udkvdkeDacwf wdkufyGJ0ifowif;pm

armifopfvGif (vlxk)

jrefrmEdkifiH owif;pmordkif; tusOf;csKyf (1836 - 1948)
pdefyef;yGifhcsdefpmtkyfwkduf

pma&;oltrSm
jrefrmjynfonf +Adwdo#wdk@ESifh (1824) ckESpfwGif yxrt}udrfppfyGJ/ (1852) ckESpfwGif 'kwd,t}udrfppfyGJrsm; jzpfyGm;+yD;aemuf
(1885) ckESpfwGif +Adwdo# e,fcsJ@orm; vufatmufodk@ vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm; usa&mufcJh&avonf? xdkumvrsm;upI
jrefrmjynfolwkd@onf +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@orm;. zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk cH&&if; udkvdkeDxrf;ydk; udk xrf;cJh=u&avonf?
xdkodk@ +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@orm;vufatmuf usa&mufae&pOf jrefrmjynfol wdk@onf zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_qef@usifa&;/
udkvdkeDxrf;ydk;cgcsa&;/ e,fcsJ@qef@usifa&;/ trsKd;om; vGwfajrmufa&;/ wdkif;jynfvGwfvyfa&; }udK;yrf;r_rsm;pGm jyKvkyfcJh=u& onf?
(1885) ckESpfwGif jrefrmbk&ifoDayg +Adwdo#e,f,fcsJ@orm;vufodk@ ygoGm;+yD;aemuf jrefrmrsdK;cspf}uD;rsm;/
wdkif;&if;om;rsdK;cspf}uD;rsm;onf ol@u|efrcH pdwf"mwfjzifh xºuGawmfvSefcJh=uonf? +Adwdo#wdk@u (10) ESpf (10) rdk; ESdrfeif;cJh&avonf?
(1906) ckESpfwGif 0dkiftrfbDatuJhodkaom EkdifiHa&; tzGJ@tpnf;rsKd; ay:aygufvmcJhonf? (1920) ckESpfwGif wpfEdkifiHvHk; odrfhodrfhwkefr#
ausmif;om; oydwfrsm; ay:vmonf? trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm; xlaxmif=uonf? trsKd;om; wuUodkvfyif zGifhvSpfEdkifcJhonf?
yxrt}udrf ausmif;om;oydwf}uD;udk 1282 (1920) ck wefaqmifrkef; vjynfhausmf (10) &ufwGif pwifcJh&m
*sDpDbDattoif;csKyf}uD;u (9) }udrfajrmuf uGefz&ifh}uD;wGif xdkae@udk trsKd;om;ae@[k owfrSwf+yD; trsKd;om;ae@ txdrf;trSwfudk
ESpfpOfusif;yEkdifcJh=uonf?
t&SifOD;OwWrESifh OD;0dpm&wdk@onf trsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;wdkufyGJwGif xif&Sm; aom udk,fawmf}uD;rsm; jzpf=uonf?
rif;avmif;armifoef@/ AE<u ponfwdk@onfvnf; ol@enf;ol@[efESifh v_yf&Sm; xºuGcJholrsm; jzpfonf?
(1930) wGifum; q&mpHacgif;aqmifaom awmifolv,form; awmfvSefa&;}uD; wpf&yfudk qifEGJcJh=uonf?
(1930) aemufydkif;wGif wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;}uD; ay:aygufvmcJhonf? wdk@Arm tpnf;t±Hk;onf ausmif;om;avmuESifhvnf;
qufrd./ odk@jzifh (1936) wGif 'kwd, t}udrf ausmif;om;oydwf}uD; ay:aygufvmcJhjyefavonf?
1938 (1300 jynfh) ta&;awmfyHkrSm tvkyform;/ v,form;/ ausmif;om;rsm; ponfh vlwef;pm;aygif;pHk
aygif;qHk,SufEG,frdaom ta&;awmfykH}uD; jzpfonf? xdkta&;awmfyHkonf e,fcsJqef@usifa&;toGifudk aqmifcJhavonf?
(1942) rS (1945) txd jrefrmjynfonf zufqpf*syefwdk@. vufatmufodk@ usa&mufcJh&jyefonf? (1945) wGifum;
jrefrmjynfolwdk@onf zufqpfawmfvSefa&;udk qifE$JcJh=uavonf?
xdk@aemuf +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@orm;onf 'kwd,tausmh 0ifvmjyef&m jrefrmjynfol wdk@onf vlxkenf;jzifh wdkufyGJrsm;pGm
qifE$J=u&onf? (1946) wGif taxGaxGoydwf}uD; qifE$J=uonf? e,fcsJ@ESifhtaygif;ygwdk@.vufcsufjzifh trsKd;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;
usqHk; cJh=u&+yD; (1948) wGifrS +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@orm;vufatmufrS vGwfajrmufcJh=u&onf? udkvdkeDxrf;ydk;udk cgcsEkdifcJh=uavonf?
jrefrmowif;pmorkdif;udk jyef=unfhonfhtcg owif;pmrsm;onf jynfolawG v_yf&Sm;aeovdk v_yf&Sm;aeonfudk
awG@&avonf? owif;pmrsm;u jynfolrsm;. v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk a=u;rHkozG,fjyonf/ owif;pmrsm;udk,fwdkifuvnf; v_yf&Sm;=uonf/
xdk@a=umifh owif;pmordkif;/ owif;pmrsm;v_yf&Sm;cJhonfhordkif;onfvnf; EkdifiHordkif;[k yif qdkEkdifayvdrfhrnf?
jrefrmEkdifiHrSm (1885) ckESpfup+yD; +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@orm;vufatmufodk@ vHk;vHk; vsm;vsm;}uD; usa&mufcJh&onf? TwGif
ol@u|efb0ae&onfh ordkif;pav+yD/ jrefrm trsKd;om;rsm;onf vGwfvyfaomEkdifiHtjzpf aecJh&aomvlrsKd; r[kwfygvm;? +Adwdo#
udkvdkeDorm;u zdESdyfxm;onfhb0wGif jrefrmwdkif;&if;om;rsm;onf tb,frSmv#if wpfoufvHk; iHk@cHoGm;ygvdrfhrnfenf;?
zdv#HºuGonfrSm "rRwmyif? xdk@a=umifh jrefrm jynfolrsm;onf ol@u|efb0rS vGwfajrmufa&;/ udkvdkeDxrf;ydk;b0rS cgcsa&;twGuf
wjznf;jznf; ±kef;uefv_yf&Sm;cJh=uonf/ vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJ 0ifcJh=uonf?
Todk@ vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJ0if&mwGif jrefrmtrsKd;om;owif;pm trsm;pk}uD; onf u|efb0rS vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf
jynfolvlxkESifhtwl wdkufyGJ0ifcJh=uav onf? vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyJGudk enf;rsKd;pHk qifE$J=u&mwGif owif;pmrsm;u jynfolvlxkudk
pnf;±Hk;v_H@aqmfcJh=uonf? xdkodk@ v_yf&Sm;pnf;±Hk;vmaomtcg udkvdkeDvufqkyfudk rajzvdkaom +Adwdo#udkvdkeDorm;onf
jynfolvlxkudk rsufpd/ em;zGifhay;onfh Ekd;=um; atmif pnf;±Hk;v_H@aqmfonfh owif;pmrsm;udk tb,frSmv#if Ttwdkif; =unfhae
vdrfhrnfenf;? zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm; vkyfvmavonf? owif;pmrsm;udk [ef@wm;jcif;rsm;/ tmrcHawmif;jcif;rsm;/ t,f'Dwmrsm;udk
w&m;pGJjcif;/ e,fESifjcif;/ axmifcsjcif;rsm; jyKvkyfvmavonf?

1

xdktcg owif;pmrsm;onf rdrdwdk@ vGwfvyfcGifhtwGufvnf; wdkuf&onf? jynfolvlxk. vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJwGifvnf;
yg0ifqifE$J&onf? jrefrmEkdifiH vGwfvyfa&; wdkufyGJwav#mufwGif +Adwdo#tpdk;&u jrefrmjynfudk vufrv$wf&a&;twGuf
y&d,m,frsKd;pHkjzifh
tkyfcsKyfa&;tqifhqifh
ajymif;vJ
tkyfcsKyfvmcJhonf?
udkvdkeDorm;\
enf;y&d,m,frsKd;pHkudk
trsdK;om;owif;pmrsm;u zGifhcs+yD; uef@uGufcJh=uonf? zdESdyf csKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk uef@uGufcJh=uonf? jynfoludk pnf;±Hk;v_H@aqmfI
jynfolvlxk v_yf&Sm; ±kef;uefr_rsm;udk tm;ay;axmufcH=uonf?
Tae&mwGif +Adwdo#udkvdkeDorm;u xkwfa0onfhowif;pmrsm;ESifh tvdkawmf&d owif;pmrsm;udkrl ¹cGif;csufxm;&ayrnf?
jrefrmEkdifiHa&;wGif jrefrmwpfrsKd;om;vHk; Edk;=um;I 0HomEktoif;rsm;zJG@um tpdk;&tm; qef@usifaomtcg “wl-om” oif;tzGJ@ vdk
tpdk;&bufu &yfwnfay;cJhaom “A[k” toif;rsm;&dScJh&m “A[k” owif;pm/ tpdk;&a=umfjimrsm;/ jyef=um;a&; owif;/
xkwfjyefcsufrsm;jzifh a0qmcJhaom tvdkawmf&dowif;pm/ touf (80) udk *i,f0[kzwfI *ESifh 0aygif; *G jzpfovdk touf (80)
t&G,f t,f'Dwm}uD;wdk@. *Gowif;pm[k 0HomEkwdk@u qdkcJh=uonfh *Gowif;pmrsm;vnf; &dScJhayonf? odk@aomf xdkowif;pmwdk@um;
tenf;pk/ jynfolESifh twl wdkufyGJ0ifaom trsKd;om;owif;pmwdk@u trsm;pk}uD; jzpfayonf?
a&S;OD;owif;pmrsm;umvu owif;pmrsm;uvnf; rEdk;=um;ao;? jynfolvlxk uvnf; rEkd;=um;ao;/ t=urf;zsOf;qdk&ygrl
(1906) ckESpf Ak'<bmomuvsm%,k0 toif; ay:vm+yD; aemufydkif;wGifrS EkdifiHa&;tod 0ifvm=uonf? (1911) ckESpfESifh
‚if;aemufydkif;
ol&d,owif;pmESifh
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm
ponfhowif;pmrsm;
ay:vmrS
xdkowif;pmrsm;u
v_H@aqmfr_jyKonfhtcgwGifrS EdkifiHa&;Edk;=um;r_ jzpfay:vm onf[k qdk&ayrnf?
xdk@aemufwGifum; trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;onf wdkif;jynfESifh vlrsKd;ESifhcsDI }uD;av;aomwm0efrsm;udk xrf;aqmifcJh=uonf?
vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJwav#mufwGif trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;\ pnf;±Hk;v_H@aqmfr_rsm;/ ±ke;f uefv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;onf ao;i,f vSonf
r[kwfay? xdk@a=umifh jrefrmtrsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;onf EdkifiHvGwfvyfa&; ordkif; wav#mufY uavmifvufeufudkoHk;I
vGwfvyfa&;ordkif;udkvnf; ajym&onf? udk,fwdkifvnf; yg0ifv_yf&Sm;qifE$JcJh=u&onf[k qdk&ayrnf?
jrefrmtrsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;onf (1948) ckESpf vGwfvyfa&;&onfhESpftxd ESpf (60) ausmfc&D;udk +Adwdo#udkvdkeDorm;.
zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;/ *syefzufqpfwdk@ zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk trsKd;rsKd;taxGaxGcH&if; rqkwfrepfaompdwf"mwfjzifh ckcH qef@usi&f if;
jynfolvlxkESifhtwl jzwfoef;vmcJh=u&avonf? TcufcJ =urf;wrf; aom c&D;onf jrefrmowif;pmrsm;/ *sme,frsm;wGif
xif[yfvsuf &dSavonf?
T=urf;wrf;aomc&D;wGif trsKd;om;owif;rsm; zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm; rnfokd@ cHpm;&onf/ rnfokd@ ckcHqef@usifcJh&onf/
jynfoludk rnfodk@pnf;±Hk; v_H@aqmfcJh&onf? jynfolESifhtwl rnfodk@wdkufyGJ0ifcJh&onfwdk@udk ,ckpmtkyfwGif pkpnf;azmfjyxm;yg onf?
Todk@ azmfjy&mY jrefrmowif;pm ordkif;OD;acwfrS vGwfvyfa&;&onfh (1948) ckESpftxd umvtwGif; jzpfay:r_rsm;udk
wwfEdkifor# &SmazGpkaqmif; avhvm+yD; wifjyygonf? xdk@tjyif jrefrmEdkifiHordkif;pOfwav#muf jzpfay:r_rsm;udk pDumpOfum
wifjyonf? tcsKd@ta=umif;t&m tjzpftysufrsm;udkrl ta=umif;oifh&m/ qDavsmf&m ae&mwGif pkpnf;wifjyonf? txl;ojzifh
owif;pmrsm;. v_yf&Sm;}udK;yrf; tm;xkwfr_rsm;udk ay:vGifatmif }udK;pm;wifjyyg onf?
Tpmtkyfjzpfajrmuf&eftwGuf awG@}uHK&ifqkdif&aom tcuftcJukdvnf; azmfjyvkdygonf? owif;pmrsm;ta=umif;ukd
azmfjyEkdif&eftwGuf owif;pmrsm;ukd &SmazG&onfrSm cufvSygonf? owif;pm*sme,fr*~Zif;rsm;ukd tpktaqmif; txdef;todrf;
enf;=ujcif;a=umifhvnf;aumif;/ ppfESifhawG@}uHKcJh&aom jrefrmjynfwGif tzsuftqD;/ tysuftpD;rsm;cJhjcif;a=umifhvnf;aumif;
owif;pmrsm;ukd t&SmtazG cuf&jcif; jzpfygonf? usefaumif;use&f m &wefor#udk &SmazG pkaqmif;&aoma=umifh tcsdefvnf;
rsm;pGm,lcJh&ygonf? vGefcJhonfh (10) ESpf ausmfu pwif&SmazGpkaqmif;+yD; vGefcJhonfh (8) ESpfcef@ (28/ 6/ 70) u pwifI
[Hom0wDowif;pmwGif a&;om; azmfjycJhygonf?
orkdif;[lonf
uGufvyfjznhf&+rJjzpfav&m
[Hom0wDwoif;pmwGif
a&;om;
wifjycJhonfrsm;ukd
,ckpkpnf;wifjy&mwGifvnf; topfawG@&dScsufrsm;/ awG@qHk ar;jref;jcif;rsm;/ owif;pmqkdif&m pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;ukd zwf±_I
nd‡Ed_if;jcif;rsm;jzihf xyfrHjznhfpGufum pkpnf;wifjy&ygonf?
Tpmtkyfukd jyKpk&mY tultnDay;=uaom a&$ukdif;om; (q&mawmf)/ &efukefwuUokdvfrsm;pm=unhfwkdufrS OD;aomfaumif;/
a':ausmhausmh/ q&m}uD; aZ,s/ q&mZ0e/ OD;0if;wif ([Hom0wD) wkd@tm; aus;Zl;wifa=umif; azmfjytyfyg onf? ?
armifopfvGif (vlxk)

2

owif;pmordkif;acwfOD;u
jrefrmEdkifiHowif;pmordkif;tprSm t*Fvdyf-jrefrmyxrp_pfyGJ (1824-26) t+yD;wGif jzpfonf? xdkyxrppfyGJt+yD;wGif
+Adwdo#wdk@u &ckdifESifhweoFm&Dwdk@udk odrf;ydkufvdkuf=uonf/ ppfyGJ+yD;onfhtcsdefavmufrSmyif tar&duefomoemjyK q&mrsm;
armfv+rdKif+rdK@odk@ a&muf&dSvm=uavonf?
tar&duefomoemjyKq&mrsm;u omoemjyKvkyfief;rsm; vkyf=u&if; pmyHkESdyfpuf,lvm+yD;/ jrefrmESifh u&ifpmjzifh
omoema&;/ bmoma&;qdkif&m pmtkyfrsm; ±dkufESdyfxkwfa0=uavonf? xdktcsdefu weoFm&Dwdkif;rif;}uD;rSm (E.A.Blundell)
tD;/ at/ bvef'J jzpfonf? ‚if;u owif;pmxkwf&ef t}uH&onfESifh 'C.Bennett' udk t,f'Dwmtjzpf cef@tyf+yD;/ (Morlmain
Chronicle) “armfv+rdKifca&mfeDu,f” trnf&dS owif;pmudk t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh xkwfonf/ pwifxkwfa0onfh&ufrSm (1836) ck
rwfv (3) &uf jzpfonf/ xdkowif;pmrSm jrefrmEdkifiHwGif yxrqHk;xkwfonhf owif;pm[lI rSwfom; =u&ayonf?
xdkowif;pmwGif om,m0wDrif; ykefuefjcm;em;onfhowif;rsm;/ &Srf;jynf e,f/ u&ifeDjynfe,f (u,m;)/
weoFm&De,frsm;udk +Adwdo#wdk@ &SmazGpGef@pm; oGm;a&muf avhvmyHkowif;rsm;/ trsKd;orD;rsm; }udK;qGJcs owfaor_ wdk;wuf
rsm;jym;vmonfh owif;rsm; (atmufjrefrmjynfudk odrf;,lxm;onfh +Adwdo# tpdk;&u oGwfoGif;vmonfh }udK;ay;pepfudk
twkjriftwwf oifvm[ef&dSonf/) armfv+rdKifESifh &efukef/ armfv+rdKifESifh r'&yf/ armfv+rdKifESifh umvuwWm;a&a=umif;
oGm;vmonfhowif;rsm;/ weoFm&De,f. o,HZmwºuG,f0r_udk +Adwdo# ody`Hynm&Sifwdk@ avhvmcef@rSef;cJhyHkowif;rsm;
a&;om;azmfjyonfudk awG@&onf?
jrefrmbmomjzifh tapmqHk;xkwfa0onfhowif;pmrSm “"rRowif;pm” The Religious Heald jzpfavonf/
Towif;pmudkvnf; omo_emjyKq&mrsm;u c&pf,mefbmoma&; 0g'jzef@&ef &nf&G,fcsufjzifh armfv+rdKif+rdK@u xkwfa0onf?
owif;pmudk (1843) ckESpfwGif pwifxkwfa0onf? xdkowif;pmu omoema&;/ bmoma&;owif;rsm;udk OD;pm;ay;azmfjyonf?
bmoma&;ESifhe,fcsJ@r_rSm yl;wGJaeonfjzpfI xdkowif;pmxkwfa0aepOfu t*Fvdyf-jrefrm 'kwd,ppfyGJ jzpfyGm; aeav&m
ppfyGJowif;pmrsm;udkvnf; azmfjyonf? ppfyGJowif;pmrsm;udk (1851) ck 'DZifbmvupI azmfjycJhonf?
(1852) cku ykodrfwGif qdkufuyfxm;aom t*FvdyfoabFmudk Armwyf rsm;u armif;xkwfyHk/ t*FvdyfoabFmu
Armwyfrsm;udk tajrmufjzifh ypf+yD; wyfpcef;udk rD;±d_@yHk/ &efukef+rdK@wdkufyGJwGif 'vESifh&efukefY&dSonfh Armwyfrsm;u
pwifypfcwfonfhtcg waeukefwdkufyGJjzpfyHk/ (1213) ck wyd_k@wGJ vjynfhausmf (1) &ufu pwifwdkufonfrSm vjynfhausmf (4) &ufwGif
Armwyfrsm; ta&;edrfh+yD; a&$wd*HkapwDay:Y t*Fvdyfwdk@ tvHpdkufyHk/ wdkufyGJwGif Armwyfom;ESpfaxmifausmf oHk;axmifcef@
aoa=urnf[k cef@rSef;yHk/ t*Fvdyfwdk@bufu Adkvf (5) a,mufESifh wyfom; (150) avmufom aoa=uonf qdkonfrsm;udk
azmfjyxm;avonf/
xdktcgu t*Fvdyfwdk@ odrf;ydkufxm;onfh atmufjrefrmjynfwGif &dSaom armfv+rdKif/ &efukef/ ykodrf/ ppfawG ponfh+rdK@rsm;wGif
“armfv+rdKif tuf'Am wdkufZm;”/ “armfv+rdKif z&D;y&ufpf”/ “&efukef ca&mfeDu,f”/ “yJcl; a*Zuf”/ “&efukefwdkif;”/
“&efukefa*Zuf”/ “&efukefa';vD;ar;”/ “a';vD;&D;AsL;” “+Adwo
d # bm;rm;e,l;pf”/ “ppfawGaumfrm&S,f”/ “tuf'AmwdkufZm;”/
“tm&uefe,l;pf”/ “abqdefe,l;pf” ponfh t*Fvdyfbmomxkwf owif;pmrsm; ay:xGufcJh onf?
xdkowif;pmrsm;teuf &efukefca&mfeDu,f owif;pmrSm &efukef+rdK@wGif yxrqHk;xkwfa0aom owif;pmjzpfavonf/
xdkowif;pmudk (1853) ckESpf Zefe0g&D (5)&uf/ Ak'<[l;ae@wiG f pwifxkwfa0onf/ xkwfa0olrSm armfv+rdKifca&mfeDu,fudk
qufvufxkwfa0cJhonfh a&S@ae tdyfcsf'AvsLvGpPfyif jzpfavonf?
‚if;u “u|Efkyfwdk@udk oufOD;qHydkiftqefqHk;/ oabmxm;tao;qHk;/ rvdrRm qHk;/ tajrmftjriftenf;qHk;/ t&ufpufqHk;ESifh
rw&m;onfhtpdk;&u tkyfpdk;aeonf/ Todk@aom tpdk;&rsKd;jzpfzdk@ 'gZif0ufavmuf&dSonfh 'g v[dkZDuJhodk@aom t&m&dS rsm;u
yl;aygif;}uHqrSom jzpfEkdifp&m&dSonf” [lI tpdk;&udk a0zefbl;onf/ 'gv[dkZDqdkonfrSm xdktcgu tdENd,bk&ifcHcsKyftjzpf
aqmif&Gufaeoljzpfonf/ Todk@ tpdk;&udk a0zefonfrSm ol@tjrifESifh oljzpfonf? ol@wGif ajrmfrSef;csuf&dSI jzpfonf/ aemufydkif;wGif
tpdk;&u ol@tm; &mxl;wpfckay;+yD; ol@tvdkudk jznfhvdkufavonf/ tu,fIom oltpdk;&udk a0zefonfrSm owif;pmq&myDyD
apwem±dk;ESifh qdkygv#if tpdk;&ay;onfhtvkyfudk vufcHvdrfhrnfr[kwfay?
&efukef ca&mfeDu,fudk yJcl;ca&mfeDu,f[lI emrnfajymif;+yD; xkwfa0 ao;onf? odk@aomfvnf; (1858) ck/ arvwGif
xkdowif;pmwcgwnf; &yfpJoGm;avonf?
(1869) ckup+yD; &efukefwGif “jrefrmoHawmfqifhowif;pm”/ “jrefrmh a*Zufowif;pm”/ “jrefrmowif;pm”/
“&wemyHkowif;pm” ponfh jrefrmbmomjzifh xkwfa0aom owif;pmrsm;vnf; ay:xGufvmavonf/
+Adwdo#wdk@
odrf;ydkufxm;onfh
atmufjrefrmjynfwGif
txufyg
owif;pm
rsm;
xkwfa0aecsdefu
txufjrefrmjynf&wemykHaejynfawmf rEWav;+rdK@Y jrefrm bk&if tkyfpdk;aecsdefjzpfonf/ &wemyHkaejynfawmfwGif
jrefrmbk&ifrif;wkef;rif;u (1874) ckY “&wemyHkaejynfawmfowif;pm”/ “The Mandalay Gazette” udk xkwfa0onf/
xdkowif;pmrSm oufOD;qHydkifacwfwGif rif;wkef;rif;}uD;u vGwfvyfpGm a&;om;cGifh ay;cJhonfh owif;pmjzpfaoma=umifh
owif;pmordkif;wGif xl;jcm;onfhowif;pmjzpfonf [k rSwf,l&ayrnf?

3

rif;wkef;rif;u owif;pmudk
“igraumif;v#if ighudk a&;/ ighrdzk&m;awG raumif;v#if ighrdzk&m;awGudka&;/ ighom;orD;raumif;v#if ighom;orD;awGudka&;/
v$wfw&m;ol}uD; raumif;v#if v$wfw&m;ol}uD;udk a&;/ +rdK@0ef raumif;v#if +rdK@0efudka&;/ rif;wdk@ owif;pmwdkufY tjypfr&dSap&/
eef;awmfwGif;odk@ owif;pmwdkufu rnfolrqdk tqD;twm;r&dS 0ifxGufap” [lI vGwfvyfcGifhay;cJhonf[k qdkavonf?
&wemyHkaejynfawmfowif;pmESifh acwf+ydKif+Adwdo#vufat_mufcH &efukef+rdK@ wGif +Adwdo#tpdk;& “avmuDokwynm
owif;pm” trnf&dS owif;pmwpfapmifudk jrefrmbmomjzifh xkwfa0vsuf&dSavonf?
(1247) ck/ (1885) ckwGif t*Fvdyf-jrefrm wwd,ppfyGJjzpfyGm;onf/ TppfyGJwGif jrefrmwdk@ ta&;edrfhojzifh oDaygrif;
ygawmfrl&onf? xdktcgrSpI +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@orm;u jrefrmwpfjynfvHk;udk tkyfcsKyfavonf?
oDaygrif;ygawmfrl+yD;onfhaemuf &efukefwGif [Hom0wD/ jrefrmtaqG/ jrefrmh0wD/ ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;/ jrefrmh=obm/
jr0wD/ ZAŠLusufoa&/ r[maAm"d/ rEWav;wGif jrefrmhwm&m/ rEWav;wdkif;/ armfv+rdKifwGif jrefrmwdkif;/ armfv+rdKif owif;pm/
weoFm&Dwdkif;/ ykodrfwGif ykodrfZAŠLr*Fvm ponfhowif;pmrsm; xGufay:cJhonf? &efukef-rEWav;/ armfv+rdKifwdk@wGif
t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh xkwfa0 aom owif;pmrsm;vnf; &dSaeavonf?
xdkowif;pmrsm; xkwfa0onfhtcsdefrSm EdkifiHa&;rsufprd yGifhao;onfhtcsdef jzpfavonf? xdktcgu owif;pmrsm;wGif
a&;=uonfrSm bmoma&;aqmif;yg;rsm; om rsm;onf? ta&;tom;rSmvnf; okwf/ 0denf;/ tbd"rRm ponfh tudk;tum; rsm;ESifh
ygVdrsm;/ uAsm/ eab/ aw;xyfrsm;jzifh zGJ@zGJ@EGJ@EJG@a&;om;=uonf? vlynm&dS tcsKd@ESifh &[ef;ynm&dStcsdK@ bmoma&;ESifh ywfoufI
tjyeftvSefa&;=uonfu rsm;onf? ykp>mxkwf=u/ ajz=uonfu rsm;avonf?
jrefrmowif;pmq&m bdk;at}uD;jzpfonfh q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;u
“&efukef
a*Zufqdk+yD;
t*Fvdyfowif;pmwpfapmif
xkwfa0cJhw,f/
tJ'DwdkufuyJ
jrefrmtaqGqdk+yD;
jrefrmowif;pmwpfapmif xkwfcJhw,f? t,f'Dwm u udkb*Grf;wJhuGJ@? tJ'Dwkef;uawmh wdkif;a&;jynfa&;r[kwfygbl;?
uAsmuav;awG/ aqmif;yg;uav;awG/ av;csKd;/ a'G;csKd;uav;awGaygh/ owif;uawmh a0vrif;om; }uD; jrif;ay:uvdrfhusojzifh
ajcaxmufrsufoGm;awmfrljcif;/ ar&Drdzk&m;}uD; acgif;udkufojzifh q&m0ef}uD;rsm;ESifh ukoawmfrlae&jcif; qdkwJh owif;rsKd;awG
ayghuG,f”
[lI jrefrmowif;pmordkif;OD;acwfu owif;pmrsm;tajctaeudk (1956) cku ajym=um;cJhzl;avonf?
owif;pmq&m}uD;rsm;. Zmwdrmef
jrefrmowif;pmordkif;acwfOD;onf txufjrefrmjynfwGif jrefrmbk&if tkyfpdk;ae+yD; atmufjrefrmjynfudk +Adwdo#wdk@
odrf;ydkufxm;onfhtcsdefY pcJhonf[k azmfjycJhonf? xdkumvu xkwfa0=uaom owif;pmtrsm;pk}uD;onf EkdifiHa&; rsufpd
ryGifhao;onfhtcsdefjzpfI owif;pmrsm;wGif bmoma&;aqmif;yg;rsm;/ uAsmrsm;om ta&;rsm;cJhonf[kvnf; azmfjycJhonf? xdkodk@
azmfjyonfrSm a,bk,stajctaeudk +cHKI azmfjyjcif; jzpfavonf? odk@aomfvnf; atmufjrefrmjynfY ol@u|efb0jzifh
jrefrmowif;pmwdk@ owif;pmxkwfa0 a&;om;ae=uapumrl txufjrefrmjynfu udk,frif;udk,fcsif; vGwfvyfaeaom
jrefrmbk&iftkyfpdk;r_udkum; vGrf;watmif;arhae=uvdrfh[k ,lq&onf?
tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf owif;pmq&mudk,fwdkifrSm +Adwdo#wdk@ u|efb0odk@ a&mufae&aomfvnf; txufjrefrmjynfrS
jrefrmbk&ifESifhywfoufvmaom owif;rsm;udkrl wcrf;wem; a0a0qmqmazmfjyonfudk awG@&aoma=umifh jzpfav onf?
jrefrmbk&ifudk csD;yifh*k%fwifI a&;aom ta&;tom;rsm;udk awG@&aom a=umifh jzpfavonf?
Oyrm uif;0efrif;}uD;wdk@ Oa&myodk@ c&D;vSnfh&mwGif atmufjrefrmjynfwGif xkwfa0aeaom jrefrmowif;pmESifh
jrefrmhoHawmfqifh owif;pmrsm;Y ‘bkef;awmf omvGef }uD;jrwfawmfrlvSaom ta&S@bufwdkif;}uD;/ jynf}uD;/ xD;apmif;rif;wum
wdk@ocif a&$wGif;/ aiGwGif;/ y,if;/ 'kwWm/ eDvm/ a*:rkwf/ O\z&m; tp&dSaom &wemwGif;rsm;ocif qifjzL/ qifeD/ qifusm;/
tp&dSaom ra&rwGufEkdifaom qif&wem/ jrif;&wemrsm;ocif aexGuf bk&if t&Sifrif;w&m;}uD;bk&m;u Á&vHwdkif;odk@
apv$wfawm_frlvdkufaom oHawmf}uD;/ wrefawmf}uD;rsm;wdk@onf’ ponfh toHk;tE_ef;rsm;oHk;I owif;ay; a&;om;
azmfjycJhavonf?
xdk@tjyif rif;wkef;rif;}uD; Ak'<gbdaou tbdoduf/ &mZbdaou tbdoduf ESpfyg;cHyGJudk rif;crf;rif;em;jzifh
usif;yonfhta=umif;udkvnf; jrefrmoHawmfqifh owif;pmu “bkef;awmf tvGef}uD;awmfrlvSaom a&ajrht&Sif/ q'Nefqifrif;ocif/
qifjzLrsm;&Sif/ aexGufbk&if/ yÌr oH*Fg,emwif &wemyHk+rdK@awmf}uD;udk vufrGef tp wnfaxmifawmfrlaom rif;acgifrif;zsm;/
rif;w&m;}uD;bk&m;onf” tpcsD vsuf (1874) ck/ {+yDv (11) &ufxkwf owif;pmrSpI &ufqufazmfjyonfh owif; &Snf}uD;udk
cef@nm;a0qmpGm a&;om;azmfjycJhavonf?
+Adwdo#vufatmufa&muf jrefrmowif;pmq&mrsm;onf jrefrmrif; aejynfawmfrS jrefrmrif;ESifh ywfoufaom
owif;rsm;udk tvsif;oifhwdkif; xkdodk@crf;em;a0qmpGm csD;yifha&;om;cJh±Hkr#ruao; atmufygowif;rsKd;udk azmfjyjcif; jzifh
jrefrmowif;pmq&m wdk@. trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"gwf/ Zmw_drmef pdwf"gwfwdk@udk &ifwGif;Y udef;atmif;xm;&dSa=umif; od&dSEkdifavonf?
(1874) ck arv (23) &ufodk@ jrefrmoHawmfqifhowif;pmwGif -

