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‘ik&ifjyif’&Jabmfrsm;. tar vlxa':trm (1915 - 2008) ok@d æ æ k 0rf;enf;jcif; o0%fvm æ æ $ ‘tm[m&pmapmif’0ki;f awmfom;rsm;. 0rf;enf;jcif;o0%fvmæ æ d $ ‘vrif;w&m pmayqufqa&;’ESihf ‘rm,mpmayr*~Zif;’rS ay;yk@d aom 0rf; H enf;o0%fvm æ æ $ ‘opPmawmfvea&;tiftm;pk’rS ay;yk@d aom 0rf;enf;o0%fvm æ æ Sf $ *syefEiia&muf pmaytiftm;pkrsm;jzpfwhJ ‘tm[m&pmapmif’ ‘opPmpm dk f H aytiftm;pk’‘tvif;tdrr*~Zif;’tzG@J om;rsm;u *syefEiia&muf jrefrm f dk f H Ekiiom; nDtpfudk armifErrsm;ok@d vlxa':trmtwGuf 0rf;enf;jcif; dfH S k txdr;f trSwf tcrf;tem; zdwpm æ f z'kd ref;+idr;f &J@ 0rf;enf;o0%fvm æ æ $ &Jabmfarmif0À&J@ 0rf;enf;o0%fvm æ æ $ tcef ; (3) tar vl xk a':trmtwG uf *k%fj yKa&;zG J@=uaom uAsmrsm; tarhb0 aiGvrif; æ æ Aef;armfnKd EG@J jrifjh rwfwuavmif æ æ hJ wifr;dk jrwfrcif. jrwfaomvrf; æ æ d wifr;dk tarhr;D wkif r+idr;f Ekif æ æ d d wifr;dk tarhuefawmhyef; æ æ wifr;dk tarharwWm urBmtqH;k æ æ armifaygupnf (ref;wuUov) f dk f vlxk a':trm arG;ae@ trSww&uAsm f r[mav;csKd ;}uD; æ æ armifpr;f &nf G vlxrcif k d ææ armifpr;f &nf G [dopPH æ æ armifpr;f &nf G cGya'gi;f rdcif tarrmok@d æ æ f armifpr;f &nf G tarrm uG,vecsef æ æ f Gf d armifpr;f &nf G uk,&ifxu æ æ d hf J rmrmat; 88 ESpajrmuf *g&0 æ æ f ta0;a&mufwynfom;ajr;rsm; h ae@wae@&@J ed'ge;f æ æ aqGEif (e,fomvef) dk 91 jynfh tarok@d æ æ zk;d oH (vlx) k vlxtar oufawmf&nf æ æ k S vlxom;cspf k

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'efu@dk toJ omwJn æ æ h ZGeri;f f d_ igw@dk acwf&@J =u,fwm&m vlxa':trm æ æ k xGe;f jrifatmif h tma0%du*k%&if tar æ æ f S atmif[e;f (rH&m) d k G or*~tarok@d uefawmhyef; æ æ cGeqi;f f dk tJ'gtar vlxa':trmaygh æ æ k armifp;dk csef d tarrm b,fawmhrS rao æ æ ZifZif tarrm xm0&raoyg æ æ &J&ifoufZJG h em;pGixm;&wJh toH&if æ æ hf S &Jabmfp;dk cspf oHr%dvyjf ym yef;vdyjf ym æ æ d +idr;f csr;f ol tareJ@wwtar ok@d r[kwf æ æ l hJ zk;d eD vGr;f xkuv@dk re;f æ æ d f S &efEixe;f (vGwajrmufe,fajr uk&;D ,m;) dk f G f d taræ ok@d æ æ atmif+idr;f +idroufwrdepf æ æ f pk;d jrifjh rwf tarrmok@d *g&0jyKjcif; æ æ ausmaqG f tarac:oHrsm; æ æ &Jabmfausmav; f ,Ofaus;r_ppfrsuEm.rdcif æ æ fS cspatmif f jynfo@l rcif æ æ d &JabmfatmifEiO;D dk f jrwfrcif æ æ d &JabmfaiG (r=unfav;) om;trdcsi;f ay;pmwapmif æ æ zk;d oH (vlx) k 92 ESpjf ynfh arG;rdcifo@dk ay;pmwapmif æ æ zkd;oH(vlxk) vlx*sme,fEihf vlxa':trm æ æ k S k ZifZif tarhvr;f csi;f æ æ G &J&ifoufZJG h rEWvmajru vlxtar æ æ k &J+idr;f qD æ rvl;wJh ayzl;v$m æ æ cifarmifvif (jynf) G {&m0wD&@J orD;aumif; 'k@d acwf&@J rdcif æ æ armifv0if; (jrif;+cH) S tcef ; (4) tarvl x k a ':trmtwG u f *k % f j yKa&;zG J @ =uaom aqmif ; yg;rsm; tbk;d tbGm;awG r&SawmhwhJ wki;f jynf æ æ d d OD;acgi;f um;r!¸wf æ æ jrrOPL±kyyvm æ æ f kH $ pmay armif&pf vlxarmif0 k '*kewm&m f

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vlxa':trm&J@ tHrcef;avmufwhJ k h pGr;f aqmifcsursm; æ æ f rm;om;atmhzf bm;rm; æ æ vlx&@J a':trm vlxa':trm æ æ k k wk@d rm tar&Sao;w,f æ æ S d vlxa':trm (ok@d r[kw) k f &mpkEp. pmayrD;±SL;wefaqmif æ æ Sf at;&dyom,m æ æ f vlxaw;oH/ oHr%dcwyfEihf k H S ref;awmif&yidk æ æ df *k%e@J j'yfuunwhJ r[mjrpfEppif;wk@d &@J f dk f D Sf aygi;f pnf;jcif;oauFw æ æ vlxtwGuf vlxbufu vlxa':trm æ æ k k k a':a':&J@ v_y&m;aeaom TurBmeJ@ usr æ æ f S a=uuGz,y&yrsm; æ æ J G hf kH d f tarwk@d 'kw,urBmppftwGi;f d ppfajy;=uwke;f u æ æ tarwap>ra=umufb;l æ æ

vif;,kearmifarmif f vlxpe0if; kdf armifomEk;d armifpr;f &nf G csr;f +idr;f a'guwmjrrOPL f armifvr;f %D G bkw;l d 0if;wifxe;f h G vSausmaZm f a'guwmjrrOPL f zd;k oH (vlx) k zk;d oH (vlx) k

tcef; (5) tar vlxka':trm uG,fvGefjcif;twGuf ay;ykd@=uaomt*F vd y f bmom a&;om;csuf r sm;ES i f h *k % f j yKpmuAsmrsm;
(ENGLISH SECTION) ) The Sails Are Up Again! æ æ Ode to Ludu Daw Ahmar æ æ Dear PTJ æ æ Ludu Daw Amar (As a leading dissident writer she fought for democracy in Burma) æ æ My Mum æ æ Prince Taw Phaya Galae Dr. Maung Maung Nyo KKChaw

