage calculations for a cation resin that yields a sodium selectivity coefficient of 1.0% 10. more dense cation beads. the function of the ion exchange resin is twofold: to provide ion exchange capacity and to provide filtration.0 pH = 9.5 pH = 8. at 25˚C. Chloride Ion Leakage Based on Equilibria with Hydroxide Ion 200.0% 6.0 140.0 Effluent Chloride (ppt) 0.0. The operating capacity can be affected by flow rates.5 in pH environments from 6.0 80.Particle Size Uniformity and Separability for Regeneration Complete separation of the anion and cation resin components of a mixed bed is desirable to facilitate the independent regeneration of each.0 40. Capacity Ionic capacity is defined by two classifications.0 80.0 0. Figure 12. Sodium Ion Leakage Based on Equilibria with Hydroxide Ion 100.2% 1.5 for sodium ion relative to hydrogen ion.0 0.0% Figure 13.0 120.0 60.0 Effluent Sodium (ppt) pH = 6. This data shows the dependence on the amount of resin in the sodium form.0 50. will exhibit a selectivity of about 1. and bed configuration.

crush tests and attrition tests have been implemented to define resin strength parameters. The ease with which a given ion can be stripped from a resin is affected by the resin’s selectivity for that ion relative to the displacing ion in the regenerant. The anion kinetic properties are most important simply because the primary function of anion exchange resin in condensate polishing is the removal of sulfate and/or chloride ions from the condensate stream.” Organic molecules attracted to or adsorbed on the bead surfaces can impair ion exchange across those surfaces. To assure that resins meet these needs. This supports the hypothesis that sulfate removal kinetics of the mixed bed depends to a large extent on the salt splitting kinetics of the cation resin. condensate flow rate and the volume ratio of the cation and anion resin on the removal rate of sulfate and chloride. Along these same lines. Pressure drop increases across the bed as particulate crud is filtered from the condensate. Regardless of the method type.Selectivity is an important consideration in both regeneration and exhaustion operations. Anion resin fines which develop as the result of broken beads are lost from the system during backwash. due to oxidation or organic fouling. Kinetics As discussed earlier. the more likely ions will be left behind for subsequent leakage during exhaustion. Tests of the kinetic properties of resins have been devised by various groups. The end result of both these breakage situations is loss of effective capacity and water quality. their concentration in the condensate can rise abruptly in the event of a condenser leak. Moreover. The more difficult the removal. Of particular interest is one of the original studies12 for anion resin kinetics. Kinetics also relate to the leakage of ions from the resin. a comparison of effluent water quality results from kinetic testing is only valid when using the same procedure and experimental conditions. In deep bed condensate polishing. While these ions are normally present at very low levels. Operating capacity is also greater at a given regeneration dosage for ions less selectively held. A previous laboratory study13 reported the results of mixed bed performance testing using different combinations of new and “fouled” cation and anion resins. Page 16 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins Form No. Although no standard method exists. it may result in poor effluent water quality in the event of a condenser leak or other ionic ingress. Bead Integrity Bead integrity in an ion exchange resin must match the needs of the application. 177-01331-503 . operating conditions can be quite severe. the rate-limiting step in ion removal is diffusion across the resin surface “film. While this resin contamination may not impact normal polisher operation. fouled cation resin paired with new anion resin gave higher sulfate slippage than fouled anion resin paired with new cation resin. deterioration of the anion resin with age. cation resin kinetic properties also contribute to condenser inleakage management. Osmotic forces are encountered during regeneration. it compares the ability of mixed bed resins to control sudden changes in the concentration of influent ions. Furthermore. High flow rates are typical. the rate at which a resin exchanges one ion for another is a combination of the surface film diffusion rate and the internal bead diffusion rate. The leakage pattern during exhaustion will reflect the relative affinity the resin has for the exhausting ion and the ion left behind during the previous regeneration. Sulfate exchange is slower than chloride exchange. Because of the low ion concentrations and high flow rates involved in condensate polishing. Resin is transported hydraulically for considerable distances from the service vessel to the regeneration system. Cation resin fines contaminate the anion resin layer during backwash separation. Resin beads must be strong enough to remain unbroken under the conditions of operation during the entire cycle. This report discusses the impact of the anion bead size. Of particular interest in condensate polishing are the kinetics of sulfate ion reaction on strong base anion exchange resins. From the data. affects sulfate kinetics more than chloride. ASTM recently approved a standard practice for kinetics testing of ion exchange resins.

