VCE CHEMISTRY 2012

YEAR 11 TRIAL EXAM UNIT 1
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Time allowed: 90 Minutes
Total marks: 74

Section A
Contains 24 Multiple Choice Questions
24 marks, 30 minutes

Section B
Contains 6 Short Answer Questions
50 marks, 60 minutes

To download the Chemistry Data Book please visit the VCAA website:
http://www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/vce/studies/chemistry/chem1_sample_2008.pdf Page 20
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Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1
Student Name....….……………………................................................................

VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1

Student Answer Sheet
There are 24 Multiple Choice questions to be answered by circling the correct letter in the
table below. Use only a 2B pencil. If you make a mistake, erase and enter the correct answer.
Marks will not be deducted for incorrect answers

Question 1 A B C D Question 2 A B C D
Question 3 A B C D Question 4 A B C D
Question 5 A B C D Question 6 A B C D
Question 7 A B C D Question 8 A B C D
Question 9 A B C D Question 10 A B C D
Question 11 A B C D Question 12 A B C D
Question 13 A B C D Question 14 A B C D
Question 15 A B C D Question 16 A B C D
Question 17 A B C D Question 18 A B C D
Question 19 A B C D Question 20 A B C D
Question 21 A B C D Question 22 A B C D
Question 23 A B C D Question 24 A B C D


Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 1
VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1

SECTION A – Multiple Choice Questions

(24 marks, 30 minutes)

This section contains 24 multiple choice questions.
For each question choose the response that is correct or best answers the question.
Indicate your answer on the answer sheet provided.
(Choose only one answer for each question.)

Question 1
The particle with the same number of neutrons present in its nucleus as there are in a
54
Fe
2+

ion is
A.
54
Cr.
B.
51
V.
C.
58
Ni.
D.
48
Ti.

Question 2
The percentage by mass of water in manganese(II) sulfate pentahydrate, MnSO
4
· 5H
2
O, is
A. 37.3 %
B. 42.8 %
C. 40.7 %
D. 10.7 %

Question 3
The electronegativity for silicon is 1.90, therefore the electronegativity for magnesium will be
A. about 0.
B. greater than 1.90.
C. about 1.90.
D. less than 1.90.

Question 4
The mass of 1 mol of nitrogen atoms will be approximately the same as that of
A. 7 mol of hydrogen molecules.
B. 1 mol of carbon atoms.
C. 0.64 mol of carbon dioxide molecules.
D. 1 mol of silicon atoms.

Question 5
In a mass spectrometer, immediately after the particles have been ionised they are
A. accelerated by a magnetic field.
B. separated as they pass through an electric field.
C. separated as they pass through a magnetic field.
D. accelerated by an electric field.


Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 2
Question 6
The ground state electronic configuration for phosphorus is
A. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
4
3s
2
3p
4
4s
1
.
B. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
2
4s
1
.
C. 1s
2
1p
4
2s
2
2p
4
3s
2
3p
1
.
D. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
3
.

Question 7
The person credited with showing that the nucleus of an atom contains most of its mass and is
positively charged is
A. John Dalton.
B. Marie Curie.
C. Ernest Rutherford.
D. John Thomson.

Question 8
A 5.884 g sample of potassium dichromate, K
2
Cr
2
O
7
, contains
A. 1.20×10
22
potassium ions.
B. 6.02×10
21
dichromate ions.
C. 1.20×10
22
atoms.
D. 2.40×10
22
chromium atoms.

Question 9
An ion with a double positive charge contains 46 electrons and 63 neutrons. This ion can be
represented by the symbol
A.
111 2
48
Cd
+

B.
109 2
46
Pd
+

C.
107 2
44
Ru
+

D.
111 2
44
Ru
+


Question 10
A reaction between lead and oxygen resulted in the formation of a lead oxide with the formula
Pb
2
O
3
. The mass of oxygen required to react with 3.243 g of lead to form this oxide is
A. 0.251 g.
B. 0.752 g.
C. 0.376 g.
D. 0.167 g.

Question 11
The early work on the Periodic Table focused on grouping together the known elements based
on their
A. chemical properties.
B. electronic configurations.
C. atomic mass (weight).
D. physical properties.


Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 3
Question 12
The standard used to determine the relative atomic masses of the elements is that the
A. relative atomic mass of carbon is 12 exactly.
B. relative isotopic mass of carbon-12 is 12 exactly.
C. relative isotopic mass of oxygen-16 is 16 exactly.
D. relative atomic mass of hydrogen is 1 exactly.

Question 13
Both decane and hexane are liquid hydrocarbons at room temperature. Compared to decane,
hexane will have
A. a lower boiling temperature and a higher viscosity.
B. a higher boiling temperature and a lower viscosity.
C. a lower boiling temperature and a lower viscosity.
D. a higher boiling temperature and a higher viscosity.

Question 14
In molecular compounds, which one of the following will be the least polar bond?
A. Carbon-chlorine.
B. Carbon-oxygen.
C. Carbon-fluorine.
D. Carbon-bromine.

Question 15
Which one of the following is correct when comparing the molar mass, boiling temperature
and chemical properties of two alkanes that are isomers?
Molar Mass Boiling Temperature Chemical Properties
A. Same Same Different
B. Different Different Similar
C. Same Different Similar
D. Different Same Similar

Question 16
The surface energy for water is greater than that of ethanol, because
A. the boiling temperature of water is higher than that of ethanol.
B. in water there is hydrogen bonding between the water molecules, whereas in ethanol
there are dipole-dipole interactions.
C. covalent bonds have to be broken in water.
D. the forces between the water molecules are stronger than those between the ethanol
molecules.

Question 17
The systematic name for the hydrocarbon shown below is

A. 2-ethyl-3-methylbutane.
B. heptane.
C. 2,3-dimethylpentane.
D. 2,2-dimethylpentane.
Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 4
Question 18
The main structural requirement for monomers that can be used to produce addition polymers
is that they contain
A. two hydroxy functional groups.
B. an hydroxy and a carboxy functional group.
C. an unsaturated carbon-carbon bond.
D. an amino and a carboxy functional group.

Question 19
A typical compound that has ionic bonding will have
A. a low melting temperature and will not be an electrical conductor in either the solid or
liquid (molten) states.
B. a moderately high melting temperature, will not be an electrical conductor in the solid
state but will conduct electricity in the liquid (molten) state.
C. a moderately high melting temperature and will be an electrical conductor in the solid
and liquid (molten) states.
D. a low melting temperature, will not be an electrical conductor in the solid state but will
conduct electricity in the liquid (molten) state.

Question 20
Comparing addition polymers with a significant degree of branching along the polymer chain
with those that have few branches along the polymer chain, the polymers with the lesser
degree of branching will
A. have a lower density.
B. be less flexible.
C. be softer.
D. will soften at a lower temperature.

Question 21
A rod is found to be a good conductor of heat. The bonding between the particles that make
up the rod will involve
A. ionic bonding.
B. covalent bonding.
C. covalent network lattice bonding.
D. metallic bonding.

Question 22
The structure for 2-methylbut-1-ene can be represented by



Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 5
Question 23
Cross-linking involves the formation of
A. hydrogen bonds between the polymer chains.
B. ion-dipole interactions between the polymer chains.
C. covalent bonds between the polymer chains.
D. dipole-dipole interactions between the polymer chains.

Question 24
Compared with a sample of the bulk metal, metal nanoparticles tend to
A. have a higher electrical conductivity.
B. behave as thermal and electrical insulators.
C. be less reactive.
D. display electrical properties between those of metal and non-metals.


End of Section A

Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 6
VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1

SECTION B – Short Answer Questions

(50 marks, 60 minutes)

This section contains six questions, numbered 1 to 6.
All questions should be answered in the spaces provided.
The mark allocation and approximate time that should be spent on each question are given.

Question 1 (10 marks, 12 minutes)
a. Draw the structures for the two isomers of butane and label them with their systematic
names.








(2 marks)

b. i. On the reaction scheme below, show the products, labelled A and B, that
would be produced when ethene reacts with the reagents shown.


(2 marks)

H O / catalyst
2
Br (l)
2
CH =CH
2 2
A
B
Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 7
ii. What are the systematic names for the compounds labelled A and B in the
above scheme?

Compound A:

Compound B:
(2 marks)

c. Write an appropriate chemical equation to represent the complete combustion of
butane.




(1 mark)

d. i. Draw the structure for a section of the polymer that could be produced from
styrene, C
6
H
5
-CH=CH
2
.





(2 marks)

ii. How would a copolymer differ from a polymer such as polyethene?





(1 mark)

Question 2 (8 marks, 10 minutes)
a. Diamond and graphite are two allotropes of carbon.
i. What is one similarity in the bonding present in these two allotropes?




(1 mark)

ii. What is one difference in the bonding present in these two allotropes?




(1 mark)

Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 8
iii. What are two physical properties of these two allotropes that are significantly
different?






(2 marks)

iv. Select one of the properties given in iii. above and explain why the property
differs between the two allotropes.

Property:



(1 mark)


b. What is the requirement for the element added to a metal so that it forms an interstitial
alloy?