4

armfv+rdKifowif;
=um;a&mufvdkufygonf? jrefrmhoHawmfqifhowif;pmq&mcifAsm; u|efawmf wdk@ armfv+rdKif+rdK@ESifh a&;+rdK@wpf+rdK@jcm;
xm;0,f+rdK@t&yfuav;wGif u|ef;vHk;udk tpdk;&aom p}uFmrif;wdk@. &wemckepfyg;tygt0if qifjzL&wemay:ayguf jzpfyGm;
vmayonfum; (33) ckqD wcdkuwpD;/ ,ck (36) ckESpfwGifvnf; wpD;&dSygav+yD?
‚if;qif (2) pD;wdk@wGif (33) ckESpfqD/ wcdku jrefrma&$eef;&Sifrif;w&m;}uD; bk&m;tm; qufoGif;avaom qifudk ‘*E<’
qif[lI orkwfbw_fajymonfudk u|efawmfwdk@ =um;vdkuf&ygonf?
,ckqifrSm u|efawmfwdk@ armfv+rdKif+rdK@odk@ vqef; (3) &ufae@u qif&Sif OD;a&$ysm;wdk@EiS fhwuG qdkufa&mufvmonfESifh
oGm;I=unfh=u&m yxrqifxuf vnf; }uD;ygonf? touf (19) ESpf&dSyg+yD? tarG;vnf; yxrqifxuf jzLygonf? “Oaygox”
qif[k orkw bwfajym=uygonf/ rsufvHk;um; O\b&m;tqif; &dSygonf/
usdKufoHvHawmifajc uHhaumfausmif;xJwGif aexdkif&yfwif;=uonfESifh qif&Sifu oHCmawmfrsm;udk OD;cs&rnfqdk ajymv#if
ykqpfwkyfI t±dktao &dSckd;OD;csygonf?
rkwWrbufodkY abmifvkyf aiG'*Fg;jym;a& 40ay;I vqef; (3) &uf ae@u csrf;ompGm rjiif;rqef ul;oGm;=uyga=umif;?
yxrqifrSm abmiftwufwGif tvGefjiif;y,fa=umif;/ ,ckqi_frSm jrefrma&$eef;&Sif bk&m; bkef;awmf}uD;I
oufawmf&mausmf&Snfrnf
edrdwf
[dwf=obma=umifh
acsmarmpGm
ul;oGm;a=umif;udkvnf;
qkawmif;vsuf
=um;a&muftpD&ifcHvdkufygonf/” [lI azmfjyxm;avonf?
Towif;wGif +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@orm;vufatmufodk@ usa&mufae&aom jrefrmjynfolwdk@pdwfxm;udkvnf;aumif;/
jrefrmowif;pmq&m. pdwfxm;udk vnf;aumif; awG@jrifEkdifavonf? “,ckqifrSm jrefrma&$eef;&Sif bk&m;bkef;awmf}uD;I
oufawmf&mausmf&Snfrnfedrdwf
[dwf=obma=umifh
acsmarmpGm
ul;oGm;a=umif;udkvnf;
qkawmif;vsuf”
[laomta&;tom;rsKd;udk
omrmefrsKd;cspfpdwf&dS±Hk
Zmwdrmef&dS±Hkom&dSonfh
owif;pmq&monf
owif;pmwGif
xnfhoGif;azmfjyvdrfhrnf r[kwfacs?
xdk@tjyif xdktcgu jrefrmowif;pmq&mwdk@ cH,laom owif;pmusifh0wf/ owif;pmq&mwm0efESifh ywfoufI
“t=uif_tr_@onf tu,fI ajzmifhrwfonfjzpftHh/ xkdtr_udk ajzmifhaomta=umif;ESifhxnfhoGif;&onf? wpfzufaomoltm;
rsufESm}uD;i,fvdkufpm;ojzifh r[kwfrvsm; rxnfh&acs/ Todk@aom owif;pmonf u|efawmfwdk@vufwGif &dSaeor#umvywfvHk;
owif;pmpDuHk;ol 0wW&m;/ odk@ayguf=um;v$Jz,fjcif; rjzpf&? ‚if;tr_udk rSefuefv#if rSefvdkuf/ rSm;v#if rSm;vdkuf/
wdkuf±dkufxif&Sm;atmif a&;om;xnfhoGif;ygrnf? rsufESm&dSoludk ajr‡mufyifh/ rsufESmrJholudk taoa&vGifhatmif odk@pOf
a&;om;onfr[kwf/ u|efawmfwdk@owif;pmrnfonf oltrsm;ESifhom qufqH&onfjzpf&um; wpfa,mufaumif;udkom
awmifhw&onfr[kwf/ trsm;aumif;udkom awmifhwjcif;jzpfygonf? Todk@aomqENtwdkif; ‚if; owif;pmudk u|Ekfyfwdk@
tm;pdkufjyKvkyf&onfhae@&ufupI trsm;aumif;&ef a&;om;xGufqdkygonf” ponfjzifh (1874) ck/ arv (9) &ufxkwf
jre_frmhoHawmfqifh owif;pmwGif owif;pm pmpDuHk;olq&m t,f'Dwmu a&;om;azmfjyxm;av&m rsufESm}uD;i,frvdkuf
trSefw&m;udkom a&S;±_rnf/ jynfoltrsm;twGufom jzpf&rnf[lI cH,lusifhoHk;cJha=umif; xif&Sm;ayonf?
wpfzef xdktcgu owif;pmq&m}uD;rsm;onf pkaygif;tm;udk ,Hk=unfonf/ wpfOD;wnf; a&;om;ae&onfxuf trsm;ESifh
pkaygif;a&;om;&v#if tm;&dSonf/ atmifjrifEdkifonfudkvnf; od&dSonfhtavsmuf xdktwdkif;yif qEN&dScJhavonf? 1874 cku
armfv+rdKif+rdK@rSaeI jrefrmbmomjzifh owif;pmwpfapmifxkwfa0rnf[k a=umfjimaomtcg jrefrmoHawm_fqihf owif;pmq&mu
“u|Ekfyfwdk@ owif;pm wpfOD;omjzpfI t&m&mrsKd;udk ajymqdk&aomfvnf; rsm;pGmtm;r&dS/ aygif;oif; ajymqdk&ygaomf wpfOD;pum;xuf
trsm;pum;udk vdkufpm;em,l&ef &dSaoma=umifh ,ckwnfaxmifonfh armfv+rdKif+rdK@ jrefrmowif;pmyHkESdyfwdkufu tvsiftjref
owif;pmxkwfa0Edkifojzifh pD;yGm;csrf;omwdk;wufygapom[k raemuHukodkvfESifh xkwfqdkum ydk@ovdkufygonf” [lI 1874 ck
Zlvdkifv (11) &ufxkwf jrefrmhoHawmfqifh owif;pmwGif a&;om;cJhavonf?
azmfjycJhaom ta=umif;t&mrsm;udkaxmufI jrefrmowif;pm ordkif;OD; acwfu jrefrmowif;pmq&mrsm;onf
EkdifiHa&;toif;tzGJ@rsm;r&dSao;ojzifh EkdifiHa&;rsufpd ryGifhao;? bmoma&;/ omoema&;aqmif;yg;rsm;om owif;pm rsm;wGif
azmfjya&;om; aecJh=uao;aomfvnf; trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"gwf/ Zmwdrmef pdwf"gwfrsm;um; udef;atmif; aecJh=uonf[k
qdk&rnfjzpfavonf?
owif;pmq&m ta&;,lcH&r_
jrefrmowif;pmrsm;ESifh
jrefrmtrsKd;om;rsm;
EkdifiHa&;rsufpd
yGifhvif;vmr_ESifh
ywfoufI
qdk&v#if
yxrESifh'kwd,urBmppft=um; xkwfa0onfh owif;pmrsm; usrS jrefrmrsm;Ekd;um;vm+yD; pdwf"gwfajymif;vJvmcJhonf[k qdk&ayrnf?
1906 ckESpfwGif 0dkiftrfbDat[lI twdkaumufac:onhf jrefrmvdk Ak'<bmomuvsm%,k0toif; ay:vmaomtcg
jrefrmrsm; pdwf"gwfajymif;vJzdk@ tpysKd;aeay+yD? EkdifiHa&;tod rodrom 0ifvmay+yD? 0dkiftrfbDat qdkonfrSm jrefrmjynfwGif
yxrOD;qHk; ay:aygufvmaom EkdifiHa&;tzGJ@tpnf;wpf&yfyif jzpfavonf?
xdktoif;. 0g'jzef@csda&;vkyfief;rsm;udk toif;ay:vmv#ifay:vmjcif; vkyfEkdifao;onfr[kwfay? 0g'jzef@csda&;vkyif ef;udk
vkyfayonfum; ol&d,ESifh jrefrmhtvif; owif;pm (2) apmifay:vmrS jzpfonf? xdktcgusrS xdkowif;pm (2) apmifu

5

jrefrmwkdif;&if;om;rsm;. &dS&if;pGJrsKd;cspfpdwf"gwfudk vH_@qGay;onf? &dS&if;pGJrsKd;cspfpdwf"gwf qdkonfrSm jrefrmwdkif;&if;om;rsm;\
rD;cJjymzkH; Zmwdrmef jzpfavonf? +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@orm;u jrefrmjynfudk odrf;ydkufonfhtcgu jrefrmwdkif;&if;om;rsm;u
vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm; iHk@cHae=uonf r[kwfay? +Adwdo#wdk@ jrefrmjynftxufydkif;udk 0ifa&muftkyfcsKyfptcsdefu jrefrmEkdifiHtESH@
olykefxºuG ckcHcJh=uao;onf r[kwfygvm;? yk*He,frS AdkvfcsKd/ 0Javmife,frS Adkvf&mnGef@/ u|ef;cif;}uD;rS AdkvfvSausmf/ rif;wkef;rS Adkvf&GJ/
qifjzLu|ef;rS OD;OwWr/ ausmufqnfrS Adkvfomusef/ qD;yif}uD;rS jrifpdkif;rif;om;/ a&$bdkrS xdyfwifrSwf/ 0ef;odkrS
0ef;odkapmfbGm;}uD;OD;atmifjrwf/ yky`g;e,frS Adkvfeufausmfwdk@ESifh tjcm;wdkif;&if;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;u ckcH wGef;vSefcJh=uonf?
TckcHwGef;vSefr_udk +Adwdo#wdk@ jrefrmEkdifiHudk odrf;ydkuf+yD; (10) ESpfcef@=umatmif ESdrfeif;cJh&ao;onf?
ppftkyfcsKyfa&;vkyfae&ao;onf? aemufrS jrefrmrsm; tm;rwefI rmefavsmhcJh=u&onf? aemufydkif;wGif +Adwdo#udkvdkeD orm;u
jrefrmEkdifiHudk AsL±dkua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;jzifh tky_fcsKyfcJh=uonf? +Adwdo#wdk@u AsL±dkua&pD ,EW&m;jzifh zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fvmcJhojzifh
jrefrmwdkif;&if;om;rsm;. &ifxJwGif rsKd;cspfpdwfu tvHk;tcJESifh atmif;aecJh&avonf?
xdk&dS&if;pGJpdwf"gwfudk owif;pmu v_H@qG+yD; EdkifiHa&;enf;jzifh jyefwdkufrSjzpfrnf qdkonfudk vrf;n$efay;onf? ol&d,ESifh
jrefrmtvif;wdk@u EkdifiHa&; rsufpd zGifhay;onf/ 0HomEkpdwf"gwf/ awmfvSefa&;pdwf"gwf oGwfoGif;ay;onf/ txl;ojzifh
ol&d,owif;pmudk OD;baz/ OD;vSazponfh xdktcgu ynmwwfvli,frsm;u EdkifiHa&;pdw"f gwfEdk;=um;zdk@ xkwfa0=uonfjzpfav&m
tusKd;oufa&mufr_rsm;pGm &dScJhavonf? ol&d,owif;pmu jynfolvlxk. tawG;tac:udk yJhudkifay;onf/ owif;pmorkdif;udkvnf;
vrf;a=umif; ajymif;ay;cJhonf? ta&;tom;rSm ,cif uuJhodk@ um&efeabawGeJ@csnf; r[kwfawmh/ bmoma&;/ omoema&;qdkif&m
pwmawGcsnf; r[kwfawmh owif;pmawmfvSefa&;vky+f yD; EkdifiHa&;rsufpd zGifhay;cJhavonf?
ol&d,owif;pmu jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&; [krf;r,l;/ trsKd;om;a&; ponfh EkdifiHa&;rsm;udk a&;om;vrf;n$efay;aoma=umifh
jynfolu vufcHcJhonf? Todk@ jzpfonfrSm ol&d,owif;pmonf jrefrmEdkifiHwGif yxrqHk;EdkifiHa&;toif;jzpfonfh 0dkiftrfbDat.
aºuG;a=umfoHvdk jzpfaoma=umif_hyif/ 0kdiftrfbDat. rl&if;aºuG;a=umfoHrSm “trsdK;udkcspfyg/ bmomudkav;pm;yg/ omoemudk csD;jr‡ifhyg/
ynma&;udk tm;ay;yg” [lI jzpfonf? toif;zGJ@pu rus,fjyef@vSao;? pnf;±Hk;a&;tiftm; csnfheJ@ao;onf/ xdk@a=umifh
toif;acgif;aqmifrsm;u toif;0g'jzef@&efEiS fh vkyfief;wGifus,f&ef owif;pmwpfapmif &dSzdk@ vdkonf[k oabm&=uonf? Todk@jzifh
OD;bazESifh OD;vSaz wdk@u rwnf+yD; ol&d,owif;pmudk 1911 ck/ Zlvdkifv (4) &ufwGif pwifxkwfa0cJhavonf?
“ol&d,” [laom trnfudk ay;onfrSm owif;pmemrnfa&G;&ef pOf;pm; =uonfhtcg wjynfvHk;udk tarSmifcGif;+yD;
tvif;a&mifay;rnf? ra=umufr&GH@ &J&J0Hh0Hh a&;rnf? jrefrmvlrsKd;rsm;udk u|efwGif;qGJoGif;&ef aemufqHk; jrefrmbk&iftm;
zrf;qD;oGm;cJhonfudk t+rJtrSwf&aeaprnf [laom oabmjzifh ol&d,trnfudk ay;&efoabmwl=uonf? jrefrmbk&ifudk zrf;qD;+yD;
t*Fvdyfwdk@ ac:aqmifoGm;onfh oabFmrSm ol&d, jzpfavonf? ol&d,[laomtrnfudk ocif}uD;udk,fawmfrd_if;u
a&G;cs,fay;cJhonf? jrefrmbk&ifudk +Adwdo#wdk@ zrf;oGm;onfhtcg ol&d,trnf&dSoabFmjzifh wifaqmifoGm;av&m oDaygrif;udk
+Adwdo#wdk@ zrf;qD;+yD; u|efb0a&mufatmif vkyfoGm;onfudk jynfolwdk@ t+rJowd&ae=uap&ef Temrnfudk ay;jcif;jzpfonf[k
ocif}uD;ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;u 1956 ckESpfwGif ajymjycJhzl;avonf? (orm"dowif;pm/ 10ESpfajrmuftxl;xkwf/ 1956)
ol&d,owif;pmu 0dkiftrfbDattoif;rsm; zGJ@pnf;=u&ef v_H@aqmfonf/ pnf;±Hk;onf/ 1914 ckESpfwGif owif;pmtjzpf
xkwfa0vmaom jrefrmtvif; owif;pmuvnf; owif;pmtjzpf rxkwfa0rD vpOfr*¾Zif;b0uyif 0dkiftrfbDattoif;rsm;
vkyfaqmifcsufowif;rsm;udk azmfjyaecJhonf? ol&d, owif;pmrSaeI ocif}uD; ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;/ q&maomif/ q&m+idrf;ponfh
ynm&Sifrsm;u trsKd;om;pdwf Ekd;=um;a&;twGuf enf;trsKd;rsKd;jzifh a&;om; vH_@aqmfcJh=uonf? xdktcgwGifrS jrefrmEkdifiHwGif Ekdii_f Ha&;
rsufpdyGifhvif;pjyKvmonf? xdk@a=umifh q&m}uD; ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;u “uvsm%,k0toif;qdkwJh 0dkiftrfbDattoif;uav;
ay:aygufvmrS EdkifiHa&;qdkwm enf;enf;yg;yg; em;vnfvmw,f” [lI 1956 ckESpfu orm"d owif;pmukd rdef@=um;cJhjcif;
jzpfavonf?
yxrurBmppfESifh 'kwd,urBmppf=um;wGif ynmtvif;/ jrefrmh 0efxrf;/ =u,fwHcGef/ o[m,/ jrefrmv$wf/ jrefrmaZ,sm/
atmifjrefrm/ atmifjrifa=umif;/ opP0g'D/ ra[mo"m/ arm&d,/ jrefrmhae@pOf/ ocif/ jreffrmhAsL[m/ jrefrmh,k0/ wdk;wufa&;/
tif'Dyif;'ifh/ &J/ q,foef;/ 'D;'kwf/ AE<Kv ponfh owif;pm/ *sme,f rsm; xkwfa0cJh=uonf/ pmol&def/ A[dkpnf/ rEWav; ol&d,/
wdkif;cspf/ jrefrmhwm&m ponfhowif;pmrsm; rEWav;wGif xkwfa0cJh=uonf?
1914 ckESpfwGif Oa&myY yxrurBmppf}uD; pwifjzpfyGm;+yD; TurBmppfwGif t*Fvef/ jyifopfESifh tDwvDwdk@u urBmukd
usL;ausmf&efpvmonfh *smr%Dudk ESdrfeif;zdk@ wdkuf&onf? wdkif;e,fjynfe,fuav;rsm;udk *smr%Du wdkufckduf n‡if;yef;onfudk
ESdrfeif;&ef yg0ifwdkufcdkuf&jcif; jzpfygonf[lI urBmudk aºuG;a=umfonf? wdkif;i,f/ jynfi,fuav;rsm;. vGwfvyfa&;twGuf
wdkuf&ygonfqdkonfh +Adwdo#wdk@. avoHudk jrefrmjynfuvnf; =um;&onf? xdktcsdefrSmyif +Adwdo#tifyg,mxJu tdkif,mvef/
tdENd,ponfh vufatmufcH wdkif;jynfrsm;uvnf; vGwfvyfa&;twGuf qlylv_yf&Sm; vm=uonf? xdkEdkifiHrsm;u aºuG;a=umfonfh
vGwfvyfa&; [krR±l;udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&; [laom toHrsm;rSmvnf; jrefrmEdkifiHudk ±dkufcwfvmavonf? TurBmppftwGif;wGif
xkdEkdifiHrsm;u aºuG;a=umfonhf vGwfvyfa&; [krf;rR±l;ukd,fykdiftkyfcsKyfa&;[laom toHrsm; rSmvnf; jrefrmEdkifiHukd
±dkufcwfvmavonf? tdkif,mvefudk udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&; ray;v#if rauseyfEdkifqdk+yD; qlylaeojzifh +Adwdo#wdk@u tdkif,mvefudk
[krR±l;ay;&ef pDpOf&onf r[kwfygvm;? Towif;rsm;udk =um;ae&onfh jrefrmEkdifi_Hudkvnf; [krR±l;ay;&rnf[lI owif;rsm;u
a&;=uavonf? jyn_folvlxkuvnf; wpfoHwnf; xGuf=u/ tpnf;ta0; rsm;vkyf=uESifh EkdifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; ay:aygufvmonf?
yxrurBmppf jzpfyGm;onfhaecsdefwGif ppfowif;rsm;udk vlawGu tawmf=um;csif/ odcsif=uonf/ xdk@a=umifh
ppfowif;rsm;udk tqufr_jywf tjref=um;odEkdif&efqdk+yD; wpfywfoHk;}udrfxkwf ol&d,owif;pmu ppfowif;rsm; csnf;

6

pm&GufvGwfESifh yHkESdyf a&mif;csonf? ol&d,u jynfolvlxk EkdifiHa&; Ekd;=um;r_&dSap&ef ol@acwfol@tcg ol@twdkif;twmESifh
a&;om;ae=uonfjzpf&m +Adwdo#udkvdkeDorm;u ol&d,udk aw;xm;ayvdrfhrnf? tcsufay:v#if zdESdyf&ef toifhjyifxm;ayvdrfhrnf?
Todk@ jyifxm;onfhtwdkif;yif ol&d,u ppfowif;v$mrsm; xkwv
f monfhtcsdef (1914) wGif ppfowif;wpfckESifh ywfoufI
+Adwdo#tpdk;&u ol&d,udk tmrcHaiG ESpfaxmif awmif;avawmhonf)/
xkd@aemuf 1915 ckESpfwGif jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmudk tpdk;&u ta&;,lr_wpfck ay:vmjyefavonf?
yxrurBmppfjzpfcsdefwGif jrefrmtvif; owif;pmuvnf; ppfowif; tcsyfydk xkwfa0cJhonf? xdktcsdefu *smr%Dwdk@.
tifr'ifppfoabFmonf
tdEdN,ork'N&mwGif
vSnhfywfae_onf?
+Adwdo#ESifh
r[mrdwfwdk@.
ppfoabFmrsm;udk
*smr%DppfoabFmtifr'ifu taESmifht,Suf jyKonf? ESpfjrKyfzsufqD;onf/ xdkowif;rsm;udk azmfjyaom jrefrmhtvif;ppfowif;
tcsyfydkrSm wGifus,fvmonf/ vlawGu ppfowif;udk txl; pdwf0ifpm;=uonf?
xdkodk@ ppfowif;udk pdwf0ifpm;pGm apmifh=unfae=ucsdefwGif jrefrm tvif;owif;pmY “rwfv (15) &ufae@udk owdjyKyg/
(Beware of the 15th of March) [laom a=umfjimuav;rsm;udk azmfjyaeonf? t"dy`m,f twdtusudk pmzwfy&dowfu
rodaomfvnf; xdka=umfjimESifhywfoufI +Adwdo# tpdk;&pHkaxmufrsm;u pHkprf;ar;jref;ppfaq;jcif;rsm; jyKvkyfvm=uonf[k qdkonf?
txl;ojzifh ppfzufqdkif&mwdk@uvnf; “rwfv (15) &ufae@” qdkonfudk ydkrdkI rESpfouf=u[ef&dSonf[k qdkonf?
ta=umif;rSm a&$wd*HkcHwyfapmifh (&dSwf) ppfom;rsm;onf rwfv (15) &ufae@wGif ykefuefjcm;em;=uvdrfhrnf[k owif;&&dSxm; onf?
xdk@jyif rwfv (15) &ufrSmyif tifr'if. &efukd ESdrfeif;&ef (&dSwf) ppfom;rsm;tm; uy`vDu|ef;odk@ ydk@&efpDpOfxm;onf? xdkodk@
wdkufqdkifaeav &m xdkv#dK@0Sufowif;rsm;udk jrefrmtvif;u b,fyHkb,fenf;&avoenf;[k oHo,ruif;&dSaeaoma=umifh
jzpfavonf?
xdk@jyif ppfowif;udk apmifhzwfae=uolrsm;=um;wGifvnf; rwfv (15) &ufwGif tifr'ifoabFmu &efukef+rdK@udk
0ifpD;vdrfhrnf[lI aumvm[v owif;ysH@aeavonf? xdkodk@jzifh rwfv (15) &ufae@ a=umfjim*,ufrmS }uD;vm+yD;/
jy\emuvnf; }uD;xGm;vmav&m q&m}uD;yDrdk;eif;u ‚if;. pmtkyfwpftkyf xkwfa0&eftwGuf a=umfjimjcif;jzpfa=umif;
&Sif;vif;azmfjycJh&onf? odk@aomfvnf; jy\emrSm ajyvnfrvmbJ rwfv (15) &ufrwdkifrDrSmyif jrefrmtvif;ydkif&Sif OD;a&$=uL;ESifh
‚if;. nDjzpfol OD;xGef;armifwdk@tm; tus,fcsKyfjzifh zrf;qD;vdkufavonf? rwfv (15) &ufudk ausmfvGefI bmrSrjzpfvmonfh
tcgwGifrS OD;a&$=uL;ESifh OD;xGef;armifwdk@tm; tus,fcsKyfrS v$wfvdkuf+yD; jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmudkrl tmrcHaiG (5000d)
awmif;avonf? ydkif&SifOD;a&$=uL; url tmrcHaiG (5000d) udk rwifbJ owif;pmxkwfa0jcif;udk &yfpJvdkuf+yD; *syefjynfokd@
xGufcGmoGm;cJhavonf?
Ttjzpftysufudk q&maiGOa'gif;u “oD;jcm;pm0uFbm” wGifvnf;aumif;/ pma&;q&m cspf=unfa&;=unfnGef@u
“ordkif;0if ol&d,/ jrefrmhtvif;ESihf jrefrmhEkdifiHa&;” wGif vnf;aumif; a&;om;azmfjy=uojzifh od&SdrSwfom;&onf?
ol&d,owif;pmESifh jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm tjzpftysufESpf&yfonf jrefrm owif;pmESifh owif;pmq&mrsm;tm;
+Adwdo#tpdk;&u ta&;,lr_rsm;wGif tapmqHk; awG@&dScsufjzpfonf[k apmapmydkif;u rSwfom;xm;cJhonf? odk@aomfvnf;
aemufydkif;wGif
TtjzpftysufESpf&yfxuf
apmonfh
tjzpfty_sufwpf&yfudk
awG@&avonf?
xdktjzpftysufrSm
ol&d,ESifhjrefrmhtvif;wdk@ tjzpftysufESpf&yf xuf (10)ESpfausmf apmavonf?
xdktjzpftysufrSm 1901 ckESpfu armfv+rdKif+rdK@rS xkwfa0aeonfh “jrefrmwdkif;owif;pm” t,f'Dwmq&m+zdK;tm; tpdk;&u
ta&;,laom tjzpftysuf jzpfonf? xdkta=umif;ESifh ywfoufI 1901 ckESpfu xkwaf 0onfh “[Hom0wDowif;pm” wGif Todk@
awG@&avonf?
owif;pmq&mudk axmif'%fwyf±dkufpD&ifa=umif;
armfv+rdKif+rdK@Y xkwfa0aom jrefrmwdkif; ac: owif;pmwGif vl taygif;wdk@ =um;emzwf&Gwf=unfh±_&ef roifhavsmf/
,kwfnHhodrfzsif;aom aqmif;yg;pmrsm;udk tpdk;&Oya'udk usL;vGefI xnfhoGif;azmfjyaom jypfrIESifh ‚if;owif;pmq&m
armif+zdK;tay:wGif (3) XmepGJqdkcsuft& &mZ0wfw&m; ol}uD;±Hk;awmfY ppfaq;&m jypfr_xif&Sm;onfhtwkdif; pGJqkdcsuf wpfXmev#if
tvkyf&Sdaxmif'%fwvpDuscHap&ef &mZ0wf w&m;ol}uD;u trdef@pD&ifcsufcsay;avonf?
([Hom0wDowif;pm/ 1901ck/ ZGefv 29&uf)
Ttr_ jzpfay:vmaomtcg [Hom0wDowif;pmu 1901 ck/ *sLvdkif v (6) &ufwGif “owif;pmrsm;wGif
aqmif;yg;owif;ay;ydk@ azmfjyavh&dSol taygif;wdk@ESifh owif;pmq&mwdk@ tod^m%f&ifhoef;rsm;jym; pum;ºuG,f0apI =uOfoifh
,SOfoifhonfrsm;udk txl;owdw&m;jzpfyGm;=u&efta=umif;” [laomacgif;pOfjzifh acgif;}uD;ydkif; a&;om; owday;onf?
q&m+zdK;tay: pGJqdkaomyk'frrSm tdENd,&mZowfyk'fr (292) jzpfonf?
xdkae@xkwf [Hom0wDowif;pmrSmyif q&m+zdK;tay: pGJqdkaomtr_ESifh pyfvsOf;I tar;ykpm> wpfck azmfjyxm;onf?
tpdk;&u q&m+zdK;udkom r=um;0Hhrem0Hhom odrfzsif;aompum;udk oHk;onfqdkum pGJcsufwiftjypfay;onf? Zmwfobifrsm;wGifvnf;
obifynmonfrsm;onf “armifESifhESr/ om;ESifhtrd r=unfh0Hhr=um;om odrfzsif;aompum;/ oDcsif;rsm;udk toHk;jyKae=uonf/
TudpPrsm;udkawmh tpdk;&u uG,faysmufoGm;atmif bma_=umifh w&m;rpGJovJ” [lI tar;ykp>mwpfck jyKvkyf ar;jref;xm;avonf?
tajzum; ray:vm?
xdkodk@jzifh =o*kwfvxJodk@ a&mufvmaomtcg q&m+zdK;tr_ESifh ywfoufI aemufqufwGJowif;wpfyk'f
[Hom0wDowif;pmwGif ygvmavonf/ owif;rSm Todk@jzpfonf?

7

owif;pmq&marmif+zdK;ta=umif;
txufu|Ekfyfwdk@ owif;pmxkwfa0&myg armfv+rdKif+rdK@ jre_frmwdkif; owif;pm q&marmif+zdK;tay:wGif (3) XmepGJqdkcsuft&
armfv+rdKif+rdK@ta&;ydkifrif;u ppfar;+yD;v#if axmif'%f (3) v uscHap&efcsay;aom trdef@pD&ifcsufudk w&m;cHu
pdwfESvHk;ra=urat;&dSI &efukef+rdK@ v$wfawmf}uD;Y taumuf cH,lcHv$m wifoGif;av#mufxm;&m weoFm&D'D0DZHqdkif&m
0ef&Sifawmfrif;}uD; oabm xifjrifcsuftwdkif; w&m;cHarmif+zdK;ESifh/ xdkjyif owif;pmq&mwdk@ a&S@tem*wf umvwGif xdkenf;wl
jypfr_rjyK0Hh=uatmif a&S;OD;yXr jyKusifhaom w&m;cHtay:wGif '%faiGwyf±dkuf±Hkr#jyKu oifhavsmfavsmufywf&dS+yD[k
v$wfawmfw&m;ol}uD; rpPwm azmufocifu awG;xifqifjcifvsuf (3) XmepJGcsuf t&pGJqdkcsuf wpfckv#if '%faiG (30)
usay;aqmifap&ef trdef@pD&ifcsufcs ay;awmfrlvdkufa=umif;?
([Hom0wDrif;/ 1901 ck =o*kwfv (3) &uf)
Tae&mwGif jrefrmwdkif;owif;pmq&mOD;+zdK;/ jrefrmwdkif;owif;pm ta=umif;ESifh q&m+zdK; bma=umifhw&m;pGJ
ta&;,lcH&onfqdkonfhta=umif;udk azmfjy&ef vdkygvdrfhrnf/ pifppf q&m+zdK; w&m;pGJcH&onfrSm q&m}uD; ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;
a&;aom aqmif;yg;a=umifh jzpfonf?
q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;onf 1898 ckESpfwGif armfv+rdKif+rdK@udk a&mufcJhonf? 1901 ckESpfavmufwGif armfv+rdKif+rdK@Y
xkwfa0aeaom jrefrmwkdif;owif;pmESifh tquftoG,f &dSonf? xdktcgu t,f'DwmrSm q&m+zdK; jzpfonf? jrefrmwdkif;
owif;pmESifh twl “armfv+rdKiftufAmwdkufZm;” ESifh “&mrn” owif;pmwdk@ &dSaeonf? q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;u
“y¾dav;” [laom uavmiftrnfjzifh jrefrmwdkif; owif;pmwGif aqmif;yg;rsm;/ uAsmrsm; a&;onf/ xdkpOfu
q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;rSm OD;y¾db0jzifh armfv+rdKifausmufwef;ausmif;wGif oDwif;oHk;vsuf&dSonf[k od&onf?
jrefrmwdkif;owif;pmydkif&SifrSm armfv+rdKif'dkif;0efuGif;rS qifj_zLausmif; wum OD;zdk;cifESifh a':pm&Djzpfonf? OD;zdk;cifrSm rlvu
owif;pmvkyfief;udk 0goemygol r[kwfaomfvnf;/ ‚if;. oli,fcsif;+rdK@0ef OD;tkef;az. wdkufwGef;csuft& jrefrmwdkif;owif;pmudk
xkwfa0jcif; jzpfonf[k od&onf/ jrefrmwkdif;owif;pmukd yxr r*FvmoD&def yHkESdyf_wdkufwGif ±dkufESdyfonf? owif;pmpxkwfcsdefwGif
t,f'DwmESpfOD; vkyfudkifcJhonf? ‚if;wdk@rSm “tmVm0u q&mausmf” ESifh “u&ifeDjyefq&mausmf” jzpfonf? xdkq&mausmf
ESpfOD;wdkufwGif r&dSonfh aemufwGifrS 1258 ckESpfwGif &efukef [Hom0wDwdkufrS t,f'Dwm q&m+zdK;udk ac:,l+yD; wm0ef,laponf?
q&m+zdK;rSm ppfudkif;c±dkif pma&;ajcmuf&GmxJrS ausmufyeH&Gmom; jzpfonf? ‚if;.ZeD;rSm rEWav;rsufyg;&yfol
a':vSr,fjzpfonf? xdkq&m+zdK;vufxufrSmyif OD;y¾du owif;pmwdkufodk@ t0iftxGuf&dS+yD; aqmif;yg;/ uAsmrsm; a&;aeonf[k
qdkonf/ OD;y¾d. ta&;tom;aumif;vSojzifh “y¾dav;” udk vlodrsm; vmonf[k od&onf?
xdkodk@a&;&if;jzifh 1901 ckESpfwGif armfv+rdKif'dkif;0efuiG f;Y &yfuGuf vl}uD;a&G;yGJ &dSvmonf? xdka&G;yGJESifhywfoufI
owif;pmrsm;wGif aqmif;yg;rsm; tjyeftvSef a&;=uonf? xdktxJwGif aqmif;yg;&Sif y¾dav;vnf; ygonf? y¾dav;u
t,f'Dwma[mif; tmVm0uq&mausmfESifh twdkuftcHt,f'Dwmq&m+zdK;bufu 0ifa&;onf? y¾dav;. vufoHrSm xHk;pHtwdkif;
ajymifvSojzifh y&dowfu oabmusonf/ odk@aomfvnf; ta&;tom;jyif;xefvGef;onfqdk+yD; rcHEkdifonfh bufu
wdkifwef;aoma=umifh tpdk;&u owif;pmudk ta&;,lavawmhonf? TwGif q&m+zdK;rSm t,f'DwmESifh yHkESdyfxkwfa0oljzpfaeojzifh
q&m+zdK; w&m;pGJcH&jcif; jzpfonf? q&m+zdK;u a&S@aepD'AvsLavmudk Xm;+yD; ckcHcJhonf[k od&onf?
xdktr_jzpf+yD; twef=umaomtcg q&m+zdK;onf jrefrmwdkif; owif;pmwdkufu xGufum yef;bJwef;wGif zGifhxm;onfh
a&$jynfat;toif; r*~Zif;wdkufY t,f'Dwm 0ifvkyfaeonf? (2) ESpf=umaomtcg r*~Zif;ydwfoGm;I “OD;pdef&eftifqef;”
yHkESdyfwdkufwGif jrefrmhtvif; OD;a&$=uL;ESifhtwl tvkyfvkyfao; onf? aemifwGif ajreDukef;odk@ ajymif;+yD; 1289 ckESpfwGif q&m+zdK;tedpP
a&mufavonf? t,f'Dwmq&m+zdK;wGif armifwif/ armifoGiftrnf&dS om;ESpfa,muf &dS&m armifwifu “armifwiftifqef;”/
pmyHkESdyfwdkuf zGifh+yD; armfv+rdKif yef;bJwef;wGif ,ae@txd tvkyfvkyfqJ&dSonf[k od&onf?
jrefrmwdkif;owif;pmwGif t,f'Dwmq&m+zdK; r&dSaomtcg OD;ajz t,f'Dwmtjzpf 0ifvkyfonf? yHkESdyfxkwfa0olrSm
tAŠ'l0gZpfjzpfonf? ydkif&Sif OD;zdk;cifu t,f'Dwmudk pdwfwdkif;rusaoma=umifh q&m+zdK;ESifhwdkifyifaomtcg q&m+zdK;.
t}uHay;csuft& &efukefZrŠLusufoa&yHkESdyfwkdufwGif tvkyfvkyf aeaom OD;y¾dvlxGuf q&m}uD; ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;udk ac:+yD;
t,f'Dwmtjzpf cef@onf? xdktcgY q&m}uD;.trnf udkvGrf;armif jzpfaeav+yD?
q&m}uD; armfv+rdKifodk@ jyefa&mufaomESpfrSm 1904 ckESpf jzpfonf? jrefrmwdkif;u armifvGrf;armifudk vc 60d ESifh
aetdrftcrJhay;onf[k qdkonf? 1906 ckESpfcef@wGif jrefrmwdkif;owif;pmrSm tusKd;tjrwf odyfr&dSvSojzifh wkduf&Sifrsm;u
q&m}uD;ESifh wdkifyif+yD; jrefrmwdkif;owif;pmudk ydw_fvdkufonf[k od&avonf? jrefrmwdkif;rSm wpfywfwpf}udrfxkwfjzpf+yD;
emrnfwufpOfu apmifa& (3000) &dSonf[k od&onf/
,cktcsdeftxd od&dS&csuft&qdkygv#if jrefrmhowif;pmESifh owif;pmq&m tm; +Adwdo#udkvdkeDtpdk;&u ta&;,lr_rsm;wGif
jrefrmwdkif;owif;pm t,f'Dwm q&m+zdK;tm; ta&;,lr_onf tapmqHk;tr_wpfr_ jzpfavonf?
odk@aomfvnf;
jrefrmjynfwGifxkwfa0onfh
t*Fvdyfowif;pmwpfapmifrS
EkdifiHjcm;owif;pmq&mwpfOD;tm;
+Adwdo#t%mydkifwdk@u ,ckxuf apmI ta&;,lonfh tr_wpfck &dSayao;onf? ta&;,lcH&olrSm armfv+rdKif ca&mfeDu,f
owif;pmq&m jzpfavonf? armfv+rdKif+rdK@rS 1836 ckESpfwGif pwifxkwfa0aom xdkowif;pmonf +Adwdo#tpdk;& vkyfudkifyHkudk
a0zefa&;om;onfhtwGuf armfv+rdKif+rdK@&dS +Adwdo#tm%mydkifrsm;u owif;pmq&mtm; wpfveD;yg; axmifoGif;tusOf;csxm;cJhonf
[k rSwfom;&zl;onf?

