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The Three Types of Learning
There is more than one type of learning. A committee of colleges, led by Benjamin Bloom (1956), identified three domains of educational activities:
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Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge) Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude) Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)
Since the work was produced by higher education, the words tend to be a little bigger than we normally use. Domains can be thought of as categories. Trainers often refer to these three categories as KSA (Knowledge, Skills, and Attitude). This taxonomy of learning behaviors can be thought of as “the goals of the learning process.” That is, after a learning episode, the learner should have acquired new skills, knowledge, and/or attitudes. The committee also produced an elaborate compilation for the cognitive and affective domains, but none for the psychomotor domain. Their explanation for this oversight was that they have little experience in teaching manual skills within the college level (I guess they never thought to check with their sports or drama departments). This compilation divides the three domains into subdivisions, starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. The divisions outlined are not absolutes and there are other systems or hierarchies that have been devised in the educational and training world. However, Bloom's taxonomy is easily understood and is probably the most widely applied one in use today.
The cognitive domain (Bloom, 1956) involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills. There are six major categories, which are listed in order below, starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. The categories can be thought of as degrees of difficulties. That is, the first ones must normally be mastered before the next ones can take place.
recognizes. rearranges. interpolation. State a problem in one's own words. deconstructs. employee's vacation time. Examples: Use a manual to calculate an Application: Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. modifies. outlines. relates. Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning. illustrates. Key Words: analyzes. generalizes. converts. Explain in one's own words the steps for performing a complex task. summarizes. operates. summarizes. . modifies. labels. identifies. Put parts together to form a whole. predicts. Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. plans. Design a machine to perform a specific task. discovers. lists. uses. computes. Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing. distinguishes. generates. shows. compiles. designs. Knows the safety rules. combines. creates. Key Words: defines. Gathers information from a Analysis: Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. explains. selects. Integrates training from several sources to solve a problem.Category Example and Key Words (verbs) Examples: Recite a policy. distinguishes. changes. relates. contrasts. separates. estimates. constructs. Key Words: comprehends. Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place. Key Words: applies. relates. paraphrases. reconstructs. demonstrates. manipulates. recalls. states. Translates an equation into a Comprehension: Understand the meaning. diagrams. matches. rewrites. department and selects the required tasks for training. Revises and process to improve the outcome. identifies. and interpretation of instructions and problems. infers. reproduces. compares. computer spreadsheet. tells. devises. translates. prepares. revises. selects. translation. Knowledge: Recall data or information. outlines. reorganizes. differentiates. composes. extends. produces. solves. with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure. describes. explains. knows. discriminates. Synthesis: Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Distinguishes between facts and inferences. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the reliability of a written test. Key Words: categorizes. names. breaks down. writes. Quote prices from memory to a customer. predicts. interprets. rewrites. defends. organizes. gives an example. infers. Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction.
justifies. Evaluation: Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials. appreciation. locates. Gives a presentation. defends. follows. such as feelings. practices. complies. 1973) includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally. reports. concludes. aids. Responding to Phenomena: Active participation on the part of the learners. gives. Bloom. or satisfaction in responding (motivation). compares. holds. interprets. Hire the most qualified candidate. Key Words: answers. and attitudes. values. describes. presents. willingness to hear. Key Words: asks. etc. replies. in order to fully understand them. discusses. Know the safety rules and practices them. Attends and reacts to a particular phenomenon. recites. helps. assists. evaluates. reads. contrasts. Affective Domain The affective domain (Krathwohl. names. Receiving Phenomena: Awareness. Explain and justify a new budget. selected attention. supports. summarizes.Examples: Select the most effective solution. uses. relates. motivations. The five major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex: Category Example and Key Words (verbs) Examples: Listen to others with respect. writes. chooses. enthusiasms. Examples: Participates in class discussions. willingness to respond. selects. discriminates. Questions new ideals. concepts. Masia. critiques. points to. . explains. tells. conforms. models. sits. selects. erects. identifies. describes. criticizes. Learning outcomes may emphasize compliance in responding. Key Words: appraises. Listen for and remember the name of newly introduced people. labels. greets. performs.