The Guardian (Saturday April 12 , 2008) Po Than Joung

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(3) wkdif;jynftwGuf vkdtyfaewmawGukd xwfpGrf;or# tar jznfhpGrf; ay;cJ h y g+yD ? bufaygif;pHk wm0efauscJholtar æ 'Dtar&J@ 93 ESpfajrmuf arG;ae@rSm tarhaus;Zl;awGukd atmufarh owd & jcif ; tm;jzif h Tpmpk u k d ES i f ; qD v G i f j yif u *k % f , l p G m xk w f a 0jzef @ csd vk d u f y gonf ? Tpmtkyf xkwfEkdifa&;twGuf ESif;qDvGifjyifu qufoG,fEkdifor# aom pma&;q&m}uD ; rsm;/ pmay0goem&S i f r sm;/ pmaya&;zG J @ ae=uol r sm; xH pmrl a wmif ; ygonf ? jyef@usJaeonfh pmrlrsm;ukd pkpnf;=uygonf? pkpnf;&or#xJu a&G; Ekwfaygif;csKyfum oufqkdif&m pmrl&Sifrsm;xH cGifhjyKcsuf awmif;cHcJhonf? vufvSrf;rrDolawGeJ@ qufoG,fvkd@ rjzpfEkdifolawG&J@ pmrlawG t wGufawmh cGifhv$wfay;=uyg&ef ESif;qDvGifjyifu tEl;tnGwf awmif;yef ygonf ? pmwnf ; tzG J @ ESif;qDvGifjyifpmay

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tar vlxka':trm. ajym=um;csufESifh a&;om;csufrsm;

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“taruawmh ausmif;om;vnf; EkdifiHa&;vkyfoifhw,fvkd hjrif wmyJ? bmjzpfvkd hwkef;qkdawmh ausmif;om;vnf; wkdif;oljynfom; wa,mufyJ r [kwfvm;? olwae hvl}uD;jzpfvmOD;rSmyJ? tJ'Dawmh EkdifiHa&;rvkyf&if‘t’ w,f ? jynf o l v l x k e J h t wl a&m_yD ; awmh wuf º uG & rS m yJ / Ek d ; -um;&rS m yJ / v+yf&Sm;&rSmyJvkd h jrifwmyJuGJ h? ausmif;om;awGukd tukefvkH; [kda±$ h'Da±$ h/ wcgwnf ; z±k d z &J j zpf a tmif tpG r f ; uk e f ol w k d h b uf u vk y f a wmh w myJ ? ausmif;om;ukd olwkd hu odyfa-umufaewm? tJ'gyJ tarjrifwm”
vl x k a ':trm(1915-2008)

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17

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18

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19

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vlxa':trm k pmay*sme,f trSwf (5)/ 1989
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69

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armifpGrf;&nf

vlxk rdcif

zufqpfppfom; ppfAvrsm;ukd dk f om;rawmfol vlausmrcif f d csKd ;jzLrdcif a'gi;f rdcifudk OD;wifuAsm ylaZmfygthH arrm +idr;f csr;f ygapaomf/ jynf&m ude;f cef;omapaomf? G

zufqpfqef@usif ppfqef@usiwhJ f onfvif onfom; onfrom;pk d pGe@f vwrj_ zifh vlxtm;rmefwcex/l $ f k HGf

ukd,fwkdifaxmifus ESyuy=f uvnf; d f G rc ‘ppf’ atmuf 'l;raxmuf/

cifye;f vnf;qH;k G om;vnf;qHk;cJh vH;k 0raysmh rmefravsm/h

cifyGef;axmifus om;axmifusvnf; vH;k 0raysmh tm;ravsm/h

A[de;f atmifqef; &ifaygifwef;cJh ‘+idr;f csr;f ’ orD; f ‘vS’ ZeD;/

(2006 atmufwkdbm 27) ?

70

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[dopPH

(vlxktarrm arG;aehoPm)

jrwfpmbk&m; æ ? G bk&m;wynfhawmf[m vlwum&J@touf zuf&uav;avmuf/ rav;raxmuf G f wa,mufur#/ +idK+idKjiifjiif dk okwoifuyny/f rowfz;l yg? f Gf ‡ [dopP? H Tpum;onf rSe.? f TrSeaom opPmpum;a=umifh f 'k@zm;ouf&nf 'k@d tarrm dG S pmtkyw&m oufw&meJ@ f jynf&mtusKd ; aqmifapownf;? G

jrwfpmbk&m; æ ? G bk&m;wynfhawmf[m jrwfpmbk&m; æ ? G bk&m;wynfhawmf[m olrsm;tm%m/ olrsm;OpPm wcgz;l r# r±l;rruf/ vk,ufor_ rjyKzl;yg?
armif p G r f ; &nf

71

rawmfrw&m;/ arSmufrm;avmfvnf S wki;f jynfOpPm d opfwxGm/ aumufw±k;d qefusKd ;wr#/ ck;d 0Sua&mif;xkwf f rvkyz;l yg? f jrwfpmbk&m; æ ? G bk&m;wynfhawmf[m rawmfrw&m;/ olwyg;ukd zrf;xm;csKyfaESmif/ axmifcsEypuf dS f tdyrufaomfr#/ rrufz;l yg? f jrwfpmbk&m; æ ? G bk&m;wynfhawmf[m Ak'om;ac:/ oHCmawmfw@dk uvnf; < dk rawmfrw&m; zrf;vm;qD;vm;/ csKyfaESmifxm;jcif;uk‚ d xkvm;axmif;vm;/ ,Hrm;owfjzwfjcif;uk‚ k S d ‚ - ‚aomtr_/ wckr#uvnf; dk rjyKzl;yg? [dopP? H Tpum; xkpum; d pum;tpkpkonf wckruse/f rSeyg.? f TrSeaom opPmpum;a=umifh f 'k@d zm;ouf&n/f tarrmonf G S toufw&m/ ESpw&mwGif f zrf;wm csKyfwm/ xkwm axmif;wm ypfwm cwfwm/ owfwm jzwfwm tedÏmawG/ bmwckr# wckwzef/ xyfrarSmufrm; H fS

72

jzpfym;onfudk G r=um;rjrif/ r,SOae@n f rawG@&onf jzpfapaom? jrwfpmbk&m; æ ? G bk&m;wynfawmf/ jrefjynfay:rSm h rawmfrw&m; pD;yGm;ukv/k tm%mvkr_ d wckcrm/ usL;vGeygu kS f i&JusI/ turBmbm/ avmif+rdKufumv#if “rdwnf;&Sif”ukd tu|ef rzl;&ygapownf;? xkdxkdraumif;r_ wckcudk rjyKrSev#if k f “rdwnf;&Sif”ukd tu|ef zl;&ygapownf;? xdktcgwGif pmqktar/ zGm;ouf&nvJ d S f pmaytz/ bbvSe@J wluraoG/ pmrdwaqGw@dk G f zl;&ygapownf; “jrwfrwnf;”? d ?