8

rnfodk@yif&dScJhaomfvnf; EkdifiHa&;rsufpdyGifhvif;zdk@ &nf&G,fcsufjzifh xkwfa0aom ol&d,ESifh jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmwdk@tay:
ta&;,lr_u ta&;}uD;onf[k qdk&ayrnf? trsKd;om;owif;pm}uD;ESpfapmifu EkdifiHa&; tzGJ@tpnf; v_yf&Sm;r_owif;rsm;udk
azmfjyjcif; ESifh EkdifiHwumu EdkifiHa&; v_yf&Sm;r_owif;rsm;udk azmfjyjcif;onf +Adwdo#udkvdkeDorm;tzdk@ tEW&m,fyif r[kwfygvm;?
xdk@a=umifhvnf; ol&d,ESifh jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmESpfapmifudk tmrcHawmif;jcif; jzpfavonf?
owif;pmrsm;tay:
Todk@pwifzdESdyfvmaomfvnf;
owif;pmrsm;u
aemufrwGef@ay?
jrefrmEkdifiHudk
udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;ay;&ef wpfpwpfp qufvuf a&;om;vmcJh=uonf? 0dkiftrfbDattoif;rsm;uvnf; EkdifiHa&; v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;
jyKvkyfvm=uonf? Todk@ tdENd,wGifa&m/ jrefrmjynfwGifyg udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&; ay;&ef awmif;qdkonfhtoHrsm;
jrnfvGef;vmaomtcg jrefrmEdkifiHtygt0if jzpfonfh tdENd,jynftwGuf jynfolrsm;udk ac|;odyf&ef enf;vrf;wpfck&&dSzdk@
pHkprf;pDpOfap&awmhonf? TudpPtwGuf +Adwdo#tpdk;&u twGif;0ef rpPwmrGefaw*ludk wm0efay;avonf? 1917 ck/ =o*kwfv (20)
&ufwGif rpPwmrGefaw*lu tdENd,EdkifiHtifyg,mudk &nfn$ef;+yD; udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&; wjznf;jznf;ay;rnf[k a=unmonf?
xdka=unmcsufwGif
1?
+Adwdo#tpdk;&onf EkdifiHtkyfcsKyfa&;wGif wdkif;&if;om;rsm;udk
ydkrdkxnfhoGif;+yD; udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfonfh
EkdifiHwpfEdkifiHtjzpf a&mufatmif tkyfcsKyfa&;rsm;udk wpwp ay;tyfrnf/
2?
+Adwdo#ygvDrmeftpdk;&. tdENd,twGif;0efu tdENd,udk oGm;+yD; tdENd,bk&ifcHcsKyf avmh'fcsrf;pzdk@ESifhtwl
tajctaeudk pHkprf;tpD&ifcH&rnf?
3?
tkyfcsKyfa&;jyKjyifajymif;vJay;&ef pDrHcsufrsm;udk bdvy_fygvDrmefodk@ wifoGif;onfhtcg wdkif;oljynfom;rsm;.
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk aqG;aEG;&ef cGifhjyKrnf[lI ygonf?
xdka=unmcsuft& 0dkiftrfbDatXmecsKyfu rpPwmrGefaw*l tdENd,odk@ vmaomtcg 0dkiftrfbDatudk,fpm;vS,frsm;
oGm;a&mufawG@qHk&ef qHk;jzwfonf? qHk;jzwfonfhtwdkif; 1917 ck/ 'DZifbmvwGif oGm;a&mufawG@qHk=uonf? awG@=uonfhtcg
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u jrefrmjynfudk tdENd, jynfe,fwpfcktjzpfrS oD;jcm;cGJxGuf+yD; pDrHay;&ef awmif;qdk=uonf? TudpPrsm;wGif
ol&d,owif;pmu jynfolESifhtwl axmufcHcJhonf?
xdktcsdefu q&mawmfOD;OwWronf ol&d,wdkufwGifwnf;+yD; 0HomEkw&m;rsm;udk vSnfhvnfa[majymawmfrlonf?
q&mawmfOD;OwWr. a[majymcsufrsm;udk axmufcHonfh owif;pmrSm ol&d,jzpfonf? owif;pmu a&;aomtcg w&m;emolawG
rsm;vmonf? TonfrSm owif;pmpGrf;aqmifonfh EkdifiHa&;pnf;±Hk;a&;atmifjrifr_yif jzpfonf?
rGefaw*lcsrf;pzdk@ tpD&ifcHpmwGifrl jrefrmjynfudk csefvSyfxm;cJhavonf?
xdk@aemuf 1918 ck/ 'DZifbmvwGif jrefrmjynf 'kwd,bk&ifcH qmtm&fu&ufa'gufu olwdkifyifcsifonfhvlawGESifh wdkifyif+yD;/
tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf wpfck a=unmjyefonf? t=urf;pDpOfxm;onfh tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk “u&ufa'guf puif;” [k ac:onf?
Tu&ufa'gufpuif;rSm rGefaw*lcsrf;pzdk@ tpD&ifcHavmufrS raumif;I 0dkif;0ef;uef@uGuf=ujyefonf? Ttaw_mtwGif;
+Adwdo#tpdk;&u ausmif;rsm;wGif owif;pm rzwf& ponfh csKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk pwifpDrHaeonfhtjyif a&$wd*Hkbk&m;wGif cHwyfxm;jcif;/
qefaps;/ pyg;aps;rsm;udk tpdk;&u uef@owfcsKyfcs,faejcif;rsm;yg vkyfvmaomtcg jynfol vlxk. rauseyfr_rsm;rSm
wdk;Ivmavonf?
odk@jzifh 1919 ck/ Zlvdkifv (7) &ufwGif bdvyfodk@ OD;baz/ OD;ykESifh OD;xGef;&Sdefwdk@ukd v$wf=ujyefavonf/ TudpPwGifvnf;
ol&d,jrefrmhtvif;paom trsKd;om;owif;pm rsm;u axmufcH=uonf? jynfolvlxk.
pnf;vHk;nDnGwfpGm
axmufcHtm;ay;r_&&dS&ef a&;om;vH_@aqmfcJh=uavonf? jrefrmudk,fpm;vS,frsm; bdvyfwGif&dSaepOf tdENd,jynf twGuf
'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;ay;&ef bdvyfygvDrmefu twnfjyKvdkufavonf? jrefrmudk,fpm;vS,frsm;rSmrl 1919 ck/ 'DZifbmv (15)
&ufwGif twGif;0ef rGefaw*lESifh awG@qHk+yD; jrefrmjynftwGuf ra&r&mESifhyif jyefcJh=u&avonf? jrefrmjynfudkum; csefvSyfxm;qJyif?
odk@aomfvnf; trsKd;om; owif;pmrsm;ESifh jynfolrsm;url a&S@qufI wdkufyGJ0if=uavonf?
jrefrmowif;pmq&moif towfcH&r_
ynmhtvif;owif;pm xGufpu jrefrmjynfwGif EkdifiHa&;avmu T ykwfoifndK*dk%f;[lI ac:onfh wl-om-oif;
vl}uD;ydkif;ESifh awmfvSefa&; vli,fydkif; [lI &dSae+yD; aphpyf&ef }udK;pm;olrsm; vufr_difcsae&r_ &dSavonf?
TEkdifiHa&;tuGJwGif ol&d,ESifh jrefrmhtvif;u vli,fydkif;udk axmufcHa&;om;+yD; ynmhtvif;u vl}uD;ydkif;udk
axmufcHa&;om;avonf? xdktcsdefu EdkifiHa&;tuGJ *,uf}uD;av owif;pmtcsif;csif; t,ltq uGJvGJcsufuvnf;
ydkrdkjyif;xefav jzpfcJhonf?
odk@ESifh 1919 ck/ wpfae@wGif
“jrefrmtvif; q&moif uGrf;+cHblwmteD; "m;ESifhtxdk;cH&I ao&onf? "m;ESifhxdk;ol vlqdk;}uD;irdk;udk jrif;pD;a*:&m
pmoifu ae&mwGif zrf;rdonf” [lI owif;rsm;wGif ygvmavonf? xdktcgu EkdifiHa&;tuGJESifh owif;pmcsif; oabmxm; tuGJudk
pdwf0ifpm;ae=uonfh y&dowftzdk@ xdkowif;udk =um;&aomtcg tawmf}uD; acsmufcsm;oGm;avonf? xifjrifcsuf trsKd;rsKd;ay;=u/
trsKd;rsKd;awG;=uonf/ xdk@a=umifh jrefrmtvif;t,f'Dwmq&moif. ZeD;ESifhuav;ESpfa,mufudk wdkif;jynfu 0dkif;0ef; axmufyHh=u&m
aiG (4000d) cef@ &&dSonf[k qdkonf?
q&moif ao&onfhudpPwGif EkdifiHa&; &efolavm/ owif;pm &efolavm?

9

Tya,m*wpfckcka=umifh jzpf&rnf[k xif=uaomfvnf; vu_fyl;vuf=uyfrd onfh irdk;u razmfbJ axmifuscHoGm;avonf?
xdk@aemuf ynmhtvif;wdkuftkyf OD;wif tzrf;cH&onf? 1924 ckESpfxJwGifrS jyefvGwfvmonf? jrefrmhtvif; q&moif
towfcH&r_ESifh ywfoufI jrefrmhtvif; t,f'Dwm OD;pdef;u Todk@a&;cJhonf?
“jrefrmouU&mZf 1281 ckESpf/ 0gqdkvqef; (5) &uf/ (1-7-19) ae@wGif u|Ekfyfonf jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmwdkufY
wdkuftkyftjzpfESifh 0ifa&muf vkyfudkifonf? xdktcg q&moifESifh q&mwifhwdk@ t,f'Dwmac: owif;pmq&mrsm; jzpfI ESpfOD;pvHk;yif
jrefrmpmta&;tom; aumif;vSaomfvnf; q&moifum; ta&;ygI t&ma&mufaom owif;pmq&mjzpfavonf?
t,f'Dwmq&moif towfcH&jcif;
u|Ekfyf owif;pmwdkufodk@ a&mufaomtcg (7) &ufwpfywfv#if oHk;}udrfxw
k fa0aom jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmonf
wpfywfv#if apmifa& (950 - 1000) r# xkwfa0a&mif;cs&.? xdktcg vl}uD;rsm;bufodk@ vdkufvsuf&dS=uaom
owif;pmwpfapmifonf vef'efoGm; udk,fpm;vS,fwdk@udk rsm;pGm tjypfa&;om;.?
xdkowif;pmrSmum; xkwfa0&aom apmifa& axmifhav;ig;&mrS wpfaxmifhatmuf a&G@avsmoufqif;+yD;v#if
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmapmif a&um; axmifh&Spf&mtxd xkwfa0&avonf? 1281 ckESpf/ awmfovif;vqkwf (3)&uf (11-9-19) ae@
nOfhudk;em&Dtcsdef/ jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm t,f'Dwm q&moifonf vlqdk;}uD;armifrdk; "m;vufeufjzifh b0wpfyg;
ajymif;oGm;uG,fvGef&avonf?
aoqHk;ol q&moifESifh vlqdk;}uD;armifrkd;rSm rnfonfhtcgur# rodru|rf;/ awG@zl;jrifzl;vnf;r&dS/
&efnd‡K;wpfpHkwpf&m r&dS=ubJ &ufpufpGm toufaoqHk;atmif "m;vufeufESifh xdk;owfjcif;onf tvGef@tvGef tHh=ozG,f}uD; wpfck
jzpfayonf? q&moifonf tjcm;olwpfyg;wdk@tm; pdwf=urf;/ E_wf=urf;ESifh wpfpHkwpf&majymcJhzl;jcif;r&dS? odrfarG@El;nHh/ ,Ofaus;pGmESifh
yD,0gpmjzpfatmifom ajymavhqdkavh&o
dS nf? rnfolwpfOD;udkr# rme axmifv$m;I rw&m;aomtr_wdk@udk rjyKbl;onfhtjyif/
‚if;ESifhawG@I ajymzl;/ qdkzl;aomf/ ‚if;tm; arwWmpdwfoufa&mufI axmufxm;n‡mwm oem;cspfcif olomrsm;ygvsuf
,ckjzpf&jcif;tjzpfwdk@rSmum; owif;pm a&;om;jcif;Y [kwfwdkif; rSef&mudk axmufxm;n‡mwmjcif;r&dS a&;avh&dSjcif;/ tjcm;
owif;pmq&mwdk@ jyKrljcif; roifhravsmfonfwdk@udk awG@aomf aemif=uOfatmif ay:ay:xifxif a&;om;avh &Sdjcif; tp&dSaom
tjypfwdk@rSwpfyg; tjcm;tjypf wpfpHkwpf&mr&dS jzpfonf? xdktxufygwdk@udk tjypf[k qdkvdk@om qdk&onf? pifppfum; tjypfr[kwf&Sm/
^m%ft&mom jzpfonf/
(OD;pdef;. owif;pmq&mb0 1938 ck {+yDvxkwf jrefrmtvif; ESpfopfr*FvmpmapmifrS)
jrefrmhtvif;t,f'DwmcsKyf OD;pdef;.a&;om;csuft&qdkaomf q&moif towfcH& jcif;onf ta&;tom;a=umifh
jzpfavonf? q&moif. ta&;tom; ajymifajrmufr_a=umifh cH&jcif; jzpfavonf? jrefrmhtvif; ta&;tom;udk wkdif;jynfu
rsm;pGm oabmusonf[kvnf; qdka_vonf?
AE<KvOD;pdefu jrefrmhtvif;q&moiftowfcH&r_ESifh ywfoufI (17-1-63) xkwf vkyfom;jynfol@ ae@pOfowif;pmwGif“tJ'D ESpfuGJrSm t,f'Dwmq&moif[m jrefrmhtvif;acgif;}uD;ydkif;ua&m/ at0rf;armifpef;ua&m/ 0wˆKcef;ua&m
(vl}uD;*dk%f;om;awG[m vGwfvyfa&; rmefewfawG jzpfwJhta=umif;/ tpdk;&tvdkawmf&didk@b/ acgif;ndwfykwfoifndKawG
jzpfwJhta=umif;/ a&$wd*Hka*gyutzGJ@wGif &moufyef bk&m;vl}uD; rxm;xdkufwJh ta=umif;) ponfjzifh acwf}uD;twif;ajymif;a&;
tcsufawGudk ydk;pdk;yufpuf/ 'dk;'dk;'uf'ufeJ@ e,fcsJ@AsL±dku&ufeJ@ "e&Sif/ ajr&Si/f yGJpm;}uD;awGudk ESufyga&;ygav a&m?
aemufqHk; 1919 ck/ ESpfOD;ydkif;avmuf wpfnonf owif;pmwdkufrStdrfjyefzdk@ blwmtoGm; yef;qdk;wef;vrf;ay:rSm
Adkvfwaxmifvlqdk;}uD; irdk;u q&moifudk "m;eJ@xdk;owfvdkufoAs?
udkif;jrefrmpmayorkdif;wpfav#mufvHk; pv,ftqHk; =unfhvdkufprf;? yk*HacwfrS ,ckacwf awmfvSefa&;tpdk;&txd ESpfaygif;
(800) twGif;rSm pma&;om;r_twGuf b,fpmqdkawmf/ b,fpma&;q&m/ t,f'Dwmrsm;[m towfcH&zl;ovJ/ towfcH&wm
b,fESpfa,muf&dSovJ? (tajzum;)
q&moifrSwpfyg; towfcH&wm wpfa,mufrSr&dS/ pma&;om;r_a=umifh tvGefqHk; tcsKyfcH&/ axmifcscH&wmavmufyJ
&dScJhr[kwfvm;As?
ed*Hk;csKyfvdkwmu 1923-24 ckESpfavmufusawmh ol&d,/ jrefrmhtvif;/ AE<Kv/ 'D;'kwf/ =u,fwHcGef/ vpfbmwD pwJh
pme,fZif;wdkufrsm;u t,f'DwmawG[m “owif;pmq&mtoif;” udk pwifzGJ@pnf;+yD; q&moif owfr_vufonfw&m;cHudk
rdatmifzrf;zdk@ r=umc% v_H@aqmf=uyga&m/ aemufqHk; ynmhtvif;owif;pmwdkuf&Sif OD;wiftzrf;cH&+yD;/ owif;pm wdkufvnf;
ysufyga&m?
'ga=umifh jrefrmjynfrSm vlowf0g'eJ@ vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJtpwGif aAGaqmf yxr towfcH&+yD; toufESifhpaw;oGm;&SmwJh
t,f'Dwm q&moifudk ESpfpOfusif;ywJh pmqdkawmfae@wdkif;rSm owdrarhbJ csD;usL;*k%fjyK=uyg&ef qENjyK t}uHay;vdkufygownf;”
[lI a&;avonf?
jrefrmhtvif;t,f'DwmcsKyfOD;pdefESifh AE<KvOD;pdef. a&;om;csufrsm;udk =unfhjcif;tm;jzifh q&moiftowfcH&jcif;onf
xdkpOfu EkdifiHa&;tuGJwGif vli,frsm;bufu axmufcHa&;om;+yD; vl}uD;ydkif;udk uef@uGufjypfwif a&;om;aoma=umihf jzpfonf
qdkonfrSm xif&Sm;avonf?

10

q&moiftowfcH&r,fhnu q&moifonf jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmwdkufrS OD;pdef;ESifhtwl xGufvmcJh=uonf? blwm}uD;
em&DpifteD;odk@ a&mufaomtcg irdk;u q&moifudk "m;ESifh0ifxdk;onf? OD;pdef;u ygvmaom wkwfESifh ckcH±dkufESufaomfvnf;
tcsnf;ESD; jzpfcJhonf? q&moifrSm '%f&mjzifh yGJcsif;+yD; aoqHk;cJh&jcif;jzpfonf?
q&moifESifhywfoufI q&m}uD;a&$Oa'gif;uvnf; ‚if;. wpfoufwmrSwfwrf; pmtkyfwGif “q&moifrSm jrefrmjynfowif;pmavmuwGif r}uHKzl;&ao;onfh aoenf;rsKd;jzifh uG,fvGeftedpPa&mufcJh&ol jzpfavonf”
irdk;udkrl csufcsif;vufyl;vuf=uyfrdI ±Hk;wifppfaq;+yD; wpfoufwpfu|ef;ydk@/ tjypf'%f tay;cH&onf? towfcH&yHkudk
u|Ekfyf=um;od&aomtcg pma&;q&mcsif; taejzifh vGefpGm u±k%mjzpf&onfESifh ol. ao&yHkESifh ywfoufI wu,fh
tjzpftysufa&m/ pdwful;uav;rsm;yg xnfhoGif;um u|Ekfyfudk,fwdkifyif rsuf&nf taxGaxGusavmufatmif awG;awm+yD;
aqmif;yg;wpfyk'fa&;I ol&d, owif;pmwGif xnhfoGif;azmfjyvdkufavonf?
xdkaqmif;yg;onf pmzwfolrsm;. pdwfudk xdckdufvSonfqdkI =unfhjrifwdkifbufrS toif;wpfoif;u u|Ekfyf. aqmif;yg;udk
pm&Gufrsm; ±dkufESdyf+yD;v#if q&moif. tokbY a0iSurf;vSrf;avonf?
0dkif;xrf;=ujcif;
q&moif. tokbY u|Ekfyf.pdwfudk xdcdkufvSaom tcsif;t&mwpfckrSm q&moif.tavmif;udk yef;&xm;ay:odk@
wif=urnfjyKaomtcg ol&d,wdkuftkyf OD;vSazonf awmif&Snft+rJ0wfoljzpfygvsuf/ awmif&Snf ykqdk;}uD;wum;um;ESifh
q&moif.tavmif;udk owif;pmq&mrsm;csnf; xrf;=updk@[kqdkum pk±Hk;ac:iif+yD; yef;&xm;ay:odk@ u|Ekfyfwdk@vlpkxrf;I
wif=u&jcif;yifjzpfonfponfjzifh a&;avonf?
q&moif. tokbwGif *syfqifaumvdyfrS zdk;usm; (xdk@aemuf ynm0ef OD;zdk;usm;) rSm pum;ajymaumif;vSI
trnfausmf=um;oGm;&onf[k od&onf?
jrefrmhtvif;q&moif towfcH&r_ESifhywfoufI a&;om;&mY q&m}uD; yDrdk;eif;url “q&moifudk tenf;i,fqHk;rzdk@&ef ynmhtvif;wdkuf&Sif OD;wifu ajymrdonfum; rSefayonf/ qHk;rcdkif;onfqdk&mY
wpfcgwnf; udpPwkef; pD&ifckdif;jcif;um; r[kwfay?
qHk;rcdkif;onfrSmvnf; wpfjcm;a=umifhr[kwfay/ xdkpOfu q&moifonf ynmhtvif;Y tvkyfvkyfudkifzdk@&ef
vma&muf}uHpnfzl;avonf/ odk@aomf ynmhtvif;u tvkyfray;/ vufrcHonfhtcg q&moifonf jrefrmhtvif;rSmyif
vkyfudkif&avonf?”
apmif;csdwfa&;om;r_
jrefrmhtvif;rSaeI q&moifonf “rkHa&G;y¾dw”trnfjzifh 0wˆKwpfyk'fudk a&;om;avonf? 0wˆK.trnfrSm
ysOf;rem;rr}uD;jzpfonf? v,fwDy¾dw OD;armif}uD;. yxrZeD;rSmvnf; ysOf;rem;+rdK@rS a':rr}uD; jzpfav&m rHka&G;y¾dwqdkonfrSm
ynmhtvif;rS v,fwDy¾dw OD;armif}uD;udk apmif;csdwfa&;om;jcif;jzpfavonf?
xkdtcgY ynmhtvif;ydkif&Sif OD;wifonf v,fwDy¾dwOD;armif}uD;udk bk&m;wpfqlvdk udk;uG,fxm;oljzpfav&m xdkuJhodk@
q&moifu rdrd. q&mtm; apmif;csdwfa&;om;vdkufonfudk awG@&aomtcg v,fwDy¾dwudk xdcdkufI a&;om;&ygrnfvm;[k
q&moif.tay:Y qwfqwfcgatmif em=unf;cJhavonf? odk@twGuf udkrdk;tm; oGm;a&mufqHk;r&ef ajym=um;cJh.” ponfjzifh
a&;om;avonf?
q&moiftowfcH&r_ESifhywfoufI q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfr_dif;u jrefrmAsL[m*sme,fwGif “a=omf w&m;rbufEkdifbk/
oem;vsufi,fESifh/ tm;ysufzG,f pmowif;rSm/ jrefrmhtvif;t,f'Dwmi,fu/ e,fjynfrSm orBmwdk;aomfvnf;/ b,fqDrSm
b,f[ma=umifh/ nd‡K;avonfh/ tusKd;jzmjzm r=umwwfatmify/ trsKd;bmom omoemtwGufhudkv/ aqmif&Gufol ‘oif’ q&m
rjzifh/ wr*Fvm t=uifemr&dSwmrdk@/ 0dpdaumif irdk; trdkuf[mu/ tusKd;rxdkuf tqdk;p±dkuf[mrdk@/ xdk;vdkufowfaomf” ponfjzifh
a&;cJhonf?
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u0djrwfpGm &Ïomwdk@ xHk;ES,fodk@/ ESvHk;&nf Zmenf^m%feJ@/ yg&rDcH tawmf&ifha&mhovm;/ ravsmfroifh rvdrfrmwmawGudk/
ESdrf&SmcsifwJh oabmawGeJ@/ tvif;ol@ jrefrmrSm/ ruif;u±k%meJ@ a[mha[mhwJhjyif/ acwft+ydKiftqdkifrSm [pfwdkifuarmcsdefrdk@/ a=omf
uavmifxufw,fvdk@ oGuf&Smoludk/ "m;ajrmifp}uFm ausmav&,fvdk@/ armifoifht&G,u
f dk aemifjzifhwu,f ESajrmvScsnf&J@/
ajym&if;raus atmifaESmfuG,fh apmavhtao” ponfjzihf a&;cJhonf[k od&avonf?
q&moiftowfcH&r_wGif t"duw&m;cHrSm ynmhtvif;wdkuftkyf
OD;wif jzpfa=umif;udk ynmhtvif;wGif
tvkyfvkyfcJhzl;aom OD;ykuav;u od&dSaecJhonf[k qdkonf? xdkta=umif;udk q&m}uD;yDrdkeif;vnf; odonf? odk@aomf
q&m}uD;yDrdk;eif;u
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zrf;qD;cJhavonf? xdk@a=umifhyif a':cifrsdK;cspfu “owif;pm avmu” pmtkyfwGif “q&moifudk owfr_}uD;a=umifh 1924 ckESpfwGif/
ynmh tvif;owif;pmwdkufydkif&Sif OD;wifrSm vlowfr_ESifhtzrf;cH&+yD;onfhaemuf r=umrD ‘ynmhtvif;’ owif;pmwdkuftajcysufI
&yfpJoGm;&onf” [lI a&;avonf?

11

ynmhtvif;wGif tvkyfvkyfcJhzl;aom *ufa'gufOD;b&ifu q&moif towfcH&r_ESifh ywfoufI a&;aom pmtkyfY
q&moiftowfcH&+yD;onfhaemuf bk&ifcH qm&,f*sDe,fu&ufa'guf. twdkifyifcHtrwfrsm;jzpf=uonfh OD;bwl/ OD;zdk;om/ OD;oif;
(wl-om-oif;) wdk@tvdkus a&;aom ynmhtvif;owif;pmrSmvnf; acwfrdSefoGm;onf[k a&;avonf?
q&moiftowfcH+yD;aemuf 1922 ckavmufwGif *ufa'guf OD;b&if ynmhtvif; wGif 0ifvkyfonf? xdktcgu
OD;b&ifa&;onfh acgif;}uD;wpfyk'fa=umifh wm0efcHt,f'Dwm OD;boef; axmifajcmufv tuscH&onf? OD;boef;twGuf &efukef+rdK@u
&efyHkaiG ig;axmifavmuf aumufcHay;=uonf? axmifus&onfhacgif;}uD;rSm “om;pOfajr;quf i&Jjynf” [kacgif;pOfwyf+yD;
pnfyifom,ma&;±Hk;udk jypfwifa0zefonfhacgif;}uD;jzpfonf? cs,f,mrifqmcsm;vfarmif*if0ufu toa&zsufr_jzifh w&m;pGJojzifh
axmifusjcif; jzpfonf? OD;boef;twGuf uefawmfuav;ausmif;tkyf OD;bdk;tdwfwdk@u aiGaumufcHonfh aumfrwDzGJ@+yD;
aumufcHay;=ujcif;jzpfonf? OD;boef; rSm aemifwGif axmifOD;boef;[lI vlord sm;vmonf? axmifuvGwf+yD; opP0g'D
&ufjcm;owif;pmwGif 0ifvkyf&if; “avmurm,m” 0wˆKa&;onfhtcg ydk+yD;ausmf=um;vmonf[k *ufa'gufOD;b&ifu ol@pmtkyfwGif
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jynfol@bufu &yfwnfaom owif;pmq&mcH&v#if jynfolu owif;pmq&mbufu &yfwnf+yD; ulnDaxmufyHhonfudk
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jzpfonf? pnf;vHk;nDnGwf+yD; EkdifiHa&;wGif &[ef;awmfrsm;a&m/ trsKd;orD;rsm;yg ygvm=uonf? udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&; vHk;0&&rnf
[laom pdwf"gwfu jyif;xefaeavonf?
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"rRwmyifr[kwfvm;? u&ufa'gufESifh jynfolvlxkrSm wpfvrf;pDjzpfaeavonf? xdktcsdefrSmyif q&mawmfOD;OwWru
“u&ufa'gufjyefoGm;” [lIa[majym+yD; pmwrf;awG ±dkufESdyfa0iSavonf? 1920 jynfhESpf xJrSmyif +Adwdo#udkvdkeDorm;u
q&mawmf OD;OwWrtm; yk'fr 124 (u) ESifh zrf;+yD; rtlyifwGif ppfaq;um tvkyfrJh axmif'%fwpfESpfcsvdkufaomtcg wpfjynfvHk;
qlyGufoGm;avonf?
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ausmif;om;oydwf}uD;
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jynfe,fwpfcktjzpf owfrSwfxm;qJjzpfI &efukefwGif zGifhxm;aom aumvdyfudkvnf; uvuwWm;,leDAmpDwD vufatmufcHom
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pDpOfonf? xdkOya'wpfckvkH;. tESpfom&rSm txufwef;ynmudk vlwdkif;vGwfvyfpGm oif,lEkdifonfr[kwf/ udkvdkeD
,EW&m;qufvufvnfywfa&;udkom taxmuftuljyKrnfh Oya'jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh xdkynma&;pepfudk jrefrmrsm;u
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tufOya'\ta=umif;udk od=uojzifh ausmif;om;rsm;u tufOya'udk jyifqifay;&ef pDpOfxm;onfhtwdkif;
jyXmef;jcif;rjyK&ef awmif;qdk=uonf? 1920 jynfh/ jynf+rdK@Y usif;yaom tXrt}udrfajrmuf 0dkiftrfbDat uGefz&ifhwGif 0dkiftrfbDat
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vdkuf=uavonf? xdkausmif;om;oydwfudk rdbjynfolrsm;uvnf; 0dkif;0ef;axmufcH=u onf? &efukef+rdK@ay:&dS ausmif;om;rsm;.
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vmavonf? odk@aomf ausmif;om;rsm;u 'DZifbm (17) &ufwGif Z&yfrsm;Y pmoifcef; rsm; zGifh+yD; }uHh}uHhcHwkef@jyefcJhavonf?
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ta&;}uD;awmif;qdkcsufrsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif; jzpfonf?

12

1?
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2?
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3?
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4?
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5?
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wuUodkvfaumifpDwGif ausmif;om; udk,fpm;vS,f yg0ifoifhygonf?
6?
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7?
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8?
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[lI azmfjy+yD; oydwfarSmuf ausmif;om;rsm;udk,fpm; aqmf=oa&;rSL; udkbOD;u vufrSwfa&;xdk;avonf?
Tausmif;om;rsm;. ta&;wGif *sDpDbDattzGJ@}uD;uvnf; qHk;jzwfcsufcs+yD; axmufcHcJhonf? rdbjynfolrsm;uvnf;
axmufcH=uonf? ausmif;om;oydwfrSm wpfjynfvHk; ul;pufysH@ESH@+yD; aemufydkif;wGif trsdK;om;ausmif;rsm; r_dvdkayguf vmawmhonf/
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yg0ifq_ifE$JcJh=uavonf?
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jywfjywfom;om; &yfwnfcJhonf/ jrefrmhtvif;t,f'DwmcsKyf OD;pdef;ESifh jrefrmydkif e,l;bm;rm;t*Fvdyfowif;pmrS OD;bv_difwdk@onf
oydwfpcef;odk@ oGm;a&mufI ausmif;om;rsm;udk tm;ay;pum; ajym=um;=uonf? vdktyfaomtultnDrsm;udkvnf;
tm;wufoa&m ay;cJh=u onf? xdktcsdefu jrefrmbmomjzifh xkwfa0aom owif;pm (3) apmif&dSonfh teuf ol&d,owif;pm
wpfapmifwnf;om ae@pOf xkwfa0Ekdif+yD;/ jrefrmhtvif;ESifh ynmhtvif; owif;pm ESpfapmifrSm &ufjcm; owif;pmom &dSao;onf?
ol&d,rSm jywfjywfom;om;r&dS/ ynmhtvif;rSm bk&ifcHu&ufa'guf. =oZmcHvl}uD;rsm;ydkif owif;pmjzpfI tpdk;&bufu
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jrefrmhtvif;ESifh e,l;bm;rm; owif;pm url ausmif;om;oydwfudk tm;ay;axmufcHcJh=uonf? oydwfarSmufausmif;om;
OD;xGef;azESifh OD;cifarmifwdk@u jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmrSvnf;aumif;/ OD;zdk;vwfESifh OD;at;wdk@u e,l;bm;rm;ESifh bm;rm;atmhZm;Am;
t*Fvdyfowif;pmwdk@rS vnf;aumif;/ tvdkawmf&d owif;pmrsm;udk jyefvSefacsya&;om;cJh=uonf? ausmif;om;rsm;. ta&;tcif;
aqmif;yg;rsm; udkvnf; azmfjycJh=uonf?
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tJ'DtcsdefrSm jrefrmEdkifiHa&;[m tawmfuav; v_yfv_yf&G&G jzpfvm+yD? oydwf}uD;arSmuf+yD;awmh ae&Sife,f aumvdyf}uD;
pxlaxmif=ua&m? tJ'DrSm oifzkd@/ jyzdk@ q&mawGvdkwmeJ@ q&mhudk vnf; twif;0dkif;+yD; awmif;yef=uwmeJ@ ol&d,u xGuf+yD;
tJ'Dae&Sife,f aumvdyfrSm q&m0ifvkyf&jyefa&muG”/ [lI 1956 ckESpfu orm"dowif;pm q&mudk ajymjycJhavonf? TonfrSm
ausmif;om;oydwf}uD;wGif jrefrmtrsKd;om; owif;pmrsm;omru owif;pm q&mbdk;at}uD;udk,fwdkif yg0ifaqmif&GufcJhjcif;yif
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k oydwfarSmufvdkuf=uavonf? TwdkufyGJwGif
vnf; trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;u jynfolESifh twl wdkufyGJ0ifcJh=uavonf?
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xdktcsdefwGif 0dkiftrfbDat toif;rsm;udk wvHk;wpnf;wnf; yl;aygif;zGJ@pnf;+yD;jzpfI *sDpDbDat toif;csKyf}uD; [lI ac:ae=uay+yD?
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wdkif;jynfu vu_frcHEkdif/ jynfolvlxk. vdkvm;csufrSm vHk;0wm0efcH [krR±l;tkyfcsKyfa&;om jzpfonf?