(1 mark)

c. Hydrogen sulfide, H
2
S, has a boiling temperature of -60 ºC.
i. Draw the structure for hydrogen sulfide, showing all bonding and non-bonding
electron pairs.





(1 mark)

ii. What are the strongest interaction forces that exist between the hydrogen
sulfide molecules?




(1 mark)




Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 9
Question 3 (7 marks, 8 minutes)
a. The diagram below shows how a droplet of mercury would behave when placed on a
clean glass plate.


Explain why the mercury does not wet the glass plate.






(2 marks)

b. Explain why the surface energy of solid sulfur, S
8
, would be expected to be less than
that for solid sodium chloride.







(2 marks)

c. Silver ions have antimicrobial properties. Over recent years a number of consumer
products, such as clothing and food containers, have been released on the market that
are made from materials impregnated with silver nanoparticles.
i. Why would the silver nanoparticles show much greater antimicrobial activity
than other forms of silver?




(1 mark)

ii. What could be two concerns that could be raised about the use of these types of
materials that are impregnated with silver nanoparticles?







(2 marks)

Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 10
Question 4 (10 marks, 12 minutes)
a. Analysis showed that a compound contained the elements carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen. When this compound was completely burnt, all of the carbon was converted
to carbon dioxide.
A 3.218 g sample of the compound produced 7.452 g. carbon dioxide.
The compound was also found to contain 8.77 % hydrogen by mass.
The molar mass of the compound was determined to be 228 g mol
-1
.
i. Calculate the percentage by mass of carbon in this sample of the compound.






(3 marks)

ii. Determine the percentage by mass of oxygen in the compound.



(1 mark)

iii. Determine the empirical formula for the compound.





(2 marks)

iv. Determine the molecular formula for the compound.






(1 mark)

b. The total number of atoms present in a sample of phosphorus(III) chloride, PCl
3
, is
3.20×10
21
atoms.
i. Determine the amount in mole of phosphorus(III) chloride in the sample.





(2 marks)


Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 11
ii. Determine the mass of the sample.





(1 mark)

Question 5 (8 marks, 10 minutes)
a. Copper has two naturally occurring isotopes. The isotopic abundances of the lighter
isotope is 69.1 %. The relative isotopic mass of the heavier isotope is 64.93.
i. Determine the relative isotopic mass for the lighter isotope.







(3 marks)

ii. How many of each sub-atomic particle are present in a copper(II) ion, Cu
2+
, of
the lighter isotope?





(2 marks)

b. i. The atomic radii for beryllium and oxygen are 105 pm and 60 pm respectively.
Explain why the atomic radius for oxygen is less than that for beryllium, even
though it has a higher atomic number.





(1 mark)

Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 12
ii. Sodium metal will react vigorously when it is added to water, however
rubidium metal will explode when it comes in contact with water. Give an
explanation for this difference in the chemical reactivity of these two elements,
even though they are in the same group.




(1 mark)

iii. Give an explanation why selenium would be expected to display non-metallic
characteristics.






(1 mark)

Question 6 (7 marks, 8 minutes)
a. Write the ground state electronic configurations, in terms of subshells, for the
following:


i. Nickel(II) ion, Ni
2+
.


ii. Sulfide ion, S
2-
.


(2 marks)

b. i. Explain what happens to some of the electrons when an atom absorbs energy.




(1 mark)

ii. What happens when an atom that has absorbed energy returns to its ground
state?





(1 mark)
Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 13
c. Following his work on the atomic spectra of hydrogen, Niels Bohr introduced an
atomic model which placed the electrons in shells orbiting the nucleus of the atom.
i. In this model what is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the
third shell?




(1 mark)

ii. What is one of the assumptions made by this model?




(1 mark)

iii. What modification had to be made to this model to explain the electronic
configuration for some heavier atoms, such as potassium?





(1 mark)


End of Section B


End of Trial Exam

Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 1
Suggested Answers

VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1

SECTION A – Multiple Choice Questions

(1 mark per question)

Q1 B The atomic number (Z) is the number of protons present in the nucleus of a
particle. The mass number (A) is the number of protons plus neutrons present
in the nucleus of a particle, therefore
The number of neutrons = Mass number – Atomic number = A – Z

54
Fe
2+
(Z=26): N(n) = 54 – 26 = 28
A:
54
Cr (Z=24): N(n) = 54 – 24 = 30
B:
51
V (Z=23): N(n) = 51 – 23 = 28
C:
58
Ni (Z=28): N(n) = 58 – 28 = 30
D:
48
Ti (Z=22): N(n) = 48 – 22 = 26

Q2 A M(H
2
O) = 2×1.0 + 16.0 = 18.0 g mol
-1

M(MnSO
4
· 5H
2
O) = 54.9 + 32.1 + 4×16.0 + 5×18.0 = 241.0 g mol
-1
The mass of 1 mol of MnSO
4
· 5H
2
O is 241.0 g.
In 1 mol of the solid there are 5 mol of water.
m(H
2
O) = 5 × 18.0 = 90.0 g
%(H
2
O) = (90.0/241.0) × (100/1) = 37.3 %

Q3 D Both silicon and magnesium are in the same period of the Periodic Table
(third period). Moving across a period in the Periodic Table, the
electronegativity increases, since the outer shell or valence electrons are
influenced by a higher effective nuclear charge. Since magnesium is before
silicon in the third period of the Periodic Table then its electronegativity
will be less than that for silicon. The electronegativity for magnesium is
1.31.

Q4 A M(N) = 14.0 g mol
-1

The mass of 1 mol of nitrogen atoms is 14.0 g
A: M(H
2
) = 2 × 1.0 = 2.0 g mol
-1
: m(H
2
) = n×M = 7×2.0 = 14.0 g
B: M(C) = 12.0 g mol
-1
: m(C) = 1 × 12.0 = 12.0 g
C: M(CO
2
) = 12.0 + 2×16.0 = 44.0 g mol
-1

m(CO
2
) = 0.64×44 = 28.2 g
D: M(Si) = 28.1 : m(Si) = 1×28.1 = 28.1 g

Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 2
Q5 D In a mass spectrometer, once the gas particles have been ionised, they are
accelerated by an electric field. The charged particles are then separated
according to their mass/charge ratio as they pass through a magnetic field
before they are collected.
The diagram below shows a schematic diagram for a mass spectrometer.


Q6 D Phosphorus (Z = 15) atoms contain 15 electrons.
The ground state electronic configuration is the arrangement of electrons in
their subshells having the lowest electronic energy. Because of their energies,
subshells fill in the following order:
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s ………..
The maximum numbers of electrons in any s and p subshell are 2 and 6
respectively.
Therefore the ground state electronic configuration for phosphorus is
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
3
.

Q7 C In 1911 Ernest Rutherford reported the results of an experiment where he
fired a beam of alpha particles, helium nuclei He
2+
, at a thin sheet of gold foil.
The results showed that the majority of the particles passed through the foil.
However, a small number of the particles were deflected by large angles and
some bounced back. At this stage the atomic model was the Thomson model,
and Rutherford showed that the experimental results were not consistent with
this model. From his results, Rutherford proposed that atoms consisted of a
nucleus which contained most of the mass and was positively charged.

Q8 D M(K
2
Cr
2
O
7
) = 2×39.1 + 2×52.0 + 7×16.0 = 294.2 g mol
-1
.
n(K
2
Cr
2
O
7
) = m / M = 5.884 / 294.2 = 2.000×10
-2
mol
N(K
2
Cr
2
O
7
) = n × N
A
= 2.000×10
-2
× 6.02×10
23
= 1.20×10
22

For each response:
A: N(K
+
) = 2 × N(K
2
Cr
2
O
7
) = 2 × 1.20×10
22
= 2.40×10
22
ions
B: N(Cr
2
O
7
2-
) = N(K
2
Cr
2
O
7
) = 1.20×10
22
ions
C: N(atoms) = 11 × N(K
2
Cr
2
O
7
) = 11 × 1.20×10
22
= 1.32×10
23
atoms
D: N(Cr) = 2 × N(K
2
Cr
2
O
7
) = 2 × 1.20×10
22
= 2.40×10
22
atoms

Q9 A The doubly charged ion contains 46 electrons and 63 neutrons.
Determining the atomic and mass numbers:
A double positive ion means that there are two protons more than the number
of electrons, therefore the atomic number (number of protons) equals 46 + 2 =
48.
Referring to the Period Table this is Cd.
Mass number = 48 + 63 = 111.
Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 3
Therefore the symbol is
111 2
48
Cd
+

Q10 C The formula for the oxide is Pb
2
O
3

n(Pb) = m / M = 3.243 / 207.2 = 1.565×10
-2
mol
In the compound since the atom ratio of Pb : O is 2 : 3
n(O) =
3
/
2
× n(Pb) =
3
/
2
× 1.565×10
-2
= 2.348×10
-2
mol
m(O) = n × M(O) = 2.348×10
-2
× 16.0 = 0.376 g
Alternative solution:
The chemical equation for the reaction would be:

2 2 3
4Pb(s) 3O (g) 2Pb O (s) + ÷
n(Pb) = m / M = 3.243 / 207.2 = 1.565×10
-2
mol
From the equation the molar ratio of Pb : O
2
is 4 : 3
n(O
2
) =
3
/
4
× n(Pb) =
3
/
4
× 1.565×10
-2
= 1.17×10
-2
mol
m(O
2
) = n × M(O
2
) = 1.17×10
-2
× 32.0 = 0.376 g

Q11 A When trying to group the known elements, chemists such as Johann
Dobereiner (1780-1849), John Newlands (1837-1898), Dmitri Mendeleev
(1839-1907) and Julius Meyer (1830-1895) used the chemical properties of
the elements as their main criteria for grouping elements together.