standards. and synthesizing values. serves. proposes. and beliefs. Uses an objective Internalizing values (characterization): Has a value system that controls their behavior. Key Words: acts.Examples: Demonstrates belief in the democratic process. Examples: Recognizes the need for balance between freedom and responsible behavior. displays. solves. Prioritizes time effectively to meet the needs of the organization. shares. and creating an unique value system. arranges. family. phenomenon. orders. Shows the ability to solve problems. demonstrates. practices. combines. relating. individual and cultural differences (value diversity). initiates. influences. . defends. explains. social. synthesizes. Key Words: completes. explains. qualifies. reports. This ranges from simple acceptance to the more complex state of commitment. formulates. modifies. Is sensitive towards Valuing: The worth or value a person attaches to a particular object. works. Instructional objectives are concerned with the student's general patterns of adjustment (personal. forms. alters. Examples: Shows self-reliance when working independently. approach in problem solving. completes. not how they look. questions. generalizes. or behavior. emotional). Accepts professional ethical Organization: Organizes values into priorities by contrasting different values. differentiates. Informs management on matters that one feels strongly about. Revises judgments and changes behavior in light of new evidence. and self. listens. Explains the role of systematic planning in solving problems. joins. performs. Accepts responsibility for one's behavior. Values people for what they are. follows. while clues to these values are expressed in the learner's overt behavior and are often identifiable. integrates. predictable. justifies. invites. reads. and most importantly. The behavior is pervasive. resolving conflicts between them. proposes. identifies. Creates a life plan in harmony with abilities. compares. The emphasis is on comparing. organizes. revises. discriminates. Cooperates in group activities (displays teamwork). Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values. consistent. Displays a professional commitment to ethical practice on a daily basis. prepares. relates. studies. interests. verifies. selects. modifies. characteristic of the learner. Key Words: adheres. Proposes a plan to social improvement and follows through with commitment.
precision. Recognize one's abilities and limitations. Key Words: begins. This ranges from sensory stimulation. physical. Key Words: chooses. process (motivation). volunteers. Examples: Performs a mathematical equation as demonstrated. shows. identifies. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing. Key Words: copies. NOTE: This subdivision of Psychomotor is closely related with the “Responding to phenomena” subdivision of the Affective domain. Estimate where a ball will land after it is thrown and then moving to the correct location to catch the ball. relates. and use of the motor-skill areas. distinguishes. The seven major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex: Category Example and Key Words (verbs) Examples: Detects non-verbal communication cues. differentiates. It includes mental. reproduce. and emotional sets. to translation. detects. react. or techniques in execution. through cue selection.Psychomotor Domain The psychomotor domain (Simpson. traces. 1972) includes physical movement. coordination. explains. moves. procedures. reacts. selects. proceeds. Shows desire to learn a new Perception: The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity. Set: Readiness to act. states. responds . Adjusts heat of stove to correct temperature by smell and taste of food. distance. Adjusts the height of the forks on a forklift by comparing where the forks are in relation to the pallet. follows. displays. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed. instructions to build a model. Examples: Knows and acts upon a sequence of steps in a manufacturing process. These three sets are dispositions that predetermine a person's response to different situations (sometimes called mindsets). Follows Guided Response: The early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. isolates. Responds hand-signals of instructor while learning to operate a forklift. describes.