13

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udk,fpm;vS,fawmf a0vtdrfa&S@rif;om; udkvnf; c&D;OD;}udK rjyKbJ oydwfarSmuf&ef?
trsKd;om;ae@ ? ? 1282 ckESpf/ wefaqmifrkef;vqkwf (10) &uf wuUodkvf ausmif;om;rsm; oydwfarSmufonfhae@onf
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(10) &ufae@ukd trsKd;om;ae@ [lI owfrSwf+yD; txdrf;trSwfyJGrsm; usif;y&ef ponfh qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk csrSwf=uavonf?
0_dufaumfrwDqdkonfrSm
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xifjrifoabm&&dSa=umif; atmufwGif vufrSwfa&;ol jrefrmtrsKd;om;owif;pm taygif;wdk@u xkwfjyefa=un_mvdkufonf?
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14

&efukefykvdyfrif;}uD;u “a0vrif;om; jrefrmEkdifiHodk@ a&muf&dSaeonfh &uftwGif; aumif;onfjzpfap/ qdk;onfjzpfap/
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taESmifht,Sufjzpfap&ef &nf&G,fI [mw,fac: aps;qdkifrsm; ydwfjcif;/ tvkyfrS &yfpJjcif;/ w&m;Oya'rsm;udk remcH&ef
wdkufwGef;E_d;aqmfjcif; pmrsm;udk r=umrDu ±dkufESdyfxkwfa0onfudk awG@&dS&onf?
r=umrDu Todk@ jzm;a,mif;aoG;aqmifjcif;jzifh tjcm;a'o&yfuGufrsm;wGif jynfolvltrsm;wkd@. +idrfoufat;csrf;jcif;/
taESmifht,Suf jzpfzl;av+yD?
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[lI azmfjyxm;avonf?
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1/
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15

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csif;wGif;jrpfzsm; [krRvif;odk@ ydk@xm;jcif;cH&aom OD;pdef;bGJ@vGrf;csif;?
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tvif;jrefrm/ owif;i,fjzm/ t,f'DwmcsKyf/ rSL;rvkyfrSD/ txkwfu,fywˆd/ jyefI=unfhaomf/ oD&dusufoa&/
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wmryl&apESifh/ ulrygav;?
TvGrf;csif;rsm;udk azmfjyonfhtcsdefrSm 1921 ckESpf ukefcgeD;jzpfonf? xdktcgu ,ckuJhodk@ vludkyg
zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fvmonfhtjyif pme,fZif;rsm;udkvnf; zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_ trsm;tjym;vkyfavonf? xdkta=umif;rsm;udk aejynfawmf*sme,f
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jyefvmap&ef &wem'DyHaq; za,mif;wdkifxGef;&ef wdkufwGef;onfhta=umif; azmfjyxm;onf? xdkpmudk “owWbm* armifarmif/ eHygwf
1500/ =umcsnfcs&yf qdyfuG,f&m+rdK@”u a&;onf[k azmfjyxm;onf? xdkodk@ azmfjyojzifh ynmhtvif;owif;pm t,f'Dwm
OD;ykuav;udk tpdk;&u yk'fr (292) t& w&m;pGJavonf? OD;ykuav;bufu xkacsaomfvnf; axmifESpfvtjypfay;onf?
t,lcH0if&m axmifwpfv tjypfay;jcif; cH&avonf?
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OD;bdk;vSwdk@vnf; axmif'%fwpfvpD tjypfay;jcif; cH&onf[k od&onf? xdk@jyif &wem'DyH aq;za,mif;wdkifudpPESifhywfoufI
vpfbmwD owif;pm t,f'Dwmvnf; tzrf;cH&ao;onf [lI AE<KvOD;pdefu vkyfom;jynfolae@pOf owif;pm (17-1-63) wGif
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“yl;owfcGmowf” EdkifiHa&;vrf;pOfa=umifh *sDpDbDattzGJ@csKyf}uD; uGJoGm;aomtcg owif;pmrsm;vnf; uGJoGm;onfhtjzpfyif
jzpfavonf?
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16

xdkwdkufe,faumfrwDrsm;u wpfqifh owfrSwfxm;onfh aumfrwDrsm;udk a&G;cs,fay;onfhaemuf 'Dp}wdwfaumifpD zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyf&ef
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+Adwdo#AsL±dkua&pDESifh jrefrmudk,fpm;vS,frsm; yl;wGJtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfyif jzpfavonf?
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uGJ=uonf? xdk@a=umifh 1922 ck/ ZGefv (17) &ufESifh/ (18) &ufwGif &efukef+rdK@/ *sLvDAa[mY *sDpDbDat toif;csKyf}uD;.
jynfvHk;u|wftxl;nDvmcH usif;y+yD; aqG;aEG;=uonf?
nDvmcHu +Adwdo#wdk@ay;rnfh 'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;onf jynfolvlxku awmif;w &nfrSef;onfh [krR±l;tkyfcsKyfa&;r[kwfI
a'oEW&tzGJ@rsm;ESifh 'dkiftmcD a&G;aumufyGJrsm;udkyg 0ifa&mufta&G;rcHbJ oydwfarSmuf&ef qHk;jzwfvdkufonf? TqHk;jzwfcsufudk
*sDpDbDattr_aqmiftcsKd@u rauseyfI cGJxGuf&ef}uH+yD; a'oEW&tzGJ@rsm;wGif 0ifa&mufta&G;cHoihfa=umif; a=unmpmwrf;rsm;
xkwf=uonf? Ta=unmpmwrf;wGif vufrSwfa&;xdk;=uonfh *sDpDbDat tr_aqmif tcsKd@ESifh tjcm;EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;rSm(1) OD;baz/ (2) 0wfvHkOD;yk/ (3) trfatOD;armif}uD;/ (4) 0wfvHkOD;odef;armif/ (5) jrefrmh tvif; OD;armif}uD;/ (6)
jrefrmhtvif;t,f'DwmOD;pdef;/ (7) OD;oif;armif/ (8) 0wfvHk OD;uGef;/ (9) a'gufwmOD;b&if/ (10) e,l;bm;rm;OD;bv_dif/ (11) a'gufwm
odef;armif/ (12) ol&d,OD;vSz/ (13) OD;armifarmiftkef;cdkif/ (14) 0wfvHkOD;bpD/ (15) yJcl; OD;pHvif;/ (16) rEWav;A[dkpnf OD;bOD;/ (17)
anmifav;yifOD;vGef;armif/ (18) ausmufqnfOD;pdefb/ (19) oxHk OD;udkudk}uD;/ (20) aysmfbG,f OD;armif}uD;/ (21) urm&GwfOD;aomf wdk@
jzpf=uonf?
Tvlrsm;udk *sDpDbDattoif;csKyfwGif usef&pfolrsm;u (21) OD; opPmazmuf[k a=unmonf? xdktcsdfefwGif *sDpDbDatY
OD;cspfv_dif/ om,m0wD OD;ykESifh OD;xGef;atmifausmf wdk@ usefcJh&m ‚if;wdk@udk “v_difykausmf” [k ac:avonf?
*sDpDbDattrsKd;om;tzGJ@csKyf}uD; Todk@uGJoGm;&onfrSm e,fcsJ@orm;. vufcsuf a=umifhyif jzpfavonf?
*sDpDbDattzGJ@csKyf}uD;rSm xdktcgu trsKd;om;wyfOD;}uD;jzpfonf? pnf;vHk;nDnGwfaeonf? trsKd;om;aumvdyf}uD;ESifh wuG
trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm;yg wnfaxmifxm;Ekdifonftxd jynfolvlxk. EkdifiHa&;Ekd;=um;r_ t&Sdeft[kefrSm }uD;rm;aecJhonf?
trsKd;om;a&; pdwf"gwfwufºuG aecJhonf? xdkodk@&dS&mY +Adwdo#udkvdkeDorm;tzdk@ udkvdkeDvufqkyfrajz&a&;twGuf pnf;vHk;nDnGwfr_
+ydKuGJatmif enf;y&d,m,f rsKd;pHk oHk;ayvdrfhrnf? pnf;vHk; nDnGwfaeaom *sDpDbDattrsKd;om;tzGJ@csKyf }uD;udk +Adwdo#udkvdkeDorm;u
&mxl;ESifh +zKdcGJvkdufjcif; jzpfavonf?
cGJxGufoGm;onfh (21) OD;url 'dkiftmcD ygvDrmefxJ 0if+yD; ta&G;cHrnf? txJ a&mufv#if e,fcsJ@orm;ESifh yl;owfrnf[k
a=unmonf? odk@aomf (21) OD;u vlenf;pk/ v_difykausmfu vlrsm;pk jzpfavonf? Todk@ EkdifiHa&;t& *sDpDbDatuGJoGm;aomtcg
owif;pmrsm;vnf; uGJukefavonf? apmapmydkif;u uGJonfht&dSefxuf ,cktuGJu ydkrdkjyif;xefvmavonf? ododomom}uD;
jzpfvmonf? (21) OD;xJwGif ol&d,owif;pm }uD;rS OD;baz/ OD;vSaz/ e,l;bm;rm;owif;pmrS OD;bv_dif/ jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmrS
OD;pdef; OD;armif}uD;/ rEWav;A[dkpnfrS OD;bOD;wdk@ yg0ifae=uavonf? TtuGJwGif udk,fht,ltq rSefa=umif;/ udk,fhowif;pmuae
wifjya&;om;=uonf? 0g'jzef@=urnfrSm "rRwmyif?
*sDpDbDattoif;u xkwfa0onfh 0HomEkowif;pm/ AE<Kv*sme,fESifh 'D;'kwf*sme,fwdk@uvnf; jynfol@qENudk
razmufzsufoifha=umif;/ pnf;vHk;nDnGwf aeonfh *sDpDbDat toif;csKyf}uD;rSvnf; rcGJxGufoifha=umif; Todk@ vkyf=uonf rSm
'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&; pepft& ig;axmifpm; 0ef}uD;&mxl;udk ar#mfrSef;=u[ef wla=umif; ponfjzifh a&;om;=uavonf?
pnf;vHk;nDnGwfaeonfh *sDpDbDat}uD;u e,fcsJ@orm;. vuf_csufjzifh +ydKuGJoGm;av+yD?
TEkdifiHa&;ESifh owif;pmtuGJrSm jynfol@twGuf 0rf;enf;p&m/ udkvdkeDorm;twGuf 0rf;omp&m jzpfavonf?
e,fcsJ@orm;oabmus jzpf&onfyif? EGm;uGJv#if usm;qGJayrnf/ qGJvnf;qGJayonf/ 'dkiftmcD jy\em ay:aecsdefwGif e,fcsJ@tpkd;&u
owif;pmrsm;tay: zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm; tawmf}uD;vkyfvmonf? 1922 ck ZGefvxkwf '*kefr*~Zif; acgif;}uD;ydkif;wGif “xdkrSwpfzef
xkwfa0jzef@csdvsuf&dSaom owif;pm/ *sme,f/ r*~Zif;ponf wdk@tm;vnf; a&S@txufxufu rawmif;bl;zl;aom
tmrcHaiGawmif;jcif;/ bdef;&SmbdouJhodk@ tjypfudk±_I axmif'%fcsjcif; ponfwdk@rSm jynfoljyn_fom;wdk@ rsm;pGmrESpf+rdK@aom
tcsuf}uD;rsm; jzpfav&um;” ponfjzifh a&;om;onfudk =unfhjcif;tm;jzifh udkvdkeDtpdk;&u pme,fZif;rsm;tay:
wdk;IzdESdyfvmonfudk odjrifEkdifayonf? odk@aomfvnf; trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;u tavsmhray;/ jynfoludk vrf;n$efr_ay;onf?
wyfvSef@E_d;aqmfonf?
rEWav;rSxkwfa0onfh aejynfawmf*sme,fY 1922 ckESpfwGif owif;pmrsm;ESifh toif;tzGJ@aygif;pHkrS yk*~dKvf (41) OD;u
'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;udk uef@uGufa=umif;ESifh vGwfvyfa&;twGuf toif;tzGJ@rsm; zGJ@pnf;+yD; wdkufyGJ0if=u&ef jynfwGif;jzpf
t0wftxnfrsm;udk oHk;=u&ef wGef;tm;ay;onf?
aejynfawmf*sme,f/ 'kwd,wGJ eHygwf (6) wGif “wdkif;ae&Sifv_ljynfol taygif;wdk@xH tpD&ifcHygonf” [laomacgif;pOfjzifh
xdka_=unmcsufudk xkwfjyefjcif;jzpfonf? 'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;tpDtpOft& aumifpDtzGJ@rsm;twGuf a&G;aumufyGJvkyfvdrfhrnf?
xdkaumifpDxJodk@ tcsKd@u0ifrnf/ 0if+yD;aumifpDxJurS +Adwdo#tpdk;&udk jyefwdku&f ef &nf&G,fonf? Tt}uHukd xdka=unmcsufu
vufrcH/ uef@uGufonf/ wdkif;jynf vGwfvyfa&; qdkonfrSm olwpfyg;u ay;rS&onfhudpPr[kwf/ wdkuf,lrnf[k azmfjyonf/ wdkufyGJudk
Todk@csay;onf?
1/
jrefrmhvufiifcsnfxnfrsm;udk txl;tm;ay;jcif;/
2/
trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm;ESifh ckHorm"d±Hk; ponfrsm;udk tm;ay;wnfaxmifjcif;/

17

3/
v,fvkyfom;rsm;toif;/ tvkyform;rsm;toif;/ vufr_ynmonfrsm; toif; zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmifay;&ef/
‚if;wdk@onf vGwfvyfcGifhudk &&m&a=umif; txufjrufqHk;aom vufeufaumif;rsm; jzpfaoma=umifh wkdif;oljynfom;
taygif;wdk@onf pdwfa&mudk,fyg tm;xkwfaqmif&Gufoifha=umif; E_d;aqmfvdkufygonf?
xdka=unmcsufudk vufrSwfa&;xdk;olrsm;rSm 1/
rif;om;wifjzLOD;/ ajrydkif&Sif
2/
OD;cspfaqG/ Oya'q&m
3/
OD;awmfatmif/ 'kwd,toif;pk/ 'kwd,OuUX
4/
OD;b=urf;/ 0dkiftrfbDat ydÉuwfwdkuftkyf
5/
OD;bpdef/ trsKd;om;ynma&;aumfrwDtzGJ@/ tusKd;aqmif
6/
udkb=urf;/ yxrtoif;pktusKd;aqmif
7/
udkOD;/ ,lEdkufwufy&if;wm;pfvDrdwuf
8/
udk+rdKif/ tcGefxrf;toif;tusKd;aqmif
9/
OD;ausmf'Gef;/ jynf}uD;r*FvmpmyHkESdyfwdkufydkif&Sif
10/
q&maomif;/ A[kdtrsKd;om;ausmif;
11/
q&mwif/ r*Fvmaps;trsKd;om;ausmif;
12/
q&mcspf/ r*Fvmaps;trsKd;om;ausmif;
13/
udkvluav;/ t,f'DwmnGef@aygif;owif;pmwdkuftkyf
14/
udkcifarmif/ rEWvmbkrdRpmwdkuf&Sif
15/
armifapmab/ wdkif;cspfowif;pmwdkuf
16/
armifaomif;/ wdkif;cspfowif;pmwdkuf
17/
armifaomf/ wdkif;cspfowif;pmwdkuf
18/
armifolawmf/ or0g,r [dw*sme,f
19/
armifbºuG,f/ rEWav;ae@pOfowif;pmwdkuf
20/
udk&ifuav;/ rEWav;ae@pOfowif;pmwdkuf
21/
ausmufajrmif;cifarmif}uD;/ [krR±l;owif;pmwdkuf
22/
armifxGef;&Sdef/ A[dkpnfae@pOfowif;pmwdkuf
23/
armif&Sif/ aejynfawmf*sme,fowif;pmwdkuf
24/
armifuHxl;/ qefukefonf
25/
armifboef;/ pufydkif
26/
armifb&if/ qefukefonf
27/
armif=unf/ udk,fpm;vS,f
28/
armifbtdk/ ukov"rR&uQdwtoif;tusKd;aqmif
29/
armif<u,f/ wHqdyfxkq&m
30/
armifudk}uD;/ ausmif;q&m
31/
armifxGef;0if;/ ausmufukefonf
32/
armifZHk/ ausmufukefonf
33/
armifyk/ yef;csDq&m
34/
armifcif/ ukefonf
35/
armifpef;rif;/ ukefonf
36/
at&mZmwf/ trsKd;om;ausmif;q&m}uD;
37/
OD;oD;/ ukefonf
38/
armifapmarmif/ 'kwd,toif;pktusKd;aqmif
39/
armifbcdkif/ a&Tva&mif*sme,f
40/
OD;ba&$/ jrefrm[dwtoif;OuUX
41/
armifc/ }wd&wetoif;om;wdk@ jzpf=uonf?
Todk@
pme,fZif;rsm;u
wkdif;jynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf
vrf;n$efr_ay;jcif;/
ododomom&yfwnfjcif;rsm;ESifh
tm;wufp&maumif;aomfvnf; EkdifiHa&;tuJGa=umifh pme,fZif;rsm;yg vdkufuGJoGm;&onfrSmum; 0rf;enf;zG,f&myif jzpfonf?
0dkiftrfbDattoif;rsm;udk wpnf;wvHk;wnf; pkaygif;xm;aom *sDpDbDat toif;csKyf}uD;rSm 1921 ckESpfwGif
twdtvif;uGJoGm;aomfvnf; pifppf EkdifiHa&; vrf;pOft& uGJjcif;rSmum; 0dkiftrfbDatb0uyif pwifuGJcJhonf[k qdk&ayrnf?

18

1917 ck/ =o*kwfv (20) &ufwGif bdvyfygvDrmefY +Adwdo#tpdk;&. tdENd,twGif;0efrGefaw*lu tdENd,jynfudk
wm0efcHtkyfpdk;enf; wpwpay;oGm;rnf[lI ajym=um;cJhpOfuwnf;u 0dkiftrfbDatwGif vl}uD;ydkif;ESifh vli,fydkif;wdk@=um;
oabmxm;ESpf&yf uGJcJhavonf? vli,fydkif;u wm0efcHtkyfcsKyfa&;udk awmif;qdk+yD; vl}uD;ydkif;u xdkawmif;qdkcsufudk jiif;qef
uef@uGuf=uavonf? vl}uD;ydkif;rS OD;bwl/ qmzdk;om/ OD;oif; (wl-om-oif;) ESifh OD;zdk;aysmhwdk@u 0dkiftrfbDattoif;rS
xGufoGm;=uonf? ‚if;wkd@rSm+Adwdo# t&if;&Sif wdk@. yGJpm;}uD;rsm;/ olaX;}uD;rsm;jzpfonf? +Adwdo#AsL±dkua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh
ywfoufI t}uHay;yk*~dKvf}uD;rsm; jzpfcJh=uavonf?
pnf;vHk;nDnGwfonfh *sDpDbDat}uD;jzpf+yD;aemuf uGJ=u_onfh ,cktuGJum; 'dkiftmcDudk ,lrnfhtkyfpkESifh 'dkiftmcDudk vufrcH/
udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;udkom vdkcsifonfh tkyfpkwdk@ uGJ=ujcif;jzpfavonf? udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;rSm [krR±l; ac: ukd,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&; jzpfonhf
'dkrDeD,rf paw;wyfpf vufatmufcH vGwfvyfa&;rsKd;jzpfavonf?
'dkiftmcDudk jynfolvlxku vufrcHaoma=umifh (21) OD;tkyfpkrSm vl enf;pk jzpf&avonf? jynfolvufrcHaom 'dkiftmcDudk
ol&d,owif;pm vufudkif b}uD;bazu 'dkiftmcDudk vufcHoifha=umif; t*Fvdyfrsm;udk ygvDrmefxJrSaeI yl;owf&rnfjzpfa=umif;
wpfqifh+yD;wpfqifh jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&;udk t&,loGm;&rnfjzpfa=umif; ol&d, owif;pmrS 0g'jzef@a&;om;av&m ol&d,owif;pm
=oZmuscJh&avonf? ol&d, owif;pmudk vrf;ray:wGif rD;yHk±_d@onftxd jzpfcJhavonf?
jynfolvlxkrSm trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"gwf/ 0HomEkpdwf"gwfrsm; jyif;xefaecJhonf/ xdktcgu EdkifiHjcm;jzpfypPnf;rsm; roHk;bJ
jynfwGif;jzpfudkom oHk;pGJ&eftxd pdwf"gwfwufºuG aecJh=uavonf? xdktcsdefu yifeDacsmESifh a,mxbDonf
wGifus,facwfpm;cJhonf/ y'krRm&Sefom;0wfv#if pkyf+zJcH=u&onftxd jzpfcJhavonf? (21) OD; rygawmhonfh *sDpDbDatrSm xdktcgu
=oZmwufcJhavonf? 0HomEkpdwf"gwf vH_@aqmfa&;ESifh ywfoufIum; ol&d,ESifh jrefrmtvif;owif;pm}uD;ESpfapmifuvnf;
a&;om;=u avonf? EkdifiHjcm;jzpfypPnf;rsm;udk oHk;pGJolrsm;tm; aqmif;yg;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ umwGef; jzifhvnf;aumif;
±_wfcsoa&mf=uavonf?
jynfolvlxku 0HomEkpdwf"gwf jyif;xefaeaomfvnf; *sDpDbDat tzGJ@}uD;rSm acgif;aqmifr_ ay;Ekdifonfh 0g'vrf;pOf
owfowfrSwfrSwfr&dSojzifh aemufydkif;wGif
OD;pdk;odef; acgif;aqmifonfh *sDpDbDat/ OD;pkacgif;aqmifonhf *sDpDbDat/
OD;cspfv_difacgif;aqmifonfh *sDpDbDatponfjzifh tpdwfpdwf tr$mr$m uGJukef=ujyefavonf?
Todk@jzifh 1922 ck/ Edk0ifbm (21) &ufwGif 'dkiftmcDOya'jyKaumifpD a&G;aumufyGJ jyKvkyf&m b}uD;bazwdk@. (21) OD;
ygwDESifh qma*satarmif}uD; acgif;aqmifaom a&$awmif=um;ygwDwdk@u 0ifa&mufta&G;cH=u+yD; v_dif-yk-ausmf *sDpDbDaturl
oydwfarSmufcJhavonf?
'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfum; e,fcsJ@orm;u &mxl;ESifh r#m;onfhpepf jzpfavonf/ wpfenf;qdkaomf &mxl;jzifh
nDnGwfpnf;vHk;r_udk cGJjcif;jzpfavonf/ 'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&; pepft& 0ef}uD;csKyf (4) OD;tm; vpmaiG (5000) pD ay;onf?
'dkiftmcDacwf yxrydkif;wGif 0ef}uD;csKyf (4) OD;&dSonfhteuf jrefrmxJrS jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;csKyf qmarmifcif/ ynma&;0ef}uD;csKyf trfat
OD;armif}uD;ESifh opfawma&;0ef}uD;csKyf qma*sat OD;armif}uD;wdkY jzpf_cJh=uavonf?
b}uD;bazrSm Oya'jyKaumifpDwGif 'kwd,OuUXom jzpfcJhonf? (50000 pm; 0ef}uD;csKyfrjzpfcJhay? xdk@a=umifhvnf;
q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfr_dif;u “awmifusa& EGm;ESpfaumif r0ovdky/ armifbaz ig;axmifr&aoma=umifh” [lI av;csKd;}uD;
a&;cJhjcif;jzpfavonf?
1928
ckESpfwGif
usif;yaom
wwd,t}udrfa&G;aumufyGJwGifum;
OD;cspfv_dif
*sDpDbDatrSvnf;
0ifa&mufta&G;cHavawmhonf? xdka&G;yGJwGif OD;cspfv_difESifh om,m0wDOD;ykwdk@u [krR±l;ygwDtrnfjzifh 0ifta&G;cHjcif;jzpfonf?
b}uD;bazwdk@ (210 OD; url jynfoljynfom;ygwDtrnfjzifh 0ifta&G;cHonf? ol&d,owif;pm t,f'DwmcsKyf a[mif;
OD;wkwf}uD;acgif;aqmifonfh
o&mZygwu
D vnf;
0ifa&mufta&G;cHonf?
0wfvHkOD;eDESifh
OD;bpdk;wdk@url
ygvDrmef
x&Datmf*EkdufaZ;&Sif;trnfjzifh 0ifa&mufta&G;cH =uavonf?
T'dkiftmcDacwfwpfav#mufwGifum; EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;onf &mxl;vkjcif;jzifhom tcsdefawGukefcJh&m jynfolvlxkuvnf;
EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;tay: tav;teuf xm;jcif; r&dSvSbJ t,Hkt=unfenf;cJh=uavonf?
e,fcsJ@tpdk;&url pme,fZif;rsm;tay: zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm; jyKvkyfvmojzifh xdktcgu q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfr_dif;
0ifa&mufa&;om;ay;aeaom 0&Zdef*sme,frSm ydwfvdkuf& avonf?
0HomEktmabmf
1922 ck/ Edk0ifbmvwGifjyKvkyfonfh 'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepft& Oya'jyK v$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJY (21) OD; *dk%f;om;rsm;
0ifa&mufta&G;cHonfhtcg a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufaom trwfOD;a& (79) OD;teuf 21 OD; *kd%f;om; rsm;bufrS (28) OD;om
yg0ifonf?
a&G;aumufyGJ+yD;I tpdk;&zGJ@onfhtcg bk&ifcHu qm[mukwfbwWvm/ bk&ifcHcef@onfh t&m&dS 0ef}uD;csKyfu
qm0DvsHud(b¾ma&;)/ OD;cif (jynfxJa&;)/ trwfxJu 0ef}uD;csKyfrsm;rSm qma*satarmif}uD;(opfawm) ESifh
0wfvHkawmf&OD;armif}uD; (ynma&;)wdk@ jzpf=uonf? 'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;tpwGif (21) OD; *dk%f;om;rsm;rSm v$wfawmfxJY
tiftm;r&dSI bmr# xdxda&mufa&muf raqmif&GufEkdifbJ tpdk;&udk jypfwifa0zefae&onfh twdkuftcHoabmr#om ae=u&onf?
wdkif;jynfwGifrl vd_if-yk-ausmf 0HomEkoydwfarSmuf *dk%f;om;rsm;u tiftm;aumif;vsuf &dSavonf?

19

'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;[lonf v$wfawmftrwfrsm;/ 0ef}uD;csKyfrsm; (xdktcg 0ef}uD;rsm;udk 0ef}uD;csKyf[kac:onf) udk
bmtm%mr#ray;? bk&ifcHESifh ‚if;. t&m&dSrsm; uom tm%mydkifrsm;jzpfI 'dkiftmcDudk vufcHonfh (210 OD;wdk@rSm ‚if;wdk@ajymovdk
rjzpfvmacs/ ‚if;wdk@u v$_wfawmfwGif tm%m&+yD; yl;owfum pdwf}udKufvkyfEkdifvdrfhrnf[k ajrmfrSef;cJhavonf?
'dkiftmcDudk vufrcHonfh vd_if-yk-ausmf 0HomEkrsm;udkrl tpdk;&u zdESdyfavonf? 1923 ckESpfwGif tpdk;&ESifh
rqufqHbl;qdkonfh “bl;toif;rsm;” ay:vmao;onf? Ttoif;rsm;udkvnf; tpdk;&u rw&m;toif; a=unm+yD;
zsufodrf;aponf?
1924 ck/ =o*kwfvxJwGif rEWav;+rdK@Y q&mawmfOD;OwWrudk }ud_Kqdk+yD; pDwef;vSnfhvnfvmonfhtcg vlxkudk ykvdyfrsm;u
zrf;qD;+yD; ±dkufE_Sufypfcwf=uojzifh &[ef;awmf OD;pENdrm ysHvGefawmfrl+yD; '%f&m&olawG trsm;tjym; jzpf&onf?
1924 ck/ atmufwdkbmvwGif q&mawmfOD;OwWrudk &efukef+rdK@Y yk'fr 124 (u) t& zrf;+yD; tvkyf=urf;ESifh axmif'%f (3)
ESpf tjypfay;avonf? &efukefta&;ydkifu yk'fr (144) xkwf+yD; tpnf;ta0;rsm; rjyKvkyf&ef wm;jrpfonf? q&mawmf OD;OwWrudk
zrf;qD;ojzifh bk&ifryef;+cHwGif vlawG pka0;vmonfhtcg jrif;pD;ykvdyfrsm;u ±dkufESufvlpkcGJ&mYvnf; '%f&m&olrsm; &=uonf?
bk&ifryef;+cHwGif ykvdyfrsm;u ±dkufESufvlpkcGJjcif;udk trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;u jypfwifa&;om;=uonf? 0HomEk owif;pmurl
q&mawmf OD;OwWrESifh ywfoufaomowif;rsm;/ rw&m;toif; a=unmjcif;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI tus,fw0Hh a&;om;azmfjyonf?
1924 ckESpfxJwGif *sDpDbDatu xkwfa0onfh 0HomEkowif;pmu a&;onfh acgif;}uD;ydkif;rsm;rSm“tpdk;&t&m&dS tcsdK@jyKvkyfaom rw&m;r_rsm; ay:ayguv
f mrnf pdk;&drfojzifh 0HomEktpnf;ta0;rsm;ESifh tjcm;aom
tpnf;ta0;rsm;udk rusif;y&ef [ef@wm; wm;jrpf[ef wlaya=umif;”
‘EkdifiHjcm;txnftvdyfwdk@udk roHk;xdkufa=umif;’
‘vGwfvyfa&;&vG,f&ef vdkufemaqmif&Gufbdk@ ta=umif;’
‘rw&m;ESdyfuGyfjcif; trsKd;rsKd;’
‘AsL±dku&uf tpdk;&wdk@. taESmifht,Sufa=umifh pdwfrysuf_=uoifh’
‘vGwfvyfpGm ajymqdkcGifhr&aom u|efb0wGif touf&Sifae&jcif;xuf aojcif;um; jrwfonfr[kwfavm’
‘vlcGefawmf tjref±kyfodrf;&efta=umif;’
‘vlcGefawmf ray;olwdk@tm; &mZ0wfaumifuJhodk@ vufxdyfcw_fjcif;/ ykvdyftyfjcif; onf rw&m;ESdyfpufjcif;rsm;jzpfI
&yfpJxdkufa=umif;’
‘vllcGefawmfray;&if bmjzpfovJ/ r&SdIay;onfudk ray;csifI ray;bl;[k jzpfatmif rvkyfxdkuf/ rw&m;vkyfv#if ckcHEkdifonf’
‘q,ftdrfacgif;rSpI bk&ifcHxdwdkifatmif wdkif;oljynfom;wdk@. tapcH ‘0g’ u|efr#omjzpfa=umif;’
‘wkdif;oljynfom;wdk@. tapcH ‘0g’ u|efjzpfaom t&m&dSwdk@udk ra=umuf=uygESifh’
‘Ekdifwdkif; ESdyfpufI ckcHaomtcg tpdk;&wdk@rSm rcufaybl;vm;’
‘jrefrmjynftpdk;&tkyfcsKyfaeyHkonf ESHjynfpkyfiSufi,fudk tajr‡mufESifh&G,fouJhodk@ wlaea=umif;’
‘pnf;vHk;jcif;onf vGwfajrmufjcif;. cGeftm;wnf;/ wdkif;jynfqlyljcif;rSm tpdk;&.wm0ef’
‘ajcvSrf;rysuf=uvifh/ ajcvSrf;ysufv#if cufvdrfhrnf’
ponfh acgif;}uD;ydkif;rsm;jzpfI xdkodk@ a&;om;+yD; jyefvnfwdkufcdkufcJhavonf? xdktcsdefu vlcGefawmf jy\emESifhywfoufI
0HomEkowif;pmu t}uD;tus,f uef@uGuf qef@usifcJhonf? Todk@ owif;pmu tjyif;txefwdkufcdkufa&;om;ojzifh e,fcsJ@tpdk;&
uvnf; jyefzdonf/ t,f'Dwmudk zrf;/ owif;pmrsm;udkodrf;/ 0HomEkowif;rsm;udk zsufodrf;jypfaponf?
1924 ck/ atmufwdkbm (15) &ufxkwf 0HomEkowif;pmwGif 0HomEkowif;pmt,f'Dwm OD;vSxGef;jzL tzrf;cH&onfhta=umif;
jrefrmjynftpdk;&u qdkif&Sifxkwfay;onfhtwdkif; &efukef_+rdK@ &mZ0wfw&m;ol}uD; rpPwmqpfZvmxH ykvdyfrif;}uD;
rpPwmrJ&Duifu pGJcsufwifoGif;I udk,fwdkif tppfcHonfhtwGuf rpPwmqpfZvmu &mZowfyk'fr 124 (u) t& OD;vSxGef;jzLtm;
zrf;qD;&ef 0&rf;xkwfay;onfhtwGif; 1286 ck/ oDwif;u|wf vqef; (14) &ufae@ rGef;wnfhtcsdef =unfhjrifwdkif/
tifpyufawmfudk0if;ESifhtwl ±Hk;odk@tzrf;cH&ef 0ifa&muf&m acwWv$Jtyfxm;cJhaom eHygwf (50 &mZ0wf w&m;ol}uD;±Hk;u
pufwifbmv (21) &ufae@wGif rpPwmqpfZvm±Hk;Y tppfcH&ef a&$@csdef;vdkufI OD;vSxGef;jzLtm; &efukefaxmifodk@ rdwfaqG_trsm;
vdkufydk@vdkufa=umif;
ponfh owif;azmfjyyg&dSavonf?
OD;vSxGef;jzLtm; 1924 ck/ atmufwdkbmv (18) &ufxkwf 0HomEk (jrefrmbmom) owif;pm ‘q,ftdrfacgif;rSpI
bk&ifcHxdwdkifatmif wdkif;oljynfom;wdk@. tapcH 0g u|efr#om jzpfa=umif;’ [laomacgif;}uD;ydkif; a&;om;ojzifh ‘tpdk;&udk
t=unfndK ysufap&ef (odk@r[kwf) trkef;xm;&ef v_H@aqmfay;onf’ qdk+yD; w&m;pGJqdkjcif;jzpfonf?
1924 ck/ Edk0ifbmv (4) &ufxkwf 0HomEkowif;pmwGif

20

vmjyefao;. tpdk;&jyefwrf; rw&m;toif;[k a=un_mjyef+yD
+Adwdo#tdENd,EdkifiHwGif w&m;Oya't& wnfaxmifzGJ@pnf;xm;aom tpdk;&tm; arwWmysufap&ef v_H@aqmfay;onfh
taeusa&mufojzifh tdENd, &mZowf Oya'yk'fr 124 (u) t& ykefuefaomif;usef;aponfhpum;rsm; yg&dSonfh twGufa=umifh/
1924 ck/ pufwifbmv (30) &ufae@pGJ 0HomEk&ufjcm; owif;pm yXrwGJ eHygwf (10) xkwfw&yf/ 1924 ck/ pufwifbmv (8) &uf
ESifh (28) &ufae@ &efukef+rdK@rS jrefrmbmomjzifh xkwfa0aom 0HomEkowif;pm yxrwGJ eHygwf (257/ 265) rsm;udk 1898 ck/
&mZ0wfusifhxHk;yk'fr 99 (u) t& tyfESif;xm;onfh tm%mtwkdif; bk&ifcHrif;}uD;ESifh rl;rwfpHkwdk@u ‚if;owif;pmrsm;udk
{u&Dbk&ifrif;jrwf}uD;ydkif jzpfap&rnf? ‚if;owif;pmrsm;udk awG@&mwGif odrf;ap[k 1924 ck/ Edk0ifbmv (1) &ufae@xkwf
tpdk;&a*ZufyxrwGJ a=unmvdkufonfjzpfa=umif;
[lI azmfjyyg&dSavonf?
Ta=umfjimowif;pm. aemufydkif;wGif txufu acgif;pOfxJwGif yg&dSonfhtwdkif; +Adwdo3udkvdkeDtpdk;&u e,ftoD;oD;&dS
0HomEktoif;rsm;udkvnf; rw&m;toif; a=unm+yD; zsufodrf;ypfaponfudk azmfjyxm;avonf/
rdzk&m;acgif}uD;romawmfta&;
1925
ckESpfxJwGif
jrefrmtrsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;
wnDwnGwfwnf;
wavoHwnf;
xGufonfh
ta&;tcif;wpfckay:vmonf? xdkta&;tcif;rSm oDaygrif;\ rdzk&m;acgif}uD; xdyfpkjrwfbk&m;vwf romawmfta&;tcif;
jzpfonf? rdzk&m;acgif}uD;rSm 1287ck (1925) ewfawmfvqef; (10) &uf eHeufav;em&Dav;q,fig;rdepftcsdefwGif &efukef+rdK@Y
tedpPa&mufonf/?
TudpPwGif orD;awmfrsm;ESifh jynfolvlxku &wem*D&dwGif ewf&GmpHI o&%*Hk rwif&ao;onfh oDaygrif;/tavmif;ESifh
rdzk&m;}uD;. tavmif;udk rEWav;+rdK@odk@ ,laqmif+yD; pkzk&m;av;tavmif;ESifhtwl rif;wkef;rif;. tkwf*lteD;Y tkwf*loGif;vdk=uonf?
TqENtwdkif; tpdk;&xH cGifhawmif;=uonf? tpdk;&u cGifhrjyKay/ xdk@a=umifh jynfoal &m/ orD;awmfrsm;uyg rauseyf=uacs/
owif;pmrsm;uvnf; rauseyf=uacs? TudpPESifhywfoufI owif;pm/ *sme,f/ r*~Zif;rsm;u jynfol@qENudkvnf;
azmfxkwfay;onf? ‚if;wdk@. qENudkvnf; zGifh[=uonf/ Tae&mwGif owif;pmrsm;u wnDwnGwfwnf; a&;=uonf?
apmapmydkif;u EdkifiHa&; t,ltqt& tuGJt+yJrsm; &dSaomfvnf; TudpPwGif pnf;vHk;nDnGwfrd=uonf?
romawmfudpPESifhywfoufI tpnf;ta0;vkyf=uonfhtcgwiG fvnf; owif;pm q&mrsm; yg0if=uonf? pme,fZif;rsm;rS
yk*~dKvfrsm;csnf; pka0;aqG;aEG;ta&;,ljcif; rsm;vnf; jyK=uonf? pka0;onfhae&mrSm q&m}uD; 'D;'kwfOD;bcsKd. aetdrfwGifjzpfonf?
xdktpnf;ta0;odk@
pme,fZif;avmuY
t,ltqwlola&m/
rwlolyg
wufa&muf
=uonf?
xdktcgu
owif;pmq&mawmfawmfrsm;rsm; wuf=uonf[k od&onf? xdktpnf;ta0; usif;y&ef zdwfac:&mwGifvnf;aumif;/ qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;
cs&mwGifvnf; aumif;/ armifa&mu vufrSwfa&;xdk;xkwfjyefonf[k od&onf/ armifa&mrSm ,ck OD;a,m(q&m}uD;aZ,s)jzpfonf?
xdktpnf;ta0;. qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;twkdif; owif;pm*sme,frsm;u wnDwnm wnf; a&;=uavonf/?
1287 ck/ ewfawmfvqkwf (3) &ufxkwf AE<Kv*sme,fwGif ivufwdk/ indK aqG;aEG;cef;rSaeI
‘ivufwdk ? ? &wem*D&d&dS bk&ifrif;jrwftavmif;awmf &efuek f+rdK@&dS rdzk&m;}uD; tavmif;awmf romawmfudpP tppt00udk
orD;awmf/ om;awmf/ aqGawmf/ rsKd;awmf wdk@ESifh wdkif;oljynfom;rsm;yg tvdkus tptqHk; tpdk;&u aqmif&Gufzdk@
oifhw,fxifoy’ponfjzihf a&;avonf?
1287 ck/ ewfawmfvqkwf (8)&uf/ wevFmae@xkwf jrefrm,k0 *sme,fwGif owif;ESifhxifjrifcsuftcef;Y
‘jrefrmjynfwGif wxD;weef; odrf;jref;tkyfpdk;awmfrlcJhaom oDaygrif;w&m;. rdzk&m;acgif}uD;onf r=umrDtcgu ewf&GmpH
uHawmfukef&Smojzifh tavmif;awmfukd rEWav;aejynfawmfodk@ ,laqmif+yD;v#if o+*dK[fjcif;tr_ jyKEdkif&eftpdk;&wdk@xH tcGifhawmif;&m
r&aoma=umifh/ jrefrmwpfjynfvHk; }udrfrD;tkHouJhodk@ ,lusKH;r& ylaqG;'kuQ jzpfae&ayonf? odk@aomf wkdif;jynfurl ravsmhaom
vHk@vjzifh }udK;pm;tm;xkwfvsuf&dSpOf bk&ifcH qm[muGyfbwWvm;u anmifa&$apmfbGm;}uD;tm; ac:+yD;v#if t&Sifrdzk&m;acgif }uD;.
tavmif;awmfudk &efukef+rdK@Y o+*dK[f&ef ajym=um;ojzifh ,cktcg ‚if;tavmif;awmfudk &efukef+rdK@Yyif o+*dK[f&ef ae@&ufowfrSwfI
pDrH jyKvkyfae+yD jzpf&um; wdkif;oljynfom;wdk@rSm cJavor# oJa&ustvm; jzpf&aya=umif;’ [lI a&;avonf?
1925 ck/ 'DZifbmv (6) &uf/ we*FaEGae@wGif &efukef+rdK@ *sLvDAa[mY romawmfta&;udpPESifh ywfoufI
tzGJ@tpnf;aygif;pHk wufa&mufonfh tpnf;ta0;}uD; wpf&yf usif;yao;onf? xdktpnf;ta0;wGifvnf; owif;pmq&mrsm;/
yg0ifaqmif&Guf=uavonf?
tpnf;ta0;wGif
ol&d,q&mpdefu
‘oDaygrif;w&m;}uD;
tavmif;awmf/
t&Sifrdzk&m;acgif}uD;tavmif;awmf/ nDrawmf pkzk&m;tavmif;awmf oHk;yg;pvkH;udk rEWav;+rdK@/ yÌr o*Fg,emwif rif;w&m;}uD;.
tkwf*lawmfteD;Y o+*dK[f&ef Ttpnf;ta0;}uD;u qHk;jzwfa=umif;’ tqdkudk wifoGif;+yD; trsm;oabmwl qHk;jzwf=u onf?
jrefrmhtvif;OD;pdef;u
rdzk&m;}uD;ta=umif;udk
tus,fw0Hhajym=um;onf?
trsKd;om;ynm0efOD;zdk;usm;uvnf;
rif;wkef;rif;}uD;vufxyfu pI rdzk&m;}uD; uG,fvGefonfhae@ txd &mZ0ifa=umif;udk ajym=um;onf?
tpnf;ta0;qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk qufvufaqmif&Guf&ef aumfrwDwpf&yf zGJ@pnf;&m owif;pmq&mrsm;tygt0if
q&m0efOD;b&if/ OD;baz/ OD;wkwf}uD;/ 0wfvHkOD;b'Gef;/ OD;zdk;jr/ OD;b&Sif/ OD;bkd;opf/ OD;pdef;/ rpPwm x&yf*sD/ OD;buav;/ OD;cifarmif/ OD;a'G;/
q&m0ef OD;oif;armif/ a'gufwma&mif;/ OD;odef;armif/ 0wfvHkOD;odef;armif/ OD;babvyf/ OD;vSxGef;jzL/ OD;xGef;vS/ OD;atmif}uD;/ OD;bzJ/

