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**Pavel Karban1, Bohuš Ulrych1, Ivo Doležel2
**

1

Faculty of Electrical Engineering UWB, Sady Pětatřicátníků 14, 314 06 Plzeň, E-mail:{karban, ulrych}@kte.zcu.cz 2 Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Dolejškova 5, 182 00 Praha 8, E-mail: dolezel@iee.cas.cz

Abstract: The paper deals with the investigation of selected operation parameters and characteristics of a cylindrical actuator with more permanent magnets connected in series or in parallel that are magnetized in the radial direction. The theoretical analysis is supplemented with several illustrative examples calculated by the FE technique whose results are discussed.

1.

Introduction Electromechanical actuators are devices producing mechanical forces in the consequence of various electromagnetic phenomena (see, for example [1], [2]). They are used in many industrial applications such as in transport, wide spectrum of technological processes, control systems, robotics etc. Despite their mostly simple construction, investigation and optimisation of their parameters and characteristics in various operation regimes is a relatively difficult business due to the presence of nonlinear materials and movable parts. That is why more and more sophisticated methods are developed for analysis and evaluation of these quantities as early as in the stage of design, particularly in case of smaller units where very high accuracy is required. Even the basic step – determination of their static characteristic – was first strongly simplified and realized by means of different semi-empirical and graphically computational procedures. Thanks to the progress in computer techniques these procedures were gradually improved. One of the possible algorithms for numerical solution of a linear electromagnet is described in [3], its extension suitable for solution of non-linear problems can be found in [4]. Situation in electromagnets with auxiliary permanent magnet is solved and discussed in [5]. The paper deals with design of a DC electromagnetic actuator with a system of permanent magnets in several different arrangements and evaluation of their operation parameters. 2. Formulation of the technical problem The principal arrangement of the investigated actuator with one permanent magnet is depicted in Fig. 1. The actuator contains magnetic yoke 3 made of magnetically soft material. Magnetic flux Φ is produced by permanent magnet 2 in the form of a ring that is magnetized in the radial direction. A cylindrical field coil 1 carrying direct current I ext is placed in the air gap of the magnetic circuit. The coil is affected by the Lorentz force FL whose direction depends on the direction of field current and orientation of the permanent magnet.

Fig. 1. Principal scheme of a DC electromagnetic actuator with one permanent magnet: 1 – cylindrical field coil, 2 – permanent magnet, 3 – cylindrical magnetic yoke

The research that represents a natural continuation of [6] is now devoted to the questions of actuators with one permanent magnet. In this paper we will consider modified arrangements of the arrangement with several permanent magnets connected in • series – version “b1” (Fig. 2a), • parallel – version “b2” (Fig. 2b).

Fig. 2. Arrangements of the actuator with several permanent magnets (a) – version “b1”, b) – version “b2”): 1 – cylindrical field coil, 2 – main permanent magnet, 3 – auxiliary ring (auxiliary permanent magnet or soft magnetic material, 4 – internal shell of the yoke, 5 – external shell of the yoke, 6 – auxiliary ring (auxiliary permanent magnet or soft magnetic material, 7 – nonmagnetic guiding shell of the coil, 8 – air