(rSwfcsuf? ? “rdwnf;&Sif” qkdwm a&S;jrefrmwkd@u t&darawW,sbk&m;ukd ac:wJhtrnf)

armifpr;f &nf G
2003 Ekd0ifbm 1 tkdiftkd0g wuUokdvf?

73

f cGya'gif;rdcif tarrmokd h
109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321 109876543210987654321098765432121098765432109876543210987654321

tbk;d qH;k IndK‡ ;csKH ;tm;rmef/ &ScjhJ yefaomf d “ref;awmif”o¿mef/ “bvS”useI f tm;rmefrus/ wif;Eki=f u.? d tbqH;k IndK‡ ;csKH ;tm;rmef/ &ScjhJ yefaomf d “csKd ;jzL”o¿mef/ “trd”useI f tm;rmefrus/ wif;Eki=f u.? d “trd”qHk;aomfrqH;k tm;rmef/ cGya'gi;f use+f yD f a'gi;f vHjr‡iI hf v$i=hf uuke? f ?

armifpGrf;&nf
7 {+yD 2008?

74

tarrm uG,fvGefcsdef
trdrJhvnf; rrJtm;rmef h wkdufyGJusefcJh a'gif;rmefaw;jzifh rdaus;Zl;*k%f jr‡iwif=uuke? hf f

?

armifpGrf;&nf
7{+yD / 2008

75

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uk,h&ifxu d f J

rmrmcsmcsm awG@aomcgu +yKH ;jrjrESihf wlrpma&; pao;bl;vm; =umoGm;awmh&if arhcsifcsifwJh?

pmayu0d pmaytrd wwfodopPm pmrS pm&Sihf =urRmuHa[mif; wifhawmif;usufoa& cspf=uavol &ifYwlchJ uJh&@J rhJuif; [if;vif;arwWm rsuEmay:wGif f S a':a':rmav æ?

76

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ajymcsifao;w,f aq;vdyy,faemf f tazmfayvJ ole@J w&if JG aumif;rxifwJh? ckwifccg k uAsmpma&; jynfol@aw;ESifh ±_uaq; y,fowf d f aq;vdyjf ywf+yD a':a':rDu aumif;avpG?

?

rmrmat;
arv 18 &uf 2008 ckEpf S we*FaEGeeuf 12 ; 30 em&D H avmhpte*svp+f rdK@ f d f f d tar&duefEiiH dk f

77

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78

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ta0;a&muf w ynf h o m;ajr;rsm; Ekd0ifbm 20 &uf/ 2002 ckESpf

1365 ck/ ewfawmfvqef; (4) &uf/ 2003 Ek0ifbmv d 88 ESpfajrmuf tarrm(vlxka':trm)arG;ae@twGuf xkwfa0wJh rm,mr*~Zif;rS jyefvnful;,l azmfjyonf

79

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aqG E k d i f (e,f o mvef )

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80

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81

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(vl x k t ar 91 ES p f j ynf h a rG ; ae@wG i f touf & mausmf &S n f y gapa=umif ; qk r G e f a umif ; awmif ; vsuf )

aqGEkdif (e,f o mvef )

82

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ukd;q,fausmfvkd@rS oufjyif;rcs &ifpnf;rjzKwf ac|;rokwfEkdifao;wJhtar?

zkd;o H(vlxk)

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83

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84

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vlxkom;cspf

1365 ck/ eawWmfvqef;/ 2003 Ekd0ifbmv 88ESpfajrmuf tarrm (vl x k a':t rm) arG ; ae@twG u f &nf p l ; xk w f a 0cJ h w J h rm,mr*~ Z if ; rS jyef v nf u l ; ,l a zmf j yygw,f ?

(ed'ge;f ) vlxa':trm&J@ ±kyyvm k f Hk $ uAsmuav;awGeJ@a&;jcpf jynfolcspfwhJ owif;pmq&m jyefajymif;owd&p&mawGyg? (1) ol@u,ol a':a':wJh dk f toufu 40 ausmp˜uav; f tawmfi,fygao;&J@ ta&;awmfykHuvmwJh owif;pmq&m vli,fawGtay: =uifem&Smw,f

85

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86

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“twdwqwm &Svnf;&Sw,f? &Sw,fqwmvnf; *k%,&w,f? t wdwqwhJ f dk d d d dk f l f dk avS u m;xpf & S d v k d @ ypP K y` e f q d k w J h avS u m;xpf u k d wuf E k d i f w m jzpf y g w,f ? 'ga=umif h twdwfukdvnf; rsufuG,fjyKzdk@ r}udK;pm;apcsifbl;? rae@u&Sdvkd@ u|efrwdk@rSm uae@&Sd aewmyg? uae@&Sd aeEkdif=uwmyg?”(vlxktar/ jrefrmhr[m*Dw æ rS)

vlxaw;oHqwm w&Hrqdw/f twdwudk E_;d qG/ ypPKy`eudk v_@H aqmf/ tem k dk f f *wfukd ,Hk=unfwmyJ r[kwfvm;tar? vlxkukd ,Hk=unfrS/ awmfvSefa&;ukd ,H=k unfr/S ,H=k unfcsuudk ,H=k unfr/S atmifyudk ,H=k unfrm r[kwvm; tar? f JG S f 'gawGu tar jyÏmef;ay;cJwhJ vGwajrmufa&; oD0&DawGav? tarh b0wckv;kH eJ@ h f wkduf,lvkd@ &cJhwJh opPmw&m;awGav? trSefw&m;awG usaemfwkd@b0awGay: yd+ydKvdrqif; vmatmif/ axG;ayG@arG;jrLwwfatmif/ tiftm;awG }uD;xGm; &ifoef hf h vmatmif b,foawG aqmif=uOf;ay;cJygovJ? tarhaus;Zl;/ arwWm/ apwem/ l h rk'wmawGu ( 'Dxuf av;euf euf±i;f wJh tjcm;pum;vH;k rsm; usaemfrm yg;&Sm; d d_ hS w,f/ tarh&@J Ek@d &nfwpufv@dk yJ usaemfrw,ygw,f) tara& æ vlxtara& S f l k æ? vlxkaw;oHawGeJ@ orkdif;tqufquf/ &mZ0if tcef;cef;ukd tar jzwfoef;pD;qif; oGm;cJ+h yD r[kwvm;? f (2)
trsm;eJ “trsm;eJ@qkdifwJh udpPawGrSm b,fawmhrS rjiif;wJh vlwa,muf? tJ'Dvkdvlukd taygif ; toif ; a&mif ; &if ; eJ @ ywf 0 ef ; usif v l @ taqmuf t tH k u b,f h E S , f vk y f + yD ; arhEkdifrSmvJ?”(vlxktar/ awmifav;vHk;rS ewfu|ef;txd trSmpum; æ rS)