This results in a resin that is lower in strong base capacity and is kinetically slower. Regeneration efficiency is significantly improved when resins with uniform particle size distribution are used versus resins with a broader Gaussian particle size distribution.hr/m3) 10 gpm/ft2 (24 m/hr) 1. Oxidative attack is primarily on the functional group. by exchange on the anion resin in the system. This leads to longer run time and lower total ionic leakage. the cation and anion resins should have sharply contrasting colors. it is important to understand the molecular weight of leachables when selecting cation resin. For this reason. reversibly. various low and high molecular weight leachables can form. Uniform particle size distribution improves the rinse efficiency of a resin due to the absence of larger beads.Oxidative Stability Oxidative stability of ion exchange resin affects the performance of cation resins in a different manner than anion resins in condensate polishing use. Resin Specifications Can Help You Select the Right Resin The resins you purchase should reflect the requirements of your condensate polishing system. Better regeneration results in more complete removal of ionic contaminants from the anion and cation resins. The effect is illustrated in Figure 14. which shows a comparison of rinsedown curves for a uniformly sized resin vs.000 Rinse Specific Conductivity. A comparison of the leachables from various gel and macroporous cation resins14 was presented at the International Water Conference (IWC) and in the publication Ultrapure Water.S.000 Mixed Bed Condensate Polishing System Fast Rinse Following Regeneration of Separated Anion Resin 2. Some high molecular weight leachables may not be picked up by the anion resin and could contaminate the condensate. fossil fuel plant. Anion resins deteriorate by oxidation to form weak base functionality. To make it easy for the operator to verify backwash separation. The resin specifications describe the characteristics that were discussed in this section. Most of these leachables are removed. Gaussian Gel Resins 10.000 100 50 Gaussian Gel Anion 100 50 DOWEX MONOSPHERE 550A 10 10 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Rinse Time. Thus.000 10. Figure 14. Anion Rinse Down Curves – DOWEX MONOSPHERE Resins vs.5 gpm/ft3 (20 m3. micromhos 1. a resin with a broad size distribution taken at a U. Most manufacturers will provide you with resin specifications to help you select the resin that will meet the requirements of your polishing system. Page 17 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins Form No. rinse efficiency is adversely affected by the larger beads in the resin particle size distribution.15 Rinse and Regeneration Efficiency The rinse and regeneration efficiency of resins can directly impact the ionic leakage. Because cation resins are predominantly attacked at the backbone structure. 177-01331-503 . Rinsedown of a resin following regeneration is dependent on the rate of diffusion of the regenerant chemical from the bead interior to the surface of the bead. minutes 1 Color The performance of a resin in a condensate polishing system can be affected by color.

Some forms of the particulate crud tend to be sticky. The exhausted resin bed is typically loaded with crud. both cation and anion. Page 18 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins Form No. and the size distribution of resin beads within each resin type. Temperature Condensate temperature has a definite effect on the resin performance. sodium leakage increases with increasing temperature. Complete separation of the cation and anion resins during backwash is dependent on the density of the resins. Another system designed to clean particulate matter from the resin and to separate the resins efficiently for regeneration combines vibrating screens and backwash for cleaning and separation. Standard procedures call for an air scrub step. Beyond this density difference. making loosening by abrasion time consuming. capable of being fluidized above the resin. The rate of flow must be great enough to fluidize the contaminating particles into a zone above the resin particles. That is. In addition. If there is a broad range of bead sizes within the cation and anion resins. Ultrasonic cleaners have been developed to loosen crud from the bead surface. All reasonable attempts should be made to keep these materials from contacting the resins. Proper flow during this backwash operation is critical. Thermal decomposition of organics can also be a source of system corrosion. organic sources. Organics Organics in condensate can be a source of ion exchange resin fouling. These cleaners are combined with backwashing to separate crud from the resin. there are several other system factors which deserve special attention. Oily materials also cause severe problems with systems employing inert resins for separation enhancement. causing the inert resin to float. For the cation resin.System Operating Considerations The mechanical/hydraulic design of a condensate polishing system must assure good fluid distribution across the resin bed. and resin ratios used in the system. size distribution becomes the determining factor in further improving separation. Most resins today achieve easy separation by making the denser cation beads larger than the less dense anion beads. Organic materials which are oily in nature and are not necessarily water soluble tend to coat the resin beads. The crud takeoff point should be at a level six inches above the recommended backwash expansion level for the resins involved. Contamination