(6) Computer model and accuracy of the solution The mathematical model presented in the previous paragraph was solved by the FEM-based professional code QuickField [12]. D of the fictitious boundary (see Fig. Ω2 Ω 2 : curl ⎜ ⎞ curl A − H c ⎟ = 0 .5 1.05 magn. J ext = A = r0 0 + t 0 At ( r . They are – with respect to antisymmetry of magnetic field along axis AB and continuity of vector of magnetic flux density B (r .2. In the next text its building is illustrated on the arrangement in Fig. B. 3.5 2. 3.5. turns* N z = 420 current density J ext = 2.1. is the cross-section of the ring of permanent magnet 2 or elements 3 or 6 (compare paragraph 5. 2a. version “b1”.0. 3 permeability μ r = 1 *the number of turns corresponds to the basic dimensions of the coil presented in Fig. 2a) – expressed in the form rA t ( r . z ) at points A. z ) = 0 . ⎝μ ⎠ Ω 4 . 5. The differential equations for magnetic field in particular subregions read (see [7]) (1) Ω1 : curl curl A = μ 0 J ext . The Lorentz force acting on coil 1 carrying current J ext that is placed in magnetic field B (r . In order to achieve the accuracy of the Lorentz force 4. 1. 3. circuit 3. 6) characterized by nonlinear dependence B ( H ) .1) characterized by coercive force H c and remanence Br .e. z ) is given by relation (5) FL = ∫ ( J ext × B ) dV V1 where V1 is the volume of coil 1. 4. z ) is principally the same for all considered arrangements. Mathematical model The mathematical model formulated in the cylindrical coordinate system ( r . mag. represents the cross-section of the cylindrical magnetic yoke 4. 2. 2a) bounded by artificial boundary ABCD. The definition area consists of five subdomains Ω1−5 (as follows.5 A/mm2 perm. i. C. The numerical values of physical parameters of the particular subdomains are listed in Tab. 2a (version “b1”). Table 1: Basic physical data of particular materials occurring in the arrangement part coil 1 material Cu wire parameter and its value diameter d = 1 mm Iext . 3.5 0. z ) + z 0 0 Ω 4 is the cross-section of the nonmagnetic guiding shell 7 of coil 1 characterized by permeability μ0 . 7. Ω 5 : curl curl A = 0 .0 1. 5 guiding shell 7 Fe 99. Particular attention was paid to the geometrical convergence of the solution. or by permeability μ = Br / H c and orientation of the magnet with respect to coordinate system r . Ω5 denotes air of permeability μ0 . Magnetization characteristic B ( H ) of the considered materials 3. 3. ⎝μ ⎛1 (2) (3) (4) Ω3 Current density J ext as well as vector potential A has one only nonzero tangential component.9 % [8] coil 1.9% [9] VACOFLUX 50 [11] steel T Kevlar see [10] magnetization curve see Fig.0 0 2000 4000 H (A/m) 6000 8000 VACOFLUX 50 [10] steel "T" [11] Fe 99. from Fig.3. z .The aim of the work is to evaluate these variants from the viewpoint of the shape of their static characteristics FL (ς ) where ς denotes the shift of field B (T) 2. S where S is the cross-section of the coil conductor. ⎠ ⎛1 ⎞ Ω3 : curl ⎜ curl A ⎟ = 0 . 1). These subdomains include media of specific physical properties: Ω1 represents the cross-section of coil 1 characterized by current density J ext and magnetic permeability μ0 . The boundary conditions provide unambiguousness of solution of equations (1)–(4). so that the corresponding vectors may be expressed as J ext = r0 0 + t 0 J ext + z0 0. its position with respect to permanent magnet 2 (see Fig. 5 (or 3. Fig. . 6 RECOMA 28 see [8] coercive force H c = 720 kA/m remanence Br = 1070 mT permeability μ R = 1.0 0. for example.

but even auxiliary. Table 2: The highest Lorentz forces for particular variants variant position see Fig. Fe 99.9%) “b1_1”. o “b1_3” – both rings 3 and 6 are auxiliary permanent magnets arranged in series with the main permanent magnet 2. “b1_2” and “b1_3” .925 A/mm2. 6 2.4 288. 2a). 2). Their evaluation may be realized in the same way as in case of the maximum Lorentz forces. 4b.9%) 300 250 200 F L (N) 150 100 50 0 0 10 20 z (mm) 30 40 50 variant "b1_1" "b1_2" "b1_3" of the corresponding material (compare the last three rows in Tab. Given are geometrical dimensions of all arrangements and physical parameters of all their components (see Tab. 2 depicted in Fig.9% RECOMA 28 Fe 99. This is probably brought about by local oversaturation (and consequent growth of the magnetic resistance) of the ferromagnetic yoke as follows from distribution of force lines in Fig. 4. It is obvious that: • In accordance with expectations. 2b).6 Fig. in dependence on particular shift ς of coil 1 (see Fig. • Increase of the Lorentz force FL is not as striking as we could expect after adding two permanent magnets (compare Tab.925 A/mm2. Fe 99. 5. 3. • In parallel (version “b2” in par.2 249. 2a 2 3.1. Reduction of this oversaturation and. 3 4. while ring 6 is made of soft magnetic material . it may be carried out on the basis of data summarized in Tab.925 A/mm2. 6 4. 2 depicted in Fig. 5. As for evaluation of variants “b1_1”. Static characteristics of the actuators for variants ( J ext = 3. These magnets are arranged: • In series (version “b1” in par. 4a (variant “b1_1”) versus Fig. 1). “b1_2” and “b1_3” are shown in Fig. consequently. ς = 25 mm. Distribution of force lines for variant “b1_1” ( J ext = 3.6 237. 4a. 4b (variant “b1_3”). increase of force FL may also be reached by increase of the yoke. Illustrative example 5. This arrangement contains not only three parallel magnets 2. Considered are three variants: o “b1_1” – both auxiliary rings 3 and 6 are made of soft magnetic material. Technical problem is characterized by two versions of the actuator with a system of permanent magnets. 6 4. 2 and also Fig. in series connected magnets 3 and 6 according to variant “b1_3”. 2. Fig. o “b1_2” – ring 3 is an auxiliary permanent magnet arranged in series with the main permanent magnet 2. 5. 5 2.FL at the level of three nonzero valid digits it was necessary to use a mesh containing 80000–150000 elements.9 5. 5 material RECOMA 28 Fe 99.9% RECOMA 28 Fe 99. 3.9% RECOMA 28 VACOFLUX 50 RECOMA 28 VACOFLUX 50 FL (N) 202. Fe 99. “b1_2” and “b1_3” from the viewpoint of the maximum Lorentz force FL . the most advantage variant is “b1_3” making use of two auxiliary magnets 3 and 6 arranged in series with the main magnet 2. The static characteristics of variants “b1_1”. ς = 25 mm. The results obtained abound. 5. 6 2. It is necessary to carry out a set of test calculations that would allow evaluating version “b1” in all its variants and also version “b2” from the viewpoint of the maximum Lorentz force FL and static characteristics.9%) Fig. Distribution of force lines for variant “b1_1” ( J ext = 3.2. 3. 5 2. 2a). The level of oversaturation depends on the magnetization curve B ( H ) “b1_1” “b1_2” “b1_3” “b1_3” “b1_3” 247. 5. 3). 6 4.