tareJ@ pwifqHkqnf;cJh&wJh ouU&mZfrsm;ukd jyefa&wGuf=unfhrdw,f? 1985 pmqkdawmf&moD? usaemfwdk@e,f+rdK@av;rSm pmqkdawmf&moDa&mufwkdif; pma&;q&m/ uAsmq&mawGudk zdw=f um;+yD; pmaya[majymyGawG usi;f yjyKvkyf J avh&w,f? pmaya[majymyGe@J twl usyef; pum;ajymyGawG/ pum;&nfvyawG/ dS J J k JG 0wÎK/ aqmif;yg;/ uAsm/ umwGe;f +yKd ifyawGvnf; ,SOw+JG y;D vkyavh&w,f? usaemfu JG f f dS rk;d a0 vli,fuAsma&;ol jzpfaeyg+yD? 80 vGeEprsm;rSm usaemf wk@d +rdK@u pmaya[m fSf ajymyGawG/ pmayv_y&m;r_awGxrm xJx0if0if usaemfyg0ifcihf &aecse? ESpwi;f J f S JS J G d f f dk

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&efueu q&mq&mrawGcsn;f zdwae=uawmh 'DEpawmh tvSntajymif; vnf; kf f Sf hf jzpf/ usaemfw@dk tifrwef av;pm;=unfnKd &wJh rEWav;u tarrmwk@d udk zdw& f atmifv@dk usaemf t}uHjyK=unfwtcg tm;vH;k u oabmwlvufc/H &ufowfrw/f h hJ S usaemfe@J pmay&JabmfwOD;/ rEWav;ukd tjrefcs/D tarrmwk@d e@J &if;ES;D u|r;f 0ifwhJ q &m}uD;OD;rif;EG,f (rif;EG,-v,fui;f ) qDu pm,l/ usi;f ya&;aumfrwDu zdwf f dk pmawGxnfh/ tarrmwkd@ pDpOfay;EkdifwJh pma&;q&m uAsmq&mawG zdwfac:cJh ayawmh æ wJ? h OD;av;vS/ tarrm tygt0if q&mwifrkd;/ q&marmifpGrf;&nfwkd@u 1971-72 avmufwkef;u wacgufwusif; a&mufcJhzl;=uygw,f? tJ'Dumv awGwe;f u e,frm pmaya[majymyGawG us,us,jf yef@jyef@ rxGe;f um;ao;ygb;l ? k S J f usaemfw@dk txufwef;ausmif;u ausmif;tkyf q&m}uD;/ q&m}uD; OD;atmif^m%f (awmifwi;f ) u OD;aqmif+yD;/ ynma&;wuUovu qif;vmwJh q&mOD;atmif G dk f 0if;wd@k / jrefrmpm q&mq&mrawGu pDpOfusi;f yay;wJh ausmif;a[majymyGrsKd ;yg? J ausmif;rSm a[mvkd@jyKvkd@+yD;rS +rdK@ay:u pmay0goem&SifawGtwGuf vSoD&D ±kyf&Sif±Hk}uD;rSm quf+yD; a[m=uajym=u/ pmayaqG;aEG;yGawG vkyf=uw,f/ &Guf J =urf;a&csKd pmaya[majymyG? J 'ge@J yJ rEWvmukd tjrefEi/f rEWav;vlxwua&muf/ tarhudk uefawmh/ S k dk f vm&if;udpajymjy/ taryJ tpp pDpOfay;ygayg@? taru +yHK;+yHK;&$i&if em;axmif+yD; P f $ “bkdndK æ om;yJ armifukdav;wkd@ armif=unfatmifwkd@eJ@ pDpOfay;yguG,f/ t arvnf; rif;bl;ra&mufwm =umayg@? ukrif;EG,uvnf; wul;wuukd zdw&m d f f S w,f/ a&$pufawmfbk&m;vnf; zl;&if;aygh”vkd@ ukdndK@ukd rSmajymav;ajymw,f? usaemfw@dk uawmh tqifajyavawmh 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om? uknKd (nDyav;) u d k “q&marmifvGrf;%Dwdk@ 'DnaeyJ jyefr,fqkdawmh a[majymr,fh &ufukdvnf; od&+yDav/ usaemfw@dk um;awGe@J yJ vmcJr,f/ wjcm;vki;f um;awG bmawGvnf; h d rpDpOfygeJ@/ udpPtm;vHk; usaemfwdk@yJ pDpOf+yD;vmcJh=uygr,f? vmcgeD; q&m}uD; OD;rif;EG,trukd zke;f quf vkuyg@r,f? tJwckawmh &Sw,f/ rauG;urf;uaeawmh f df d f d vm}udKay;ayg@aemf?”“pdwfcsyg ukdndK&,f?” rEWav;awmifukd ajy;/ usHK;ukdywf/ r[mrke&iawmfjrwfudk uokwu&ufz;l / aps;csKd ukd wywfywf/ xk;d rke@f av;/ vrke@f d Sf f av;0,f/ naeapmif;awmh rauG;um;eJ@ jyefvmcJ=h u? a=omf æ jzKwfcsn;f ref; awmif&dyfckd? a&mufvmr,fh reufyi;f rSmyJ usaemfw@dk rauG;bufurf; ul;+yD; rauG;u dk pmay &JabmfawGe@J apmif}h uKd ae=uw,f? {&m0wDjrpf}u;D ukd jzwfu;l zd@k Zufv@dk ac:wJh

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um; wifu;l wJh a&,mOf}uD;&J@wm0ef&oawGuvnf; }udKwif+yD; pm&if;ay;/ arwWm dS l dk &yfc/H wm0ef&oawGuvnf; usaemfw@dk +rKd @u a&a=umif;0dZm}u;D awGqawmh tqif dS l … dk ajyw,fv@dk yJ ajym&r,f? rGe;f vGJ 12 em&D0ef;usiavmufrm rauG;urf;ezl;ukd tarrmwk@d a&muf f S vmygw,f? E_wquf=u/ rdwquf=uayg? “'g armifuav; (uAsmq&m}u;D ukav; f f h dk d - tif;0*k%&nf)/ armif=unfatmif (uAsmq&m}uD; =unfatmif)/ a[m'gu f wuUovf armifapmvGi/f [kbufu EkE&nf (tif;0)/ 'Dbufu ESpa,mufu dk d k f tarhom; bknKd (nDyav;) eJ@ rdwvmaumvdyu pm=unfwurL; uk0if;wif” d k DÎ f h dk f S d h tarrmwkd@ukd vl&Sif;+idrfqdwfwJh xrif;qkdifav;wckrSm ae&mcsxm;/ um;awGZufay:wifz@kd pDpOf / rif;bl;urf;bufudk a&muf&a=umif; zke;f quf/ ygvm dS olawG pm&if;yk@d ? rif;bl;urf;bufrmvnf; vnf;yif;w&Sn&ne@J apmifaeolawG S f S f h u oufjyif;wcscs? pdr;f vh=J unfjymaewJh {&m0wD&@J a&pD;oHawGudk em;axmif&if; taemuf±;dk rbufqD ai;&DaewJh tarhrsuEmrSm vGr;f &dywcsKd @u xif[yf arsmvGihf fS f aeav&J@? (3)
“vlqkdwm bmvkyfcsifvkyfcsif raocifyJ vkyfEkdifwm? aow,fqkdwm tm;vHk; vl tm;vH k ; bmrqd k tqH k ; ur` w f ed * H k ; owf w myJ ? tJ ' D a wmh vk y f c sif w m&S d & if rao cif v k y f x m; qk d w muk d yk d y k d + yD ; oabmayguf a ew,f ? ” (vl x k t ar/ pma&;jzpf wJhta=umif;&if; æ rS)