by oily organics can occur during startup of new equipment and by oil incursions into the system during operations. This severely limits the diffusion of ions into the resin structure. regeneration procedures. some of each resin will be contaminated by the wrong regenerant and leakage of ions will occur during operation. Several techniques have been developed to accomplish crud removal. Since crud is usually a combination of iron and copper oxides. the affinity of the strong base anion resin for silica is significantly reduced. The result is cross-contamination and leakage. Regeneration Regeneration of condensate polishing resin requires several steps to minimize leakage of ions during the next cycle. the size difference between the two types of resin. If the cation and anion resins are not completely separated. This is followed by backwash of the bed for removal of the crud overhead. separability can suffer. 177-01331-503 . the air scrub operation must be vigorous enough to break the crud down to fine particulate materials. Included are condensate temperature. Every effort should be made to control the silica and carbonate levels of the makeup water with the makeup demineralizer. It must also provide the ability to completely remove a charge of resin for regeneration in another vessel. Physical cleanup of the resin is required before chemical regeneration can be effective. This system can also be used in conjunction with ultrasonic cleaning. resin separability. Separation Resin separability in a condensate polishing system is affected by the inherent settling velocity of the resin particles and the hydraulics of the equipment used to carry out the fluidization and resin transport. At about 140˚F (60˚C). This involves bubbling of air into the base of the column containing the resin transferred from the condensate polisher. oversized anion beads may mix with the under sized cation beads at the interface during separation. Oil films collect on the inert bead surface and tend to trap air during the separation. The removal of weak acids such as silica and dissolved CO2 decreases with increasing temperature.

Terminal Settling Velocity Distributions and After-Backwash Column Profiles for Gaussian and Narrow Size Distribution Resins in Mixed Beds Mesh size 200 50 45 40 35 Bead diameter. The resin separation.05 1. generally through a side port or ports near the interface level.20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Percentage of resin volume in same mesh range Gaussian Distribution Resins Narrow Size Distribution Resins It has been the practice in some operations to add a third.09 . The sodium leakage level depends on the amount of ammonia used to treat the anion resin layer. This accentuates the density difference between the resin types. A number of approaches have been taken to prevent remixing and subsequent leakage.02 . With Gaussian resins this practice dilutes the crosscontamination region but does not eliminate it. fps .07 .03 n io An . . in terms of terminal settling velocity. Reduction of the sodium leakage in some systems can be accomplished by one of two chemical processes. particularly at or near the interface between them due to the development of eddy currents near exit ports. fps 07 07 ity ns de .15 . internal collectors are used to minimize the remixing of the resins during removal.02 . In many cases.05 .10 = 26 1. Equally as important as the inherent separability of a resin pair is the separation equipment and support systems. The process has been most successful in systems using ammonia for pH control. The ammonium ions displace sodium from the cation resin still present in the anion resin.10 . The equipment and systems must provide the hydraulics necessary to obtain and maintain the separation achieved.06 Terminal settling velocity.07 .08 . inert resin layer between the two active resins in the mixture.04 ns ity io n de de ns ity . and size distribution. resulting in subsequent sodium leakage levels which are unacceptable. The cross-contamination level in some cases is still significant.08 . bead size. microns 300 400 500 30 25 20 18 16 14 12 1000 900 800 1500 600 700 Mesh size 200 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 Bead diameter. However. Inert resin is not necessary when using uniform particle size resins.To get the best possible separation. n tio Ca ity ns de n tio Ca = = 1. the nominal size of the denser cation resin beads should be larger than the nominal size of the anion beads. . It may be useful in systems where the interface is isolated from the other resins during regeneration or when equipment design requires an inert layer. use of an inert resin will reduce the capacity in the mixed bed due to the space taken by the inert resin.09 . Resin transport tends to remix resins.20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Percentage of resin volume in same mesh range . 177-01331-503 . Figure 15 shows the importance of bead size uniformity in achieving good separation.15 . microns 300 400 500 600 700 18 16 14 12 1500 1000 900 800 . The first process involves treating the separated and regenerated anion resin layer with ammonia.04 . Page 19 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins Form No. This bead size uniformity will minimize the cross-contamination discussed earlier. Within each resin type. Early designs used a system which transported the anion resin from the separation vessel. all of the beads should be as close to the nominal size as possible. Figure 15. is projected based on bead density. = 26 1.06 Terminal settling velocity.03 An .