measures. varies. Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills. constructs. dismantles. heats. creates. mends. reorganizes. Creates a new gymnastic routine. alters. Proficiency is indicated by a quick. For example. Drive a car. mixes. Displays competence while playing the piano. players are often utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football. builds. calibrates. organizes. constructs. parallel parking spot. designs. . Examples: Responds effectively to unexpected experiences. sketches.Examples: Use a personal computer. grinds. because they can tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce. manipulates. combines. composes. Key Words: assembles. revises. organizes. dismantles. Examples: Constructs a new theory. Develops a new and comprehensive training Origination: Creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem. Key Words: arranges. Operates a computer quickly and accurately. displays. Repair Mechanism: This is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill. Perform a Adaptation: Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements. mends. originates. changes. accurate. better. but will have adverbs or adjectives that indicate that the performance is quicker. programming. requiring a minimum of energy. rearranges. builds. Key Words: adapts. calibrates. fastens. more accurate. measures. task with a machine that it was not originally intended to do (machine is not damaged and there is no danger in performing the new task). etc. heats. Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency. and highly coordinated performance. displays. initiate. a leaking faucet. This category includes performing without hesitation. constructs. mixes. sketches. fixes. Modifies instruction to meet the needs of the learners. NOTE: The Key Words are the same as Mechanism. makes. fastens. and automatic performance. grinds. fixes. manipulates. Key Words: assembles. Examples: Maneuvers a car into a tight Complex Overt Response: The skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns.
. Example: Creating work on one's own. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. (1972). so it will be “just right. Tucson. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: David McKay Co. Harrow's (1972): o o o o o o Reflex movements — Reactions that are not learned. Examples: Michael Jordan playing basketball. Developing and Writing Behavioral Objectives. New York: David McKay. Few errors are apparent. color. H. Thinking to Learn: Models and Strategies to Develop a Classroom Culture of Thinking. or grasping. or reading about it. B. drama. DC: Gryphon House. B. Bloom. becoming more exact. Example: Producing a video that involves music. A. the committee did not produce a compilation for the psychomotor domain model. Simpson E. auditory. achieving harmony and internal consistency. such as gestures and facial expressions. or tactile discrimination. Fundamental movements — Basic movements such as walking. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. J. (1973).” Articulation — Coordinating a series of actions. etc. kinesthetic. New York: David McKay Co Inc. etc. M. Example: Copying a work of art. (1975). Example: Working and reworking something. & Masia.: Hawker Brownlow. R.). B. Armstrong. Arizona: Educational Innovators Press. Handbook II: Affective Domain. Vic. Skilled movements — Advanced learned movements as one would find in sports or acting. (1956)..Other Psychomotor Domain Taxonomies As mentioned earlier. (R. The one discussed above is by Simpson (1972). Perception — Response to stimuli such as visual. but others have. S. Physical abilities — Stamina that must be developed for further development such as strength and agility. D. Learning to Think. Harrow. References Bloom B. No discursive communication — Effective body language. without needing to think much about it. Dave. Nancy Lopez hitting a golf ball. The Classification of Educational Objectives in the Psychomotor Domain. the Classification of Educational Goals. S. ed. R. (2000). Manipulation — Being able to perform certain actions by following instructions and practicing. Precision — Refining. sound.. Naturalization — Having high level performance become natural. Krathwohl. (1972) A Taxonomy of Psychomotor Domain: A Guide for Developing Behavioral Objectives. There are two other popular versions: Dave's (1975): o o o o o Imitation — Observing and patterning behavior after someone else. Cheltenham. Performance may be of low quality. Washington. Pohl. J. Inc. after taking lessons..
gives an example. Key Words: defines. summarizes. distinguishes. reproduces. predicts. translation. matches. Quote prices from memory to a customer. names. lists. generalizes. rewrites. converts. selects. This new taxonomy reflects a more active form of thinking and is perhaps more accurate: Category Example and Key Words (verbs) Examples: Recite a policy. outlines.Bloom's Revised Taxonomy Lorin Anderson. State a problem in one's own words. identifies. recalls. Remembering: Recall previous learned information. with perhaps the two most prominent ones being. and 2) slightly rearranging them (Pohl. . and interpretation of instructions and problems. Explain in one's own words the steps for performing a complex task. a former student of Bloom. estimates. Knows the safety rules. Key Words: comprehends. explains. recognizes. extends. 1) changing the names in the six categories from noun to verb forms. states. interpolation. describes. translates. 2000). defends. Translates an equation into a Understanding: Comprehending the meaning. infers. revisited the cognitive domain in the learning taxonomy in the midnineties and made some changes. interprets. paraphrases. labels. knows. computer spreadsheet. Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing.