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ig;ESpavmuf±+dS yD? ti,fav; =unf=unfuawmh tom;vnf;odyjf zLw,f/ pum; f vnf;odywwfw,f/ oH;k ESpavmuf±+dS yD”ayg? f f h “olw@kd av;ESpa,mufu w+yKdieufwnf;jzpf=uwmqdawmh tm;vH;k yJjym f f k oGm;wmayg? Armaq;q&myif/h Armuk- uk=uwmayg? bm&rSmvJ? tJ'acwfu h h D Armjynfrm &SaewJh aq;twwfynmeJ@ 'Dvuyfa&m*grsKd ;udk ukv@kd aysmufw,f S d kd qdwm w&mrSmrS&vS wa,muf/ ESpa,mufayg? 'ge@J t}uD;rav; &D&uawmh k dS f h D pjzpfuwnf;u pum;udk rajymEdiawmhb;l / rsu&nfjynf@aewJh rsuv;kH uav; kf f f uv,fuv,fe@J om tay:udpu=f unhaeawmhwmyJ? oH;k -av;&uf? cufwmu k kd f =unf =unf? olu ol@tpfravmufrqd;k bl;? pum;ajymEdiao;w,f? 'Dawmhou kf l ‘taza&/ ylvdkufwm/ usrudk a&wdkufygOD;// ac|;okwfay;ygOD;’pojzifh wwGwf wGwfajymaewm? =um;&ufp&mr&Sdbl;? ol@wudk,fvHk;rSmvnf; ausmufzkawGeJ@/ rsufESmay:rSma&maygh? oluac: -ac:aeawmh ol@tem;udkoGm;=u&/ =unhf=u&/ awG@&/ =um;&jyefawmhvnf; pdwrcsr;f om/ olue*duwnf;urS wtdrv;kH &J@ t f k f onf;pGav? tazqdwm/ rif;vnf;odw,fr[kwvm;? rif;wd@k tbd;k [m tifr J k f wef pdwciwm/ om;a&;orD;a&;avmufe@J enf;enf;rSpwvy&m;wwfwhJ vlrsKd ; f kd f d f _fS r[kwb;l ? tckawmh tazawmifrS =unf=unfav; toHur=um;&ufve;f vd@k f kd G uG,&mrSm oGm;-oGm;rsu&nfus&mw,f?” f f S olajymwJEpa,muf[m usaemfta': a':wifwife@J usaemfO;D av; OD; h S f h h armifav;t=um;uv@kd usaemfrwrae ygw,f? S f d “tJ'g &D&av;u t&ifq;kH &Smw,f? 'gayrJh tm;vH;k pdw&oavmufridEi=f u D f dS k kd ao;bl;? aowGi;f E_wcrf;rSm ar;wifaewJh aemuftrom;wa,muf &Sao;w,f f df d r[kwvm;? tJ'gav;udk 0di;f jyKpk=ujyefwmayg? jyKpkw,fqwmvnf; bmrSx;l xl; f k h kd jcm;jcm; r[kwygb;l / a&0wfav;eJ@yway;/ ac|;okway;wmavmufyg? wjcm;bmrS f G f f vkyEiwmr&Sygb;l ? r=umygb;l ? aemuf ESp&ufavmufaeawmh =unf=unfav; f kd f d f vnf; ol@tpfraemuf vduom;wmygy?” k f G J taru pum;pudjk zwf+y;D tjyifukd pduai;aeygw,f? 'DvaEG&moD&@J vGechJ k f kd f wJumvwcku ae@&ufrsm;udk jyefjrifa,mifaewmjzpfrmyg? usaemfu bmrS rajym h S bJ tar bmqufajymrvJvdk@yJ apmihfem;axmifaerdygw,f? pum;jywfrcHcsif awmhygbl;? “tJ'vkd olw@kd Epa,muf qH;k oGm;+y;D wJaemuf tar-rif;tbGm;-u ol@u D Sf h av;awGukd nrSm awmufwr,f&cdi;f &if wd@k uwa,mufe@J wa,muf wHawmif kd k csi;f wd@k +yD; eifom;/ igom;vky=f uwmayg? ta=umif;u tdrom;ESpa,mufawmif G G h f f

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qufwuq;kH oGm;wmqdawmh uav;yDyD wap>a=umuf=uwmud;k ? rif;wd@k tbGm;u kd f k ol@uav;awGukd cdi;f wefwm&S&if cdi;f w,f/ rvkywwfb;l / roGm;&Jb;l qdwmrsKd ;udk k d k f k róudub;l ? touft±G,vuv@kd vky&ui&/J vkywwfuiwwfrS }uKduw,f? f f kd f f J kd f f kd f f ‘'Drm yJjrpfawGjyKwxm;w,f/ oGm;prf;[J/h rD;zdxrm qDe@J qm; oGm;,lacs?’ 'grr[kwf S f k JS S vnf; ‘aemufaz;rSm axG;cHom;oGeacs’qdwmrsKd ; t+rJci;f wwfw,f? tarwd@k G f k kd u cgwi;f awmh tJ'grsKd ;awGukd rqdi;f rwGvyygw,f/ 'gayrJh vlEpa,muf aoxm; kd k kf Sf awmh a=umufw,fv@kd jzpfae=uwmayg? aemufawmh 'gukd riftbGm;uodom;+yD; h h G idw,f? ‘trav;/ igorD;av; ESpa,muf/ 'gavmufjzLpif=u,fwm/ b,fty,f/ k h f b,fo&b0rS ra&mufygb;l awmf? olw@kd ukd ewfaumif;ewfjrwfawGu ewfjynfu lJ ae qD;awmif}uKd=urSmyg’ qd+k yD;yg;pyfu wwGwwwajym+yD;id&mw,f?” f G f kS “tbGm; tJ'vkd pdwxcuwmawG@awmh tarwd@k uvnf; tbGm;udoyf D f d kd f k d oem;oGm;+yD; ud,vnf; 0rf;enf;vmw,f? 'daemufrm tarwd@k rm wap>a=umuf k f S S w,fqwm r&Sawmhb;l ?” kd d

d zk;oH (vlx) k

'Duveorm;awGu ArmawG _rKhd kd kd D awG_yawGrSm pnfpnfum;um; pkp&;kH &H;k r&Sapcsiwm&<f olwhukd k d f kd wGe;f vSevkd pdwawG ray: ayguf f f apzdh&<fwhtwGuf wrif a&m8g k kd ydk;awG<lvm_yD;_zefhjuwmwJh? [kwfr[kwfawmh twnf_yK &cufom;?
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tar vlxka':trm uG,fvGefjcif;twGuf ay;ykd@=uaom t*Fvdyfbmom a&;om;csufrsm;ESifh *k%fjyKpmuAsmrsm;