Q12 B In 1961 the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)
agreed on the relative isotopic of carbon-12 being exactly 12 as the standard
for determining the relative isotopic and atomic masses for other atoms and the
elements. Prior to this, a number of different standards were used such as
Dalton’s, where the masses were relative to hydrogen being given the value of
1.

Q13 C The intermolecular forces between the alkane molecules in both compounds
will involve dispersion forces. Since less energy will be required to change the
state of a lower molecular mass hydrocarbon, then hexane will have a lower
boiling temperature. Low viscosity liquids flow more freely. As the
molecular mass increases then the viscosity of the liquid will also increase,
therefore hexane will be less viscous than decane. The diagram below shows
how the boiling temperature and viscosity for the hydrocarbons pentane
through to decane.


Q14 D The polarity of a molecular bond depends on the difference in the
electronegativities between the two elements. Fluorine and oxygen have
high electronegativities, therefore these two elements will produce highly
Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 4
polarised bonds with carbon. Bromine is the least electronegative element
(electronegativity decreases moving down a group in the Periodic Table),
therefore the carbon-bromine bond will be the least polar.

Q15 C Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formulae but different
structural formulae, therefore their molar masses will be identical. Since the
compounds are alkanes, then their chemical properties will be similar because
the reactivity is mainly determined by the carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen
bonds. The differences in the structures will affect how the molecules
interact with one another and as a result, the boiling temperatures will
differ. Considering the two hydrocarbons with the molecular formula C
4
H
10
,
the boiling temperatures for butane, CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
, and 2-methylpropane,
(CH
3
)
2
CHCH
3
, are -0.5 ºC and -11.7 ºC respectively.

Q16 D The surface energy of a substance reflects the strength of the interactions
between the particles that make it up. The strength of the interactions between
the water molecules is larger than that between the ethanol molecules. Both
interactions involve hydrogen bonding, however these interactions are stronger
in water.
Response A is true in that water has a boiling temperature greater than that of
ethanol, 100 °C compared with 78.3 ºC respectively. This property is the
result of the stronger interactions between the water molecules and does not
fully answer the question.
Response B is partially correct, however it is not the best answer. There are
hydrogen bonding interactions between the ethanol molecules in addition to
dipole-dipole bonding. However the strength of these interactions between the
ethanol molecules are less than those between the water molecules.

Q17 C The systematic name for a hydrocarbon can be determined by following the
following rules.
1. Locate the longest carbon-carbon atom chain or backbone in the
structure that contains any unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds.
In this case the longest chain contains five carbon atoms which are
joined by only single carbon-carbon bonds ¬ pentane
2. Locate any groups attached to this chain and number the carbon atoms
in the chain so that the substituent numbers are the lower of the two
possibilities.
In this hydrocarbon there are two methyl, -CH
3
, groups and these are
attached to carbon atoms 2 and 3 in the chain ¬ 2,3-dimethyl-.
2,3-dimethylpentane

The diagram above also shows the incorrect numbering of the carbon atoms in
the chain, which would give the name as 3,4-dimethylpentane.

Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 5
Q18 C Addition polymers are formed by the polymerisation of monomers that contain
unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. This most commonly involves a
carbon-carbon double bond as in the formation of polyethene from ethene.
2 2 2 2 n
nCH CH (CH CH ) = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
The functional groups stated in the other responses can give rise to
condensation polymers.

Q19 B Ionic compounds consist of positive and negative ions held together by
electrostatic forces. A typical ionic compound has a moderately high
melting temperature because of the strong electrostatic forces between the
positive and negative ions (e.g.: NaCl m.t. 801 ºC).
In the solid state, the charged ions are in a lattice and not free to move
about in the solid, therefore solid ionic compounds are not electrical
conductors. In the liquid state, and in aqueous solutions, the ions are free to
move about, therefore the ions will carry an electric current.

Q20 B The chains of polymers with a low degree of branching will be able to pack
together more readily and the chains can twist around each other. This will
result in a material that has a higher density, is harder and less flexible and
softens at a higher temperature.
High-density polyethene, HDPE, is an example of a polymer where there is
little branching along the polymer chain making it stronger and more rigid than
low-density polyethene, LDPE, that has a significant degree of branching
along the chain.

Q21 D To be a good conductor of heat, the thermal energy must be able to pass along
the length of the rod. For this to occur, particles must be able to move within
the structure. In metallic bonding, the electrons are free to move within the
lattice, therefore can transfer the thermal energy along the rod as they move
about.

Q22 B 2-methylbut-1-ene: The longest carbon-carbon atom contains four carbon
atoms.
2-methylbut-1-ene: There is a single carbon-carbon double bond between
carbon atoms 1 and 2 in the chain.
2-methylbut-1-ene: There is a methyl group attached to carbon atom 2.


Q23 C Cross-linking involves the formation of ‘strong’ covalent bonds between the
polymer chains. This reduces the ability of the chains to move freely over each
other, thereby increasing the rigidity of the material.
The other responses all involve weak interactions between the polymer chains.

Q24 D The electrical conductivity of a metal is dependent on the free movement of the
delocalised outer shell or valence electrons within the solid. In a metal
nanoparticle, since there are less positively charged ions in the lattice, the outer
shell or valence electrons are more closely associated with their atoms and not
as widely delocalised. As a result, the nanoparticles display electrical
properties between those of metals and non-metals, such as a lower electrical
conductivity.
Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 6
SECTION B – Short Answer (Answers)

Question 1 (10 marks, 12 minutes)
a. Butane has the molecular formula C
4
H
10
. This is an alkane and only contains
carbon-carbon single bonds. There are two structural isomers for butane, butane and
2-methylpropane. The structures for the isomers are shown below.
(Mark allocation: 1 mark for both correct structure and name. Total marks
2 marks)

b. i. Both these reactions are addition reactions across the carbon-carbon double
bond.
For compound A, the water is added across the carbon-carbon double bond so
that a hydrogen attaches to one of the carbon atoms involved in the
carbon-carbon double bond and an hydroxy group, -OH, attaches to the other
carbon atom.
For compound B, a bromine atom attaches to each of the carbon atoms
involved in the carbon-carbon double bond.

(2 marks)
ii. Compound A: This has an hydroxy, -OH, functional group and a single
carbon-carbon bond, therefore is the alkanol ethanol. (1 mark)
Compound B: This has two bromine atoms attached on different carbon atoms
and a single carbon-carbon bond, therefore is 1,2-dibromoethane. (1 mark)
c. The products of the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon are carbon dioxide and
water. The chemical equation can be developed using the following steps.
1. Write down the reactants and products.

4 10 2 2 2
C H (g) O (g) CO (g) H O(l) + ÷ +
2. Balance the carbon atoms in the chemical equation.

4 10 2 2 2
C H (g) O (g) 4CO (g) H O(l) + ÷ +
3. Balance the hydrogen atoms in the chemical equation.

4 10 2 2 2
C H (g) O (g) 4CO (g) 5H O(l) + ÷ +

H O / catalyst
2
Br (l)
2
CH =CH
2 2
A
B
CH Br CH Br
2 2
-
CH CH OH
3 2
-
Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 7
4. Balance the oxygen atoms in the chemical equation.

4 10 2 2 2
13
C H (g) O (g) 4CO (g) 5H O(l)
2
+ ÷ +
5. If the coefficient of the oxygen gas is not a whole number then multiply the
equation by 2.

4 10 2 2 2
2C H (g) 13O (g) 8CO (g) 10H O(l) + ÷ + (1 mark)
Ensure that states have been included in the final chemical equation.
A combustion chemical equation may be stated as at the end of step 4.
d. i. The polymer polystyrene should show at least three repetitions of the monomer
unit. (2 marks)
The section of the structure should show a backbone of single carbon-carbon
bonds in the polymer chain with the C
6
H
5
- group attached to this backbone.

ii. Polyethene is a polymer made from a single monomer, whereas a
copolymer is made from at least two monomers. (1 mark) An example of
a copolymers is one that is made from styrene and butadiene. This copolymer
would have different properties to those of either of the polymers made from
the single monomers.