9%) [4] • • As far as coil 1 is in the space of main permanent magnets 2 ( 0 ≤ ς ≤ 100 mm. Proc. B. Mayer. www. Ulrych. RECOMA. Praha 1975 (in Czech). the static characteristic strongly decreases. Hassdenteufel. ς = 25 mm.: Numerical Solution of Transient State of Electromagnetic Actuators. Journal of Electrical Engineering.quickfield. 7c. . This would lead to further increase of force FL without any changes of parameters of these actuators.: Aktuatoren: Grundlagen und Anwendungen. SNTL/ALFA. pp. Praha 2006. B. Ulrych. Its cause follows from the fact that with growing shift the coil gets into a region with weaker magnetic flux density B and smaller linked magnetic flux Φ . Fe 99. see Figs. Journal of Electrical Engineering. 49. B. Distribution of force lines for variant “b2” ( J ext = 3.: Analysis of an Electromagnetic Actuator with Permanent Magnet. Květ. Springer-Verlag. Doležel..com www. Firm Materials. Proc. see Figs. Acknowledgement Financial support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (project No. Further research in the domain will be aimed at the optimization of the cross-section of the yoke in order to prevent it from local oversaturation. 2a. Frankfurt. 1996.925 A/mm2. 1999. 7b. B. Škopek. Mayer. SNTL Praha 1967 (in Czech). 2a and 6). D. D. FCC PUBLIC. I. 171–174. pp. 7c for ς = 140 mm.azom. This is caused by low magnetic flux density B and linked flux Φ – see Fig. D. the static characteristic is relatively flat. B.vakuumschmelze. If coil 1 gets out from the space of main permanent magnets 2 ( ς ≥ 100 mm. et al: Materials for Electrical Engineering. Žilina (SR). Mayer. Fe 99.Fig. 6.: Analysis of Transient State of Nonlinear Electromagnetic Actuator with Help of Professional Software. Distribution of force lines for variant “b2” ( J ext = 3. ς = 75 mm. ς = 140 mm. Static characteristics of the actuators for variants “b2” ( J ext = 3.: Operation Characteristics of a Cylindrical Electromagnetic Actuator with Permanent Magnet Core. Mayer. 7a showing the distribution of the force lines. Ulrych. M. D. Ulrych. 7b ( ς = 75 mm). REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] 6.. This decrease follows from oversaturation of the yoke and leakage of magnetic field near the air gap – compare Fig. Poland. 47. 265–288 (in Czech). Berlin.925 A/mm2. accepted. oblast lokálního přesycení Conclusion The investigated DC actuator with permanent magnets was proved to be a prospective device providing relatively high forces even at high shifts for acceptable current densities and small dimensions.9%) Fig. DEUTCHE CARBONE AG.925 A/mm2. K. Oversaturation appears due to magnetic field of three permanent magnets 2 connected in parallel and is evidently higher than in case of variant “b1_3” with only one main permanent magnet 2.. [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] Janocha H. 326–330. 7a ( ς = 25 ) and Fig. 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 25 50 75 z (mm) 100 125 150 F L (N) Fig. J. Ulrych. Fig. Fe 99. Handbook ELEKTRO 2006. 2a and 6). 1998. but even in this case force FL decreases with growing shift ς . 7a. IC SPETO'99. It is again caused by local oversaturation of the ferromagnetic yoke. Fe 99. vol.. pp.9%) Here we can see that: • The forces are smaller than in variant “b1_3” (see Fig. www.. vol. 1992 (in German).: Theory of Electromagnetic Field. 5) even when in both cases we use the same auxiliary permanent magnets 3 and 6 (see Figs. 6 depicts the static characteristic of version “b2” (compare paragraph 5. Haňka L.. pp.: Electromechanical Actuators. 7. Ustroň. 62–66.9%) Fig. ELEKTRO 2006. as can be seen from Fig.925 A/mm2..com.1). 2b). G.com. Distribution of force lines for variant “b2” ( J ext = 3. 102/04/0095) is gratefully acknowledged.

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