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80th birthday, 1995 The Sails Are Up Again! Prince Taw Phaya Galae 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. The scene - panorama of typical Burmese life We all enjoyed the long riverine ride From our boat in full sail Pagodas, monasteries and palaces having their tale. While the peasants and laborers toiled with sweat The fishermen with bare chest cast their net. The weather was sunny and fine The ripples sang with rhythm and rhyme; Ah! How wonderful to be free Feeling the gentle fresh cool breeze. Suddenly the white and blue sky Partly became red. Why? Oh! Why? A hurricane bashed the palace Like it was done by the imperialists. Our sails were almost ripped And our boat was slowly stripped . Behold! The rising sun There was joy and fun But soon it became raging hot Destroying our precious paddy plot by plot. Look! The sky is red, white and blue We thought was indeed a beautiful view Nay! The whole sky turned blood red What will our boat face ahead? Our great helmsman took hold of the wheel Poised to challenge the second stormy waves of the sea On came the ruthless wave Alas! Our great helmsman although brave Was washed overboard ; honored as our liberator Trying to steer our boat out of disaster. We on the boat began to utter Who should become the master While the boat was drifting Toward the west the wind was blowing Might is right then took place Rocking, drinking, gambling, and swashbuckling became their taste No one cared where our boat was being carried along There was a jolt; something was surely wrong Heck! Coco Island! This is not our destination Let’s get out! That was our determination. ‘ Thardu, thardu, thardu ’ said the elderly man

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42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80.

With rosary in a helping hand All the crew gave a deep sigh Thinking to be saved from all crime Praying and prayers everywhere Bells ringing and thardu in the air; Everything seems serene and peaceful Blessed be the elderly man for we were grateful Wait! Who are those grumbling? They are those who kept following But, but...they are at daggers drawn Split into three groups with nasty scorn. The storm had gathered again Our boat must not be set aflame We must move forward into the calm sea Where all our crew could rest without agony. The dark clouds grew more and more And the raving winds came blow after blow Torrents of rain filled our boat Many crew hanging on had to float The boat was surrounded by sharks Ready to attack us, surely dangerous We gritted our teeth determined to fend off all Remember!United we stand, divided we fall! Hey! There are ships sailing our way Flags flying. Black flags on display Two crossed bones and a bony head Pirates! White men! Don’t be afraid! We stood up to show our unity This is just their gun-boat activity In other words it’s a ‘Paper Tiger’ Remember what happened in China, Vietnam and Korea. With our united strength We can move the earth! Come rain or storm We must remain united and warm There’s a Burmese saying; Hlaing gyi hlay out1 Which is true without amy doubt, We must make it clear for reality Our real strength lies in our own country! DEAR RESPECTED SAYARMAGYI LUDU DAW AMAR On your 80th birthday, we wish you to hear Our slogan still remains THE SAILS ARE UP AGAIN!

Prince Taw Phaya Galae

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Ode to Ludu Daw Ahmar
(On Her Passing away at 8 AM, 7.4.2008)

Dr Maung Maung Nyo
Ludu Daw Ahmar is dead The news spread like wild fire I’m very sad to hear It’s a great nightmare. Daw Ahmar was “Our Mother” She has led Burma In journalism and literature By writing truths, tenets and tampers To let people adhere to Burmese culture Burmese are really grateful to her. She has been the editor of “Ludu” A progressive periodical of people From whose it took its name To represent the mass maimed It thus claimed fame and authority It led struggle for peace and democracy. I once went to see “Ahmay (Mother)” To get permission to use her essay On leprosy and public health ways In BMF* magazine of Mandalay She willingly helped, I must say It was in 1959 hey days. She wrote a book on Burmese art world Dancers, musicians, jokers and jugglers It won a national literary award thereafter It set a standard for late comers So were her translations of English literature “Trials in Burma”, “Sanda Marlar” etc. “I appreciate them”, Maurice Collis muttered. She also wrote on Burmese culture “Ahmay Shay Sagar”, “Mandalay Thu/Thars” She also featured in Burmese magazines People held them in high esteem

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She wins the admiration of the nation She was indeed the “Literary Queen”! If I have to draw her caricature It may thus appear “She was a university boycotter A avant-garde literary hawker A progressive journalist and author A dedicated wife and a devoted mother Grandma of Burmese literature She was the “Guardian of Burmese Culture”.

She died at 93 years of age At * A.M.on 7th April 2008 People gave her accolades She really had been great. It was Burma she dedicated It was patriotism she demonstrated It was Burma’s causes she never hesitated Let’s prostrate and contemplate Our love, sorrow and dedication To this “Great Lady of Our Nation” By wishing her a heartfelt valediction “ Farewell, Mother, Good Bye” in salutation. Note: BMF = Branch Medical Faculty, The Forerunner of Institute of Medicine Mandalay

Dr Maung Maung Nyo 11.04.2008

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Dear PTJ,
I was just preparing to send you a message of sympathy and concern. You have been in my thoughts a lot since the sad news reached us of your mother’ death on April s 7th.You knew this time would come, yet I am sure you didn’t want it to come. The reason that I have not written to you sooner is because I have been very busy writing and preparing an obituary for Daw Amar to be published in our leading leftwing newspaper, The Guardian. Today at last, it was finished and supplied with a good photograph to accompany the obituary. As soon as the news reached us, Vicky asked me if I would write an obituary, saying that she was too busy at the moment. What happened is interesting. I phoned the paper and said I wanted to write about this outstanding Burmese writer who had just died. The editor said ‘OK, send me something’. I wrote only a short account which I sent him, but I said that it really should be much longer and with more detail. His first reply was that the paper only had room for very short obituaries, but that he would edit my piece and see what I thought. To my surprise, he then sent me back a piece twice as long as my original, including many details of your mother’ life which I had not s included. It seems that from knowing almost nothing about Burma, the editor had become so interested in Burma and the story of your Mum that he had gone onto the w.w.web and found lots more information about her, which he had written into my obituary. So the final version is only half mine, and half from somewhere else (perhaps from MinZin in ‘Irrawaddy’). But the beginning and end are from me, so it is a very personal piece. The editor also became curious to know more about me and how long I had known your family (from back in Jan. 1977) and many other questions. I actually heard the news first from Su Su Mar, who rang me early on theMonday morning. She was very sad. We talked for quite a long time and I tried to comfort her. She has given me an email address so that I can now try to write to you sister, Daw Than Yin Mar. She has been through a long, long period of anxiety