Question 2 (8 marks, 10 minutes)
a. i. In the structures of both diamond and graphite, carbon atoms are joined by
covalent bonds in a network lattice. (1 mark)
ii. In diamond the network lattice is three dimensional with each carbon atom
covalently bonded to four other carbon atoms. In graphite the lattice is
two dimensional with each carbon atom covalently bonded to three other
carbon atoms, forming a layer and the remaining electron on each carbon
atom is delocalised within the layer. (1 mark)

iii. Possible answers include:
(Mark Allocation: 1 mark for correct response. Total 2 Marks)
Hardness
Electrical conductivity

Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 8
iv. (Mark Allocation: 1 mark)
Hardness – Overall, graphite is soft because the layers of carbon atoms can
slide over each other as there are only weak forces between the layers,
whereas diamond is hard due to the strong covalent bonding extending in
the three directions. (On the Moh’s scale of hardness, graphite is between 1
and 2 whereas diamond is 10.)
Electrical conductivity – Because of the delocalised electrons in the layers
of graphite, it is a weak conductor of electricity. Since there are no mobile
charge carriers in the structure of diamond it is a non-conductor. The
electrical conductivity of graphite is about 2.5×10
3
S m
-1
compared to
1×10
-13
S m
-1
for diamond. (Gold: 4.5×10
7
S m
-1
)
b. Interstitial alloys have the added element atoms located in the spaces between the
metal atoms in the metallic lattice. For the added element to be able to do this then the
size of the atoms must be small enough to fit in the space available. (1 mark) In
general this requires that the size of the added element be smaller than that of the
metal.
c. i. Sulfur (Z = 16) has six valence electrons, two of which will form covalent
bonds with the hydrogen atoms, thereby resulting in two lone pairs of
electrons. (1 mark)

The bond polarities are not required for the mark allocated.

ii. Sulfur is more electronegative than hydrogen, therefore the hydrogen-sulfur
bond will be polarised. Since the central sulfur atom has two polar bonds and
two pairs of lone electrons overall the molecule will be dipolar. The strongest
interaction between the hydrogen sulfide molecules will be dipole-dipole
interactions. (1 mark) Weaker dispersion forces will also be present between
the molecules.

Question 3 (7 marks, 8 minutes)
a. For a liquid to wet a solid, the force of attraction between the particles in the liquid
must be less than the force of attraction between the particles on the surface of
the solid and the particles in the liquid. (1 mark) Mercury is a metal therefore the
particles in the drop of mercury will undergo metallic bonding, therefore the force of
attraction between the mercury atoms will be strong. This will be stronger than
the force of attraction between mercury and ionic glass surface, and as a result the
mercury will not wet the glass surface. (1 mark)
b. The surface energy is the energy required to increase the surface area of a
substance. Increasing the surface area of a material requires breaking the bonds
between the particles that make up the material, therefore the surface energy
reflects the forces of attraction between the particles in the material. Sulfur is a
non-metal, therefore there will be covalent bonding between the sulfur atoms in the
sulfur, S
8
, molecules. However since the sulfur molecules will not be polar, there will
be only weak dispersion forces between the sulfur molecules. Sodium chloride is
an ionic solid and there will be strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the
ions, Na
+
and Cl
-
, in the lattice. Since the forces of attraction between the
particles in sulfur are less than those between the ions in sodium chloride, the
surface energy of sulfur would be expected to be less than that for sodium
chloride. (2 marks)
S
H H
o+ o+
o-
Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 9
c. i. The active antimicrobial agent is silver ions. Silver nanoparticles have a
large surface area to volume ratio compared with other forms of silver,
therefore they can react readily with various substances, such as moisture, to
release silver ions that will kill the microbes. (1 mark)
ii. Possible answers:
(1 mark each. Total marks allocated = 2 marks)
The silver nanoparticles could react, thereby releasing silver ions that could be
ingested or absorbed into the body and this could have adverse effects, such as
poisoning.
The silver nanoparticles could be absorbed directly into the body and could
enter cells and inadvertently kill body cells.
The silver nanoparticles or silver ions could be released from the objects
during washing and enter the environment and cause problems. Silver
compounds have been shown to be highly toxic to marine organisms.
Silver nanoparticles are very small and if released from the material have the
potential to enter cells where they could cause different processes to occur
within the cell.

Question 4 (10 marks, 12 minutes)
a. i. M(CO
2
) = 12.0 + 2×16.0 = 44.0 g mol
-1

n(CO
2
) = m / M = 7.452 / 44.0 = 1.694×10
-1
mol (1 mark)
m(C) = n × M = 1.694×10
-1
× 12.0 = 2.032 g (1 mark)
%(C) = (2.032/3.218) × (100/1) = 63.16 % (1 mark)
Alternative solution:
m(C) = (12.0/44.0) × 7.452 = 2.032 g
%(C) = (2.032/3.218) × (100/1) = 63.16 %
ii. %(O) = 100 – (%(C) + %(H))
%(O) = 100.00 – (63.16 + 8.77) = 28.07 % (1 mark)
iii. Assuming 100 g of material and determine the molar ratio of the elements.
n(C) : n(H) : n(O) =
63.16
12.0
:
8.77
1.0
:
28.07
16.0

= 5.26 : 8.77 : 1.75 (1 mark)
Divide all three values by the smallest value to get the lowest ratio
=
5.26
1.75
:
8.77
1.75
:
1.75
1.75

= 3.01 : 5.01 : 1.00
Therefore the empirical formula is C
3
H
5
O. (1 mark)
iv. The molecular formula is a whole number multiple of the empirical formula,
(C
3
H
5
O)
x
.
M(C
3
H
5
O) = 3×12.0 + 5×1.0 + 16.0 = 57.0 g mol
-1

M((C
3
H
5
O)
x
) = 57.0 × x = 228 g mol
-1

Evaluate for x
x = 228 / 57.0 = 4
Molecular formula is (C
3
H
5
O)
4
¬ C
12
H
20
O
4
. (1 mark)
b. i. N
A
= 6.02×10
23
mol
-1

n(atoms) = N / N
A
= (3.20×10
21
)/(6.02×10
23
) = 5.32×10
-3
mol (1 mark)
Each molecule of phosphorus (III) trichloride has four atoms (one phosphorous
plus three chlorine).
n(PCl
3
) = ¼ × n(atoms) = ¼ × 5.32×10
-3
= 1.33×10
-3
mol (1 mark)
ii. M(PCl
3
) = 31.0 + 3×35.5 = 137.5 g mol
-1

m(PCl
3
) = n × M = 1.33×10
-3
× 137.5 = 1.83×10
-1
g (1 mark)
Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 10
Question 5 (8 marks, 10 minutes)
a. i. From the VCE Chemistry Data Book Periodic Table;
A
r
(Cu) = 63.6
The abundance of the heavier isotope = 100 – 69.1 = 30.9 % (1 mark)
The relative atomic mass, A
r
, is the weighted average of the relative isotopic
masses.
Let the relative isotopic mass of the lighter isotope equal x.
A
r
(Cu) = (69.1×x + 30.9×64.93)/100 = 63.6 (1 mark)
Multiply both sides of equation by 100 and evaluate terms in bracket.
69.1x + 2006.3 = 6360
69.1x = 6360 – 2006.3 = 4353.7
x = 4353.7 / 69.1 = 63.0 (1 mark)
ii. The mass number, A, for a particle is a whole number, therefore the mass
number for the lighter isotope will be 63,
63
Cu.
Therefore the sub-atomic particles present in a
63
Cu
2+
ion will be:
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is equal to the atomic
number, Z. Therefore using the Periodic Table, this ion will contain
29 protons.
The number of electrons in a neutral particle is equal to the number of protons.
Since the particle is a 2+ ion, there will be two less electrons.
Number(electrons) = 29 – 2 = 27 electrons (1 mark)
The mass number is the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of the
particle.
Number(neutrons) = 63 – 29 = 34 neutrons (1 mark)
b. i. Beryllium and oxygen are both in period 2 of the Periodic Table. The atomic
radius for oxygen is less than that for beryllium because the outer shell or
valence electrons for oxygen are more strongly attracted to the higher
effective charged nucleus. (1 mark) The effective nuclear charges for
beryllium and oxygen are 2+ and 6+ respectively. Therefore based on
Coulomb’s electrostatic attraction, an electron will be more strongly attracted
to the oxygen nucleus, and as a result be closer to the nucleus. The trend
within a period of the Periodic Table is that moving across a period, the
atomic radius of the elements decreases. The diagram below is a
representation of the atomic radii of the elements in period 2 of the Periodic
Table.

ii. The chemical reactivity of an element involves the outer shell or valence
electrons. Both sodium and rubidium are in Group 1 of the Periodic Table and
are metals. When metals react, they lose electrons, are oxidised. The outer
shell or valence electron in rubidium is in the fifth shell (….5s
1
) compared to
sodium where the outer shell or valence electron is in the third shell (….3s
1
),
therefore it will be further from the nucleus and experience a weaker
attractive force towards the nucleus and be more easily removed.
(1 mark)
iii. Selenium is in group 16 and period 4 of the Periodic Table. The metallic
character of an element decreases moving across a period making the
element’s properties more non-metallic. (1 mark)
Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 11

Question 6 (7 marks, 8 minutes)
a. The ground state electronic configuration for a particle is when the electrons are in
their lowest energy state. The order of energies for the subshells is
1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s ……………….
The maximum number of electrons that can occupy s, p, and d subshells are 2, 6 and
10 respectively.
i. Nickel(II) ion, Ni
2+
. A neutral nickel atom will contain 28 electrons, therefore
the ground state electronic configuration for nickel will be;
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
8
4s
2
.
When an ion is formed, electrons are either lost or added to the outer or
valence shell. The outer shell in nickel is the fourth shell, therefore when the
nickel(II) ion forms, the two electrons in the 4s subshell will be lost.
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
8
. (1 mark)
ii. A sulfide ion contains two more electrons than a sulfur atom (Z=16), therefore
18 electrons.
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
. (1 mark)
b. i. When an atom absorbs energy, an excited electron will move to a higher
energy level. (1 mark)
ii. When electrons relax from an excited state back to their ground state, they
emit light equal in energy to the energy difference of the two states.
(1 mark) Therefore the emission (and absorption) spectra are distinctive for a
given element.
c. i. The maximum number of electrons that can occupy a shell is given by the
formula 2n
2
where n is the shell number.
Therefore for the third shell n = 3
Maximum number of electrons = 2 (3)
2
= 18 electrons (1 mark)
ii. Possible answers: (1 mark)
The electrons circle or orbit the nucleus of the atoms without losing any
energy.
Electrons within the same shell are about the same distance from the nucleus of
the atom.
The electrons can only move in orbits with a particular energy.
Within a particular shell, the energies of the electrons are about the same.
iii. To explain the electronic configuration of heavier atoms one needs to apply the
modification that the outer shell is limited to eight electrons even when it’s
maximum is higher (1 mark). For example, if this modification were not
applied potassium would have a shell electronic configuration of 2, 8, 9 when
in fact it is 2, 8, 8, 1.