breaks down. Key Words: applies. distinguishes. operates. modifies. produces. reorganizes. compiles. changes. Distinguishes between facts and inferences. contrasts. deconstructs. writes. computes. reliability of a written test. Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. relates. Design a machine to perform a specific task. interprets. Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place. concludes. combines. summarizes. solve a problem. Key Words: analyzes. Revises and process to improve the outcome. summarizes. compares. separates. discriminates. generates. reconstructs. contrasts. organizes. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training. Key Words: categorizes. describes. devises. Examples: Select the most effective solution. differentiates. supports. relates. Hire the most qualified candidate. revises. prepares. discovers. modifies. tells. discriminates. defends. explains. compares. relates. Put parts together to form a whole. solves. selects. explains. shows. relates. plans. . Explain and justify a new budget. identifies. with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure. justifies. evaluates. critiques. infers. uses. criticizes. outlines. reasoning. Evaluating: Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials. illustrates. demonstrates. rearranges.Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee's vacation time. designs. manipulates. Key Words: appraises. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the Applying: Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. constructs. diagrams. composes. rewrites. predicts. Recognize logical fallacies in Analyzing: Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. creates. Integrates training from several sources to Creating: Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction.
Bloom's Taxonomy (the right three columns) runs from top to bottom. 2006). However. use a blended approach. Although some people use the terms interchangeably. while the instructional strategies will point you to the medium that will actually deliver the instruction. or OJT. there is a direct correlation in learning: o Lower levels of performance can normally be taught using the more passive learning methods. . and media. Thus the learning objectives point you towards the instructional strategies. such as elearning. It is based on Bloom's Taxonomy (Learning Domains). That is. The matrix generally runs from the passive learning methods (top rows) to the more active participation methods (bottom rows. objectives. o Higher levels of performance usually require some sort of action or involvement by the learners. The Instructional Strategy Selection Chart shown below is a general guideline for selecting the learning strategy. with the lower level behaviors being on top and the higher behaviors being on the bottom. self-study. learner activities. . For example. do not fall into the trap of using only one medium when designing your course. your learning objective might be "Pull the correct items for a customer order. &Townsend-Sweet. information presentation. testing. classroom." the instructional strategies are a demonstration. all have separate meanings. . strategies. have a question and answer period. and follow-through. The strategies are usually tied to the needs and interests of students to enhance learning and are based on many types of learning styles (Ekwensi. and then receive hands-on practice by actually performing the job. while the media might be a combination of elearning and OJT.Learning Strategies or Instructional Strategies Learning or instructional strategies determine the approach for achieving the learning objectives and are included in the pre-instructional activities. Moranski.
1972) Lecture. Normally developed on own (informal learning) through self-study or learning through mistakes. demonstration. etc. Perception 2. Activities such as surveys. Set 2. audio visual. but mentoring and coaching can speed the process. simulated job settings (to include CBT simulations) Use in real situations. depending upon the type of program you design Instructional Strategy Cognitive Domain (Bloom. Adaptation 6. reflection. For example. Mechanism 4. & Masia. Guided response 4. Receiving phenomena 1. Valuing 5. Evaluation 5. question and answer period Discussions.Instructional Strategy Selection Chart The chart does not cover all possibilities. and/or activities. 1. role playing. Application 2. Organize values into priorities 6. Knowledge 1. audio/visual. Comprehension 3. Also may be trained by using several high level activities coupled with OJT. On-the-Job-Training (OJT). Complex response 5. Bloom. case studies. but most activities should fit in. 1956) Affective Domain (Krathwohl. 1973) Psychomotor Domain (Simpson. multimedia CBT. practice by doing (some direction or coaching is required). Socratic didactic method. Internalizing values 7. or guided observations. Origination . Analysis 3. Synthesis 4. Responding to phenomena 3. self-study could fall under reading. fishbowls. reading.