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and stress, nursing your mother both at home and in hospital. I hope the strain has not left her too exhausted. I know Su Su wishes that she could be at home to help her mother. I treasure the many books that I have as presents from your Mum, signed in her own hand. And many letters too written by her. Have you beenable to receive letters from her at all? Try not to be too sad. Your mother had a remarkable life and has left amost valuable legacy to her fellow countrymen and women. khin-min-lyet KKChaw

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Obituary Ludu Daw Amar As a leading dissident writer she fought for democracy in Burma

Article history

In recent years, in the days leading up to November 29, writers, journalists, and artists from all over Burma have gone to Mandalay, the country’s cultural heartland, for a gathering in a monastery compound. There they celebrated the birthday of a writer, publisher, and activist, Ludu Daw Amar, who has died aged 92. Since those days in the mid-1930s when she joined a student strike at Rangoon University, opposing British colonial rule, Daw Amar never ceased to write, or to fight. For many, attendance in the compound was a way of demonstrating opposition to Burma’s military regime. Unhappily, it also provided an opportunity for military intelligence to note dissident names and faces. From 1962, when General Ne Win led the coup that has subjected Burma to almost half a century of military dictatorship, Daw Amar provided opposition. She and her family paid a heavy price. Daw Amar was the fourth among 12 siblings of an upper-class family whose fortune was made in the tobacco trade. Educated at Mandalay’s American baptist school and the national high school she read science at Mandalay Intermediate College and Rangoon University. There, in 1936, came her role in the student strike. She also began to get published. In 1938 she translated the British civil servant Maurice Collis’s critical assessment, Trials in Burma. In 1939 she married the journalist U Hla, who in 1933 had established the leftist Ludu Kyi-bwa-yay (Progress) magazine in Rangoon. Together they set up the Kyi-bwa-yay press in Mandalay. In 1942 British rule collapsed, Burma fell to the Japanese and the couple moved north of Mandalay while continuing publication of Ludu Kyi-bwa-yay. She translated Hino Ashihei’s bellicose Japanese bestseller Wheat and Soldiers, but also became involved in the resistance movement. By the spring of 1945 the Japanese were being driven from Burma, and that summer U Hla launched the Ludu (People) Journal with Daw Amar as assistant editor; a daily, Ludu Thadin-sa, followed in 1946. “Ludu” was incorporated in the couple’s names as the country moved towards independence from Britain in 1948.

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But soon after independence, the army, hostile to the couple’s radicalism, reduced their press to rubble. Their family narrowly escaped with their lives. In 1953, Daw Amar attended a Soviet-backed peace congress in Copenhagen and a youth conference in Romania. Meanwhile her husband, convicted of involvement in student protests inspired by the Communist party of Burma (CPB), was sentenced to three years for sedition. Daw Amar, with five young children to raise, continued to publish Ludu Thadin-sa until U Hla’s release in 1957, but two years later the government shut the paper down for 14 months. In 1967, five years after the coup, the regime closed Ludu Thadin-sa. Daw Amar switched from writing about politics to culture and history, focusing on prewar Burmese singers and actors. With military rule, many students, including her two eldest sons, had become student activists. The eldest, Soe Win, headed for the mountain jungle. There, in 1968, he was murdered in a CPB internal purge as the party was hit by the backwash from China’s cultural revolution. Her second son, Than Joung, was also a student activist who was detained from 1966 to 1972, and on the point of being rearrested in 1978, fled to join the CPB and later went into exile in Yunnan - a leading CPB member, he would never see his mother again. In the wake of that escape, military intelligence detained U Hla, Daw Amar and their youngest son for 13 months. They were released in 1979. The publishing house subsisted on jobbing printing, while Daw Amar wrote for Burma’s privately owned monthlies, while refusing to write for state publications. An astute businesswoman, she published her many articles in book form. In 1982, U Hla died. Daw Amar continued to run the publishing house, but in 1984, during the dry season, fire consumed central Mandalay, destroying the printing equipment, the book production department and paper store of the Kyi-bwa-yay press. Happily, her home, private library and newspaper archive survived. Five years later her 38-year-old youngest son was sentenced to 10 years. He was imprisoned in Thayet, a two-day journey for Daw Amar, his wife and their three children. Meanwhile, as part of its drive to “beautify” towns for tourists, in the 1990s the regime began relocating cemeteries far outside Mandalay. So in 1998 Daw Amar set up Byamazo lu-hmuyay Athin, a mutual aid association to help those who, amid the collapsing Burmese economy, were too poor to bury their dead. Now the charity often covers hospital medical costs, provides minibuses and carries out free funerals. Initially Mandalay’s military boss resented and hindered its operations. Later came tolerance the operation clearly fulfilled a desperate need - and other towns copied the scheme. In 2003 Daw Amar had a small building erected just behind the Kyi-bwa-yay press. Her lifetime’s book collection was put there; this is to be the first public library open for all to use in Mandalay in the last half century. Into her 90s Daw Amar contributed monthly articles to journals and magazines and published at least one small book annually.

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It was in the mid-1970s that I first met Daw Amar. My first impression became a lasting one: intelligent, thoughtful, kind she went on to become both the voice of traditional Burma, calling for adherence to Buddhist values, and a symbol of opposition to the regime, leading the struggle for a more democratic, more humane society and for the possibility to write freely and truthfully. We met in the 1980s and 90s, and our last encounter was in January 2005. It is a source of profound regret that I was prevented by the Burmese authorities from attending her 90th birthday. But I remember her last words to me three years ago, “We simply wish,” she said, “to be treated like human beings.” She is survived by two sons, two daughters and six grandchildren. · Ludu Daw Amar, writer and activist, born November 29 1915; died April 7 2008

• • •

The Guardian, Saturday April 12 2008 Article history

There are some mistakes in the above short biography . However , with all our due respect , we didn’t make any correction.

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My Mum
Dear Ko Min Zin, Here are the answers to your questions. If there is anything you would like to know more or make clear, please don’t hesitate. To tell you the truth, I am not very much at ease to praise my own mother. There’s a Burmese proverb that my mother often quotes: “ The neighbourhood will acknowledge if your daughter is really beautiful.” So, I don’t think that it is the task of the children to write about their parents. Anyway, here they are. 1. How would you describe your mother as a mother not as a journalist or social critic? She’s a good mother just like any other typical Burmese, Buddhist mothers. She loves Burmese food and can make good dishes. She loves planting flowers and likes to visit markets, especially those in the countryside. She enjoys seeing Disney cartoons, comedies, as well as Hollywood films that my uncle (her younger brother) recommended. Once she went to see the horror film “Dracula” on my (elder) brother’ s insistence and admitted that she was very frightened when she came back. I mean to say that she’s just a human being. As my parents were always occupied with their editorial work and social welfare works, they had very little time to spend with their children or attend to their daily life and needs. We were left in the hands of an aunt, a distance relative of my mom. She always emphasised cherishing the traditional values of our nation and moral integrity when she educated us. Knowing that we were starting to get involved in politics, she once told me, “No matter what, as a student, one should try to excel in study also. Just look at Ko Aung San and Ko Ba Hein. They are known not only for their political merits, they are known for their performance in their studies also. “This is the way she used to tell us. She rarely said “must” or mustn’t.” Rather, she pointed out exemplary figures. There are three brothers in our family and no one of us drink or smoke. This is not because they told us not to do, but rather because through their own deeds they made us realise that these things are not good. She rarely beat us too. As far as I can remember, she once beat us when my elder brother, my elder sister and I went for begging during one Dazaungdaing Thieves’ Festival. I think I was about ten at the time. My brother went with his friends and my sister and I went with the children from our neighbourhood. As we were young, we couldn’t go very far, we only went to some of our relatives and neighbours. Evidently, the news reached her ears immediately and she beat us when we arrived home.