End of Suggested Answers

Student Name....….……………………................................................................

VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1
Student Answer Sheet
There are 24 Multiple Choice questions to be answered by circling the correct letter in the table below. Use only a 2B pencil. If you make a mistake, erase and enter the correct answer. Marks will not be deducted for incorrect answers Question 1 Question 3 Question 5 Question 7 Question 9 Question 11 Question 13 Question 15 Question 17 Question 19 Question 21 Question 23 A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D Question 2 Question 4 Question 6 Question 8 Question 10 Question 12 Question 14 Question 16 Question 18 Question 20 Question 22 Question 24 A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D

Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1

is A. D. 7 mol of hydrogen molecules. Ni.) Question 1 The particle with the same number of neutrons present in its nucleus as there are in a 54Fe2+ ion is 54 A. B. C. separated as they pass through a magnetic field. therefore the electronegativity for magnesium will be A. immediately after the particles have been ionised they are A. (Choose only one answer for each question.90. D. less than 1.90. C. separated as they pass through an electric field. 40.7 % D. V.8 % C.VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 SECTION A – Multiple Choice Questions (24 marks. 1 mol of carbon atoms. 51 B. B. about 0. D. C. Question 4 The mass of 1 mol of nitrogen atoms will be approximately the same as that of A. about 1. Indicate your answer on the answer sheet provided. 37. For each question choose the response that is correct or best answers the question. MnSO4 · 5H2O. Ti. 0.7 % Question 3 The electronegativity for silicon is 1. 42.3 % B. Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 1 . 10. accelerated by an electric field. Question 5 In a mass spectrometer. 48 D. accelerated by a magnetic field. Cr.64 mol of carbon dioxide molecules. 1 mol of silicon atoms. 30 minutes) This section contains 24 multiple choice questions. B.90. Question 2 The percentage by mass of water in manganese(II) sulfate pentahydrate.90. greater than 1. 58 C.

48 Cd B. C. 1.40×1022 chromium atoms. physical properties. D.376 g.02×1021 dichromate ions. D. D. C. Ernest Rutherford. Marie Curie. B.167 g. atomic mass (weight).251 g. C. 6. The mass of oxygen required to react with 3. B. 0. Question 7 The person credited with showing that the nucleus of an atom contains most of its mass and is positively charged is A. D. D. John Dalton. B. B. 1s22s22p63s23p3. Question 11 The early work on the Periodic Table focused on grouping together the known elements based on their A. C. Question 8 A 5. Question 9 An ion with a double positive charge contains 46 electrons and 63 neutrons. K2Cr2O7. electronic configurations. contains A. 1s21p42s22p43s23p1. D. chemical properties. 0. 1. 1s22s22p63s23p24s1. B. C.20×1022 potassium ions.752 g. 109 46 107 44 Pd 2  Ru 2 Ru 2 111 44 Question 10 A reaction between lead and oxygen resulted in the formation of a lead oxide with the formula Pb2O3. C. This ion can be represented by the symbol 111 2 A. 2.243 g of lead to form this oxide is A. 1s22s22p43s23p44s1.Question 6 The ground state electronic configuration for phosphorus is A. 0. 0.884 g sample of potassium dichromate.20×1022 atoms. John Thomson. 2 Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 .

D. B. 2-ethyl-3-methylbutane. 2. because A. Question 13 Both decane and hexane are liquid hydrocarbons at room temperature. the boiling temperature of water is higher than that of ethanol. Carbon-bromine. Question 17 The systematic name for the hydrocarbon shown below is A. D. Different Different Similar C. boiling temperature and chemical properties of two alkanes that are isomers? Molar Mass Boiling Temperature Chemical Properties A. C. Compared to decane. Carbon-chlorine. D. Same Different Similar D. C. Same Same Different B. Different Same Similar Question 16 The surface energy for water is greater than that of ethanol.Question 12 The standard used to determine the relative atomic masses of the elements is that the A. relative atomic mass of hydrogen is 1 exactly. Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 3 . D. C. B. Question 15 Which one of the following is correct when comparing the molar mass. a lower boiling temperature and a higher viscosity. which one of the following will be the least polar bond? A. relative isotopic mass of oxygen-16 is 16 exactly. in water there is hydrogen bonding between the water molecules. Carbon-fluorine. 2. relative isotopic mass of carbon-12 is 12 exactly. a higher boiling temperature and a higher viscosity. D. C. covalent bonds have to be broken in water. whereas in ethanol there are dipole-dipole interactions. a higher boiling temperature and a lower viscosity. the forces between the water molecules are stronger than those between the ethanol molecules. relative atomic mass of carbon is 12 exactly. hexane will have A. Carbon-oxygen.3-dimethylpentane.2-dimethylpentane. B. B. Question 14 In molecular compounds. C. B. a lower boiling temperature and a lower viscosity. heptane.

The bonding between the particles that make up the rod will involve A. D. an amino and a carboxy functional group. two hydroxy functional groups. an hydroxy and a carboxy functional group. a moderately high melting temperature. B. B. an unsaturated carbon-carbon bond. will soften at a lower temperature. D. B. Question 22 The structure for 2-methylbut-1-ene can be represented by 4 Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 . C. the polymers with the lesser degree of branching will A. be less flexible. will not be an electrical conductor in the solid state but will conduct electricity in the liquid (molten) state. have a lower density. a low melting temperature and will not be an electrical conductor in either the solid or liquid (molten) states. will not be an electrical conductor in the solid state but will conduct electricity in the liquid (molten) state. C. ionic bonding. D. C. B. Question 19 A typical compound that has ionic bonding will have A. D. Question 20 Comparing addition polymers with a significant degree of branching along the polymer chain with those that have few branches along the polymer chain. a moderately high melting temperature and will be an electrical conductor in the solid and liquid (molten) states. a low melting temperature. covalent bonding. be softer. metallic bonding. Question 21 A rod is found to be a good conductor of heat. covalent network lattice bonding.Question 18 The main structural requirement for monomers that can be used to produce addition polymers is that they contain A. C.

behave as thermal and electrical insulators. End of Section A Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 5 . B.Question 23 Cross-linking involves the formation of A. D. ion-dipole interactions between the polymer chains. D. covalent bonds between the polymer chains. have a higher electrical conductivity. Question 24 Compared with a sample of the bulk metal. metal nanoparticles tend to A. C. dipole-dipole interactions between the polymer chains. C. display electrical properties between those of metal and non-metals. be less reactive. B. hydrogen bonds between the polymer chains.

All questions should be answered in the spaces provided. (2 marks) b.VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 SECTION B – Short Answer Questions (50 marks. On the reaction scheme below. that would be produced when ethene reacts with the reagents shown. The mark allocation and approximate time that should be spent on each question are given. i. A H2O / catalyst CH2=CH2 B Br2(l) (2 marks) 6 Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 . show the products. numbered 1 to 6. labelled A and B. 60 minutes) This section contains six questions. Question 1 (10 marks. Draw the structures for the two isomers of butane and label them with their systematic names. 12 minutes) a.

What is one difference in the bonding present in these two allotropes? (1 mark) Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 7 .ii. (2 marks) ii. How would a copolymer differ from a polymer such as polyethene? (1 mark) Question 2 (8 marks. C6H5-CH=CH2. i. i. Draw the structure for a section of the polymer that could be produced from styrene. (1 mark) d. 10 minutes) a. What are the systematic names for the compounds labelled A and B in the above scheme? Compound A: Compound B: (2 marks) c. What is one similarity in the bonding present in these two allotropes? (1 mark) ii. Write an appropriate chemical equation to represent the complete combustion of butane. Diamond and graphite are two allotropes of carbon.