Abigail Adams stated. and patient while seeking to demystify these concepts and untangle this web. 2004). ( Krathwohl. Preface) the central focus of his life's work. Bloom's Taxonomy has since been translated into 22 languages and is one of the most widely applied and most often cited references in education. Before we can make it better.O. 2004).P.) recommends.R. (Houghton. and finding out is what I think he did best. "One place to begin is in defining the nature of thinking. teaching. it must be sought for with ardor and attended to with diligence" ( quotationspage. 2001). One of Bloom's great talents was having a nose for what is significant" (2002). three other chapters in this ebook make reference to Bloom's Taxonomy. Benjamin S. According to a biography of Bloom. identifying educational goals. (Anderson & Sosniak. Eisner. He made "the improvement of student learning" (Bloom 1971. and thinking are all complicated concepts interwoven in an intricate web. we need to know more of what it is" (Houghton. Although it received little attention when first published. "Learning is not attained by chance.  History In 1780.com. The Communities Resolving Our Problems (C. yet another testament to its relevance. 2005). Fortunately we do not have to begin from scratch in searching for answers to this complicated question. ( oz-TeacherNet. diligent. written by former student Elliot W. As of this writing. preface). 2004). 2002). . Learning. 1994. "It was clear that he was in love with the process of finding out. eventually authoring or co-authoring 18 books. Bloom was arduous. Bloom extensively contemplated the nature of thinking.B l o o m ' s Ta x o n o m y Mary Forehand The University of Georgia Introduction One of the basic questions facing educators has always been "Where do we begin in seeking to improve human thinking?" (Houghton.
skills based domain. This chapter focuses its attention on the cognitive domain. In other words. and evaluation.knowledge based domain. The highest three levels are: analysis. synthesis. While it should be noted that other educational taxonomies and hierarchical systems have been developed. "The taxonomy is hierarchical. In 1956. forever linking his name and the term. Bloom's Taxonomy is a multi-tiered model of classifying thinking according to six cognitive levels of complexity. While Bloom pushed for the use of the term "taxonomy. Eventually Bloom prevailed.Discussions during the 1948 Convention of the American Psychological Association led Bloom to spearhead a group of educators who eventually undertook the ambitious task of classifying educational goals and objectives. [in that] each level is subsumed by the higher levels. 1). the de facto standard. and The psychomotor . this framework became a taxonomy of three domains: The cognitive . 2003). consisting of six levels. One can easily see how this arrangement led to natural divisions of lower and higher level thinking. and classroom teachers at all levels of education" (Anderson & Sosniak. consisting of six levels The affective . Unexpectedly. and application. even after nearly fifty years." (UW Teaching Academy. Their intent was to develop a method of classification for thinking behaviors that were believed to be important in the processes of learning. Eventually. the levels have often been depicted as a stairway. a student functioning at the 'application' level has also mastered the material at the 'knowledge' and 'comprehension' levels. leading many teachers to encourage their students to "climb to a higher (level of) thought. consisting of five levels. researchers." The lowest three levels are: knowledge. Throughout the years. administrators. comprehension. The small volume intended for university examiners "has been transformed into a basic reference for all educators worldwide." others in the group resisted because of the unfamiliarity of the term within educational circles. 1994.attitudinal based domain. p. What is Bloom's Taxonomy? Understanding that "taxonomy" and "classification" are synonymous helps dispel uneasiness with the term. work on the cognitive domain was completed and a handbook commonly referred to as "Bloom's Taxonomy" was published. . it has been used by curriculum planners. it is Bloom's Taxonomy which remains. eight years after the group first began.