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She never told her children to read Marxist books (nor oppose doing). Instead, she recommended us to read various kinds of books that she thought worth reading. Edger Snow’s books, Autobiography of Charlie Chaplin, The Silent Spring (an early book about environment question) and Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire were some among them. As for the Burmese books, there were too many to mention. The list includes classical literature, Thakin Kodawhmaing’s works and Khitsan Literature. She also mentioned books like Thakhin Ba Hein’s “The Capitalist World” and Tin Moe’s “The Lantern” as very good and we should read. 2. Would you recall the most unforgettable moment you spending with your Mom? It’s difficult to say at this age, because (I think) I have become less and less sentimental or emotional, than when I was young. However, I should say, listening to what she told us about our forefathers or their old days was the most enjoyable and unforgettable moments. That kind of moment was not very common. As I have said above, my parents were always busy. I think I had more chances than other children at that time, because when I was sacked from the Mandalay University for taking part in student activities, my parents arranged me some deskwork among the newspaper staff and during the hot Mandalay afternoons, when she had time, she used to recall these and told me. I must also say that I neither regretted nor blame my parents for spending less time with us. On the contrary, I believe that, even when I was young, I know they were working for the good of others and their devoted working style became my model, as I grow old. 3. Nearly all of her siblings have been involved in Burmese politics as committed dissidents/revolutionaries. Have your parents (particulary your Mom in this context) had any disapproval against your involvement? How did they express their worry for you siblings since you all have paid a lot for what you believe? Have you ever heard any complaint from your Mom regarding to your elder brother’ (U Soe Win’s) death? s My parents never say ‘no’ to what we do with our beliefs. They only told us to be careful when they learned something about the government agents’ knowledge or plans. They never said that you should believe in communism, rather, they sometimes told us how the leaders of the communist party and other patriotic personages at the time had made enormous contributions and sacrifices for the nation. Incidentally, as my father was arrested again and again by the government and the publication of our newspaper was disrupted often, seeds of hatred for the government took root in my mind since I was very young. My parents, both devoted Buddhists, never compelled me to be as devoted as they are. We were sent to Roman Catholic Schools, but my parents made us convinced that we should not become Christians, and they did, not by saying directly, but very tactfully. They have respect for our beliefs and our ability to decide for ourselves. It’s not their style to interfere in our political convictions. Perhaps this is because they think what are we doing is right. Of course, they instructed us about moral and manners when we were young. No doubt, they are very worried about us taking part in very dangerous and risky activities. But they rarely express these feelings on their face or in their words.

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I found their faces very calm and serene when the military intelligence came and arrest me on two occasions (I managed to escape at the second time) and they made me brave and less worried during the consequent events. Once, when I went to play football at Myaung, a town fifty miles southwest of Mandalay on the Irrawaddy River, we came back very late. Perhaps it was one o’ clock after midnight. When the car carrying stopped in front of my home, I found both of them standing in front of our house, worried! They had rosary beads in their hands. When I got home after release from gaol, they told me the following episode: just about a month before my release. U Ne Win, who was on summer vacation in Maymyo, asked my parents to see him. He told them, “ As a father myself, I can understand your feelings about your son in prison. But they told me he was very stubborn also. Nevertheless, please go and see Brig, Gen Tin Oo (The M.I.S. chief) in Rangoon and he will arrange for his release.” Thus, I was released from the Insein Gaol. My mother added, “We often met with people like U Ne Win and other leaders of the government. However, we never uttered a word asking them to release you. Of course, we want you to come out as soon as possible but we know we shouldn’t do that at the expense of your dignity. That made me very proud of them. ” As for my brother’ case, both of them said nothing to me. Once, after my release s from gaol, I got a letter from a CPB leader for my mom. In that letter he explained the case of my brother and apologised to my parents. I handed it to my mom and saw tears falling from her eyes after reading it. She said, “I and your father had never said anything between us about this matter. We just pretended not to have heard anything.” After that I didn’t try to talk about that matter till now. 4. Recently, we have heard that Sayamagyi was sick and hospitalized? Since you haven’t seen your Mom for a long time, how such news worry you? Certainly, I’m very worried, worried than anything. My inability to be present at the bedside of my dad when he was about to leave this world has been haunting me all along. One of my greatest wishes as an ordinary man is to have a chance to pay respects (kadaw) to my dad’s tomb. 5. Daw Ahmar has been highly respected by Burmese people. Many people even compare her with Thakin Kodaw Hmaing. Even though she is getting old, she still write prolifically with well-intention (cetana). How would you see your Mom not as your mother but as a woman from the angle of your social value and political belief. I’m not interested in comparing her with Thakhin Kodaw Hmaing. To me it’s just a kind of storm in a teacup that would lead nowhere. My Mom always express her deep respect for Sayagyi Thakhin Kodaw Hmaing for many merits and I’m sure she won’t like comparing her to the person she respects so much. She never attack or react against anyone for personal grudges. Both my parents tried to be balanced when they judge other people. My mother has very remarkable courage that she inherited from her mother. She never sulks, grumbles or murmurs when she has to encounter all kinds of difficulties and threats. She used to express dislike for traitors and cowards. Her, as well as her husband’s, attitude towards young people is made up not only of cetena, but also of recognition of their capability and potential. They used to be very humble when talking with young people. Even with me, they never treated me

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patronizingly. For instance, when she was writing her prize-winning book about famous people from music and drama circles, “ Artists who are Loved by Masses”, she ask me one day, “ My son, I know nothing about music and to handle a character like Myoma Nyein is simply beyond my capacity. Can you tell me some facts that may throw light upon the talents of this genius?” In fact, though I was about eighteen at the time, I was also a philistine in this field. She often said, “ My son, I am not good at choosing names for books. Would you mind choosing one for me?” The titles of some of her books were chosen by me. She believes in the might of our people. She believes in their future and that one should work one for, and if needed, make sacrifices for this cause. She has reached this height because she has been standing firm with the people of our nation through thick and thin. She never bargains her principles for anything.

Po Than Joung

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