What are two physical properties of these two allotropes that are significantly different? (2 marks) iv. Property: (1 mark) b. Select one of the properties given in iii. showing all bonding and non-bonding electron pairs. above and explain why the property differs between the two allotropes. Hydrogen sulfide. What are the strongest interaction forces that exist between the hydrogen sulfide molecules? (1 mark) 8 Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 .iii. (1 mark) ii. has a boiling temperature of -60 ºC. H2S. i. What is the requirement for the element added to a metal so that it forms an interstitial alloy? (1 mark) c. Draw the structure for hydrogen sulfide.

would be expected to be less than that for solid sodium chloride. (2 marks) b. i. S8. have been released on the market that are made from materials impregnated with silver nanoparticles. Explain why the mercury does not wet the glass plate. 8 minutes) a. such as clothing and food containers. The diagram below shows how a droplet of mercury would behave when placed on a clean glass plate. Over recent years a number of consumer products. Explain why the surface energy of solid sulfur. Why would the silver nanoparticles show much greater antimicrobial activity than other forms of silver? (1 mark) ii. (2 marks) c. Silver ions have antimicrobial properties.Question 3 (7 marks. What could be two concerns that could be raised about the use of these types of materials that are impregnated with silver nanoparticles? (2 marks) Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 9 .

Determine the molecular formula for the compound. (2 marks) 10 Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 . Determine the amount in mole of phosphorus(III) chloride in the sample. (2 marks) iv. all of the carbon was converted to carbon dioxide. i.77 % hydrogen by mass.452 g. A 3. hydrogen and oxygen. The compound was also found to contain 8. The total number of atoms present in a sample of phosphorus(III) chloride. i. (1 mark) iii. is 3. 12 minutes) a. When this compound was completely burnt. carbon dioxide.Question 4 (10 marks. Calculate the percentage by mass of carbon in this sample of the compound. The molar mass of the compound was determined to be 228 g mol-1.218 g sample of the compound produced 7. (3 marks) ii. (1 mark) b.20×1021 atoms. Determine the percentage by mass of oxygen in the compound. Analysis showed that a compound contained the elements carbon. PCl3. Determine the empirical formula for the compound.

even though it has a higher atomic number. Determine the relative isotopic mass for the lighter isotope. i. Copper has two naturally occurring isotopes. Cu2+. How many of each sub-atomic particle are present in a copper(II) ion. of the lighter isotope? (2 marks) b. (3 marks) ii. 10 minutes) a. (1 mark) Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 11 .ii. Explain why the atomic radius for oxygen is less than that for beryllium.93. i. (1 mark) Question 5 (8 marks. The relative isotopic mass of the heavier isotope is 64. The atomic radii for beryllium and oxygen are 105 pm and 60 pm respectively. Determine the mass of the sample. The isotopic abundances of the lighter isotope is 69.1 %.

Sulfide ion. Write the ground state electronic configurations. (2 marks) b. S2-. Explain what happens to some of the electrons when an atom absorbs energy. Nickel(II) ion. even though they are in the same group. ii. however rubidium metal will explode when it comes in contact with water. i.ii. (1 mark) ii. in terms of subshells. Give an explanation why selenium would be expected to display non-metallic characteristics. Give an explanation for this difference in the chemical reactivity of these two elements. (1 mark) Question 6 (7 marks. for the following: i. Sodium metal will react vigorously when it is added to water. (1 mark) iii. What happens when an atom that has absorbed energy returns to its ground state? (1 mark) 12 Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 . 8 minutes) a. Ni2+.

Following his work on the atomic spectra of hydrogen. Niels Bohr introduced an atomic model which placed the electrons in shells orbiting the nucleus of the atom.c. What is one of the assumptions made by this model? (1 mark) iii. What modification had to be made to this model to explain the electronic configuration for some heavier atoms. such as potassium? (1 mark) End of Section B End of Trial Exam Learning Materials by Lisachem VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 13 . In this model what is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the third shell? (1 mark) ii. i.

0) × (100/1) = 37. Since magnesium is before silicon in the third period of the Periodic Table then its electronegativity will be less than that for silicon.2 g D: M(Si) = 28.31.0 g B: M(C) = 12.0 g mol-1 : m(C) = 1 × 12.0 + 5×18.0 g %(H2O) = (90.0 = 2.0 g mol-1 M(MnSO4 · 5H2O) = 54.9 + 32.0 + 2×16. M(N) = 14. In 1 mol of the solid there are 5 mol of water. the electronegativity increases.0 = 14.0 g mol-1 The mass of 1 mol of MnSO4 · 5H2O is 241. since the outer shell or valence electrons are influenced by a higher effective nuclear charge.0 = 90.0 g A: M(H2) = 2 × 1.0 = 241.1 : m(Si) = 1×28.1 g Q2 A Q3 D Q4 A Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 1 .0 g C: M(CO2) = 12.1 = 28.0 = 44.0 g mol-1 The mass of 1 mol of nitrogen atoms is 14. therefore The number of neutrons = Mass number – Atomic number = A – Z 54 Fe2+ (Z=26): N(n) = 54 – 26 = 28 54 A: Cr (Z=24): N(n) = 54 – 24 = 30 51 B: V (Z=23): N(n) = 51 – 23 = 28 58 C: Ni (Z=28): N(n) = 58 – 28 = 30 48 D: Ti (Z=22): N(n) = 48 – 22 = 26 M(H2O) = 2×1.1 + 4×16.0/241.0 g.0 g mol-1 m(CO2) = 0.0 g mol-1 : m(H2) = n×M = 7×2.64×44 = 28. The electronegativity for magnesium is 1.0 = 12.0 = 18. The mass number (A) is the number of protons plus neutrons present in the nucleus of a particle. Moving across a period in the Periodic Table.Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 SECTION A – Multiple Choice Questions (1 mark per question) Q1 B The atomic number (Z) is the number of protons present in the nucleus of a particle.3 % Both silicon and magnesium are in the same period of the Periodic Table (third period).0 + 16. m(H2O) = 5 × 18.

Mass number = 48 + 63 = 111. Therefore the ground state electronic configuration for phosphorus is 1s22s22p63s23p3.2 = 2.Q5 D In a mass spectrometer.02×1023 = 1. Referring to the Period Table this is Cd. From his results.20×1022 For each response: A: N(K+) = 2 × N(K2Cr2O7) = 2 × 1. and Rutherford showed that the experimental results were not consistent with this model.40×1022 ions B: N(Cr2O72-) = N(K2Cr2O7) = 1. The maximum numbers of electrons in any s and p subshell are 2 and 6 respectively. In 1911 Ernest Rutherford reported the results of an experiment where he fired a beam of alpha particles. The diagram below shows a schematic diagram for a mass spectrometer. they are accelerated by an electric field. M(K2Cr2O7) = 2×39.20×1022 ions C: N(atoms) = 11 × N(K2Cr2O7) = 11 × 1. The results showed that the majority of the particles passed through the foil.40×1022 atoms The doubly charged ion contains 46 electrons and 63 neutrons. At this stage the atomic model was the Thomson model. helium nuclei He2+. therefore the atomic number (number of protons) equals 46 + 2 = 48. The ground state electronic configuration is the arrangement of electrons in their subshells having the lowest electronic energy. subshells fill in the following order: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s ……….1 + 2×52. a small number of the particles were deflected by large angles and some bounced back.0 = 294. at a thin sheet of gold foil.000×10-2 × 6. once the gas particles have been ionised. Q6 D Phosphorus (Z = 15) atoms contain 15 electrons.20×1022 = 1. Because of their energies.2 g mol-1.0 + 7×16.20×1022 = 2. However. Q7 C Q8 D Q9 A 2 Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 .. The charged particles are then separated according to their mass/charge ratio as they pass through a magnetic field before they are collected.000×10-2 mol N(K2Cr2O7) = n × NA = 2.32×1023 atoms D: N(Cr) = 2 × N(K2Cr2O7) = 2 × 1.20×1022 = 2. n(K2Cr2O7) = m / M = 5.884 / 294. Determining the atomic and mass numbers: A double positive ion means that there are two protons more than the number of electrons. Rutherford proposed that atoms consisted of a nucleus which contained most of the mass and was positively charged.

0 = 0. Q11 A Q12 B Q13 C Q14 D The polarity of a molecular bond depends on the difference in the electronegativities between the two elements. Low viscosity liquids flow more freely.243 / 207. In 1961 the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) agreed on the relative isotopic of carbon-12 being exactly 12 as the standard for determining the relative isotopic and atomic masses for other atoms and the elements. therefore hexane will be less viscous than decane. As the molecular mass increases then the viscosity of the liquid will also increase. The intermolecular forces between the alkane molecules in both compounds will involve dispersion forces. Prior to this. then hexane will have a lower boiling temperature.17×10-2 × 32.565×10-2 mol From the equation the molar ratio of Pb : O2 is 4 : 3 n(O2) = 3/4 × n(Pb) = 3/4 × 1.2 = 1. Fluorine and oxygen have high electronegativities. a number of different standards were used such as Dalton’s. Since less energy will be required to change the state of a lower molecular mass hydrocarbon.348×10-2 mol m(O) = n × M(O) = 2. The diagram below shows how the boiling temperature and viscosity for the hydrocarbons pentane through to decane.0 = 0. chemists such as Johann Dobereiner (1780-1849).376 g When trying to group the known elements.565×10-2 mol In the compound since the atom ratio of Pb : O is 2 : 3 n(O) = 3/2 × n(Pb) = 3/2 × 1.348×10-2 × 16.2 = 1. where the masses were relative to hydrogen being given the value of 1. Dmitri Mendeleev (1839-1907) and Julius Meyer (1830-1895) used the chemical properties of the elements as their main criteria for grouping elements together.17×10-2 mol m(O2) = n × M(O2) = 1.376 g Alternative solution: The chemical equation for the reaction would be: 4Pb(s)  3O 2 (g)  2Pb 2 O3 (s) n(Pb) = m / M = 3. therefore these two elements will produce highly Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 3 .565×10-2 = 2.565×10-2 = 1.Q10 C Therefore the symbol is 111 Cd 2 48 The formula for the oxide is Pb2O3 n(Pb) = m / M = 3.243 / 207. John Newlands (1837-1898).