rinsing the mixture to quality. When salt is present. the selectivity the resin has for calcium is much greater than for sodium. some ions were hard to detect and measure. leaving only a small cross-sectional area when the interface reaches the exit port. A system can be chosen most suited to a particular need. The cross-contamination zone is small enough to be contained in the transfer piping. as typically practiced in the United States. and transporting the resin mix to the condensate polishing vessel. Regenerants Regeneration of the resins. Remixing Resin The final steps in the regeneration procedure include rinsing each resin to remove excess regenerant. The cation resin is then recycled to the cation regeneration tank. Many of these same ions have now been found to be significant factors in system damage. The quality of the effluent water immediately following each regeneration is affected by the regenerant conditions as well as the degree of resin separation obtained.16 System Operation Successful operations require good analytical tools. techniques such as ion chromatography allow specific cations and anions to be analyzed in a semi-continuous mode. The cation resin is removed through this conical base. The cation resin contaminating the anion resin is denser than the solution and settles to the bottom. Remixing resins which have been designed to give optimum separation upon backwash fluidization requires considerable care in the system design and operation. Instrumentation has become increasingly important as the water quality requirements have become more stringent. leakage of these ions was seldom checked. In fact. remixing the anion and cation resins. Both cross-contamination and impure regenerant chemicals can cause higher than average leakage initially after regeneration. Regeneration of the cation exchange resin with hydrochloric acid is a more common practice outside the United States. Sodium leakage levels are better than obtained without the chemical treatment. uses sulfuric acid solution for the cation exchange resin and sodium hydroxide solution for the anion exchange resin. The calcium which replaces the sodium could potentially leak from the resin during the loading cycle. Good separation has been maintained with this approach. Even properly mixed resins will tend to separate when hydraulically transported to the condensate polishing vessel. Much effort has been expended by resin manufacturers and equipment vendors to reduce the sodium leakage caused by regenerant cross-contamination. Serious consideration should be given to the addition of a remixing capability in the condensate polishing vessel. However.In the second process. 177-01331-503 . In the past. Removal of the cation resin contaminating the anion resin layer has been accomplished with a process that involves regenerating the anion resin in concentrated caustic. The development of new analytical instrumentation has made it possible to follow the quantity and nature of leakage of many contaminants both on-line and off-line. As a result. a PWR nuclear power station in the Northeast recently retrofit all service vessels with re-mixing capability and immediately realized a dramatic improvement to both effluent water quality and operational efficiency. competition from the chloride ions reduces the effectiveness and efficiency of regeneration with hydroxyl ions and reduces the capacity of the anion resin. The hydraulic difficulties associated with removal of the anion resin from above the cation resin in the separation vessel led to development of processes designed to remove the cation resin from the bottom of the separation vessel. If free calcium or lime is adequately cleaned from the system. After regeneration the anion resin has a lower density than the caustic solution and the anion resin floats. low calcium leakage can be expected. Page 20 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins Form No. High levels of salt contamination in the sodium hydroxide regenerant should be avoided. One commercial process incorporates a conical base on the separation vessel. The interface between the cation and the anion resin is reduced as the cation resin is removed. lime (calcium hydroxide) is used. Used in conjunction with highly reliable continuous on-line pH and conductivity methods.

total organic carbon analysis. 177-01331-503 . a colorimetric method. We can help you select the resins you need for all of your water treatment requirements. we offer the kind of extensive technical support you would expect from the leader in ion exchange technology. Your Dow technical sales representative. DOWEX ion exchange resins are supported by responsive technical people and the most advanced resources available.17 Finally. cation and anion exchange chromatography and specific ion electrodes. We can help you determine the optimum time to replace resins. atomic absorption spectrometry. Page 21 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins Form No. can help you keep your water system running at peak efficiency. We can even help you set up your own resin testing and monitoring program. In short. The usefulness of conductivity has also been expanded by the perfection of techniques to measure cation conductivity and degassed cation conductivity. In addition. Dow Technical Backup The Dow Chemical Company manufactures and sells a full line of DOWEX ion exchange resins designed for use in condensate polishing systems. along with our Technical Service and Development group.Other measurement methods include soluble silica analysis. successful operation of even the best designed plant depends on operators who are committed to getting the best out of the system. flame-emission photometry.