21

rpPwmt[D;/ rpPwmememvm;/ rpPwm bDrmeD/ rpPwm&Syfa&Sm/ rpPwmcsefacsmcdkif/ rpPwmref;±dk;/ 0wfvHkOD;cspfvd_if/ om,m0wDOD;yk/
OD;pdk;odrf;/ rpPwmbdefacsmif;wdk@ yg0if=uavonf?
+Adwdo#e,fcsJ@tpkd;&rl pme,fZif;rsm;ESifh jynfol@qENudk qef@usifavonf? rEWav;wGif yvdyfa&m*gjzpfyGm;aoma=umifh
rEWav;odk@ o,f,lcGifhrjyKEkdif[k ta=umif;jy jiif;qefavonf? pme,fZif;rsm; +Adwdo#tpdk;&. ta=umif;jycsufrSm rcdkifvHk/
yvdyfa&m*grSm rajymy_avmuf/ Tta=umif;jycsufr#jzifhqdkv#if pdwfauseyfp&mr&dS/ r=umrDu }uD;us,fcrf;em;pGm o+*dK[f+yD;pD;cJhaom
a*smhbk&if.r,fawmf tuf'0yfbk&if. rdzk&m; tvufZENm; rdzk&m;}uD;. romudpPenf;wl o+*dK[f&ef cGifhjyKoihfonf ponfjzifh
a&;=uonf? yvdyfa&m*grSm rEWav;wGif Edk0ifbmvtwGif;u jzpfyGm;onf? aEGOD;ayguw
f Gif rdzk&m;}uD;.tavmif;udk rEWav;odk@
,laqmifcGifhjyKrnfvm; [k AE<Kv*sme,fu tpdk;&udk ar;jref;a&;om;onf?
rEWav;+rdK@wGif xkwfa0onhf 1925 ck/ 'DZifbm (12) &ufxkwf jre_frmorRw owif;pmu acgif;}uD;ydkif;rSaeI
‘jrefrmwdk@ESvHk;om;udk vSHzsm;jzifh qGawmhrnfavm’ [k a&;avonf?
jrefrmorRwowif;pmu ‘rsm;r=umrD&uftwGif;u ewfjynfpHvGefawmfrlaom t&Sif oDaygbk&ifrif;jrwf . rdzk&m;acgif}uD; romawmfta=umif;ESifh
pyfvsOf;I tpdk;&wdk@ pDrHaqmif&Guf jyKrlyHkwdk@udk =um;od&onfrSm u|Ekfyfwdk@ESifhwuG jynfoljynfom;taygif;wdk@yg vGefpGm pdwfrcsrf;om
jzpf=u&a=umif;/ TromawmfudpPY tpdk;&wdk@. aqmif&Gufxdkufonfh wm0ef0wW&m;jzpfonf[k qdktyfaom pHtdrfawmfY
rdzk&m;acgif}uD;[laom trnfemreftrsKd;tEG,fawmfyg vdkufavsmnDpGm tavmif;awmfudk oifhw,favsmufywfatmif
pD&ifcs,fvS,fjcif;/ o+*dK[f&ef psmyeudpPtwGuf vHkavmufpGm p&dwf}uD;aiGxkwfay;jcif;/ crnf;awmf r,fawmf wdk@. tkwf*lrsm;&dS&m
rEWav;+rdK@odk@ aqmif,lo+*dK[fapjcif; tp&dSaom aqmif&GufzG,fudpPt00wdk@wGif wpfpHkwpfckaom tcsufudkr# aqGawmfrsKd;awmf/
orD;awmfrsm;ESifh wdkif;ae/ jynfol&Sifvltaygif;wdk@. tvdkqENtwdkif; auseyfatmif pDrHaqmif&GuftcGifhta&;ray;a=umif;
=um;od&onfhtwdkif; trSefjzpfcJhygv#if rif;rsKd;rif;EG,f [lor#wdk@onf uyfOD;tp r[morRwrS qif;oufcJhaom tm'dpöAE<KaersKd;
aeEG,fjzpfjcif;a=umifh urBmay:wGif wpfyg;aom rif;wdk@xuf ,SOf+ydKifbufuif;atmif Zmwd*k%fawmfESifh jynfhpHkjrifhjrwfonfh omuD,
tEG,fawmfrsm; jzpf=uonf[k ,Hk=unfv#uf &dSae=uaom Zmwdrmef&dSol u|Ekfyfwdk@ jrefrmjynfom;taygif;wdk@tm; rsKd;±dk; xHk;pHtwdkif;
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a&mufayvdrfhrnf?
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ta=umif;t&if;wdk@rSm vHkavmufaomta=umif;jycsuf[k ,lqEdkifrnfr[kwfyg? u|Ekfyfwdk@ rEWav;+rdK@ ,ckESpfjzpfyGm;aom
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r&dSEkdif=uay?
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aus;Zl;awmfudk apmifhodwkef@jyefjcif;/ bmomt,l0g'twdkif; vdkufemaqmif&Gufjcif; paomtr_udpPt00wdk@udk wdkif;jynfoabmus
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t&m&mwdkif;Y tpdk;w& jzpfaponfh trdef@tm%mrsKd;wdk@udk toHk;jyKjcif;rSm y,fazsmuf+yD;v#if urBmausaomf
O'gef;ra=uqdkaompum;uJhodk@ jrefrmvlrsKd;taygif; wdk@ rarhEkdifzG,f&mjzpfaom 0rf;enf;jcif;txdrf;trSwf}uD;wpfckudk
xyfrHrjzpfyGm;&atmif t&Siftpdk;&wdk@u owdw&m;jyKapvdka=umif; aumif;jrwfaompdwx
f m;ESifh a&;om; azmfjyvdkuf&ayownf;’
[lI a&;avonf?
'DZifbm (13) &ufY a&$wd*Hkbk&m;awmifbuf pwk'DomZ&yfY +rdK@vHk;u|wf tpnf;ta0;}uD; usif;y=ujyefonf?
xdktpnf;ta0;u rdzk&m;acgif}uD;romawmfudk wdkif;oljynfom;wdk@ tvdktwdkif; jynfh0&ef t*Fvefjynf ygvDrmefodk@vnf;aumif;/
tdENd, bk&ifcHcsKyfxHodk@ a=u;eef;±dkuf=um;&efESifh xdktwGif; romawmfudk o+*dK[fjcif;rjyK&ef qHk;jzwf=uonf?
odk@aomfvnf; jrefrmjynfbk&ifcHu ‘&wem*D&d&dS oDaygbk&iftavmif;awmfESifh nDrawmfzk&m;tavmif;awmfudk
jrefrmjynfodk@,lI
rdzk&m;}uD;tavmif;awmfESifhtwl
rEWav;+rdK@wGif
o+*dK[f&ef
tpdk;&u
cGifhrjyKa=umif;/
rdzk&m;acgif}uD;tavmif;awmfudk &efukef+rdK@/ a&$wd*Hkbk&m; awmifzuf bk&ifryef;+cHwGif 1925 ck/ 'DZifbmv (17) &uf/ 1287ck /
jymodkvqef; (4) &uf/ =umoyaw;ae@ (1) em&DtcsdefY pHeef;awmfrSxkwfI nae (4) em&DwGif o+*dK[frnfjzpfa=umif; tpdk;&u aiG
(20000) xkwfay;rnfjzpfa=umif;’ESifh romawmf aumfrwDodk@ ta=umif;jyef=um; a=unmav onf?
romawmfaumfrwDu
romawmfudpP
tpdk;&wdk@
aqmif&GufykHudk
rauseyfojzifh
uef@uGufaom
+rdK@vHk;u|wftpnf;ta0;qHk;jzwfcsufudk tdENd, bk&ifcHcsKyfxH a=u;eef; ±dkuf=u&m bk&ifcHcsKyfu ‘jrefrmjynf a*:0gemESifh
tr_aqmiftrwfwdk@ pDrHcsufudk 0ifa&mufpGufzufjcif; rjyKvdka=umif;’ ESifh bk&ifcHcsKyftyg;awmf+rJ twGif;0efxHrS
a=u;eef;jyef=um;avonf?
odk@jzifh 1925 ck/ 'DZifbmv (17) &ufwGif tpdk;&qHk;jzwfcsuftwdkif; rdzk&m;acgif}uD;tavmif;awmfudk o+*õK[f=u&avonf?
Todk@ o+*õK[fonfukd orD;awmfrsm; 0ufrpGwf0efaxmufESifh romawmfaumfrwDu tEWdr tqHk;pGef o+*õK[fjcif;[k todtrSwf
rjyKbJ ,m,DacwW Z*FroabFmjzifh pHtdrfawmfrS a&$@ajymif;I tkwf*l oGif;xm;onf[k todtrSwfjyK=uonf [lI AE<Kv*sme,fu
owif;ay;azmfjyavonf?

22

28-12-25 xkwf jrefrm,k0*sme,fwGifrl
trSmpm *sme,fwpfywfydwfxm;jcif;
ewf&GmpHt&Sifrdzk&m;acgif}uD;. tavmif;awmfudk 'DZifbmv (17) &uf (ewfawmfvqef; 4 &uf) ae@wGif &efukef+rKd@Y
o+*õK[fjcif; jyKonfudk 0rf;enf;aom txdrf;trSwfjzifh Tjrefrmh,k0*sme,fudk 'DZifbm (21) &ufae@wGif rxkwfbJ ,ck 'DZifbmv
(28) &uf/ wevFmae@rS (2) ywftwGuf aygif;I xkwfa0&onfjzpfyga=umif;
[lI ygvmojzifh jrefrmh,k0*sme,fu *sme,fwpfywfydwf+yD; qENjyonfudk od&ayonf?
Tta&;tcif;udk avhvm=unfhaomtcg jrefrmtrsKd;om;pme,fZif;rsm;u ‘t&Sifrdzk&m;acgif}uD;’‘tavmif;awmf’
‘orD;awmf/ om;awmf/ aqGawmf/ rsKd;awmf’ ‘pHtdrfawmf’ ‘ewf&GmpH’ ‘uHawmfukef’ ponfh pum;vHk;rsm;udkoHk;v#uf trsKd;om;a&;
pdwf"gwfudk Edk;qGay;+yD; jynfolESifhtwl &yfwnfv_yf&Sm;cJh=uonfudk awG@&avonf? jrefrmtrsKd;om; pme,fZif;rsm;onf
EkdifiHa&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm; uGJjym;=uovdk uGJjyJr_&dSae=uaomfvnf; Trdzk&m;acgif}uD; psmyeta&;wGif wnDwnf;/ woHwnf;
&dS=uaomfa=umihf ‘trsKd;om;a&;usawmh aoG;pnf;=uonf’ [lI qdk&ayrnf?
a=umfjimESifhowf
tpdk;&u trsKd;om;a&;owif;pmrsm;udk oydwfarSmufjcif;
1927 ckESpfu jzpfonf? txufygacgif;pOfrSm 1927 ck/ arv (}uD;) &ufxkwf ol&d,owif;pm acgif;}uD;ydkif;rS
acgif;pOfjzpfavonf? tjzpftysufrSm +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@ tpkd;&u trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;tay: zdESdyfwdkufcdkufonfh ta&;tcif;wpf&yf
jzpfonf?
xdktcgu
jrefrmtrsKd;om;owif;pm
trsm;pku
+Adwdo#tpdk;&.
'kdiftmcD
tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk
tjyif;txefwdkufckdufaecsdefjzpfonf? trsKd;om;owif;pmtrsm;pk jynfol@bufu &dSavonf? a=umfjimrSm owif;pmrsm;twGuf
toufaoG;a=umwpfck jzpfonf? T ‘ta=um’ odaom +Adwdo#tpdk;&u trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;udk a=umfjimray;bJ ‘owf&ef’
}uHonf?
xdkodk@ +Adwdo#tpdk;&u vkyf}uHyHkudk ol&d,owif;pmu zGifhcsonf/ ol&d,. a&;om;csuft& 1927 ck/ arv (7) &ufwGif
tpdk;&u a=umfn_may;rnfh owif;rsm; pm&if;udk xkwfjyefa=unmavonf? xdkjyefwrf;wGif tpdk;&u a=umfnmay;rnfh
owif;pmaygif; 34 apmif &dSonf? xdkteuf 14 apmifrSm t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh vnf;aumif;/ 13 apmifrSm
jrefrmbmomjzifhvnf;aumif;/ 5 apmifrSm tdENd, wdkif;&if;om;bmomjzifh vnf;aumif;/ wpfapmifrSm t*Fvdyf-u&ifESpfbmomjzifh
vnf;aumif;/ wpfapmifrSm w±kwfbmomjzifhvnf;aumif; xkwfa0=uonf?
xdktxJwGif jrefrmbmomjzifh xkwfa0aom owif;pm 14 apmifteuf 3 apmifrSm jrefrmtrsKd;om;ydkifr[kwf/
11apmifomv#if jrefrmtrsKd;om;ydkifjzpfonf/ tm;vHk;+cHKI =unfhv#if jrefrmtrsKd;om;ydkif 11 apmifom ygonf? usef 23 apmifrSm
EdkifiHjcm;om;ydkif owif;pmrsm;jzpfonf?
tpdk;&u a=unmray;bJ oydwfarSmufcH&aom owif;pmrsm;rSm ae@pOfowif;pmrsm;jzpfaom ol&d,/ jrefrmhtvif;/
AE<Kv/ a&$jynf/ &ufjcm; owif;pmrsm;jzpfaom ol&d, (&ufjcm;)/ atmifjrefrm/ arm&0wD/ e,l;bm;rm;/ &efukefar/
&ufowWwpfywfv#if wpf}udrfxkwfa0jzpfaom AE<Kv/ 'D;'kwf/ jrefrmh,k0/ ukefonftoif;/ vpOfxkwfr*~Zif;jzpfaom ol&d,/ '*kef/
vef'eftwf/ +Adwdo#bm;rm;/ a&$[oFm/ aiGpENm/ u0drsufrSef/ a&$vdyfjym/ tHh=ozG,f/ omoema&;qdkif&m owif;pm/ v,fwDw&m;
owif;pm/ omoem+rdKifAk'<bmom w&m;owif;pm/ "rRp}uFm ponfwkd@ jzpfavonf?
tpdk;&u a=umfjimay;rnfh owif;pmrsm;teuf o[m,/ tif'Dyif;'ifh/ &ckdif0HomEkESifh wdkif;cspfowif;pmwdk@rSm
‘wdkif;jynfbufuaeI ,ckxuf ydkrdka&;om;v#if tpdk;&pm&if;rS Ekwfy,fjcif;cH&rnfudk pdk;&drfzG,f&m&dSa=umif;’ ESifh ol&d,owif;pmu
a&;om;avonf?
xdk@jyif TudpPESifhywfoufI ol&d,u +Adwdo#tpdk;&vkyyf Hkudk a0zefwdkufcdkuf&mY ‘Tta&;udpPwGif tpdk;&wdk@
pdwfoabmxm;udk pOf;pm;&ef vdkayonf/ vltrsm;zwfI wdkif;jynfbufuaeI a&;om;aom owif;pmudk a=umfjimray;/ A[k-*Gtvdkawmf&d EdkifiHjcm;om;ydkifowif;pmrsm;udk a=umfjimay;I usefowif;pmrsm;udk oydwf arSmufonfrSm rsm;pGmyif
wpfbufpD;eif;jyKvkyfa=umif; xif&Sm;aya=umif;/ tpdk;&u a=umfjimay;jcif;rSm wdkif;oljynfom;tvltrsm; od&dSap&efjzpfI
vltrsm;rzwfaom owif;pm tvdkawmf&d owif;pmwdk@udkom a=umfjimay;jcif;onf trSeftuef vkyfvdkaom apwemr&dS[k
xif&efta=umif;&dSayonf? a=umfjimay;jcif;tm;jzifh tpdk;&wdk@udk axmufyHhaeaom owif;pmrsm;rSm apmifa&wdk;wuf
ydkrdka&mif;cs&rnf[k txif&dScJhv#ifvnf; rSm;,Gif;aom txifyifjzpfayonf’ [lI a&;avonf?
wpfzef ol&d,uqufI ‘ol&d,owif;pmwdkuftwGuf a&;om;&rnfqdkv#if tpdk;&a=umfjimE_ef;rSm ol&d,owif;pm
±dk;±dk;a=umfjimE_ef;xuf tvGefyifenf;yg;ojzifh/ tpdk;&a=umfjimr&&dSonfhtwGuf ol&d,wdkufrSm repfemtusKd;r,kwfay/ tjcm;tpdk;&
wdk@ oydwfarSmufcH&aom owif;pmwdk@rSmvnf; xdkenf;twlyif jzpfayvdrfhrnf? odk@&mwGif tpdk;&jyKrlyHkrSm uav;uvm;jzpfae±Hkr#ru
rdrdwdk@tcGifhta&;udk tvGJoHk;&m odk@ a&muf&dSaea=umif;/ wenf;tm;jzifhvnf; tpdk;&udkaxmufyHhonfhowif;pmudk csD;jr‡ifhrnf/
raxmufcHonfh owif;pmudk oydwfarSmufrnf[k jyKvkyfaejcif;rSm wdkif;jynfukd apmfum;&m a&muf&dSaea=umif; ta=umif;odom&ef
a&;om;azmf jyvdkufaya=umif;’ [lI acgif;}uD;ydkif;uaeI a&;om;avonf?

23

tpdk;&. oydwfarSmufcH&aom owif;pmwpfapmifjzpfonfh ‘&efukefar’ owif;pmuvnf; TudpPESifhywfoufI
tawmf}uD; rausreyf jzpfavonf? &efukefar owif;pmt,f'DwmESifh wdkuf&SiftufpfpDxwfwm csm;*sD;u arv 11 &ufwGif
tpdk;&xH pma&;onf? ‚if;u rdrdrSm owif;pmwdkufydkif&Sifjzpfaomfvnf;/ tpdk;&a=umfjimE_ef;xm;ESifh pnf;urf;csufrsm;udk bmr#rod&/
odk@ygvsuf &efukefarowif;pmudk pm&if;xJrxnhfbJ csefvSyfxm;onf/ wdkif;a&;jynfa&;wGif u|Ekfyfwdk@ESifh oabmxm;jcif;wlaom
tjcm; owif;pm tcsKd@udkvnf; tpdk;&a=umfjimay;aompm&if;wGif rxnhfbJ csefxm;onf[k od&onf/ xdkowif;pmrsm;rSm ol&d,/
e,l;bm;rm;/ a&$jynf/ AE<Kv/ jrefrmhtvif;/ atmifjrefrmESifh jrefrmh,k0wdk@ jzpfonf? xdkowif;pmrsm;onf 'dkiftmcDpepfudk rjywf
twdkuftcHa&;om;ae=u+yD; +Adwdo#tpdk;&tkyfcsKyfyHkESifh ‚if;tpdk;&. enf;y&d,m,frsm;udk twdtvif;jypfwifa&;om;ae=uaom
emrnfausmf owif;pmrsm; jzpfonf? xdkowif;pmrsm;udk tpdk;&a=umfjimxnhfaompm&if;rS csefvSyfxm;ojzifh tpdk;&udk
twdkuftcHa&;om;aom owif;pmrsm;wGif tpdk;& a=umfjimrxnfh[k rqdkaomfvnf; qdk&m a&mufae+yD? tpdk;&u wdkif;a&;jynfa&;/
EkdifiHa&;t& uvJhpm;acsaomtaeESifh tqdkyg owif;pmrsm;udk oydwfarSmufxm; onf[k oHo, &dSae&mwGif tpdk;&a=umfjim
xnfhaom owif;pmpm&if;rS csefvSyf xm;jyefav&m ydkI oHo,jzpfp&m &dSaeayonf? vl}udKufrsm;I wdkif;a&;jynfa&;wGif
ta&;}uD;+yD; apmifa&rsm;pGm xkwfa0&aom owif;pmudkrS tpdk;&a=umfjim xnhfrnfhqdk&v#ifvnf; &efukefarowif;pmudk
csefvyf&efroifhay? ,ck pmudk a&;&jcif;rSm tpdk;&a=umfjimrsm;twGuf tcE_ef;ESifh pnf;urf;owfrSwfcsufrsm;udk csdefq=unfh±_&ef
rdrdwdk@tcGifhta&;r&onfhta=umif; od&dSap&efESifh &efukefarudk tpdk;&a=umfjim xnfhaom owif;pm&if;wGif tb,fa=umifh
rxnfhonfhta=umif;udk od&SdEdkif&ef a&;om;&jcif;jzpfonf? ,cka&;om;ar;jref;aom pmudk tpdk;&a=umfjim&zdk@ awmif;yefpm
jzpfonf[k txifrrSm;&ef txl;awmif;yef ygonf’ [lI a&;avonf?
&efukefarowif;pmwdkuf&SifESifh
t,f'Dwm.pmudk
tpdk;&w&m;a&;Xme
twGif;0ef
tdyfcsft,fvfeDaumu
‘&efukefarowif;pmudk tpdk;&a=umfjimay;rnfh owif;pmpm&if;rS Ekwfy,fxm;onf? tpdk;&a=umfjimxnfhoGif;jcif;ESifh ywfoufI
rnfodk@r# tusKd;ta=umif;azmfjyajymqdkjcif; rjyKvdka=umif;’ ESifh jyef=um;avonf?
TonfrSm +Adwdo#udkvdkeDacwfu e,fcsJ@tpdk;&u trsKd;om;owif;pmtay: ,Of,Ofuav;ESifh zdESdyfwdkufcdkufjcif;/
wpfenf;qdkaomf ‘owf’ jcif; jzpfavonf?
ol&d,owif;pmu xdkudpPESifh ywfoufI acgif;}uD;ydkif;a&;+yD; jyefvnf wdkufcdkuf&mY jrefrmacgif;pOftay:u
t*Fvdyfbmomjzifhvnf; Todk@ acgif;pOfwyfcJh ao;onf?
"Government boycott of nationalist news papers"
wpfcsufv$wfOya''%f
1926/ 27/ 28/ 29 ckESpfrsm;twGif; jrefrmjynfwGif bk&ifcHtajymif;tvJ/ AE<u olykef/ qdkifrGefaumfr&Sif pHkprf;a&;tzGJ@rsm;
ay:vm+yD; *sDpDbDatrsm;vnf; tpdyfpdyftr$mr$m uGJukefavonf?
1927 ck/ 'DZifbmv 20 &ufwGif bk&ifcHqm[mukwfbwWvmESifh bk&ifcHopf qmcsm;vftif;epfwdk@
&mxl;tajymif;tvJjyKvkyf+yD; aemufwp_fae@rSmyif qm[mukwf bwWvm t*Fvefodk@ jyefoGm;avonf?
1928 ck (jrefrmouU&mZf 1290wGif) a&$bdke,frS AE<u&aohu ol@ukd,folrif;avmif;jzpfonf[lI a=unmonf?
&yfeD;&yfa0;u pkaqmif;&&dSonfh aiGrsm;ESifh vlpk+yD; t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk armif;xkwfrnf? +yD;v#if omoemjyK"rR&mZmtjzpf tESpf 30
=umatmif tkyfpdk;rnf[lIvnf; a[majym+yD; olykefxonf/ pwifolykefxpOfu aemufvdkufvlolrenf;ojzifh a&$bdke,fwGif
tawmfuav; v_yf&Sm;oGm;onf/ owif;pmrsm;uvnf; AE<Ku&aoh olykefxonfh owif;rsm;udk owif;ay;azmfjy=uonf?
txl;xkwfowif;pmrsm;wGifvnf; azmfjy=uonf/ xdk@aemuf +Adwdo#tpdk;& &mZ0wfr_usL;vGefa=umif; xif&Sm;onfqdkum zrf;qD;+yD;
1929 ckwGif AE<u&aohESifh aemufvdkuf 25 OD;wdk@tm; wpfoufwpfu|ef; axmif'%ftjypf ay;vdkufavonf?
1928 ckwGif tdENd,ESifh jrefrmjynfudk tkyfcsKyfa&; rnfodk@wdk;wufay; oifhonf qdkonfudk pHkprf;ppfaq;&efqdkI
qm*|efqdkifrGeftrSL;&dSonfh tzGJ@0if (7) OD; qdkifrGef aumfr&Sifukd cef@tyf+yD; pHkprf;ppfaq;r_rsm; jyKvkyfaponf? tdENd,jynfu qdkifrGef
aumfr&Sifudk oydwfarSmufonf? 1929 ckwGif qkdifrGefaumfr&Sif jrefrmjynfodk@ vma&muf pHkprf;ppfaq;onf? xdkpHkprf;r_udk
*sDpDbDattoif;csKyfuvnf; vHk;0 oydwfarSmufonf/ aumfr&SiftzGJ@ rEWav;rS &efukefodk@ oabFmjzifhtjyefwGif a&vrf;
wpfav#mufwGif 0HomEkrsm;u ‘qdkifrGef aumfr&SifjyefoGm;’ qdkonfhqdkif;bkwfrsm;ESifh qD;}udK=uavonf? 21 OD; acgif;aqmifrsm;u
tppfcH&mwGifrl jrefrmjynfudk tdENd,ESifh cGJ+yD; oD;jcm; tkyfcsKyfa&;ay;&ef awmif;qdk=uavonf? 1929 ck/ azazmf0g&Dv (28) &ufwGif
usif;yonfh 'dkiftmcD v$wfawmf tpnf;ta0;uvnf; jrefrmjynfudk tdENd,rS cGJxkwfay;&ef rJrcGJ&bJ qHk;jzwfcsuf cscJhonf?
xdkumvwGif *sDpDbDatrsm; uGJaeavonf/ xdktoif;rsm;rS (1) OD;pdk;odef; (*sDpDbDat)udk =unfhjrifwdkif/ Am;u&mvrf;wGif
toif;wdkufzGifh+yD; aqmif&Guf=uonf/ (2) OD;pk*sDpDbDat toif;wdkufudk =unfhjrifwdkif uv,f+cHwGif zGifh+yD; 0HomEkowif;pm
xkwfa0vsuf &dSonf/ (3) OD;cspfv_dif *sDpDbDattoif;wdkufudk bk&m;vrf;wGifzGifh+yD; aqmif&Gufonf/ (4) 21OD; acgif;aqmifrsm;u
*sDpDbDattrnfudk qufroHk;awmhbJ jynfoljynfom; ygwDtrnfjzifh 'dkiftmcDv$wfawmfwGif ae&m,laqmif&Guf=uavonf?
1930 ckESpfum; jrefrmEdkifiHa&;ordkif;wGif rSwfwrf;wif&rnfhESpfyifwnf;/ xdkESpfwGifyif jrefrmawmifolv,form;xku
+Adwdo#tpdk;&tm; vufeufpGJudkif+yD; awmfvSefcJh=uaoma=umifhyif?
1930 ckESpfwGif tjcm;aom tjzpftysuf}uD;rsm;ESifhvnf; &ifqd_kif=u&ao;onf?

24

1930 ck/ arv 5 &uf (jrefrmouU&mZf 1292 ck/ uqkefvqef; 9 &uf) wGif jrefrmjynfY r}uHKzl;onfh ivsif}uD;v_yfI
yJcl;+rdK@wGif wdkufrsm+ydK+yD;/ vlawGtrsm;tjym; aoa=u'%f&m&=uonf?
1930 ck/ arv 26 &uf (jrefrmouU&mZf 1292 ck/ uqkefvuG,fae@)wGif ukvm;/ Armt"du±k%f;jzpfyGm;onf?
Tt"du±k%f;wGif tpdk;&. pHkprf;a&; tpD&ifcHpm t& ukvm;-Arm 250 cef@aoqHk;+yD; ukvm;u ydkrsm;onf[k qdkonf?
'%f&m&olrSm 2500 cef@&dSonfqdk.? Tt"du±k%f;wGif ukvm; 1500 cef@ tdENd,jynfodk@ jyefoGm; =uonf [kvnf; qdkonf?
1930 ck/ arvwGifyif qdkifrGefaumfr&SiftpD&ifcHpmxGufvmonf? xdktpD&ifcHpm wGif tdENd,ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHrSm
vlaer_tqifhtwef;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;Y a,bk,s tusKd;cHpm;r_rsm; qef@usifaeI tdENd,ESifhcGJ+yD; tkyfcsKyfa&;udk pDrHay;xdkufonf [lI
axmufcHxm;onf?
1930 ck/ ZGefv 24&uf (jrefrmouU&mZf 1292 ck/ e,kefvqkwf 14 &uf)wGif &efukefaxmifxr_}uD; jzpfyGm;onf/
&efukefaxmifxr_rSm 1930 ckESpfwGif xif&Sm;onfh v_yf&Sm;r_wpfck jzpfavonf?
ukvm;/ Armt"du±k%f;t+yD;wGif jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&;}udK;yrf;r_ordkif;Y jynfol vlxkudk us,fjyef@pGm
pnf;±Hk;wdkufyGJ0ifEkdifaom EkdifiHa&;tzGJ@tpnf;opfwpf&yf ay:vm cJhonf? xdktzGJ@tpnf;opfay:vmjcif;onf jrefrmjynf EdkifiHa&;=oZm
vl}uD;rsm;vufxuf
rS
vli,frsm;vufodk@
ajymif;vJa&muf&dSvmjcif;yif
jzpfavonf?
xdktzGJ@tpnf;opfum;
wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;yifjzpfonf? wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;tzGJ@0ifrsm; . emrnfa&S@wGif ocifwyfI ac:=uavonf? xdk@a=umifh
wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;udk ocifygw[
D lIvnf; ac:a0:=uavonf?
wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;[lI twdtvif; zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmifI wdkif;jynfodk@ a=unm &ef zefwD;vmaom ukvm;/
Armt"du±k%f;jzpfyGm;&jcif;ta=umif;&if;ESifh wdk@Arm tpnf;t±Hk;. 0g'um; Todk@ jzpfavonf?
1930 ckESpfxJwGif &efukefqdyfurf;rS oabFm}uD; ulvDtvkyform;rsm;u vkyfcwdk;awmif;qdkr_ jyK=uonf? wpfae@v#if 1
usyf 8 yJ &onfrSm enf;onf/ 2usyf txd wdk;ay;&rnf[k awmif;qdk=uonf? ukefwifukefcs tvkyfuefx±dkuf t&if;&Sifrsm;u
wdk;ray;bJ aeonf? xdktcg ukvm;ulvD 2000 u tvkyfrqif;bJ oydwfarSmuf=u avonf? ukvm;ulvDrsm;ae&mwGif
Armtvkyform;rsm;udk wpfae@ 2 usyf ay;+yD; ckdif;onf? tvkyfvufrJhjzpfaeonfh Armrsm;u 0ifvkyfaomtcg
ukvm;tvkyform;rsm;u olwdk@udk tvkyfjyefay;yg/ 1usyf 12 yJESifh vkyfygrnf[k awmif;=uonf/ tvkyf&Sifu ukvm;ulvD (1000)
cef@udk tvkyfjyefvkyfckdif;onf/ xdkodk@ tvkyf&SifESifh ukvm;rsm; tay;t,lwnfhonfudk rodI tvkyfqif;vmaom
Armtvkyform;rsm;udk ukvm;rsm;u ajymifavSmif=uonf? TwGif tvkyfjyKwf&onfh Armtvkyform;rsm;u apmfum;cH&onf
qdkum ukvm;ESifhArm ±dkufyGJ}uD; jzpfavonf? xdkae@um; (1930) ck/ arv (26) &uf jzpfavonf/ ukvm;Arm±dkufyGJrSm
qdyfurf;rSonf +rdK@wGif;ae&mtESH@odk@ wrk[kwfcsif; ysH@ESH@ul;pufoGm;avonf?
xdkukvm;Armt"du±k%f;wGif
wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;trnf&dS
ociftzGJ@tpnf;rsm;
ay:vmavonf?
wdk@ArmrsKd;cspfocifvli,frsm;u wdk@Armpmwrf;trSwf (1) udk xkwfjyef+yD; wjynfvHk;odk@ jzef@a0=uavonf/ xdkpmwrf;wGif
wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;. wdkufwGef;csuftaeESifh “tcsif; trsKd;om;taygif;wdk@ ArmEkdifiHonf toifwdk@/ igwdk@ EdkifiH r[kwfavm/ toifwkd@ igwdk@EkdifiHudk cspfcif=uzdk@tvkyfrSm
toif_wdk@/ igwdk@. r[m0wW&m;awmf}uD; r[kwfygavm/ [kwf\/ ArmEdkifiHonf Armzdk@ jzpfap&rnf/ rarhravsmh=uukefvifh/
nDnGwf=uukefavmh” pon_fjzifh wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;. wdk@Arm0g'/ trsKd;om;0g'udk xkwfazmfvd_kuf=uavonf?
tqdkygpmwrf;. rsufESmzHk;wGifvnf;
“Armjynfonf wdk@jynf/
Armpmonf wdk@pm/
Armpum;onf wdk@pum;/
wdk@jynfudk cspfyg/
wdk@pmudk csD;jr‡ifhyg/
wdk@pum;udk av;pm;yg”
[laom aºuG;a=umfoHudk ±dkufESdyfazmfjyxm;avonf?
wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;udk pwifwnfaxmifolrSm ocifbaomif;jzpfonf? ocifbaomif;ESifh vkyfazmfudkifzuf
OD;aqmifzufrsm;rSm ocifApdef/ ocifodef;armif/ ocifxGe;f a&$/ ocifvSabmf polwdk@ jzpfavonf? wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;
wnfaxmifpu 0g'rSm trsKd;om;a&;0g'jzpfonf/ aemufwGif bHk0g'ac: qdk&S,fvpf0g'udk ,Hk=unfvufcH+yD; ysH@ESH@apcJhonf? vli,f
ausmif;om;rsm; wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;xJodk@ 0ifvm+yD; wdk;wufaom EdkifiHa&; cH,lcsufjzifh us,fjyef@pGm pnf;±Hk;EdkifcJhavonf?
1930 ckESpfESifh 1931 ckESpfxJwGif tjyif;txefqHk;jzpfyGm;onfh v_yf&Sm;r_}uD;um; jrefrmEkdifiHa&;ordkif;wGif rSwfwrf;wif&rnfh
q&mpHacgif;aqmifonfh awmifolv,form; awmfvSefa&; qifE$Jr_}uD; jzpfavonf?
jrefrmjynfY v,form;awmfvSefa&;}uD;ray:rD tdENd,jynfwGif ta&;awmfyHk}uD; ay:aeavonf? r[wWr*E<D
acgif;aqmifaom uGefu&ufygwDu OD;aqmifI EkdifiHa&; wdkufyGJrsm; t}uD;tus,fqifE$Jaeaomtcsdef jzpfavonf?
Tta&;awmfyHkudk jrefrm owif;pmrsm;u tav;teufxm;I azmfjy=uonf/ jrefrmowif;pm}uD;rsm;u tdENd,
ta&;awmfyHkowif;/ tdENd,owif;qdk+yD; ae&mrsm;rsm;ay;I ae@pOf azmfjyay;=uavonf?