In this case the longest chain contains five carbon atoms which are joined by only single carbon-carbon bonds  pentane 2. The systematic name for a hydrocarbon can be determined by following the following rules. Q15 C Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formulae but different structural formulae.3-dimethyl-. There are hydrogen bonding interactions between the ethanol molecules in addition to dipole-dipole bonding. the boiling temperatures will differ. Since the compounds are alkanes. Bromine is the least electronegative element (electronegativity decreases moving down a group in the Periodic Table). Both interactions involve hydrogen bonding. However the strength of these interactions between the ethanol molecules are less than those between the water molecules. 100 °C compared with 78.4-dimethylpentane.7 ºC respectively.polarised bonds with carbon. however it is not the best answer. are -0. The surface energy of a substance reflects the strength of the interactions between the particles that make it up. 1. and 2-methylpropane. This property is the result of the stronger interactions between the water molecules and does not fully answer the question. Locate any groups attached to this chain and number the carbon atoms in the chain so that the substituent numbers are the lower of the two possibilities. the boiling temperatures for butane. -CH3. therefore their molar masses will be identical. therefore the carbon-bromine bond will be the least polar. however these interactions are stronger in water. Locate the longest carbon-carbon atom chain or backbone in the structure that contains any unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. 4 Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 . (CH3)2CHCH3.3 ºC respectively. In this hydrocarbon there are two methyl. groups and these are attached to carbon atoms 2 and 3 in the chain  2. The differences in the structures will affect how the molecules interact with one another and as a result. CH3CH2CH2CH3. Considering the two hydrocarbons with the molecular formula C4H10. The strength of the interactions between the water molecules is larger than that between the ethanol molecules. which would give the name as 3. then their chemical properties will be similar because the reactivity is mainly determined by the carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds. Response A is true in that water has a boiling temperature greater than that of ethanol.3-dimethylpentane Q16 D Q17 C The diagram above also shows the incorrect numbering of the carbon atoms in the chain. Response B is partially correct. 2.5 ºC and -11.

In a metal nanoparticle. As a result. To be a good conductor of heat. therefore solid ionic compounds are not electrical conductors. the nanoparticles display electrical properties between those of metals and non-metals. LDPE. High-density polyethene. the outer shell or valence electrons are more closely associated with their atoms and not as widely delocalised. since there are less positively charged ions in the lattice. the ions are free to move about. the charged ions are in a lattice and not free to move about in the solid. For this to occur. The chains of polymers with a low degree of branching will be able to pack together more readily and the chains can twist around each other. the thermal energy must be able to pass along the length of the rod. nCH 2  CH 2   (CH 2  CH 2 ) n  The functional groups stated in the other responses can give rise to condensation polymers. In the solid state. is an example of a polymer where there is little branching along the polymer chain making it stronger and more rigid than low-density polyethene. 801 ºC). Q19 B Q20 B Q21 D Q22 B Q23 C Cross-linking involves the formation of ‘strong’ covalent bonds between the polymer chains. Q24 D Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 5 . The other responses all involve weak interactions between the polymer chains. HDPE. 2-methylbut-1-ene: There is a methyl group attached to carbon atom 2. This reduces the ability of the chains to move freely over each other. In the liquid state. that has a significant degree of branching along the chain.Q18 C Addition polymers are formed by the polymerisation of monomers that contain unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. is harder and less flexible and softens at a higher temperature.g. particles must be able to move within the structure. 2-methylbut-1-ene: There is a single carbon-carbon double bond between carbon atoms 1 and 2 in the chain. 2-methylbut-1-ene: The longest carbon-carbon atom contains four carbon atoms. such as a lower electrical conductivity.t. therefore can transfer the thermal energy along the rod as they move about. A typical ionic compound has a moderately high melting temperature because of the strong electrostatic forces between the positive and negative ions (e. therefore the ions will carry an electric current. the electrons are free to move within the lattice.: NaCl m. and in aqueous solutions. thereby increasing the rigidity of the material. Ionic compounds consist of positive and negative ions held together by electrostatic forces. This will result in a material that has a higher density. The electrical conductivity of a metal is dependent on the free movement of the delocalised outer shell or valence electrons within the solid. This most commonly involves a carbon-carbon double bond as in the formation of polyethene from ethene. In metallic bonding.

Butane has the molecular formula C4H10. butane and 2-methylpropane. 6 Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 . therefore is 1. 1. (1 mark) Compound B: This has two bromine atoms attached on different carbon atoms and a single carbon-carbon bond. therefore is the alkanol ethanol. -OH. C 4 H10 (g)  O 2 (g)  CO 2 (g)  H 2 O(l) 2. C 4 H10 (g)  O 2 (g)  4CO 2 (g)  5H 2 O(l) ii. the water is added across the carbon-carbon double bond so that a hydrogen attaches to one of the carbon atoms involved in the carbon-carbon double bond and an hydroxy group. (1 mark) The products of the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon are carbon dioxide and water. The chemical equation can be developed using the following steps. -OH. Write down the reactants and products. 12 minutes) a. i. (2 marks) Compound A: This has an hydroxy. functional group and a single carbon-carbon bond. For compound A.2-dibromoethane. This is an alkane and only contains carbon-carbon single bonds. A H2O / catalyst CH3-CH2OH CH2=CH2 B CH2Br-CH2Br Br2(l) c. There are two structural isomers for butane. For compound B. attaches to the other carbon atom. Both these reactions are addition reactions across the carbon-carbon double bond. C 4 H10 (g)  O 2 (g)  4CO 2 (g)  H 2 O(l) 3.SECTION B – Short Answer (Answers) Question 1 (10 marks. The structures for the isomers are shown below. (Mark allocation: 1 mark for both correct structure and name. Balance the hydrogen atoms in the chemical equation. Total marks 2 marks) b. a bromine atom attaches to each of the carbon atoms involved in the carbon-carbon double bond. Balance the carbon atoms in the chemical equation.

4. Total 2 Marks) Hardness Electrical conductivity Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 7 . In graphite the lattice is two dimensional with each carbon atom covalently bonded to three other carbon atoms. (2 marks) The section of the structure should show a backbone of single carbon-carbon bonds in the polymer chain with the C6H5. In diamond the network lattice is three dimensional with each carbon atom covalently bonded to four other carbon atoms. forming a layer and the remaining electron on each carbon atom is delocalised within the layer.group attached to this backbone. 13 C 4 H10 (g)  O 2 (g)  4CO 2 (g)  5H 2 O(l) 2 If the coefficient of the oxygen gas is not a whole number then multiply the equation by 2. d. 2C 4 H10 (g)  13O 2 (g)  8CO 2 (g)  10H 2 O(l) (1 mark) Ensure that states have been included in the final chemical equation. ii. 10 minutes) a. carbon atoms are joined by covalent bonds in a network lattice. i. i. Balance the oxygen atoms in the chemical equation. A combustion chemical equation may be stated as at the end of step 4. Possible answers include: (Mark Allocation: 1 mark for correct response. (1 mark) An example of a copolymers is one that is made from styrene and butadiene. (1 mark) iii. This copolymer would have different properties to those of either of the polymers made from the single monomers. In the structures of both diamond and graphite. Polyethene is a polymer made from a single monomer. (1 mark) ii. 5. Question 2 (8 marks. whereas a copolymer is made from at least two monomers. The polymer polystyrene should show at least three repetitions of the monomer unit.