Revised Bloom's Taxonomy (RBT) During the 1990's. hoping to add relevance for 21st century students and teachers. Research findings have led to the discovery of a veritable smorgasbord of interpretations and applications falling on a continuum ranging from tight overviews to expanded explanations. Due to its long history and popularity. and testing and assessment specialists" (Anderson. 2001. The changes occur in three broad categories: terminology. Basically. This time "representatives of three groups [were present]: cognitive psychologists. Several excellent sources are available which detail the revisions and reasons for the changes. p. Finally. and emphasis. a former student of Bloom's. Bloom's Taxonomy has stood the test of time. A more concise summary appears here. the lowest level of the original. & Krathwohl. led a new assembly which met for the purpose of updating the taxonomy. curriculum theorists and instructional researchers. spending six years to finalize their work. they were also arduous and diligent in their pursuit of learning. and reinterpreted in a variety of ways. comprehension and synthesis were retitled to understanding and creating. Published in 2001. Bloom's six major categories were changed from noun to verb forms. structure. In an effort to minimize the confusion. Nonetheless. comparison images appear below. it has been condensed. Additionally. knowledge was renamed and became remembering.Clearly. xxviii). one recent revision (designed by one of the co-editors of the original taxonomy along with a former Bloom student) merits particular attention. expanded. . Terminology Changes Changes in terminology between the two versions are perhaps the most obvious differences and can also cause the most confusion. Like the original group. the revision includes several seemingly minor yet actually quite significant changes. Lorin Anderson.
or producing. and graphic messages through interpreting. reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating. exemplifying. Understanding: Constructing meaning from oral. . inferring. summarizing. determining how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose through differentiating. comparing. classifying. and recalling relevant knowledge from longterm memory. recognizing. Analyzing: Breaking material into constituent parts. Applying: Carrying out or using a procedure through executing. or implementing. Creating: Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole. Evaluating: Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing. organizing. and attributing. written.The new terms are defined as: Remembering: Retrieving. planning. and explaining.
The resulting grid. and Meta-Cognitive. The Knowledge Dimension on the left side is composed of four levels that are defined as Factual. Understand. and Knowledge of Specific Details and Elements). Recognizing. The Cognitive Process Dimension across the top of the grid consists of six levels that are defined as Remember. and Create. Procedural. Factual is divided into Factual. . Knowledge of Terminology. containing 19 subcategories is most helpful to teachers in both writing objectives and aligning standards with curricular.Structural changes Structural changes seem dramatic at first. and Recalling while the Understanding level is divided into eight separate categories. Remember is subdivided into the three categories of Remember. The Cognitive Process Dimension levels are also subdivided with the number of sectors in each level ranging from a low of three to a high of eight categories. the intersection of the knowledge and cognitive process categories form twenty-four separate cells as represented on the "Taxonomy Table" below. The "Why" and "How" sections of this chapter further discuss use of the Taxonomy Table as well as provide specific examples of applications. Evaluate. the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy takes the form of a twodimensional table. Conceptual.g. Apply. Bloom's original cognitive taxonomy was a one-dimensional form. For example. Analyze. With the addition of products. As represented on the grid below. Each level of both dimensions of the table is subdivided. yet are quite logical when closely examined. One of the dimensions identifies The Knowledge Dimension (or the kind of knowledge to be learned) while the second identifies The Cognitive Process Dimension (or the process used to learn). Each of the four Knowledge Dimension levels is subdivided into either three or four categories (e.
Accurately doing so requires a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. teachers must measure their students' ability. The cumulative hierarchical framework consisting of six categories each requiring achievement of the prior skill or ability before the next. the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy provides an even more powerful tool to fit today's teachers' needs. widely applied scheme filled a void and provided educators with one of the first systematic classifications of the processes of thinking and learning. The revised version of the taxonomy is intended for a much broader audience. . Why use Bloom's Taxonomy? As history has shown. instructional delivery and assessment" (oz-TeacherNet. 2001). this well known. Out of necessity. one. Emphasis is placed upon its use as a "more authentic tool for curriculum planning. remains easy to understand. With the dramatic changes in society over the last five decades.The Cognitive Process Dimension The Knowledge Dimension Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate Create Factual Knowledge List Summarize Classify Order Rank Combine Conceptual Knowledge Describe Interpret Experiment Explain Assess Plan Procedural Knowledge Tabulate Predict Calculate Differentiate Conclude Compose Meta-Cognitive Knowledge Appropriate Use Execute Construct Achieve Action Actualize Changes in Emphasis Emphasis is the third and final category of changes. Bloom's Taxonomy provided the measurement tool for thinking. Bloom himself recognized that the taxonomy was being "unexpectedly" used by countless groups never considered an audience for the original publication. The structure of the Revised Taxonomy Table matrix "provides a clear. more complex. As noted earlier.