25

Todk@ tdENd,ta&;awmfyHk owif;rsm;udk jrefrmowif;pmrsm;u OD;pm;ay;azmfjy=uonfrSm ta=umif;&dSonf? xdktcgu
tdENd,jynfESifh jrefrmjynfrSm wGJvsufyif&dSao;onf? jrefrmjynfudk tdENd,jynf. jynfe,fwpfcktjzpf +Adwdo# udkvdkeDorm;u
owfrSwftkyfcsKyfvsuf&dSonf? xdk@a=umifh tdENd,jynf. vGwfvyfa&; wdkufyGJonf jrefrmjynf\ wdkufyGJESifh qufpyfaeavonf?
apmapmydkif;uqdkygv#if jrefrmjynfu tdENd,jynf. EkdifiHa&;udk=unfhI EdkifiHa&;v_yf&mS ;r_rsm;udk jyKvkyfae=uonf r[kwfygvm;?
xdk@a=umifh tdENd,jynfwGif jzpfyGm;ay:aygufaeaom ta&;awmfyHkudk jrefrm owif;pmrsm;u tav;teufazmfjyjcif;jzifh
jrefrmjynfolvlxk rsufpdudk zGifhay;onf? vrf;n$efjyaeonf[k qdkEkdifavonf?
tdENd,ta&;awmfyHk owif;rsm;udk jrefrmowif;pmrsm;omru jrefrmjynfwGif ukvm;bmomjzifhvnf;aumif;/
t*Fvdyfbmomjzifhvnf;aumif; xkwfa0aeaom owif;pmrsm;uvnf; a&;om;azmfjy=uonf? TwGif jrefrmjynftpdk;&u
tdENd,jynf bk&ifcHcsKyf xkwfjyefxm;aom wpfcsufv$wftm%mjzifh zdESdyfr_rsm; pwif jyKvkyfavawmhonf?
tdENd,jynfbk&ifcHcsKyfu pmyHkESdyfwdkufOya'udk wpfcsufv$wf xkwfjyef&mY jrefrmjynfwGif xkwfa0aeaom
tdENd,trsdK;om;ydkif &efuke_far owif;pmu xdkOya'udk uef@uGufaomtm;jzifh acgif;}uD;ydkif;ra&;bJ qENjyonf?
xdktrdef@xkwfjyefonfrSm 1930 ck/ arvwGif jzpfonf/ jrefrmjynftpdk;&u &efukefarowif;pmudk pmyHkESdyfwdkuf Oya't& tmrcHaiG
(2000) awmif;onf? &efukefaru Todk@ tmrcHawmif;jcif;rSm ta=umif;jy rcdkifvHkbJ wrifESdyfuGyfjcif;jzpfonf? ray;Edkif[kqdkum
owif;pmudk xkwfa0jcif;rS &yfpJvdkufonf? &efukefarowif;pmonf yHkESdyfwdkufOya' xkwfjyef+yD;aemuf jrefrmjynfwGif xdkOya't&
yxrqHk;cH&aom owif;pm jzpfonf?
&efukefarowif;pm Todk@ cH&aomtcg ol&d,owif;pmu jrefrmjynf&dS pme,fZif;rsm;onf xdkOya'udk
uef@uGufwdkufckduf&ef E_d;aqmfavonf? ol&d, owif;pmu 1930 ck/ arv (15) &ufxkwf owif;pmwGif acgif;}uD;ydkif;rSaeI
‘pmyHkESdyfwdkufOya'udk jrefrmjynfY toHk;jyKjcif;’ Press Ordina nee in Burma [laom acgif;pOfjzifha&;&mY
‘tvGefqdk;0g;aom pmyHkESdyfwdkufOya't& owif;pmwdkufrsm;tm; ESdyfuGyfjcif; jyKonfudk tenf;i,fr#yif
oabmrwlEdkifojzifh tpdk;&. jyKrlyHkudk u|Efkyfwdk@ tjyif;txef uef@uGuf&jcif;jzpfavonf?
‚if;owif;pmtm; ta=umif;cdkifvHkpGm r&dSygyJvsuf jrefrmjynftpdk;&u pmyHkESdyw
f dkufOya'wGif yg&dSaom tm%mrsm;udk
tvG,fwul toHk;jyKvkdufjcif;udk axmuf±_v#if tjcm;owif;pmwdkufrsm;udkvnf; tpdk;& oabmtwdkif; tmrcHaiGrsm;/
awmif;vdrfhrnfvm;[k pdk;&drfruif;zG,f jzpf&avonf/
jrefrmjynfwGif +idrfoufat;csrf;pGm &dSygvsuf jynfykdiftpdk;&u ESdyfuGyfa&; tm%mrsm;udk vG,fvG,fulultoHk;jyKjcif;onf
rsm;pGmjypfwif ajymqdkxdkufavonf/ tdENd,jynfbk&ifcHcsKyf}uD;u pmyHkESdyw
f dkufOya'udk xkwfjyefvdkufpOftcgu xdkxkwfjyefcsufonf
pmyHkESdyfwdkuf. vGwfvyfa&;udk rsm;pGmxdcdkufvdrfhrnf[k u|Ekfyfwdk@ awG;xifcJhonf?
xdkawG;xifrdonfhtwdkif; ,cktcg rSefuefae+yDjzpfaoma=umifh jrefrmjynf&dS pmyHkESdyfwdkuf&Sifrsm;onf ayghayghqqraebJ
rdrdwdk@. vkyfief;udk wpfenf;enf;ESifh umuG,f apmifha&Smuf&ef tjrefta&;,loifh=uay;a=umif; owday;pum;a&;om; azmfjyvdkuf&
ayownf;’ [lI a&;om;vdkufayonf?
ol&d,owif;pmu }udKwifa[mudef;xkwfonfhtwdkif;yif xdkyHkESdyfwdkuf wpfcsufv$wf Oya't& &efukef+rdK@wGif
xkwfa0aeaom owif;pmwdkuf (5) wdkuf/ qufI cH=u&jyefavonf? xdkta=umif;udk 1930 ck/ ZGefv (28) &ufxkwf
ol&d,owif;pmyg atmufygowif;rsm;u azmfjyaeay_onf/
owif;pmwdkufwpfckudk ykvdyfwdk@ odrf;ydkufjcif;
&efukef+rdK@ 'DpBwdwf&mZ0wfw&m;ol}uD;u 0&rf;xkwfonfudk remcHI ykvdyfwdk@ onf wr,fbmomjzifh tywfpOf
xkwfa0aom (36) vrf;&dS ‘qGmwef'&rf’ ac: owif;pmwdkuf udk ZGefv 26 &ufae@u odrf;ydkufvdkufa=umif;?
jrefrmjynfESifh yHkESdyfpufwpfcsufv$wfOya'
(yHkESdyfxkwfa0jcif;rS &yfpJ=ujcif;)
yHkESdyfpufqdkif&m wpfcsufv$wfOya't& jrefrmjynftpdk;& tmrcH aiG (2000) pD awmif;qdk=uojzifh atmufygpmyHkESdyfpufrsm;
ray;bdk@ jiif;qdk=uojzifh yHkESdyfxkwfa0jcif;rS &yfpJvdkuf=ua=umif; (1) wr,fbmomjzifh ae@pOfxkwfa0aom ‘a'qdkyum&D’
(2) [dENLae@pOfowif;pm ‘yg&m;csfy&m;um;csf’/
(3) 0HomEkowif;pm
xdkowif;pm (3) apmiftjyif ,ae@xd yHkESdyfpufqdkif&m wpfcsufv$wf Oya'a=umifh ydwf&aom owif;pmwdkufrsm;rSm (5)
wdkufjzpf+yDjzpfa=umif;/
TonfrSm +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@tpdk;&u yHkESdyfwdkuf wpfcsufv$wf Oya'jzifh pwifzdESdyfr_ jyKvmjcif; jzpfonf? 1930 ckESpfukefESifh
1931 ckwGif jrefrmEkdifiHa&;ordkif;Y rSwfwrf; wif&onfh jrefrmawmifolv,form;awmfvSefa&;}uD; ay:aygufvmaomtcgwGifum;
e,fcsJ@tpdk;&u owif;pmrsm;tay: zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;tjyif;txef jyKvmavonf/ jrefrmtrsKd;om;owif;pm rsm;url iHk@rcH/
jyefvnfuef@uGufwdkufyGJ0if_=uavonf?

26

v,form;awmfvSefa&;ESifh zdESdyfr_
1930 ckESpfup+yD; 1933 ckESpftxd jrefrmjynfpyg;aps;rSm usqif;aeonfjzpfI pD;yGm;a&;=uyfwnf;onfhESpfrsm;jzpfavonf?
pyg;aps;rSm wif;wpf&mv#if ig;q,fhig;usyf aps;om &dSonf? xdktajctaersKd;wGif om,m0wD/ jynf/ o&uf/ tif;pdefe,frsm;rSm
tcGefay;aqmif&mY aESmifhaES;onfqdk+yD; tpdk;&u cyf=urf;=urf;zdESdyfonf? xdka=umifh acgif;aqmifrnfholom&dSv#if v,form;rsm;rSm
xcs&eftoifhyif?
TESpfxJwGif bk&ifcH qmcsm;vftif;epfonf jrefrmjynf jyKjyif ajymif;vJ tkyfcsKyfa&;twGuf bdvyftpdk;&ESifh wdkifyif&ef
bdvyfodk@ c%jyefoGm;pOf jrefrmrsm;udk ac|;odyfonfhoabmjzifh qma*satarmif}uD;udk acwWbk&ifcHtjzpf cef@tyfcJhonf?
qma*satarmif}uD; wdkif;cef;vSnfhvnf&if; om,m0wDodk@ a&mufonfhtcg om,m0wDe,fwGif tpdk;&ppfwyfrsm;.
rw&m;ESdyfpufr_rsm;udk cH&onfh aus;&Gm vlxku acwWjrefrmbk&ifcH qma*satarmif}uD;udk pma&;+yD; wdkif=uonf? qma*sat
armif}uD;u tpdk;&ppfwyfrsm;u aus;&Gmrsm;udk ESdyfpufonf[lI wdkifwef;onfhpmrsm; &a=umif;/ tcGefawmfray;bJaev#if Todk@yif
cH&Ekdifa=umif;/ o\ar"ESifh vlcGefudk tpdk;&u zsufodrf;&ef r}uH&G,fa=umif; ajym=um;avonf?
aus;&Gmawmifolv,form;rsm;rSm cH&zefrsm;vmaomtcg q&mpH acgif;aqmif +yD; vlcGef/ ajrcGefray;a&;/ v,fcHray;a&;/
cspfwD;a=u; rqyfa&;/ vdk&mopfEiS fh0g;udk ae&mra&G; ckwf,loHk;pGJa&;wdk@twGuf 1930 ck/ 'DZifbm 22 &uf (1292ckESpf/ jymodk vqef; 4
&uf)wGif om,m0wDe,f awmifydkif; a&wdkuf&GmrSpI ykefuef=uavawmh onf? vufeufpGJudkif+yD; e,ftrsm;tjym;wGifyg
v,form;awmfvSefa&;}uD; qifE$J=u avonf?
xdktcg +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@tpdk;&u zdESdyfr_rsm; wdk;wufjyKvkyfvmavonf/ 'DZifbmv 24&ufae@wGif =unfhjrifwdkif/
Am;u&mvrf;&dS OD;pdk;odef; *sDpDbDat toif;wdkufudk olykefr_ESifh qufonfhtoif;qdk+yD; ppfwyfESifh0dkif;/ pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;udk odrf;um
toif;wdkufudk csdwfydwfvdkufonf? aus;&Gmrsm;wGif ppfwyfrsm;csxm;jcif;/ &Gmrsm;udk rD;±d_@jcif;/ 0HomEkacgif;aqmifrsm;udk zrf;jcif;rsm;/
tpdk;&u jyKvkyfonf/ xdktcgu tcsKyfcH&olrsm; ta&twGurf Sm 12000 xufrenf; &dSvdrfhrnf[lI 1936 ckESpfxkwf
ol&d,ESpfywfvnf txl;xkwfpmapmifwGif azmfjyxm;onf?
1930 jynfhESpfwGif ponfh v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;ESifh ywfoufI ol&d,ESifh jrefrmhtvif; owif;pmwdk@u awmifolv,form;rsm;
=uyfwnf;vGef;I/ zdESdyfcH&vGef;I xºuGjcif; jzpfonf[k a&;=uonf? Todk@a&;aomtcg e,fcsJ@tpdk;&u owif;pmrsm; tay:
zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fvmjyefavonf? odk@aomfvnf; owif;pmrsm;u *VKefolykefv_yf&Sm;r_ owif;rsm;udk azmfjy+rJazmfjy=uonf?
v,form;olykefacgif;aqmif}uD; q&mpHudk 1931 ckESpfxw
J GifrS zrf;rdonf? q&mpHudk zrf;rdaomfvnf; te,fe,fu
olykefv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;rSm &dS+rJ&dSaeao;onf/ owif;rsm;u a&;+rJa&;ae=uonf?
xdkumvu jrefrmtrsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;rSm ol&d,ESifhjrefrmh tvif;ESpfapmif omv#if =oZm}uD; owif;pmrsm;jzpfonf?
TESpfapmifteuf ol&d,rSm olykefta&;ESifh ywfoufI ydkIcH&onf? 'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;udk vufcHcJhpOfu =oZmuscJh/ oduQm
uscJhaom ol&d,owif;pmrSm olyket
f a&;wGif jyefvnf=oZmwufvmonf?
ol&d,owif;pmu 1930 jynfhESpf/ 'DZifbmvtwGif; wdkif;jynfrSm aiGa&;/ a=u;a&;=uyfwnf;aeI
wdkif;jynft=uyftwnf;udk tpdk;&uom rajz&Sif;v#if ,rf;yHkrD;usjzpfrnf pdk;&onf[k acgif;}uD;ydkif;ua&;onf? xdkodk@a&;+yD;
'DZifbmv (22) &uf wGif om,m0wDolykefxonf? ol&d,ESifh jrefrmhtvif;wdk@u olykefowif;rsm;udk ae@pOfazmfjy=uonf? 1931 ck/
Zefe0g&Dv (12) &ufwGifrl ol&d,owif;pmudk tpdk;&u wcsufv$wfOya't& tmrcHaiG wpfaomif;awmif;avawmhonf?
xdktcg ol&d,u udk,fhxifjrifcsufuav;udkrS ra&;&v#if acgif;}uD;ydkif;ra&;bJ aernfqdk+yD; tpdk;&. zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_udk
uef@uGufonfhtaejzifh acgif;}uD;ykdif;rxnhfbJ aeonf? acgif;}uD;ydkif;ae&mwGif uGufvyfcsef+yD; uGufvyftwGif; txufatmuf
tv,fwnfhwnfhwGif ‘wpfcsufv$wfOya't&
ol&d,owif;pmwdkuftay:
tmrcH
aiGwpfaomif;
awmif;xm;jcif;a=umifh
uef@uGufaomoabmESifh wpfpHkwpf&mr# u|Ekfyfwdk@ a&;om; azmfjyjcif;rjyKbJ &yfpJxm;onf’
[lI ±dkufESdyfazmfjyavonf? Todk@ uef@uGuf&m tpdk;&u wif;cHaeao;onf/ wpfvESifh (11) &uft=um azazmf0g&Dv (23)
&ufwGifrS tpdk;&u tmrcHaiG jyefay;aoma=umifh acgif;}uD;ydkif; jyefa&;avonf?
ol&d,udk tmrcHawmif;jcif;rSm pme,fZif;rsm;tay: udkvdkeDtpdk;&u zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fjcif;jzpfI aqmif;yg;rsm;a&;+yD;
uef@uGuf=ujcif;vnf; &dSonf/ Todk@ a&;=u&mY ajrcGefESifhvlcGefudk ray;ESifhra&;=u/ avsmh,l&efESifh a&$@qdkif;&efom a&;=uonf?
Todk@aom t}uHay;jcif;rsKd;udk ol&d,owif;pmomv#ifr[kwf/ tjcm; aom owif;pmrsm;ESifh wpfjynfvHk;uyif
ajyqdk=ua&;om;=uonf? odk@jzpfygvsuf ol&d,udkomv#if tjypfwif+yD; tmrcHawmif;jcif;rSm roifhavsmf[k a&;=uonf?
xkd@jyif ol&d,tay: tpdk;&u zdESdyfvmonfrSm owif;rsm;tay: zdESdyfvmjcif; jzpfI armfv+rdKif+rdK@rS xkwfa0onfh
auo&owif;pmuvnf; acgif;}uD;ydkif;a&;I uef@uGufao;onf? auo&owif;pmydkif&SifrSm ol&d,owif;pmwdkufrS xGufoGm;aom
o&ZygwDacgif;aqmif OD;wkwf}uD;jzpfonf? OD;wkwf}uD;onf ol&d,tay: rauseyfr_ uav;rsm;&dSaomfvnf; owif;pm vGwfvyfcGifh/
csKyfjc,fjcif;cH&onfudk rauseyfI uef@uGufa&;om;jcif; jzpfavonf?
auo&owif;pmu ‘owif;pmrsm; vGwfvyfa&;ta=umif;’
'Freedom of the Press' [laom
acgif;pOfjzifha&;om;aom acgif;}uD;ydkif;ed*Hk;wGif ‘,cktcg owif;pmwdk@ vGwfvyfcGifh ydwfyifxm;jcif;cH&aomfvnf; vGwfvyfcGifh&&dSzdk@&m

27

}udK;pm;tm;xkwf=uygrl wpfae@ae@rSm vGwfvGwfvyfvyfa&;om;cGifh&&dSrnfrSm ,HkrSm; p&m r&dSa=umif;/ ta=umif;tm;avsmfpGm
a&;om;vdkuf&ayownf;’ [lI owif;pm vGwfvyfcGifh &&dSa&;twGuf awmif;qdkwdkufyGJ0if=u&ef wdkufwGef;avonf?
+Adwdo#udkvdkeDorm;url
jrefrmjynfwGif&dS+yD;jzpfaom
wpfcsufv$wf
Oya'ESihf
tm;r&ao;I
aemufxyfwpfcsufv$wfOya'wpfckwdk;um xkwfjyefavonf? jrefrmjynf awmifolv,form;ta&;awmfyHkESifhywfoufI tdENd,
bk&ifcHcsKyf avmh'ftm;0if;u xkwfjyefaom wp_fcsufv$wftrdef@wGif ‘xdkodk@ wpfcsufv$wf trdef@ xkwf qifhvdkuf&jcif;rSm jrefrmjynf&dS
v#dK@0Sufaomif;usef;aom toif;rsm;onf b*Fvm;jynf&dS v#dK@0Sufaomif;usef;aom toif;rsm;ESifh wGJzufvkyfudkifvsuf&dS+yD;
om,m0wD olykefxºuGa&;udk tm;ay;tm;ajr‡muf jyKvkyfay;onfhta&;udk umuG,f Edkif&efjzpfonf’ [lI azmfjyxm;avonf?
Ttrdef@udk xkwfjyefonfrSm om,m0wD v,form; olykefxr_ }uD; ay:aygufvmonfESifh ra&S;raESmif; 1931 ck/ Zefe0g&DvwGif
xkwfjyefjcif; jzpfavonf/
xdk@jyif pmyHkESdyfwdkufqdkif&m wpfcsufv$wfOay'udkvnf; xkwfjyefao;&m 1931 ck/ Zefe0g&Dv (17) &ufwGif
tdENd,atmufv$wfawmf Oya'jyK tpnf;ta0;Y bk&ifcHcsKyfavmh'ftm;0if;u ‘ykefuefxºuGr_udk tm;ay;apaom tr_rsm;wGif owif;pmvnf; yg0ifonf/ xdkowif;pmrsm;onf tm;ray;&rnhf
pdwfapwemrsm;udk tm;ay;Ivnf;aumif;/ trsdK;cspfcifonf[laom pdwfudk wpfrsdK;wrnf jzpfavmufatmif oHk;pGJjcif;jzifh
vnf;aumif;/ vltrsm;. pdwfudk tqdyf&nf avmif;onfESifh wlonf/ wdkif;jynf tkyfcsKyfa&; pepfudk w&m;ojzifh
tusdK;tjypfajymjcif;udk u|Efkyfra=umuf/ xdkuJhodk@ tusdK;tjypf a&;jcif;udk vufcHvdkonf/ odk@aomf owif;pm. =oZmudk
oHk;oifhonfhae&mwGif roHk;rlI ysufjym;apvdkaom oabmESifh tEW&m,fruif;aom tr_rsdK;udk tm;ay;onfhtcg tpdk;&onf
=unfhIraeEdkifoavmuf jzpfaeygonf’ ponf jzifh ajym=um;avonf?
Todk@ bk&ifcHcsKyfu owif;pmrsm;udk +cdrf;ajcmufajym=um;+yD; jrefrmjynfodk@ wpfcsufv$wftrdef@ xkwfqifhum
zdESdyfcJhavonf?
xdkr#ESifhvnf; tm;r&ao;I 1931 ck/ =o*kwfv (1) &ufwGif tdENd, bk&ifcHcsKyf avmh'ftm0if;u wpfcsufv$wftrdef@
xkwfjyefavonf? xdk wpfcsufv$wfOya'wGif yk'fraygif; (28) ck yg&dSonf? owif;pmrsm;tay: wdkuf±dkuf zdESdyfcsKyfcs,faom
tcsufrsm;vnf; yg&dSav&m ‚if;rSm ‘yk'fr 11 (1) t& olykefta&;ESifhpyfvsOf;aomfvnf;aumif;/ vlrsdK;tcsif;csif; rkef;xm;apa&;ESifh pyfvsOf;Iaomfvnf;aumif;
xdkuJhodk@aom ta&;rsm;udk rxnhfroGif;& [k owif;pmwdkuf apmifha&SmufolxHodk@ trdef@ay;Ekdifa=umif;/ tpdk;&u tmrcHaiG (2000d)
xufrydkaom aiGudkwifxm;&rnf[k trdef@xkwfqifhEkdifa=umif;’
‘yk'f 13(1) t& azmfjy&mwGif tpdk;&uay;aom owif;rsm;udk rxd cdkufapvdka=umif;/ owif;pmwdkufrsm;u tmrcHaiG
wifxm;+yD;onfhaemuf wpfcsufv$wf Oya'udk usL;vGefv#if tmrcHaiGudk odrf;,lEdkifa=umif;/ aemufwpf}udrf qufvufusL;vGefv#if
wdkuf&dSypPnf;rsm;udkyg odrf;,lEkdifa=umif;’ [lI yg&dSavonf?
v,form;olykefv_yf&Sm;r_twGif; ol&d,owif;pm tmrcHaiG wpfaomif; tawmif;cH&onfhtjyif OD;pdk;odef; }uD;rSL;onfh
*sDpDbDatESifh qufoG,faom toif;aygif; (98) oif;udk rw&m;toif; a=unmonf/ ZD;ukef;/ rpdefO. ‘om,m0wD ta&;awmfyHk’
pmtkyftwGuf ykvdyfrsm;u ol&d,wdkufudk 0if&Sm=uao;onf/ *VKefolykefESifh ywfoufonfhowif;rsm;ESifh a0zefcsufrsm;udk xdktcgu
Oya'jyK trwfOD;apmu t*Fvdyfbmomjyefqdk+yD; EdkifiHjcm;wdkif;jynfrsm;odk@ wifydk@ojzifh OD;apm. tdrfudk ppfwyfESifh 0dkif;&Sm=uonf?
xdkpm&Gufudk yHkESdyfay;onf[lI ,lqonfh OD;[ef&dSef. jrefrmjynfapmifh owif;pmwdkufrS cJpmvHk;rsm;udkvnf; odrf;,lppfaq;=uonf?
xdkta&;wGif tkwfzdkOD;apm rSm *VKefOD;apm[lI trnfwGifcJhonf[k od&avonf?
1931 ck/ =o*kwfv (1) &ufwGif tdENd,bk&ifcHcsKyfu jrefrmjyn_fukd wpfcsufv$wf Oya'xkwfum zdESdyfav&m
trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;u uef@uGufqef@usifcJh=uonf/ acgif;}uD;ydkif;rS a&;om;uef@uGufr_rsKd;jyK=uonfhtjyif acgif;}uD;ydkif;ra&;bJ
uef@uGufjcif;rsdK;vnf; jyKonf? wpfcsufv$wftrdef@udk owif;pmwGif azmfjy&mY ol&d, owif;pmu ‘wpfcsufv$wf trdef@xkwfjyef+yD;
vuf±Hk;tm;udk;tpdk;&. vufeuf’ [lI acgif;pOfwyfum azmfjyavonf?
jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJordkif;0if v,form;olykefxonfhumvwGif xkwfjyef aom ol&d,uazmfjyonfh
wpfcsufv$wftrdef@rSm atmufygtwkdif;jzpfonf?
wpfcsufv$wftrdef@xkwfjyef+yD
vuf±Hk;tm;udk; tpdk;&. vufeuf
tdENd,EkdifiH bk&ifcHcsKyfu jrefrmjynftxl;ta&;udpPtwGuf =o*kwfv (1) &uf ae@u wpfcsufv$wftrdef@xkwfjyefa=umif; ta=umif;jycsuf
xdkbk&ifcHcsKyfu xkwfjyefaomta=umif;jycsufrsm;wGif azm_fjyxm;onfrSm jrefrmjynfwGif 1930 jynfhESpf/ 'DZifbmvu
olykefxºuG&m te,fe,fodk@ ysH@ESH@ae a=umif;/ xdkolykefxºuGa&; ysH@ESH@rnfhab;&dSaea=umif;/ tcsKd@ae&mrsm;wGif vlrsKd;cGJjcm; aom
pdwfrsKd;rsm; &dS=u+yD;v#if ukvm;rsm;. toufESifh ypPnf;rsm; qHk;±_H;apatmif wdkufcdkufaea=umif;/ tdENd,EkdifiHtpdk;&urlum;
jrefrmjynfwGif rnfokd@ +idrf;csrf; om,map&ef jyKvkyfrnfudk vnf;aumif;/ vltrsKd;rsKd;wdk@udk umuG,fap&ef vnf;aumif;/ rnfodk@
jyKvkyf&rnfudk tpOf wdkifyifaea=umif;/

28

ppfOya'
jrefrmjynfwGif ppfOya'xkwfjyef&v#if oifhroifhudk pOf;pm;&m ,cktcgwGif ppfOya'rxkwfjyefoifh[k qHk;jzwfvmcJha=umif;/
,cktcg +rdK@&Gmykvdyfrsm;ESifhyif aqmif&Guf oifhonf[k oabm&a=umif;/ ,cifu pDrHtkyfcsKyfvmcJhorQ\ tawG@t}uHKrsm;udk
axmufI vuf&dSOya'ESifh rvHkavmufojzifh jrefrmjynfwGif rlvtaetxm;twdkif; jzpfap&ef wpfcsufv$wfOya'udk
xkwfjyef&a=umif;/ xdkodk@ wpfcsufv$wf Oya'xkwfjyefonfrSm w&m;Oya'enf;vrf;&dSoavmuf EdkifiHa&;rsm; aqmif&Gufonfudk
aESmifh,Suf&efr[kwf/ jrefrmjynftpdk;&u olykefrsm;udk cGifhv$wfa&;ESifh aiGa&;a=u;a&; ulnDa&;udk qufvufvkyfudkifrnf[k
a&;om;xm;av onf/
wpfcsufv$wfOya'wGif yk'fraygif; 28 ck &dSa=umif;/
qlylaomif;usef;olrsm;
yk'fr 3(1) t& tpdk;&tm; ykefuefa&;udk tm;ay;ulnDonf[k xif&aomolrsm;udk zrf;qD;Edkifa=umif;/
xdkodk@ oHo,ruif;olrsm;udk ESdyfuGyf&ef yk'fr 4(1) wGif azmfjyxm;a=umif;/ xdkyk'frt& woD;wjcm;wpfae&mwGif
r0if&[lIvnf;aumif;/ rae&[lIvnf;aumif;/ trdef@t& aexdkif&ef owfrSwfxm;aomae&mwGifom ae&rnf[lIvnf;aumif;
owfrSwfEdkifa=umif;/
ra&$@rajymif;Ekdifaom ypPnf;rsm;udk
ydkifqdkifcGifh&&ef
yk'fr 7(1) wGif tpdk;&ppfom;rsm;ESifh ykvdyfrsm; oGm;vmtoHk;cs&ef tvdk&dSu toHk;csEkdif&efajrudk ,lydkifcGifh/ ajray:wGif
ppfom;rsm; taqmuftOD aqmufvkyfydkifcGifh/ vrf;rsm;azmufvkyf&eftvdk@iSm opfyifrsm;/ au_mufyJoD;ESHrsm;udk z,f&Sm;EkdifcGifhrsm;
,lxm;a=umif;/ xdk@jyif odrf;,lxm;aom ajray:&dS a&$@ajymif;Ekdifaom ypPnf;/ ra&$@ajymif;Ekdifaom ypPnf;rsm;udk odrf;,lEdkifa=umif;/
vufeufrsm;udktkyfcsKyfjcif;
yk'fr (9) t&rSm aygufuGJapaom "gwfaq;rsm;/ cJ,rf;rD;ausmuf/ vufeuf ud&d,mrsm;udk ta&mif;t0,f jyKvkyfjcif;udk
ydwfyifxm;a=umif;/ xdk azmfjycJh+yD;aom ypPnf;rsm; vuf0,fwiG f&dSaom vlrsm;udk tpdk;&u todtrSwfjyKaomae&mwGif xm;&dSap&ef/
a&$@ap&ef trdef@ay;Ekdifa=umif;/
toGm;tvmvG,fulap&ef
ul;oef;oGm;vm&ef toHk;csaom pufbD;/ &xm;/ oabFm tp&dSonfwdk@udk tpdk;&tvdk&dSu ay;ap&ef/
ul;oef;oGm;vm&mwGif ta&;a&mufvmonfhtcg tpdk;& oabmtwdkif; jyifqifajymif;vJoGm;vmEkdifap&ef trdef@ay;xm;a=umif;/
pmwdkufESifha=u;eef;Xme
yk'fr 12(1) t& pmwdkufjzifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ a=u;eef;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ pum;ajyma=u;eef;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif;
ay;ydk@aom owif;rsm;udk qdkif&mESifhwdkifyifI jzwf,lEkdifa=umif;/
owif;rsm;udk ydwfyifjcif;
yk'fr 13(1) t& olykefta&;ESifh pyfvsOf;Iaomfvnf;aumif; vlrsKd;tcsif;csif; rkef;xm;apaomta&;ESifh
pyfvsOf;Iaomfvnf;aumif; xdkuJhodk@aom ta&;rsm;udk rxnfhroGif;&[k owif;pmwdkuf apmifha&SmufolxHodk@ trdef@ay;Ekdifa=umif;
tpdk;&u tmrcHaiG (2000d) xufrydkaom aiGudk wifxm;&rnf[k trdef@xkwfppfEkdifa=umif;/
yk'fr 13(1) t& azmfjyxm;&mwGif tpdk;&uay;aom owif;rsm;udk rxdckduf apvdka=umif;/ owif;pmwdkufrsm;u tmrcHaiG
wifxm;+yD;onfhaemuf wpfcsufv$wf Oya'udk usL;vGefv#if tmrcHaiGudk odrf;,lEdkifa=umif;/ aemuf wpf}udrf qufvuf usL;vGefv#if
wdkuf&dSypPnf;rsm;udkyg odrf;,lEkdifa=umif;/
yk'fr (4) ESifh (9) udk usL;vGefolrsm;tm; axmif'%f (3) ESpfESifh '%faiGrsm; tjypfay;Ekdifa=umif;/
tpdk;&t&m&dSudkvnf;aumif;/ rD;&xm;wGif tvkyfvkyfoludk vnf;aumif; aoG;aqmifv#if axmif'%fwpfESpf tjypfay;Ekdifa=umif;/