in the lattice. (1 mark) Mercury is a metal therefore the particles in the drop of mercury will undergo metallic bonding. and as a result the mercury will not wet the glass surface. graphite is between 1 and 2 whereas diamond is 10. The electrical conductivity of graphite is about 2. Since the forces of attraction between the particles in sulfur are less than those between the ions in sodium chloride. therefore the force of attraction between the mercury atoms will be strong. Since there are no mobile charge carriers in the structure of diamond it is a non-conductor. molecules. (Mark Allocation: 1 mark) Hardness – Overall.5×107 S m-1) Interstitial alloys have the added element atoms located in the spaces between the metal atoms in the metallic lattice. Sulfur is a non-metal.iv.) Electrical conductivity – Because of the delocalised electrons in the layers of graphite. Question 3 (7 marks. 8 minutes) a. therefore there will be covalent bonding between the sulfur atoms in the sulfur.5×103 S m-1 compared to 1×10-13 S m-1 for diamond. (Gold: 4. c. i. the force of attraction between the particles in the liquid must be less than the force of attraction between the particles on the surface of the solid and the particles in the liquid. it is a weak conductor of electricity. Since the central sulfur atom has two polar bonds and two pairs of lone electrons overall the molecule will be dipolar. Increasing the surface area of a material requires breaking the bonds between the particles that make up the material. Sodium chloride is an ionic solid and there will be strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the ions. Sulfur (Z = 16) has six valence electrons. (1 mark) Weaker dispersion forces will also be present between the molecules. thereby resulting in two lone pairs of electrons. (1 mark) S + H H The bond polarities are not required for the mark allocated. (1 mark) b. However since the sulfur molecules will not be polar. graphite is soft because the layers of carbon atoms can slide over each other as there are only weak forces between the layers. For a liquid to wet a solid. For the added element to be able to do this then the size of the atoms must be small enough to fit in the space available. the surface energy of sulfur would be expected to be less than that for sodium chloride. (On the Moh’s scale of hardness. two of which will form covalent bonds with the hydrogen atoms. whereas diamond is hard due to the strong covalent bonding extending in the three directions. The surface energy is the energy required to increase the surface area of a substance. Na+ and Cl-. S8. therefore the hydrogen-sulfur bond will be polarised. therefore the surface energy reflects the forces of attraction between the particles in the material. + - ii. (1 mark) In general this requires that the size of the added element be smaller than that of the metal. b. there will be only weak dispersion forces between the sulfur molecules. (2 marks) 8 Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 . The strongest interaction between the hydrogen sulfide molecules will be dipole-dipole interactions. Sulfur is more electronegative than hydrogen. This will be stronger than the force of attraction between mercury and ionic glass surface.

Silver nanoparticles have a large surface area to volume ratio compared with other forms of silver. 12 minutes) a.20×1021)/(6. Silver nanoparticles are very small and if released from the material have the potential to enter cells where they could cause different processes to occur within the cell.0 = 57. (C3H5O)x. M(PCl3) = 31.33×10-3 mol (1 mark) ii. i.0 = 1.452 = 2.02×1023) = 5.32×10-3 = 1. Silver compounds have been shown to be highly toxic to marine organisms.16 8. NA = 6.0/44. n(PCl3) = ¼ × n(atoms) = ¼ × 5.77) = 28.75 1.00 Therefore the empirical formula is C3H5O.77 28.0 = 44.16 % ii.0 × x = 228 g mol-1 Evaluate for x x = 228 / 57.16 % (1 mark) Alternative solution: m(C) = (12. 63.452 / 44.0 + 3×35. Question 4 (10 marks. ii.0 = 4 Molecular formula is (C3H5O)4  C12H20O4. The active antimicrobial agent is silver ions.0 1.77 1.75 = 3. (1 mark) iv.0 = 5.032 g %(C) = (2.01 : 1. The silver nanoparticles or silver ions could be released from the objects during washing and enter the environment and cause problems. (1 mark) b.75 (1 mark) Divide all three values by the smallest value to get the lowest ratio 5.694×10-1 × 12.0 = 2.0) × 7.00 – (63.0 + 5×1.5 = 137.75 : : = 1. %(O) = 100 – (%(C) + %(H)) %(O) = 100.218) × (100/1) = 63.07 : : n(C) : n(H) : n(O) = 12. (1 mark) Possible answers: (1 mark each. M(CO2) = 12. therefore they can react readily with various substances.26 8. i.032 g (1 mark) %(C) = (2.07 % (1 mark) iii. such as poisoning. such as moisture. Total marks allocated = 2 marks) The silver nanoparticles could react.5 g mol-1 m(PCl3) = n × M = 1.16 + 8.32×10-3 mol (1 mark) Each molecule of phosphorus (III) trichloride has four atoms (one phosphorous plus three chlorine).77 : 1.83×10-1 g (1 mark) Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 9 .218) × (100/1) = 63.0 + 2×16.694×10-1 mol (1 mark) m(C) = n × M = 1.032/3. i.75 1.26 : 8.0 + 16. to release silver ions that will kill the microbes. The molecular formula is a whole number multiple of the empirical formula.0 g mol-1 n(CO2) = m / M = 7. M(C3H5O) = 3×12. The silver nanoparticles could be absorbed directly into the body and could enter cells and inadvertently kill body cells.0 16.032/3. thereby releasing silver ions that could be ingested or absorbed into the body and this could have adverse effects.02×1023 mol-1 n(atoms) = N / NA = (3. Assuming 100 g of material and determine the molar ratio of the elements.01 : 5.33×10-3 × 137.c.5 = 1.0 g mol-1 M((C3H5O)x) = 57.

93)/100 = 63.7 / 69. Let the relative isotopic mass of the lighter isotope equal x. is the weighted average of the relative isotopic masses.Question 5 (8 marks. there will be two less electrons.9×64.1×x + 30. Therefore based on Coulomb’s electrostatic attraction. The number of electrons in a neutral particle is equal to the number of protons.1 = 30.6 (1 mark) Multiply both sides of equation by 100 and evaluate terms in bracket.7 x = 4353. (1 mark) Selenium is in group 16 and period 4 of the Periodic Table. Number(neutrons) = 63 – 29 = 34 neutrons (1 mark) b. Ar(Cu) = 63.1x + 2006. The outer shell or valence electron in rubidium is in the fifth shell (…. The chemical reactivity of an element involves the outer shell or valence electrons. an electron will be more strongly attracted to the oxygen nucleus. Therefore the sub-atomic particles present in a 63Cu2+ ion will be: The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is equal to the atomic number. i. Beryllium and oxygen are both in period 2 of the Periodic Table. Z.1 = 63.3s1).3 = 4353. From the VCE Chemistry Data Book Periodic Table. 10 minutes) a. The metallic character of an element decreases moving across a period making the element’s properties more non-metallic.1x = 6360 – 2006. iii. therefore it will be further from the nucleus and experience a weaker attractive force towards the nucleus and be more easily removed. When metals react. and as a result be closer to the nucleus. ii. A. The mass number. for a particle is a whole number.6 The abundance of the heavier isotope = 100 – 69. this ion will contain 29 protons. (1 mark) The effective nuclear charges for beryllium and oxygen are 2+ and 6+ respectively. Therefore using the Periodic Table. (1 mark) 10 Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 . they lose electrons.0 (1 mark) ii. Both sodium and rubidium are in Group 1 of the Periodic Table and are metals. Since the particle is a 2+ ion. 63Cu. Ar(Cu) = (69.5s1) compared to sodium where the outer shell or valence electron is in the third shell (…. are oxidised. therefore the mass number for the lighter isotope will be 63.3 = 6360 69. the atomic radius of the elements decreases. Ar. Number(electrons) = 29 – 2 = 27 electrons (1 mark) The mass number is the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of the particle. The atomic radius for oxygen is less than that for beryllium because the outer shell or valence electrons for oxygen are more strongly attracted to the higher effective charged nucleus. The diagram below is a representation of the atomic radii of the elements in period 2 of the Periodic Table.9 % (1 mark) The relative atomic mass. 69. i. The trend within a period of the Periodic Table is that moving across a period.

The ground state electronic configuration for a particle is when the electrons are in their lowest energy state. A sulfide ion contains two more electrons than a sulfur atom (Z=16). Nickel(II) ion. therefore when the nickel(II) ion forms. The maximum number of electrons that can occupy s. they emit light equal in energy to the energy difference of the two states. Electrons within the same shell are about the same distance from the nucleus of the atom. 1s22s22p63s23p63d8.Question 6 (7 marks. The order of energies for the subshells is 1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s ………………. The maximum number of electrons that can occupy a shell is given by the formula 2n2 where n is the shell number. Possible answers: (1 mark) The electrons circle or orbit the nucleus of the atoms without losing any energy. A neutral nickel atom will contain 28 electrons. 8. (1 mark) b. Ni2+. and d subshells are 2. p. i. Therefore for the third shell n = 3 Maximum number of electrons = 2 (3)2 = 18 electrons (1 mark) ii. 9 when in fact it is 2. therefore the ground state electronic configuration for nickel will be. iii. When an ion is formed. When an atom absorbs energy. 8. the energies of the electrons are about the same. The electrons can only move in orbits with a particular energy. For example. The outer shell in nickel is the fourth shell. Within a particular shell. the two electrons in the 4s subshell will be lost. if this modification were not applied potassium would have a shell electronic configuration of 2. an excited electron will move to a higher energy level. (1 mark) ii. (1 mark) Therefore the emission (and absorption) spectra are distinctive for a given element. To explain the electronic configuration of heavier atoms one needs to apply the modification that the outer shell is limited to eight electrons even when it’s maximum is higher (1 mark). When electrons relax from an excited state back to their ground state. 8. 1. 6 and 10 respectively. i. c. (1 mark) ii. 8 minutes) a. i. 1s22s22p63s23p6. therefore 18 electrons. electrons are either lost or added to the outer or valence shell. 1s22s22p63s23p63d84s2. End of Suggested Answers Learning Materials by Lisachem Suggested Answers VCE Chemistry 2012 Year 11 Trial Exam Unit 1 11 .

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