it helped them to understand how their subjects overlapped and how they could develop conceptual and procedural knowledge concurrently. state. Additionally. The Revised Bloom's Taxonomy Table clarifies the fit of each lesson plan's purpose. Current results include a broad spectrum of applications represented by articles and websites describing everything from corrosion training to medical preparation. "Using the Revised Taxonomy to Plan and Deliver Team-Taught." The taxonomy provided the team-teachers with a common language with which to translate and discuss state standards from two different subject areas. The twenty-four-cell grid from Oregon State University that is shown above along with the Printable Taxonomy Table Examples can easily be used in conjunction with a chart. A brief explanation of one example is described below. the taxonomy table in the revised taxonomy provided the history and English teachers with a new outlook on assessment and enabled them to create assignments and projects that required students to operate at more complex levels of thinking (Abstract. and activities. 2002) of the alignment between standards and educational goals. "essential question. Clear alignment of educational objectives with local.concise visual representation" (Krathwohl. everything must fit properly. Integrated. and national standards is a necessity. The writer describes the use of the revised Bloom's Taxonomy to plan and deliver an integrated English and history course entitled "Western Culture. Bloom's Taxonomy can prove helpful. Furthermore. The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology website contains an excellent and extensive description of the use of the Revised Taxonomy Table in . When used in this manner the "Essential Question" or lesson objective becomes clearly defined. Moreover. 2002). The educational journal Theory into Practice published an entire issue on the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy. Yet the educational setting (K-graduate) remains the most often used application. Like pieces of a huge puzzle. Today's teachers must make tough decisions about how to spend their classroom time. products. 2002). How can Bloom's Taxonomy Be Used? A search of the World Wide Web will yield clear evidence that Bloom's Taxonomy has been applied to a variety of situations. Thematic Units" (Ferguson. Included is an article entitled. objectives. In almost all circumstances when an instructor desires to move a group of students through a learning process utilizing an organized framework." goal or objective. Ferguson.
Three charts can be found on the site one of which compares "Unclear Objectives" with "Revised Objectives". educational experiences. It has also been closely linked with multiple intelligences (Noble. this author thinks you will like it better than cake. This led to a natural linkage of specific verbs and products with each level of the taxonomy. change is difficult for most people. examining and revising objectives to insure the alignment of the objectives with both the standards and the assessments. The new century has brought us the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy which really is new and improved. neither finished nor final" (Anderson & Krathwohl 2001 p. the scope of their purpose was limited to facilitating the exchange of test items measuring the same educational objectives. and more recently. . 1985 p.writing. and evaluation questions and problems" (Paul. After all. teachers often look to Bloom's Taxonomy for guidance. technology integration. Thus. Summary Countless people know. As touched upon earlier. Bloom's Taxonomy has given rise to educational concepts including terms such as high and low level thinking. Bloom's group initially met hoping to reduce the duplication of effort by faculty at various universities. In the beginning. Yet. numerous examples of test items (mostly multiple choice) were included. learning processes. due to its 19 subcategories and two-dimensional organization. through the years. Try it out. love and are comfortable with the original Bloom's Taxonomy and are understandably hesitant to change. creative and critical thinking. xxvii). Thus the Revised Taxonomy offers teachers an even more powerful tool to help design their lesson plans. Likewise the Revised Taxonomy includes specific verb and product linkage with each of the levels of the Cognitive Process Dimension. However. there is more clarity and less confusion about the fit of a specific verb or product to a given level. when designing effective lesson plans. The original Bloom's Taxonomy was and is a superb tool for educators. Intending the Taxonomy "as a method of classifying educational objectives. 2004) problem solving skills. 39). even "the original group always considered the [Taxonomy] framework a work in progress.
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