M.. 9. November 1987. B. International Water Conference. “Ion Exchanger Run Length Evaluation at Northeast Utilities Millstone Nuclear Power Station”. 3rd EPRI Condensate Polishing Workshop. pp. International Water Conference. F. Ultrapure Water. J.. June 1996.. et.. “The Use of Morpholine at Indian Point 3 Nuclear Power Plant”.. 6. EPRI Condensate Polishing Workshop. “Cation Resin Degradation in Certain Amine Forms”. R. Scheerer. M.al. F.. October 29-31. EPRI Condensate Polishing Workshop. Vol. 177-01331-503 . C.. 6. TX. 14.References 1. 1987. 5th EPRI Condensate Polishing Workshop. February 2002. EPRI Condensate Polishing Workshop. “Resin Regeneration Essentials”. “Anion Exchange Kinetics in Condensate Purification Mixed Beds – Assessment and Performance Prediction”.. Page 22 of 23 * Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company DOWEX Ion Exchange Resins Form No.. Stahlbush. 1991.J. “Advanced Resin Cleaning System at Grand Gulf Nuclear Station: Performance Update and Plant Impact on Water Chemistry”.. 1985. 2. October 29-31. 10.. “Requalification of Low-Crosslinked Resin for Iron Control”.al. Cutler. “Powdered Ion Exchange Resin Performance in Morpholine Treated Condensate”.al. Philadelphia. Harries. 1985. Power Magazine. 13. et.W. et. EPRI Condensate Polishing Workshop. 11.J. Libutti. 27th Liberty Bell Corrosion Course. San Antonio. 2000. Kristensen. M. S. September 1997.. McCoy. 5. Miami 1981..M. Proceedings: Condensate Polishing and Water Purification in the Steam Cycle. T. J. “Measurement of Cation Resin Extractables”. “EPRI Survey on Resin Performance with Alternate Amines”.H. 1989. 12. “Prediction and Identification of Leachables from Cation Exchange Resins”. 5. Becker. “Testing and Evaluation of Condensate Polisher Resin”. June 26-28. 15.. Gaudreau. “Case History for CP Optimization in a PWR Secondary Cycle with Ethanolamine”. 16. 3..al. June 1996. EPRI Condensate Polishing Workshop.. 8.L. June 1996. Smith. 4.R. 7...W. February 1993. McCoy. EPRI Condensate Polishing Workshop. S. No. Ultrapure Water.. EPRI Condensate Polishing Workshop.. September 1997. J. Najmy. CIPSCO.al. Cutler. 1988.W. 5th EPRI Condensate Polishing Workshop. et. 40-48. Asay. Darvill. 17.M. May 1988. S.. et. Strauss. R. Najmy.

1671 Sao Paulo – SP – Brazil CEP 04717-903 Tel. and the United Kingdom Notice: Oxidizing agents such as nitric acid attack organic ion exchange resins under certain conditions. Portugal. Notice: No freedom from any patent owned by Seller or others is to be inferred. Denmark. Tokyo 140-8617 Japan Tel. NO WARRANTIES ARE GIVEN. Liquid Separations Tennoz Central Tower 2-24 Higashi Shinagawa 2-chome Shinagawa-ku. +81 3 5460 2100 Fax +81 3 5460 6246 Dow Pacific Dow Chemical Australia Ltd. Box 1206 Midland.A. consult sources knowledgeable in handling such materials. Because use conditions and applicable laws may differ from one location to another and may change with time. France. Liquid Separations Rua Alexandre Dumas. Germany. This could lead to anything from slight resin degradation to a violent exothermic reaction (explosion). +32 3 450 2240 Tel. Seller assumes no obligation or liability for the information in this document. Ireland. 55-11-5188 9277 Fax 55-11-5188 9919 Dow North America The Dow Chemical Company Liquid Separations Customer Information Group P. 177-01331-503 . MI 48641-1206 USA Tel.Dow Liquid Separations Offices. Hungary. Switzerland. Page 23 of 23 *Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company Form No. Italy.com † Toll-free telephone number for the following countries: Austria. Liquid Separations 541-583 Kororoit Creek Road Altona.O. Sweden. ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE EXPRESSLY EXCLUDED. VIC 3018 Australia Tel. 1-800-447-4369 Fax (989) 832-1465 Internet http://www. Finland.com Dow Japan Dow Chemical Japan Ltd. Spain. Customer is responsible for determining whether products and the information in this document are appropriate for Customer’s use and for ensuring that Customer’s workplace and disposal practices are in compliance with applicable laws and other governmental enactments. For more information call Dow Liquid Separations: Dow Europe Dow Customer Information Group Liquid Separations Prins Boudewijnlaan 41 B-2650 Edegem Belgium Tel.dowex. +800 3 694 6367 † Fax +32 3 450 2815 E-mail: dowcig@dow. The Netherlands. Before using strong oxidizing agents. 61-3-9226-3545 Fax 61-3-9226-3534 Dow Latin America Dow Quimica S. Belgium. Norway.