29

aumv[mvowif;v$ifholrsm;
vltrsm; xdwfvef@wkefv_yfavmufatmif tajctjrpfr&dSaom aumv[mv owif; v$ihfolrsm;udk axmif'%fwpfESpf
tjypfay;Ekdifa=umif;/
'%faiGrsm;
olykefrsm;udk vufcHaomolrsm;udkvnf;aumif;/ vlrsKd;jcm;rsm; wdkufcdkufv#if aomfvnf;aumif;/ xdkodk@ jyKvkyfaomolrsm;udk
tpdk;&u wpf&GmvHk;udk '%fwyf Ekdifa=umif;/
aemufqufwGJ tydk'fwGif txufyg oabmt& jrefrmjynf aus;&Gmtuf Oya'udk jyifqifxm;a=umif;/
wpfcsufv$wfOya'wpfckvHk;udk oHk;zdk@rSm yJcl;/ [Hom0wD/ om,m0wD/ jynf/ ykodrf/ [oFmw/ o&uf/ rtlyif/ ajrmif;jr/ zsmyHk/
awmifil/ tif;pdefe,frsm;wGif toHk;cs Ekdifa=umif;/ tpdk;&u tjcm;e,frsm;udk toHk;jyKvdkv#if a=umfjimI toHk;jyKEdkifa=umif;/
yk'fr 3/ 4/ 13/ 14/ 15/ 16/ 17/ 18/ 21/ 25/ 27/ 28 wdk@udk wpfjynfvHk; toHk;jyKEdkifonf[k xkwfjyefxm;a=umif;/
(ol&d,owif;pm 4-8-31)
xdktcgu owif;pmrsm;onf olykefv_yf&Sm;r_toif;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI udk,fydkifvdkufonfh owif;rsm;udkvnf;
azmfjy=uonf? tpdk;&u xkwfjyefay;aom owif;rsm;udkvnf; azmfjy=u&onf? pifppftpdk;&u xkwfjyefay;aom owif;rsm;rSm
owif;rSefrsm;udk zHk;uG,fxm;aom owif;rsm; jzpfonf/ owif;rSefudk ray;/ owif;pmrsm;wGif azmfjyaomowif;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI
tpdk;&u oabmrusonfhtcg tpdk;&u xkwfa0aom ol}uD;a*Zufowif;pmu ajz&Sif;csufowif;rsKd;a&;um owif;pmrsm;wGif
azmfjyonfh owif;rsm;udk ajczsufonf? ol}uD;a*Zuf t,f'Dwmu ay;aom owif;rsm;udk owif;pmrsm;u azmfjyay;=u&onf?
ol}uD;a*Zuf t,f'Dwmu ay;aom owif;rsm;wGif owif;pmrsm;u a&;aom owif;rSm rSm;onf [k azmfjy+yD; ‘Todk@
tjypfvGwfcGifh r&dSaom rSm;,Gif;jcif;rsm;udk usL;vGefjcif;rjzpfap&ef owif;pmrsm;u }uD;pGm owdxm;oifhonf jzpfa=umif;’ [laom
avrsKd;ESifh a&;wwfonf? tpdk;&uay;aom owif;rsm;udk owif;pmrsm;u ‘ol}uD;a*Zuf t,f'DwmxHrS &&dSonf’ [lI
azmfjy=uavonf?
tpdk;&u owif;pmrsm;wGif azmfjyaom owif;rsm;omru aqmif;yg;rsm; udkvnf; ‘rSm;onf rSm;onf’ [lI
trSm;rsm;csnf; axmufjyavh&Sdonf? avmuom& owif;pmwGif azmfjyaom aqmif;yg;ESpfyk'fESifh ywfoufI
‘avmuom&owif;pmonf
ykefuefxºuGjcif;/
owfjzwfjcif;ESifh
"m;jywdkufcdkufjcif;rsm;udk
tm;ay;±dkif;yif;onf[lI
rSwf,l&rnfavm[k ar;&efta=umif;&dSonf’ [lI ol}uD;a*Zuf t,f'Dwmu azmfjyavonf?
tpdk;&jyef=um;a&;Xmeu xkwfa0aom ol}uD;a*Zuf owif;pmu Todk@ a&;onfrSm owif;pmrsm;udk oduQmcsjcif;ESifh
+cdrf;ajcmufjcif; jzpfavonf? ol}uD;a*Zuf ta&;tom;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI 1931 ck/ Zlvdkif (25) &ufxkwf ol&d,owif;pmwGif
t,f'DwmxH ay;pmwpfapmifY ‘rdwfaqGcifAsm;
ol&d,owif;pmrSaeI t,f'DwmxHodk@ a&;om;&aomb0odk@ tawmfyif a&mufcJhygonf? ,cktcg rwwfomvGef;I
rdwfaqGxHodk@ pma&; &ygonf?
jrefrmjynftpdk;&onf olykefa&;twGuf jyef=um;a&;Xme zGifh+yD;onfh oumv jrefrmowif;pmrsm;udk tjypf&Smaeonfudk
rdwfaqGtodjzpfygonf?
owif;wpfck rSm;,Gif;onfhtcg rSm;,Gif;onfqdk±Hkr#ru ‘cGifhrv$wfEkdifaom trSm;’ ‘tpdk;&. *k%fudk xdckdufapaomtrSm;’
‘&,fzG,f&mtrSm;’ ponfjzifh pnf;vHk; ydk;vHk; pum;zefrsm; xnfhoGif;I emrfESdrfaeonfudk owdjyKapvdkygonf?
wdkif;oljynfom;rsm;tm; od=um;ap&ef a=umfjimonfhtcg xdkjyef=um;a&;Xmeu owif;pmq&mwdk@. aumfvHrsm;udkyif
oHk;ae=uonfudk rdwfaqGtodjzpfygonf? owif;rSef&atmif rnfr#cufcJap&ef jyKvkyfxm;onfudkvnf;aumif;/ rSefonf rSm;onfrSm
wpfcgw&H tjrifcsif;uGJvGJI jcm;em;onfwpfa=umif; tpdk;&onf wpfpdwfwpfa'oXmeu &aom owif;rsm;udkyif uJ&J@±_wfcsaom
ta=umif;rsm;udk trsm;jynfolrsm;odap&ef tjrpfuvSefI a&;om;&ef awmif;yefygonf? xdk@tjyif tpdk;&u roHk;oifhaom
pum;rsm;oHk;I a&;om;ay;ydk@aom owif;rsm;udk xnfhoifh/ rxnfhoifh pOf;pm;&ef owday;vdkuf&ygonf rdwfaqGcifAsm;’ [lI
owif;pmrsm; bufu u±k%ma'gaom a&;onfudk awG@&avonf?
xdk@jyif 1931 ck/ =o*kwfv 27 &ufxkwf ol&d,owif;pm/ ukrRm&D a=u;rHkcef;wGif ‘+rdK@ol’ u ‘ol}uD;a*Zufowif;rsm;’
[laom acgif;pOfjzifh a&;om;&mY ‘owif;pmwdkufrsm;odk@ ae@pOfay;ydk@vsuf&dSaom ol}uD; a*Zuf t,f'DwmxHrSydk@aom tpdk;&
owif;rsm;udk zwf±_awG@jrif&ojzifhrsm;pGm 0rf;ajrmuf&ygonf? odk@&mwGif wpfcgwpf&H umuG,fzHk;tkyfaom owif;rsm;udk
awG@&aomtcg xdkumuG,fyHkudk &ifarmrdygonf?
Oyrm EGm;xdk;}uD;+rdK@/ aps;udk 0ifa&mufvk,ufa=umif; owif;rSm trSefowif; jzpfI t*Fvdyfjrefrmowif;rsm;wGif
yg&dS+yD;jzpfonfhtjyifqdkif&m tpD&ifcH&mYvnf; trSeftwkdif; jzpfygvsuf =o*kwfv (22) &ufae@u xkwfaom ol}uD;a*Zuf
owif;pmwGif (‚if;rSm ydkrdkcsJ@xGifaom owif;r#jzpf[ef vuQ%m&dSonf/ ‚if;udpPrSm aps;onftcsif;csif;ta&;r[kwfaom
tjiif;tckefjzpfyGm;jcif;r#om jzpfa=umif;) [lI azmfjyxm;onfudk awG@&aomtcg rsm;pGm &,farmrdygonf? wdkif;jynf+idrf;csrf;a&;
twGuf &nf&G,fvsuf xkwfjyefjcif;jzpfonfrSm rSefaomfvnf; trSefowif;udk umuG,f zHk;zdjcif; tm;}uD;v#if

30

aemufqHk;rSefaomowif;yifv#if zwf&olwkd@ t,Hkt=unf uif;rJhwwfonfudk aumif;aom pdwfxm;ESifh owday;yg a=umif;’ [lI
a&;avonf?
ol}uD;a*Zufowif;pm xkwfa0onfh &nf&G,fcsufudk odojzifh xdkowif;pm xkwfa0&ef qHk;jzwfonfh 1927 ckuyif
ol&d,owif;pmu uef@uGufa&;om;cJhzl;avonf? 1927 ck/ pufwifbmv (6) &ufxkwf ol&d,owif;pmacgif;}uD;ydkif;wGif
‘Tr#tukeftuscHI pDrH&jcif;ta=umif;&if;rSm xkwfazmfIrjyxm;ojzifh wyftyf aocsm rod&ay? odk@&mwGif tpdk;&onf
wdkif;jynfbufrS a&;aeaom owif;pmrsm;. &efukd wGef;vSef&eftwGufyif jzpfayvdrfhrnf? ,cktcg jrefrmowif;pm wdkif;uyif
tpdk;& jyef=um;a&;bufrS xkwfa0aom owif;rsm;udk xnfhoGif; azmfjy=uavonf? &Gmol}uD;a*Zufudk xkwfa0jcif;tm;jzifh
tpdk;&udk wdkif;jynfu =unfndKrnfr[kwfjzpfonf? tpdk;&u xkwaf 0aom owif;pmudk wkdif;jynfu ,Hkrnf r[kwfay/ tpdk;&
vkyfyHkudkifyHk pDrHyHkoabmxm;yHkonf wdkif;jynf. vdktifqENESifh nD&efomv#if ta&;}uD;ayonf? Todk@ nD&efrpDrHbJ
jyef=um;a&;Xmexm;Ivnf;aumif;/ &Gmol}uD; a*Zuf owif;pm xkwfa0I vnf;aumif; pDrHygv#if wdkif;jynf. aiGudk tcsnf;ESD;
jzKef;wD;onfhtjyif tpdk;&tay:wGif wdk;I t=unfndK ,kwfavsmhrnfjzpfa=umif;?
jrefrmjynftpdk;&onf qmarmifcifvufxufu tusKd;r&dSojzifh jzKwfcJhaom jrefrmhwdkif;usKd;ac: owif;pmudk
&Gmol}uD;a*Zufudk emrnfopfjzifh xkwfa0jcif;onf rdrd tkyfcsKyfpDrHjcif;/ nHhzsif;&mudk 0efcH&m a&mufvsuf &dS.//
0HomEkowif;pmrsm;udk tpdk;& a=umfjimrsm;xnhfaom owif;pmpm&if;/ tpdk;&t&m&dSrsm;udk tpdk;&p&dwfESifh zwfapaom
owif;pmpm&if;wdk@rS E_wfypf+yD; oydwfarSmufcJh.? TuJhodk@ jyKrlyHkrsm;rSm ynm&dSrsm;vnf; rESpfouf/ jynfolbufrSmvnf;
r=unfjzLojzifh tpkd;&rSm t}uHukef *VKefqm;csuf qdkouJhodk@ vkyfvsuf&dSjcif;jzpfI oem;p&myifjzpfa=umif;?
tpdk;&onf wdkif;jynfbufrS a&;=uaom 0HomEkowif;rsm;udk oydwfarSmuf/ A[k-*G-tvdkawmf&d owif;pmwdk@udk
ajr‡mufpm;aomfvnf; 0HomEkowif;pmwdk@u jyef=um;a&;XmerS ay;ydkYonfhowif;rsm;udk tcrJh xnfhoGif;azmfjycJh=uayonf?
,cktcg &Gmol}uD;a*Zuf xkwfa0&ef pDrHjyef&m oydwfarSmufonfhtjyif qif;&Jom;wkd@ vkyfudkifpm;aomuf&mY 0ifa&muf
vk,uf&ma&mufjyef\/ ,if;odk@jzpfojzifh 0HomEk owif;pmrsm;onf tpnf;ta0; tjrefac:+yD;aemuf tpdk;&u
oydwfarSmufonhftjyif ,ckxyfrHowif;pmxkwf&ef pDrHcsufwdk@udk pOf;pm;=u&ef tcsdefonf usa&muf+yDjzpf a=umif;’ [lI
a&;cJhavonf?
ol&d,owif;pmu Todk@ a&;om;uef@uGufcJhaomfvnf; tpdk;&u ol}uD;a*Zufowif;pmudk xkwfa0jzpfatmif
xkwfcJhonf? xdkowif;pmu tpdk;&. 0g'jze@,EW&m;taejzifh qufvufvkyfcJhonf? ,ck olykefta&; awmifolv,form;
awmfvSefa&;wGif jrefrmtrsKd;om; owif;pmrsm;. a&;om;csufrsm;udk rSm;onfqdk+yD; trsKd;rsKd;oduQmcsonf? +Adwdo#udkvdkeDorm;u
pme,fZif;rsm;udk enf;rsKd;pHkjzihf zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fonf? odk@aomf trsdK; om;owif;pmrsm;u tpkd;&. zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk zGifch s+yD;
jyefvnfckcH wdkufcdkufcJh=uonfudk awG@&avonf?
tdENd,owif;pmrsm;ESifhaygif;wdkuf
jrefrmjynfwGif v,form;awmfvSefa&;}uD; jzpfay:aeaom 1931 ckESpfxJrSmyif +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@. tdENd,jynf
A[dkOya'jyKtzGJ@u owif;pmrsm;tay: zdESdyfcsKyfcs,f&ef &nf&G,fonfh Oya'opfwpfck zefwD;jyefavonf?
xdkOya'rSm yHkESdyfwdkufOya'opf jzpfonf? xdkOya'xkwfjyefrnf&dSaomtcg jrefrmowif;pmrsm;u acgif;}uD;ydkif;rSaeI
uef@uGufa&;om;=uavonf? xdkOya'rSm jrefrmjynf tygt0if tdENd,EkdifiHtwGif;&dS owif;pmtm;vHk;ESifh qdkifaoma=umifh
tdENd,jynf&dS owif;pmrsm;ESifh jrefrmowif;pmrsm;u owif;pmydwf+yD; qENjy uef@uGuf=uavonf?
Tae&mwGif jrefrmtrsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;onf e,fcsJ@vufatmufcHb0wl tdENd,owif;pmrsm;ESifhtwl vufwGJ+yD;
owif;pmvGwfvyfcGifh wdkufyGJ0if=ujcif;yif jzpfavonf?
ol&d,owif;pmu 15-9-31 xkwf owif;pmacgif;}uD;ydkif;wGif ‘tdENd,EkdifiHvHk; twGif;&dS ±dkufESdyfxkwfa0aom
owif;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI Oya'=urf;wpfck/ ,cktcg tdENd,jynf A[dkOya'jyKtzGJ@Y pOf;pm;ae&m/ ‚if;Oya'onf EkdifiH&if;om;
trsKd;om;wkd@. owif;pmrsm;udk txl;csdef&G,u
f m csKyfcs,f&ef &nf&G,faoma=umifh rsm;pGmyif uef@uGufxdkufaya=umif;’ [lI
a&;avonf?
xdkacgif;}uD;ydkif;uyif qufvufI
‘tpdk;&u xdkOya'onf owif;rsm;. tcGifhta&;udk ydwyf ifcsKyfcs,f&ef r[kwf/ EkdifiHa&;ESifh ywfoufI
owfjzwfxdk;ckwfolrsm;tm; csD;usL;ajr‡mufyifhI a&;om;jcif; rjyK&ef umuG,fjcif;r#om jzpfonf[k tpdk;&u qdk.? aoG;xGufoH,dk/
owfjzwf xdk;ckwfjcif;jzifh t=urf;r_jyKonfudk rnfolr# rvdkvm;aomfvnf; trsKd;om;Zmwdrmef wufºuGjcif;udk
[ef@wm;ydwfyifvdkaom oabm&nf&G,fcsufESifh ,ckuJhodk@aom Oya'rsKd;xkwfjyefjcif;/ jyKvdkonfudkrl owif;pmq&mwdk@ rnfonf/
rnfolr# oabm wlEkdifrnf r[kwfacs’ [lIvnf;a&;om;avonf?
tqdkygOya'wGif 'Dp}wdwf&mZ0wfw&m;ol}uD;u tmrcHawmif;Ekdifonf? tmrcHrSm trsm;qHk; 3000d/ tenf;qHk; 1000d
jzpfonf/ topf wnfaxmifrnfh pmyHkESdyfwdkufudkvnf; tmrcHawmif;onf ponfjzifh yg&Sdonf?
xdktcsdefwGif tdENd,jynfY owif;pmq&mtoif; &dSaeay+yD? jrefrmjynfwGifrl owif;pmq&mtoif;[lI w&m;0if
pepfwusr&dSao;/ ta&;ta=umif;&dSonfhtcg owif;pmq&mrsm; pka0;+yD; pnf;vHk;nDnGwfpGm ta&;qdkwdkufyGJ0ifjcif;um; &dSayonf?

31

,ck yHkESdyfwdkuf Oya'=urf;udk tdENd,A[dkOya'jyK v$wfawmf_wGif pOf;pm;aecsdefY jrefrmtrsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;u
e,fcsJ@vufatmufcH b0wlrsm;ESifhtwl vufwGJ wdkufyGJ0if=uonf? Todk@ vufwGJwdkufyGJ0if=uonfudk xdktcsdefu owif;ay;
azmfjy=uaom atmufygowif;pmrsm;u azmfjyvsuf &dSavonf/
owif;pmwdkufOya'=urf;
wdkif;&if;om;owif;pmrsm;u uef@uGufjcif;
tdENd,atmufv$wfawmf Oya'jyKtzGJ@Y tpdk;&wdk@u wifoGif;aom owif;pmwdkuf Oya'=urf;udk uef@uGufvsuf
rESpfoufojzifh tdENd,vlrsKd;rsm;ydkif owif;pmtm;vHk;wdk@onf ,ck pufwifbmv (30) &uf/ Ak'<[l;ae@wGif xkwfa0jcif; jyKvdrfhrnf
r[kwfa=umif;ESifh uvuwWm;+rdK@ tdENd,owif; pmq&mrsm;toif;}uD;u xkwfjyefvdkufa=umif; (jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm/ 29-9-31)
ol&d,owif;pm wpf&ufydwfjcif;
jrefrmjynftygt0if tdENd,wpfEkdifiHvHk;&dS owif;pmrsm;udk csKyfcs,f&m a&mufaom pmyHkESdyfwdkufrsm;qdkif&m Oya'=urf;udk
oabmrwl uef@uGufaomtaejzifh u|Ekfyfwdk@ ae@pOf ol&d,owif;pmudk pufwifbmv 30&uf Ak'<[l;ae@wGif
xkwfa0jcif;jyKrnfr[kwf?
xdkenf;wl e,l;bm;rm;owif;pmudkvnf; xkwfa0vdrfhrnfr[kwf? ol&d, owif;pmwdkufudkrl rydwfbJ zGifh+rJtwdkif;
zGifhxm;vdrfhrnf?
Tenf;twdkif; jrefrmhtvif;/ opP0g'D/ avmuom&/ &efukefar/ &efukefa';vD; ar;e,l;ESifh tjcm;ukvm;bmomESifh
xkwfa0aom ukvm;owif;pmrsm;udkvnf; reufjzefydwfxm;=ua=umif;/ (ol&d,owif;pm 29-9-31)
owif;pmydwfxm;rnfhta=umif;
pmyHkESdyfwdkuf Oya'=urf;udk uef@uGufonfhoabmjzifh pufwifbm (30) &uf ae@wGif jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmudk
wpfywfydwfxm;rnfjzpfa=umif; (jrefrmhtvif; owif;pm 29-9-31)
pufwifbmv 30 &uf/ Ak'<[l;aeYwGif a=unmxm;onfhtwkdif; jrefrmjynfY owif;pmrsm; rxkwfbJ
uef@uGufqENjy=uonf? a';vD;e,l; owif;pmomv#if rydwfbJ qufvufxkwf+rJxkwfonf[k od&onf? tdENd,jynfwGifvnf;
owif;pmrsm;rxkwfbJ uef@uGufqENjy=uonfudk atmufygowif;rsm;t& od&onf?
pmyHkESdyfwdkufOya'=urf; pOf;pm;&ef tqdkEdkifjcif;
tdENd,atmufv$wfawmf Oya'jyK tpnf;ta0;udk t*Fgae@ ae@vnfjyefI wufaomtcg pmyHkESdyfwdkufOya'=urf;udk
wifoGif;pOf;pm;oifh/ roifhESifh pyfvsOf;I qufvufaqG;aEG;a=umif;/ xdkOya'=urf;udk trwfrsm;tm; a0iS&ef wifoGif;aom tqdkudk
rJcGJ,lap&m rJ±_H;ojzifh Oya'=urf;udk tckcsufcsif;wifoGif;pOf;pm;&ef tqdkudk twnfjyKvdkufa=umif;?
owif;pmrsm;rxkwfbJ aejcif;
umvuwWm;+rdK@&dS tdENd,vlrsKd;rsm;ydik f owif;pmwpfapmifr# Ak'<[l;ae@u xkwf a0jcif; rjyKa=umif;/ &efukef+rdK@ESifh
ywf0ef;usif+rdK@rsm;rSvnf; owif;pmrsm; rxkwfonfh ta=umif;udk &&dSa=umif;ESifh pufwifbmv (30) &ufae@ ae@pGJjzifh
umvuwWm;+rdK@rS a=u;eef;±dkuf=um;ay;ydk@vdkufa=umif;/ (jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm 3-10-31)
tdENd,ESifh jrefrmowif;pmrsm; ydwfI uef@uGufqENjy=uaomae@rSmyif tdENd,jynf atmufv$wfawmf Oya'jyKtzGJ@Y tqdkyg
yHkESdyfwdkufqdkif&m Oya'=urf;udk ±kwfodrf;+yD;aemuf yHkESdyfwdkufqdkif&m Oya'=urf;topfwpfck xyfrHwifoGif;jyefavonf? 0dkif;0ef;
uef@uGuf=uonfh=um;rSmyif atmufwdkbm (3) &ufwGif tdENd, atmufv$wfawmfY oabmwlol (55)/ rwlol (24) a,mufjzifh
Oya'=urf;udk twnfjyKvdkufavonf?
twnfjyKvdkufonfh Oya'wGif t=urf;ywrf;jyKatmif a&;om;r_rsm;/ vlowfr_jzpfap/ aoG;xGufoH,dkr_jzpfap/ jyKvkyfjcif;udk
csD;rGrf;vsuf a&;om;v_H@aqmfjcif; rsm;udk ta&;,lrnf/ owif;pmwdkufwpfwdkufrS tmrcHaiG awmif;,l+yD;v#if (3) v twGif;
tpdk;&xHrS trdef@wpfpHkwpf&mr&v#if xdkaiGudk yHkESdyfxkwfa0olu jyefI av#mufxm;awmif;qdku jyefay;rnf? tmrcHaiGudk (10)
&uftwGif; ay;oGif;&rnf/ Oya'udk (2) ESpt
f wnfjyKrnf ponfhtcsufrsm; yg&dSavonf?
TykHESdyfwdkufOya'udk t"rRtwnfjyKvdkufaomtcg ol&d,owif;pmu
‘jrefrmjynftygt0if tdENd,EkdifiHtwGif;&dS txl;ojzifh wdkif;&if;om; ukvm;/ jrefrmwdk@. owif;pmwdkufrsm;udk csKyfcs,f&ef
&nf&G,faom pmyHkESdyfwdkufqdkif&m Oya'udk wdkif;&if;om;wdk@u txl;uef@uGufygvsuf tdENd,EdkifiH A[dkOya'jyKtzGJ@Y twnfjyK
oGm;onfrSm 0rf;enf;zG,fjzpfaya=umif;/ Tum; tdENd,EkdifiHtpdk;& vufatmufcH jzpfaeI tdENd,EkdifiHu vkyfor# u|Ekfyfwdk@
jrefrmjynfu cHae&aom 0Ëfqif;&Jyif jzpfayawmh ownf;’ [lI a&;avonf?

32

TtcsdefwGif owif;pmrsm;udk e,fcsJ@tpdk;& zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm; t}uD;tus,f jyKvkyfvsuf &dSavonf/
jrefrmtvif;owif;pmu ‘owif;pmwdkufrsm; owdxm;zG,f’ [laom acgif;pOfjzifh owif;pmrsm; owd&dS=uzdk@ E_d;aqmfowday;onf?
xdk@jyif
tpdk;&u owif;pmta&;tom;udk uef@owfjcif; jyKacsonf? tb,fodk@ jyKygoenf;[lrlum; owif;pmwdk@wGif
tpdk;&r}udKuf rESp_foufaomta=umif;udk ra&;&/ a&;v#if w&m;pGJjcif; rjyKyJvsuf tmrcHudk awmif;rnf/ owif;pm xkwfa0jcif;
rjyK&/ ydwfxm;&rnf[lI trdef@xkwfqifhrnf[laom wpfcsufv$wf Oya'udk twnfjyK xm;avonf? ,cktcg tpdk;&u owif;pm
oabmoGm;udk ta&;rxm;/ rSm;v#if tjypfjyKrnf wuJuJrdk@/ +rJpGJpGm owdxm;oifha=umif;udk a&;om;&ownf;’ [lI acgif;}uD;ydkif;rS
a&;avonf?
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmu xdkodk@owday;onfhtwkdif;yif +Adwdo#udkvdkeDorm;u tdENd,ESifh jrefrmjynf&dS owif;pmrsm;udk
owif;pmwdkufxJ 0ifI ar$aESmuf&SmazGjcif;/ tpdk;&udk t=unfndKysufapr_jzifh w&m;pGJjcif;/ tmrcHawmif;jcif;rsm; jyKavonf/
xdktcgu tdENd,ESifh jrefrmjynfrSm rcGJao;/ jrefrmjynfonf tdENd,. jynfe,fwpfe,ftjzpf owfrSwfxm;av&m
tdENd,owif;pmrsm;ESifh jrefrmowif;pm rsm;tay: udkvdkeDorm;u zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fonfrSm qufEG,faeonf? tzdESdyfcH&r_vnf;
qufEG,faeonf/ wdkufyGJjcif; vnf; qufEG,faeavonf?
owif;pmq&mrsm; pkaygif;wdkuf
wdkif;jynfwGif awmifolv,form;awmfvSefa&;}uD;ESifh ±_yfaxG;aecsdefY e,fcsJ@tpdk;&u rv_yfvdkufESifh v_yfvkdufv#if
wpfcsufv$wfOya'jzifh zdESdyfavonf? Todk@ cH&onfhtxJwGif trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;rSm tqdk;qHk;cH&avonf?
xdktcg owif;pmrsm;u wpfcsufvTwfOya'udk wnDwnGwfwnf; uef@uGuf =u/ wdkuf=uavonf/ owif;pmrsm;u
tpnf;ta0;vkyf/ qHk;jzwfcsufcs+yD; ta&;qdk uef@uGuf=uavonf? jynfolvlxkuvnf; vlxktpnf;ta0;}uD;vkyf+yD; uef@uGuf=u
avonf? trsKd;om; owif;pmrsm;ESifh jynfov
l lxkwdkufyGJrSm wpfom;wnf;&dSavonf?
owif;pmrsm;onf yxrqHk;t}udrf tpnf;ta0;udk 1931 ck/ =o*kwfv (5) &ufae@ nae (5) em&DwGif &efukef+rdK@ ±dkrmefeD
pm;yGJ±kHY usif;y=uonf? xdkpm;yGJ±HkrSm (36) vrf;wGif &dSonf? xdktpnf;ta0;wGif owif;pmrsm;u ‘jrefrmjynfolykefudpPESifh pyfvsOf;I
=o*kwfv (1) &ufae@Y tdENd, bk&ifcHcsKyf twnfjyKxkwfjyefvdkufaom wpfcsufv$wf Oya'onf w&m;aom enf;vrf;jzifh
aqmif&Gufaexdkifvsuf&dSukefaom
wdkif;oljynfom;
wdk@ESifhwuG
txl;ojzifh
yHkESdyfwdkufrsm;udk
csKyfcs,fzdESdyf&m
usa&mufaeaoma=umifh’ tqdkyg wpfcsufv$wfOya'udk rnfodk@rnfyHk uef@uGufta&;,loifhonfudk aqG;aEG;=uonf? xdkae@u
tpnf;ta0;wGif =o*kwfv (7) &ufY xdkae&mrSmyif ydkrdkus,fjyef@aom tpnf;ta0;wpfck xyfrHusif;y&ef qH;k jzwfvu
kd =f uonf?
tpnf;ta0;t+yD;wGif ydkrdkus,fjyef@aom owif;pmwdkufrsm;ESifh yHkESdyfwdkufrsm; tpnf;ta0; usif;yjyKvkyf&ef zdwf=um;csufudk
owif;pmrsm;wGif xnfhoGif;azmfjy=uonf? xdkzdwf=um;csufwGif Todk@ azmfjyxm;onf?
owif;pmwdkufrsm;ESifh yHkESdyfwku
d frsm; tpnf;ta0;zdwf=um;pm
atmufygta&;{uD;aom udpPrsm;udk pOf;pm;aqG;aEG;qHk;jzwf&ef owif;pm wdkufrsm;ESifh yHkESdyfwdkufrsm; tpnf;ta0;udk
=o*kwfv (7) &uf/ 'kwd,0gqdkvqkwf (9) &uf/ aom=umae@ nae (5) em&DcGJtcsdefwGif &efukef+rdK@ (36) vrf;/ jrefrmydkif
±dkrmefeD[dkw,f
aysmfyGJpm;±HkY
usif;yrnfjzpfygaoma=umifh
wm0efcHudk,fpm;vS,frsm;
tm;
rysufruGuf
ºuGa&mufawmfrl=uygrnfhta=umif; av;jrwfpGm zdwf=um;tyfyg onf?
pOf;pm;rnfhudpPrsm;
(1) jrefrmjynfwGif xºuGv_yf&Sm;a&;/ +idyf0yfydjym;&efqdkI bk&ifcHcsKyf}uD;u tm%mv$Jaom wcsufv$wftrdef@udk
xkwfjyeftoHk;jyKjcif;udk Ttpnf;ta0;u av;eufpGm uef@uGuftjypfqdk&ef
(2) wdkif;jynfESifhwuG rif;wdkifyiftzGJ@u tvdkrusbJvsuf &mZ0wf jyifqifa&; Oya'udk tpdk;&wdk@u oabmtwdkif;
jrefrmjynfwGif twnfjyKvkyfxm;jcif;udk Tjrefrmowif;pmwdkufrsm; tpnf;ta0;u av;eufpGm uef@uGuftjypfqdk&ef
(3) wdkif;jynf. tvdkESifh zDvmusaom tvkyfrsm;udk aqmif&Gufaeonfh jrefrmjynftpdk;&w@onf a&S;vGefcJh+yD;aom
wdkif;jynfv_yf&Sm;r_/ aemif v_yf&Sm;cJhaomf okd@v_yf&mS ;aomtr_rsm; ponfwdk@twGuf wm0efvHk;vHk; vsm;vsm;cH&rnf[k
Ttpnf;ta0;u qdk&ef
(4) EdkifiHa&;toif; tpnf;ta0;twdkif; xdkudpPudk xnfhoGif;qHk; jzwf&ef awmif;yefoifhroifh pOf;pm;&ef/
zdwfac:onfh owif;pmwdkufrsm;
(1) ol&d,owif;pm
(2) jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm
(3) opPm0g'Dowif;pm
(4) avmuom&owif;pm

33

(5) atmifjrefrmowif;pm
(6) 'D;'kwf*sme,f
(7) AE<Kv *sme,f
(ol&d,owif;pm 8-8-31)
=o*kwfv (7) &ufwGif zdwf=um;xm;onfhtwkdif; wpfcsufv$wf Oya' qef@usifwdkufzsufa&; pme,fZif;rsm;tpnf;ta0;
usif;yavonf? Ttpnf;ta0;odk@ ol&d,/ jrefrmhtvif;/ atmifjrefrm/ 'D;'kwf/ '*kef/ A[dk ody`H*sme,f/ rsKd;cspfpmyHkESdyfwdkuf/
w±kwfukefonfowif;pm/ a&$"g;Adkvfr*~Zif;/ armifyk b&m;om; yHkESdyfwdkuf/ ynm wefaqmif r*~Zif;/ r[dENpmykHESdyfwdkuf/ tif'Dyif;wifh
*sme,f/ ok"rR0wD pmyHkESdyfwdkuf/ atmifaZ,s pm ykHEdSyfwdkuf/ AE<Kv*sme,f/ acwfopf*sme,f/ jrefrmjynfapmifh/ tD;Aeif;ydk@ w±kwf
owif;pmwdkuf/ b&rm'wf ukvm;pmyHkESdyfwdkufESifh opP0g'D owif;pmwdkufrS udk,fpm;vS,f rsm; wufa&muf=uavonf?
tpnf;ta0;wGif &rf;+AJOD;armifarmifudk obmywdwifajr‡mufI atmufyg qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk aqG;aEG;qHk;jzwf=uavonf?
(1) jrefrmjynfwGif xºuGv_yf&Sm;a&;/ +idrf0yfydjym;&efqdkI bk&ifcHcsKyf}uD;u tm%mv$Jaom wpfcsufv$wftrdef@udk
xkwfjyeftoHk;jyKjcif;udk Ttpnf;ta0;u av;eufpGm tjypfqdk&ef [laomtqdkudk ol&d,OD;ykuav;u wifoGif;I atmifjrefrm
OD;at;u axmufcHonf/
(2) wdkif;jynfESifhwuG rif;wkdifyiftzGJ@u tvdkrusbJvsuf &mZ0wf jyifqifa&; tufOya'udk tpdk;&wdk@u oabmtwdkif;
jrefrmjynfwGif twnfjyKxm;jcif;udk Ttpnf;ta0;u av;eufpGm tjypfqdk&ef[laomtqdkudk jrefrmhtvif; OD;armifarmifcif u
wifoGif;I rsKd;cspfpmyHkESdyfwdkuf OD;aomif;azu axmufcHonf/
(3)
wdkif;jynf.
tvdkESifh
zDvmusaomtvkyfrsm;udk
aqmif&Gufaeonfh
jrefrmjynftpdk;&wdk@onf
a&S;vGefcJh+yD;aomwdkif;jynfv_yf&Sm;r_/
aemif
v_yf&Sm;vwWH@aom
aom
tr_rsm;ESifh
aemufxyf
qlylaomif;usef;jzpfrnfhta&;ponfwdk@twGuf wm0ef vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm;cH&rnf[k Ttpnf;ta0;uqdk&ef [laomtqdkudk
wDau'wfu wifoGif;I AE<KvOD;bdk;rif;u axmufcHonf?
(4) +Adwdo#ukefypPnf;rsm;udk oydwfarSmufa&;ESifh ywfoufI EkdifiHa&;toif;tzGJ@rsm;u aqmif&Guf=urnfjzpfaoma=umifh
xdkudpPudk a&$@qdkif;vkduf=uonf?
(5) txufyg tqdkrsm;udk tdENd,bk&ifcHcsKyf}uD;ESifh jrefrmjynf bk&ifcHxHodk@ a=u;eef;±dkuf=um;&ef qHk;jzwf=u+yD;
xdkudpPtwGuf &rf;+AJOD;armifarmifu wm0ef,l aqmif&Guf&ef v$Jtyfvdkuf=uonf? Ttpnf;ta0;usif;y&eftwGuf ±dkrmefeD
[dkw,fydkif&Sifu tcrJhcGifhjyKonfudkvnf; rSwfwrf;wif=uonf?
wpfcsufv$wfOya'udk qef@usifwdkufcdkufonfh vlxktpnf;ta0;}uD;udkrl =o*kwfv (9) &uf/ we*FaEGae@wGif *sLAvDa[mY
usif;yavonf? tpnf;ta0;udk jrefrmacgif;aqmiftzGJ@/ jynfoljynfom;tzGJ@ESifh cGJcGma&; (21 OD;ESifh tdEMd,ESifh jrefrmjynfcGJa&;tzGJ@)
tzGJ@wdk@u }uD;rSL;usif;y=ujcif;jzpf+yD; tpnf;ta0;wGif wpfcsufv$wf trdef@rsm;udk uef@uGuf&ef 'dkrDeD,rf [krR,l;om
jrefrmtrsKd;om;rsm;uvkdvm;a=umif;/ xyfrHa=unm&ef jrefrmjynf tem*wf tkyfcsKyfa&;twGuf tvsiftjref ododomom
a=unm+yD; vef'efwGif jrefrmjynf twGuf rsufESmpHknDtpnf;ta0;wpfck oD;oef@usif;y&efESifh v,form;olykefta&; wdk@udk
aqG;aEG;=uonf? tpnf;ta0;odk@ rEWav;/ ykodrf/ ausmufwHcg;/ u|JyGJ/ jzL;/ awmifil/ unGwfuGif;/ yJcl;/ tif;pdef/ aygif;wnf/ yef;waemf/
jrefatmif/ [Hom0wD/ vufyHwef;/ tkef;ESJ/ c&rf;/ ppfuGif;/ om,m0wD/ abmufaxmf/ oCFef;u|ef;/ an_mif0dkif;/ }udK@yifaumuf/ rHk&Gm/
arSmfbD+rdK@rsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,frsm; wufa&muf=uonf? obmywd tjzpf OD;bpDu aqmif&GufI tcrf;tem;rSL;tjzpf OD;oif;armifu
aqmif&Gufonf?
Ttpnf;ta0;u wpfcsufv$wfOya'ESifh ywfoufI ‘jrefrmjynftwGuf ±kwfw&ufta&;,l&ef tm%mrsm;ay;xm;aom
wpfcsufv$wf Oya'onfum; vdktyfaom Oya'r[kwf±kHr#ru toD;oD;aom vltaygif;wdk@wGif &&Sdtyfonfh vGwfvyfcGifh &apaom
rlvpnf;rsOf;rsm;ESifhwuG
owif;pmrsm;.
vGwfvyfa&;udkyg
qef@usifap+yD;v#if
wdkif;jynft0ef;wGif
tvsiftjref
at;+idrf;om,mapjcif;udk ulnDaxmufyHhjcif;rjyK[k Ttpnf;ta0;}uD;u rSwfwrf;wifa=umif;’ [lI qHk;jzwf=uonf? 1931 ckESpf/
&mZ0wfOya' (jyifqifcsuf)udkvnf; uef@uGuf=u avonf?
xdkacwfrSm wpfcsufv$wfacwf[k qdk&rnf/ owif;pmrsm;udkvnf; wpfcsufv$wf Oya'ESifh zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fonf?
EkdifiHa&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;udkvnf; wpfcsufv$wfOya'ESifhyif ESdrfonf? =o*kwfvxJwGif tpdk;&u owif;pmrsm;udk zdwf+yD;
owif;pmtwdkifyifcH t&m&dSwpfOD; cef@xm;rnfhta=umif; ajymjyonf/ TtpDtpOfonfvnf; r[efay/ owif;pmr±dkufrD tpdk;&xH
wifjy&rnfqdkonfrSm rjzpfEdkif/ wpfcsufv$wftrdef@udk zsuf/ vGwfvyfpGm a&;om;cGifhay;&rnf[lI owif;pm/ *sme,frsm;u
a&;om;=uavonf?
Twpfcsufv$wftrdef@xkwfjyefr_ESifh ywfoufI owif;pmrsm;onf jynfolESifh twl zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk cH&onf/
xdk@a=umifh jyn_folESifh uef@uGufwdkufyGJ0if=uonfudk awG@&ayonf/ txl;ojzifh jrefrmtrsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;rSm xdktcsdeftxd
owif;pm q&mtoif;[lI w&m;0if pepfwus wnfaxmifjcif;r&Sdao;bJvsuf pnf;vHk;nDnGwf pGmjzifh +Adwdo#udkvdkeDorm;.
zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk uef@uGufwdkufyGJ0ifcJh=uonfudk rSwfwrf;wif&ayrnf?

34

cGJa&;wGJa&;
1932 ckESpfwGif jrefrmjynfudk tdENd,ESifh cGJoifhonf/ wJGoifhonfqdkonfh cGJa&;/ wJGa&; jy\em tifrwef}uD;
jyif;xefaeavonf?
owif;pmrsm;wGifvnf;aumif;/
tpnf;ta0;rsm;wGifvnf;aumif;
cGJa&;wGJa&;
jy\emESifhywfoufI
jiif;ckefajymqdka&;om;ae=uonfrSm qlnHI aeavonf? wpfbufESifh wpfbuf yk*~v"dXmef ykwfcwfajymqdka&;om;=uonfrSmvnf;
renf;vS/ vifESifhr,m;yifv#if oabmxm;csif;uGJcJh=uonf[k ajymprSwf&dSonf/ TwGJa&;cGJa&; umvwGif emrnfxGufvmolum;
a'gufwmbarmfjzpfonf/ cGJa&;bufrS (21) OD;wdk@u e,fvSnhfpnf;±Hk; a[majym=uonf/ wGJa&;bufrSvnf; xkdenf;twlyif
ESpfbufpvHk; tjyif;txef pnf;±Hk;=uavonf?
+Adwdo#0ef}uD;csKyf ruUa':e,fu jrefrmjynf cGJa&;wGJa&;udpPudk rJqENESifh qHk;jzwf&ef a&G;aumufyGJrsm; usif;yrnfqdkojzifh
*sDpDbDattoif;csKyfrsm;u a&G;aumufyGJwGif 0ifa&mufta&G;cH&ef v_yf&Sm;vm=uonf?
0wfvHk a'gufwmb[ef/ a'gufwmbarmf/ OD;ausmfjrifh/ &rf;+AJ OD;armifarmif/ OD;ausmf'if/ 'D;'kwfOD;bcsKd/ t,f'DwmESifh
pma&;q&m OD;bcdkifwdk@u “rcGJcGma&; toif;wpfck”udk zGJ@pnf;+yD; pnf;±Hk;=uonf?
trfatOD;armif}uD;/
ol&d,OD;odef;armif/
pufolaX;OD;bdk;wuf/
OD;vSatmif/
OD;olawmfwdk@
yg0ifonfh
cGJcGma&;toif;csKyfuvnf; pnf;±Hk; a[majym=uonf? OD;pdk;odef; *sDpDbDattoif;csKyfESifh OD;cspfvd_if *sDpDbDat toif;csKyfwdk@u
wGJa&;bufu 0ifa&mufta&G;cH&ef a[majym=uavonf? xdktcgY OD;cspfv_dif *sDpDbDatodk@ 0wfvHkOD;ay:xGef;ESifh &efukef+rdK@/
vrf;rawmf yGJpm;}uD;OD;jrwfom'Gef;wdk@ yg0ifvm=uojzifh xdktzGJ@udk v_dif-jrwf-ay: [lI ac:=uonf?
(21) OD; acgif;aqmif OD;baz/ 0wfvHk OD;odef;armif/ ZD;ukef; 0wfvHk OD;bpD/ 0wfvHkOD;yk/ tr&yl& OD;boD/ a'gufwmodef;armif/
rdwˆDvm OD;b&if/ rEWav;OD;bOD;/ jynfOD;boef;/ *VKefOD;apm/ ykodrfOD;btkef; ponfh yk*~dKvfrsm;u cGJa&;bufu
pnf;±Hk;a[majym=uonf?
EkdifiHa&;t& cGJa&;/ wGJa&;vrf;pOf uGJ=uaomtcg owif;pmrsm;vnf; uGJ=uavukef.// cGJa&;bufu owif;pm&dSouJhodk@
wGJa&;bufu owif;pmvnf; &dSonf? vlyk*~dKvfoHa,mZOft& uGJ=ujcif; jzpfavonf? xdktcgu cGJa&;wGJa&;tvdkuf cgawmfrSD
owif;pmrsm;vnf;
ay:vmao;onf?
cgawmfrSDowif;pmrsm;rSm
a&G;aumufyGJwGif
tEkdif&&dSa&;twGufomjzpf&m
a&G;aumufyGJ+yD;aomtcg jyKwfusonfu rsm;avonf?
cgawmfrSD owif;pmrsm;rSm 'D;'kwfOD;bcsdKESifhwGJa&;bufom;rsm;u xkwfa0onfh ‘jrefrmhaZ,smae@pOf’ owif;pm
cGJa&;bufu ‘a*smfeDygwD’ [lI emrnf}uD;cJhaom OD;xGef;atmifausmfESifh OD;eDwdk@. ‘opPmrÀdKif&DAsL;’ trnf&dS &ufowWwpfywf
wpf}udrfxkwf owif;pm/ v_difjrwfay: ygwDu xkwfa0onfh ‘jynfol@qENowif;pm’ ponfwdk@ jzpf=uonf?
xdktcgu ol&d,ESifh jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmBuD;rsm;u cGJa&;bufu tm;ay;=u+yD; AE<Kv*sme,fESifh 'D;'kwf*sme,fwdk@u
wGJa&;bufu tm;ay; a&;om;=uonf? q&m}uD;r[maqG t,f'Dwmtjzpfaqmif&Gufonfh &Jowif;pmurl cGJa&;bufu
axmufcHa&;om;avonf?
1932 ck/ Edk0ifbmv (9) &ufwGif cGJa&;/ wGJa&; a&G;aumufyGJusif;yonfhtcg wGJa&;bufu rJqEN&Sif ig;odef;ausmfESifh
trwfOD;a&; ydkrdkta&G;cH&onf? a&G;aumufyGJ +yD;onfhtcg tpdk;&tzGJ@opfxJodk@ qma*satarmif}uD;udk opfawma&;0ef}uD;/
0wfvHkawmfOD;ausmf'ifudk ynma&;0ef}uD;/ *sDp_DbDat OuUX OD;cspfvd_ifudk v$wfawmf OuUXtjzpf a&G;cs,fcef@xm;onf?
1932 ck/ 'DZifbmv (22) &ufwGif bk&ifcHqmcsm;vftif;epf ESpfaphojzifh ‚if;.ae&mwGif bk&ifcHopf qm[,kvif;pa'gif;
a&mufvmonf? bk&ifcHu cef@onfh jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;rSm qmOD;bjzpfonf?
1934
ck/
rwfvwGifusif;yonfh
jrefrmjynfygvDrmefv$wfawmf
tpnf;ta0;Y
qma*satarmif}uD;ESifh
0wfvHkOD;ausmf'ifwdk@udk t,Hkt=unfr&dS tqdkwifum jzKwfcsvdkuf+yD; OD;bazu opfawma&;0ef}uD;/ a'gufwm barmfu
ynma&;0ef}uD; &mxl;udk vufcHvkduf=uonf? a'gufwmbarmf ynma&;0ef}uD;&mxl;vufcH+yD; r=umrD xdkXmeu
arm&d,owif;pmudk pwifxkwfa0onf?
TonfrSm cGJa&;/ wGJa&;umvwGif owif;pmrsm;onf udk,fhtjrifESifhudk,f/ udk,fhoHa,mZOf&dS&mbufodk@
vkduf+yD;uGJ=ujcif;jzpfonf? odk@aomfvnf; trsdK;om; owif;pmrsm; jzpfonfh tm;avsmfpGm owif;pmtrsm;pkonf tajccHqENcsif;
wl&avum; a&S@wGif jyefvnfaygif;pnf;rd=u+yD; jynfol@twGuf vufwGJvkyfaqmif =uonfudk awG@&avonf?
wdkif;jynfodk@ a=unmcsufxkwf
1936-37 ckESpfxJwGif 'kwd,t}udrf wuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;oydwfESifh jrefrmjynftkyfcsKyfa&;pepftajymif;tvJrsm;
jzpfonf?

1936 ck/ azazmf0g&Dv (25) &ufwGif ay:aygufvmaom wuUodkvfoydwfrSm or*~OuUX udkEkudk ausmif;xkwfjcif;/
tdk;a0r*¾Zif;wm0efcHudk atmifqef;tm; ausmif;xkwf&ef pDpOfjcif;wdk@a=umifh jzpfonf? Tta=u_mif;rsm;rSm ta&;ay:om
jzpfonf? pifppf ausmif;om;rsm;. rauseyfr_rSm waiG@aiG@&dSaecJh&mrS ±kwfw&uf aygufuGJoGm;jcif; jzpfavonf? wuUodkvf
tkyfcsKyfa&;udk rauseyfonfrSm =umay+yD? xdkoydwf. tiftm;um;rao;/ wv_yfv_yfyif &dSavonf?

35

Todk@jzifh 1937 ck/ {+yDv 1&ufwGif 'dkiftmcDtkyfcsKyfa&;udk y,fzsufvdkuf+yD; tdENd,ESifh jrefrmjynfudk cGJvdkufavonf?
TtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfopft& a'gufwmbarm. nGef@aygif;tpdk;& wufvmavonf? tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfopfum; (91) XmetkyfcsKyfa&;
jzpfavonf?
Tae&mwGif jyefvnfpdppfvdkufv#if wdkif;jynfu rESpfou_fonfh 'dkiftmcD tkyfcsKyfa&;udk y,fzsuf&ef (15) ESpf =umonf?
wdkif;jynfu vdkvm;onfh cGJa&;udk ESpfaygif; (20) =umrS &&dSonf? odk@aomfvnf; cGJcGma&;ESifhtwl +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@u pDrHvkdufonhf (91)
XmetkyfcsKyfa&;udkum; wdkif;jynfu rvdkvm;ay? (91) XmetkyfcsKyfa&;rSm u|efouf &Snfrnfh pepfom jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh
TtkyfcsKyfa&; pepfudk wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk; ocifygwDESifh wuUodkvf or*~acgif;aqmifrsm;u uef@uGuf qef@usifonf? ocif
tpnf;t±Hk; or*~acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh jynfolu vdkcsifonfum; oD;jcm;uif;vGwfaom vkH;0 vGwfvyfa&; jzpfayonf?
jynfolvlxk\ qENESifh jrefrmtrsKd;om;owif;pmwdk@. qENum; rnfodk@ jcm;em;oenf;? jynfol@qENESifh
trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;. qENonf wpfxyfwnf; &dSaeonfudk awG@&avonf? (91) XmetkyfcsKyfa&;taumiftxnf ay:awmhrnf
qdkuwnf;u trsKd;om;owif;pmtrsm;pk}uD;u uef@uGuf=uavonf?
(91) XmetkyfcsKyfa&;udk wdkufzsuf&eftwGuf trsKd;om;owif;pmq&mrsm;onf jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmwdkufwGif
tpnf;ta0;wpf&yf usif;y=uonf? xdktpnf;ta0;wGif EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm; &mxl;r,l=uzdk@ wdkufwGef;E_d;aqmf&ef
qHk;jzwf=uonf? xdkwdkufwGef;E_d;aqmfcsufudk owif;pmrsm;wGif azmfjyI wdkif;jynfodk@ xkwfjyef&efvnf; qHk;jzwf=uonf? wdkif;jynfodk@
a=ujimcsufudk ‘&efukef+rdK@vHk;qdkif&m owif;pm/ *sme,f/ r*~Zif;t,f'Dwmrsm;. tzGJ@’ [lI trnfcHvufrSwfa&;xdk;+yD; xkwfjyef
a=unmonf jzpfonf? xdk@tjyif (91) XmetkyfcsKyfa&;ysufatmif wdkufzsuf&mY xdxda&mufa&muf aqmif&GufoGm;&eftwGuf
tvkyftr_aqmif tzGJ@wpfzGJ@ zGJ@pnf;&efESifh Ekdifi_Ha&; acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh awG@qHkum &mxl;r,la&; xifjrifcsuf awmif;,l&eftwGuf
txl;tvkyftr_aqmiftzGJ@wpfzGJ@ zGJ@pnf;&efyg oabmwl qHk;jzwf=uonf?
txl;tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJ@wGif (1) 'D;'kwfOD;bcsdK/ (2) jrefrmht_vif; OD;cspfarmif/ (3) bm;rm;*sme,fOD;xGef;oef;/ (4)
&Jowif;pm OD;b&Sdef (q&m}uD; r[maqG)ESifh (5)wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;wdk@. wdk@Arma'gif;owif;pmrS ocifwifarmif (yef;waemf)wdk@
yg0if=uonf?
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmwdkufwGif usif;yaom t,f'Dwmrsm;tpnf;ta0;odk@ ol&d,owif;pmrS t,f'DwmOD;apmESifh
OD;buav;wdk@um; wufa&mufjcif; rjyK=uay? xkdtcgu ol&d,OD;apm. EkdifiHa&;q&mrSm b}uD;bazjzpfonf? ,ckwdkif;jynfodk@
a=ujimcsufxkwf&mY ol&d,owif;pmu rygaomfvnf; owif;pm/ *sme,f/ r*~Zif; trsm;pku pnf;vHk;nDnGwfpGm yg0if=uavonf?
Tpkpnf;nDnGwfonfh t,f'Dwmrsm; tzGJ@u wdkif;jynfodk@ a=ujimcsufxkwfonfrSm ao;i,faom vkyfaqmifcsuf um; r[kwfay?
wdkif;jynf. tkyfcsKyfa&;tajymif;tvJwpfcktay: oabmxm; yl;wGJ xkwfjyefonftxd jrefrmtrsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;u
wdk;wufvkyfaqmifvmonfh ta&;}uD; vkyfaqmifcsufwpf&yfjzpfavonf?
1298 ck/ wydk@wGJvqef; (10) &uf/ Ak'<[l;ae@xkwf jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmwGif Todk@ azmfjyxm;onf?
0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;rsm;udk jiif;y,fEkdif=uv#if jrefrmjynf. tqifhtwef;onf tvGefqHk;oHk;ESpftwGif; a&S@odk@
{uefwdk;wuf&rnf? owif;pmq&mrsm;. jrefrmjynfEdkifiHa&; xkwfjyefa=unmpmwrf;
&efukef+rdK@vHk;qdkif&m owif;pm/ *sme,f/ r*~Zif;/ t,f'DwmtzGJ@. jrefrmjynf EkdifiHa&;xkwfjyefa=unmpmwrf;rSm
atmufygtwdkif;jzpfa=umif;/
jrefrmjynfodk@ +Adwdo#ygvDrmefu 1935 ck/ jrefrmjynftkyfcsKyfa&; tufOya't& tyfESif;vkdufaom
tem*wftkyfcsKyfa&;onf
jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;.
vdktifqENESifh
rsm;pGmuGmjcm;vsuf
tvGefnHhzsif;aom
tkyf_csKyfa&;jzpfaeonfomru jrefrmjynf. vGwfvyfa&;vrf;udk qD;wm;ydwfqdk@aom tkyfcsKyfa&;jzpfonf[k Tt,f'DwmtzGJ@u
xifjrifoabm &&dScJh=uonfhtjyif jrefrmjynfwGif;&dS EkdifiHa&;ygwD *dk%f;*% toif;tzGJ@ tm;vHk;uvnf; tqdkygtkyfcsKyfa&;udk
rauseyf=ua=umif;/ twdtvif; xkwfazmf ajymqdk+yDjzpfa=umif;/
tem*wftkyfcsKyfa&;qdkif&m Oya'jyKrif;wkdifyif a&G;aumufyGJ}uD; ,ck +yD;pD;ae+yD jzpf&um; tEkdif&&dSaomEkdifiHa&;
*dk%f;}uD;rsm;.
trwftiftm;wdk@udk
pkaygif;vdkufrnf
qdkygu
tem*wftkyfcsKyfa&;udk
Edkifeif;atmifwdkufzsufI
jrefrmjynftajctaeudk wpfpHkwpf&m jyKjyifajymif;vJEkdifrnfh tiftm;&&dSaeonfudk awG@&dS&yga=umif;?
Todk@aom tajctaetiftm;udk &&dSaeaomtcdkuf vuf&dSEkdifiHa&;*dk%f;rsm; wdk@onf tem*wftkyfcsKyfa&; wnfwHhap&ef
0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;rsm;udk jiif;y,fEkdif=uv#if tem*wftkyfcsKyfa&;udk nHhzsif;vSaoma=umifh jrefrmjynfu vufrcH[laom t"dy`m,f
onf ay:vGifxif&Sm;vsuf/ tkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'yk'fr 139 t& bk&ifcHu txl;trdef@ xkwfI tkyfcsKyfa&;wpfckvHk;udk zsufodrf;um
vHk;0wm0efrJh tkyfcsKyf&awmhrnf jzpfyga=umif;/ Todk@ xkwfjyefaom bk&ifcH. txl;trdef@onfvnf; tvGefqHk; (3) ESpfom
wnf+rJEkdifrnfjzpf&um; wdkif;jynfacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;ESifh wkdif;jynfbufrS wufa&mufaom trwfrsm;wdk@u Tta&;wGif
nDnGwf=uygv#if jrefrmjynf. tqifhtwef;onf (3) ESpftwGif;yif a&S@odk@ {uefwdk;wuf&rnfhta&;udk av; av;eufeuf
a&S;±_=uvsuf rJqEN&Sif e,fole,fom;wkd@. rsufESmudk axmuf xm;ojzifh tem*wftkyfcsKyfa&;qdkif&m 0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;rsm;udk
wnDwnGwfwnf; vufrcHjcif;jzifh tkyfcsKyfa&;udk wdkufzsuf=uyg&ef TtzGJ@tpnf;u av;eufpGm wdkufwGef;
awmif;yefvdkufyga=umif;?
(1)
yHk-OD;pdef; (jrefrmhtvif;)
(2)
yHk-OD;bcsKd('D;'kwf)

36

(3)
yHk-armifxGef;oef; (bm;rm;*sme,f)
(4)
yHk-armifpHodef; (aps;E_ef;owif;pm)
(5)
yHk-pdefnGef@ESifhOD;armif+rdKif (naeowif;pmwdkuf)
(6)
yHk-atmifjrif (q,foef;)
(7)
yHk-b&dSef (&Jowif;pm)
(8)
yHk-ocifwifarmif (a'gif;owif;pOf)
(9)
yHk-armifpdef (wdk;wufa&;)
(10) yHk-cspfarmif (jrefrmhtvif;)
(11) yHk-vSaz ('*kefr*~Zif;)
(12) yHk-cifarmif (jyKjyifa&;r*~Zif;)
Ta=ujimcsufudk tjcm;pme,fZif;rsm;wGifvnf; xnfhoGif; azmfjycJh=uonf?
EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh awG@qHk&ef zGJ@pnf;xm;aom owif;pmq&mig;OD;onf nae (6) em&DavmufpI um;ESpfpD;jzifh
t*Fvdyfjrefrm ESpfbmomvufa&;wdk vli,fwpfa,mufyg acgif;aqmifI EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;tdrfodk@ oGm;=uonf? TtzGJ@onf
b}uD;baz/ a&$usifOD;yk/ a'gufwmbarmf/ OD;cspfv_dif/ qmay:xGef; wdk@tdrfodk@ a&muf=uonf? ar;jref;=uonf? xdk@aemuf
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmwdkufodk@ jyefvm=u onf? owif; xkwfjyef&ef nd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;=u+yD;aemuf owif;pmwdkufrsm;odk@ owif;xkwf
jyefay;=u&m aemufwpfae@xkwf owif;pmrsm;wGif ‘EkdifiHa&; acgif;aqmif rsm;ESifh owif;pm q&mrsm; awG@qHkajymqdk=uyHk’ [laom
owif;ygvmavonf?
owif;pmq&mrsm;. vkyfaqmifcsufudkwdkif;jynfu pdwf0ifpm;cJh=uonf? jynfol@ qENESifhvnf; wnDwnf;&dScJh=uonf?
odk@aomfvnf; EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm; um; &mxl; a0,lcJh=uavonf?
qif;&Jom; 0HomEktzGJ@acgif;aqmif a'gufwmbarmfu n$ef@aygif;tpdk;&tzGJ@udk zGJ@pnf;cJhonf/ n$ef@aygif;tpdk;&tzGJ@wGif
a'gufwmbarmfu vpmaiG 3000d pm; eef;&if;0ef &mxl;udk ,lonf? v_dif-jrwf-ay:tzGJ@u OD;ay:xGef;u jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;/
ig;yGifhqdkiftzGJ@rS a&$usifOD;yku tcGefawmfXme0ef}uD;/ a'gufwmodef;armifu pufr_vufr_ESifh ul;oef; a&mif;0,fa&;0ef}uD;/
&ckdiftrsKd;om; OD;xGef;atmifausmf (qmxGef;atmifausmf)u b¾ma&;0ef}uD;/ u&iftrsKd;om; apmazomu v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;ESifh
opfawma&; 0ef}uD;/ OD;om,m0wDarmifarmifu ynma&;0ef}uD;ponfjzifh vpm 2500d pm; 0ef}uD;csKyf}uD; (,ckacwftac:
0ef}uD;)rsm; jzpf=uavonf? v_dif-jrwf-ay: tzGJ@ acgif;aqmif OD;cspfv_difurl vpm; 2000d pm; v$wfawmfOuUX&mxl;udk ,lcJhavonf?
EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;u &mxl;cGJa0,lvdkufaomfvnf; jrefrmhtvif; owif;pm u rl (91) XmetkyfcsKyfa&;udk pGJpGJ+rJ+rJ
uef@uGufcJhavonf? jrefrmhtvif; owif;pm onf tkyfcsKyfa&;ajymif;vJonfh 1937 ck/ {+yDv (1) &ufrSmyif xdkae@xkwf
owif;pmwGif acgif;}uD;ydkif;ra&;bJ uef@uGufqENjyavonf? owif;pmudkvnf; {+yDv (2) &ufwGif rxkwfbJ {+yDv (3) &ufwGifrS
qufvufxkwfa0onf? {+yDv (1) &ufxkwf owif;pm. acgif;}uD;ydkif;ae&m uGufvyfwGif ‘,ae@ {+yDv (1) &ufae@onf u|Ekfyfwdk@ tvGefawmifhwvSaom cGJcGma&;udk u|Ekfyfw@tvsif;tvdkr&dSaom tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh
yl;wGJay;tyfaomae@jzpf&m tkyfcsKyfa&;rSm wdkif;jynf.tvdkESifh qef@usifvsuf wdkif;jynf}uD;yGm;wdk;wuf&m wdk;wufa=umif;
tcGifhaumif;rsm;udk
xda&mufydkifEkdifpGm
ay;tyfjcif;r&dSaom
tkyfcsKyfa&;jzpfa=umif;/
xdktkyfcsKyfa&;.
qkd;0g;yHk/
uef@uGufzG,f&maumif;yHkwdk@rSm pmjzifha&;IrukefEkdifatmif rsm;jym;vSonfh tx_drf;trSwfjzifh u|Ekfyfwdk@onf ,ae@owif;pmY
acgif;}uD;ydkif;udk ra&;bJ csefvSyfxm;cJhonfjzpfa=umif;’ [lI a&;om;azmfjyxm;avonf? owif;pm pmrsufESm ajcmufwGif
tkyfcsKyfa&;opfY 0ef}uD;jzpfvmrnfh OD;yk/ OD;ay:xGef;/ a'gufwmbarmf/ OD;om,m0wDarmifarmif/ OD;xGef;atmifausmfESifh
OD;apmazomwdk@. yHkrsm;udk azmfjyxm;onf?
xdktcgu tdENd,jynfwGif uGefu&ufygwDu bk&ifcHrsm;xHrS 0ef_}uD;rsm;udk tm%may;&ef awmif;qdk=uonf? bk&ifcHrsm;u
ray;ojzifh tkyfcsKyfa&;opf. tESpfom&rJhjcif;udk od&dSonfhtavsmuf &mxl;udk jiif;y,f=uavonf?
wuUodkvfoydwfarSmufudpPrSmrl
a'gufwmbarmfu
ausmif;om;rsm;.
vdkvm;csufudk
aqmif&Gufay;rnf?
ausmif;om;or*~u uef@uGufonfh qmjrbl;. tpD&ifcHpmudkvnf; jyefvnfoHk;oyf+yD; topfaom pDrHcsufrsm;udk or*~
udk,fpm;vS,frsm; ESifh aqmif&Gufrnf[lI ajym=um;a=unmojzifh oydwfjyef vSef=uonf? odk@aomfvnf; xdkoydwfta&;t+yD;wGif
udkatmifqef; (AkdvfcsKyf atmifqef;) ponfh ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;onf wdk@Armocif tpnf;t±Hk;xJodk@ wpfenf;tm;jzifh
EkdifiHa&; avmuxJodk@ ajcpHkypf0ifcJh=uavonf?
wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;ESifh ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf u|efouf&Snfaponfh (91) XmetkyfcsKyfa&;udk wdkufcdkufcJh=uonf?
wdk@Armocifvli,f udk,frif;udk,fcsif;tzGJ@rS trwf (3) OD; jzpfaom ocifjr (om,m0wD)/ ocifvSwif ([oFmw) ESifh ociftHh}uD;
(yckuUL)wdk@uvnf; v$wfawmfwGif;wGif udkvdkeDtkyfcsKyfa&;udk qef@usifcJh=uonf?
(91) XmetkyfcsKyfa&;pepfponfh 1937/ {+yDv (1) &ufwGif tkyfcsKyfa&; jynfvHk;u|wf qef@usifa&; vlxkuef@uGufyGJrsm;udk
wdk@Armocifrsm;u OD;aqmifI &efukef/ tif;pdef/ [Hom0wD/ rEÅav;/ armfv+rdKif/ ykodrf/ jynf/ qif+rD;qGJ/ om,m0wD/ [oFmw/
bdkuav;/ acsmuf/ a&eHacsmif;/ jrif;+cH/ yckuUL/ rif;bl;/ a&$bdk/ rHk&Gm/ ppfudkif;/ oxHk/ yJcl;ESifh awmifil+rdK@rsm;wGif usif;yjyKvkyfcJh=uonf?
xkdtcgu (91) XmetkyfcsKyfa&;wdkufzsufa&;ESifh jrefrmjynf bk&ifcH aumhu&def;tm; qef@usifa&;wGif yg0ifcJhaom awmif}uD;+rdK@
ol&d,ESifh jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmowif;axmuf OD;wifv_dif (,ck ompnf)rSm e,fESif'%f tjypfay;cHcJh&ao;onf?

37

OD;wifv_difonf &Srf;jrefrm aoG;pnf;nDnGwfa&; aqmif;yg;rsm;udk ‘&Srf;jynfarmif’ uavmif trnfcHum jrefrmhtvif;ESifh
ol&d,owif;pmwGif a&;om;cJhonf? wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;0g'jyef@yGm;a&;twGufvnf; &Srf;jynfe,fawmifydkif; +rdK@rsm;odk@ vSnfhvnf
pnf;±Hk;cJhonf? 1937 ckwGif jrefrmjynfbk&ifcH aumhu&def;onf &Srf;jynfodk@ wkdif;cef; vSnhfvnf&m c&D; (7) rdkifwGif r¾yfwpfvHk;pDxdk;I
}udKqdk=u&onf? OD;wifv_difu xdkta=umif;udk oa&mfonfh aqmif;yg;a&;I jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm/ ol&d,ESifh q,foef;
owif;pmrsm;odk@ ay;ydk@cJh&m owif;pmrsm;wGif ygvmonf? xdktcg &Srf;jynfe,f aumfr&Sifemjzpfol rpPwmazmfumwDESifh
&Srf;jynfe,ftpdk;&u Todk@ a&;&ygrnfvm; qdkum OD;wifv_diftm; e,fjcm;Oya'ESifh ompnf+rd_K@odk@ e,fESif'%fay;cJhjcif; jzpfonf/
xdktcgu ompnf+rdK@rSm &Srf;jynfe,fESifh jrefrmjynf. e,fjcm;+rdK@jzpf&m OD;wifv_difrSm ‘e,fjcm;ocifwifv_dif’ [lI emrnfwGifcJhonf?
jrefrmjynfwGif (91) XmetkyfcsKyfa&;udk qef@usifuef@uGufonfh wd_kufyGJ jyif;xefaepOf tdENd,jynfrS
uGefu&ufygwDacgif;aqmif rpPwmae±l;ESifh orD;tif'D,m*E<Dwdk@ jrefrmjynfodk@ tvnfvm&m jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmwdkufY
*k%fjyK{nfhcHyGJ jyKvkyfonf? xdk{nfhcHyGJodk@ (91) XmetkyfcsKyfa&;wdkufzsufa&; owif;pmt,f'Dwm (12) OD;vnf;
tpHktnDwufa&muf=uonf? rpPwmae±l;ESifh orD;wdk@u tdENd,jynf EkdifiHa&; tajctaersm;ESifh uGefu&ufygwD.
vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;udk
&Sif;jy+yD;
jrefrmowif;pmrsm;.
vGwfvyfa&;}udK;yrf;r_rsm;udk
*k%fjyKajym=um;+yD;
jrefrmowif;pmq&mrsm;uvnf; rpPwmae±l;wdk@. vGwfvyfa&; }udK;yrf;r_rsm;udk *k%fjyKajym=um;=uonf? rpPwmae±l;ESifh orD;wdk@udk
wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;uvnf; *k%fjyK{nfhcHcJh=uonf?
Tta=umif;rsm;um; wdkif;jynfu rvdkvm;aom (91) XmetkyfcsKyfa&;udk jrefrmtrsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;u jynfoludk
pnf;±Hk;v_H@aqmf+yD; jynfolESifhtwl wdkufcJhaom wdkufyGJjzpfonf? jrefrmtrsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;ESifh wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;wdk@.
vdkvm;csufum; oD;jcm;uif;vGwfaom vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;yifwnf;?
1300jynfh ta&;awmfyHkumv
1938-39 ckESpfonf 1300 jynfhta&;awmfyHkESpfjzpfonf? jrefrmjynf. vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJordkif;wav#mufwGif
EkdifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;rI tjyif;xefqHk;ESpfwpfESpf jzpfavonf? TumvwGif a&eHajrtvkyform;wdkufyGJ/ v,form;wdkufyGJESifh
ausmif;om;wdkufyGJrsm; wpnf;wvHk;wnf; aygif;pnf;rd+yD; 1300 jynfhta&;awmfykH}uD; jzpfyGm;ay:aygufcJhonf r[kwfygavm?
1300 jynfhta&;awmfyHk rD;[kef;[kef;awmuf&jcif;onf a&eHajr tvkyform;wdkufyGJ peufwHu pwifaygufuGJonf[k
qdk&ayrnf? xdkpeu_fwHrSm a&eHajrtvkyform;rsm;u ‚if;wdk@. epfemcsufrsm;/ zdESdyfcH&r_rsm;udk rcHEkdifonfhtqHk; wdkif;jynfESifhwuG
urBmodk@ wifjyaomtm;jzifh rdkif 400 ausmfc&D;udk ajcvsifcsDwufwdkufyGJ0if&ef qHk;jzwfaom 26-11-38 ae@udk owfrSwf&rnf[k
,lqonf? xdkupI jrefrmwpfjynfvHk;odk@ oydwfwdkufyJG aygif;pHk rD;tv#HysH@ESH@ul;pufoGm;onfyif r[kwfygavm?
rSefonf? a&eHajrtvkyform;rsm;. qHk;jzwfcsuftwdkif; 30-11-38 wGif acsmufa&eHajrrS &efukefodk@ta&muf
ajcvsifcsDwufyGJ}uD; pavonf? rauG;+rdK@odk@ a&mufaomtcg e,fcsJ@orm;ESifh taygif;yg n$ef@aygif;tpkd;&u oydwfwyfudk +zdKcGJonf?
&efukefrS ppfula&mufvmaom ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifudkA[def;/ udkbaqGwdk@ESifhwuG tvkyform;acgif;aqmifrsm;udk zrf;onf?
ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;udk zrf;ojzifh &efukefwGif ausmif;om;rsm;u twGif;0ef±Hk;udk 0dkif;0ef;qENjy&m
e,fcsJ@ESifhtaygif;ygwdk@u ±dkufESufvlpkcGJjyefojzifh ausmif;om;rsm; aoG;ajrus&onf? TwdkufyGJwGif e,fcsJ@ESifh vufyg;apwdk@.
vufcsufjzifh ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif Adkvfatmifausmf usqHk;&onf?
xdktcsdefy &efukef+rdK@ oefvsif+rdK@ESihfwuG te,fe,fwGif e,fcsJ@qef@usifa&; oydwfaygif;pHk ay:vmavonf? aps;oydwf/
tvkyform; oydwfESifh bwfpfum;oydwfrsm; v_yf&Sm;vmonf/ 8-1-39 wGif a&$wd*Hk ukef;awmfay:Y a&eHajrtvkyform;wyfESifh
v,form;wyfrsm; aygif;pHkrd=uonf?
10-1-39 wGif a&$wd*HkapwDawmf}uD;. taemufawmifaxmifh tv,fypP,H ajruGufvyf}uD;Y jrefrmjynfvHk;qdkif&m
EdkifiHa&;nDvmcH}uD; usif;yonf? xdknDvmcHBuD;odkY a&eHajrtvkyform;wyf/ v,form;wyf/ ausmif;om;oydwfwyf/
bwfpfum;oydwfwyf/ tm&ftD;wDoydwfwyf/ &efukef oydwfaygif;pHkwyfrsm;/ +rdK@aygif; (144) +rKd@rS udk,fpm;vS,f aygif; 480
wufa&muf=uonf? nDvmcHwGif q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfr_dif;u obmywd tjzpf aqmif&Gufavonf?
xdknDvmcHu qHk;jzwfcsuf av;&yfcsrSwo
f nf/ tusOf;csKyfrSm - (1) jrefrmjynf vuf&dSv$wfawmfwGif rnfolr# &mxl;r,lzdk@
xdxda&mufa&muf aqmif&Guf&ef/ (2) vuf&dSv$wfawmftzGJ@0if trwftm;vHk;ESifh a'oEW& tzGJ@0iftm;vHk; tjrefqHk;&mxl;rS
EkwfxGuf=uzdk@ wpfjynfvkH;rS enf;rsKd;pHjk zifh tpGrf;ukefaqmif&Guf=u&ef/ (3) ArmwpfrsKd;om;vHk;tm; epfrGef;qkH;±_H;apaom
vuf&dStkyfcsKyfa&;udk pDrHzefwD;ay;onfh "e&Sif}udK;qGJ +Adwdo#ygvDrmefudk txl;uef@uGufrauseyfonfhoabmjzifh +Adwdo# ukef
ypPnf;rsm;udk oydwfarSmuf&efESifh (4) jynfwGif;&dS tvkyform;tm;vHk; oydwf arSmuf=u&efwdk@ jzpfavonf?
TqHk;jzwfcsufrsm;onf wpfjynfvHk;o@ ±dkufcwfysH@ESH@oGm;onf? oydwfawG wdk;vmonf? e,fcsJ@qef@usifa&;rD;awmuf
t&Sdeft[kef ysH@ESH@vmavonf?
30-1-39 wGif &mZ0wf0efaxmuf rpPwmpDbDatmESifh ykvdyfwyfrsm; o&uf+rdK@odk@ a&mufvmonf? xdkae@eHeufwGif
ol&d,owif;pm udk,fpm;vS,f OD;bpHtm; zrf;oGm;onf udk ta=umif;jyKvsuf vlaygif; 3000cef@ pk±Hk;um tmvH&JXme udk 0dkif;0ef;I
OD;bpHtm; v$wfay;&ef aºuG;a=umf qENjy=uonf? ykvdyfu aoewfjzifh ypfcwfvlpkcGJ&m vl (20) ce@ '%f&=uonf? xdkteuf
OD;bzdk;rSm &&dSaom '%f&mjzifh uG,fvGefomG ;avonf? OD;bzdk;. psmyetcrf;tem;udk 3-2-39 wGif tmvH+rdK@ (,ckatmifvH+rdK@) rS
avSrsm;jzifh vma&muf,laqmifoGm;pOf o&uf+rdK@ vlxku vdkufvHydk@=u_onf? vdkufvHydk@=uaom avSrsm;teuf

38

rdef;uav;trsm;tjym; yg0ifonfh vl (50) yg avS}uD;udk {&m0wD pmydk@oabFm tmeENmu aemufrS0ifwdkufrd&m vlaygif; (13) OD;
toufqHk;±_H;=u&jyefonf? xdktxJwGif yËdoaE< oHk;v &dSaom rdef;rwpfOD;vnf; yg0ifojzifh toufaygif; (14) ouf qHk;±_H;&onf[k
qdk&ayrnf?
10-2-39 (1300jynfh/ wydk@wGJvqkwf 7&uf/ aom=umae@) wGif rEWav;+rdK@Y tm%mzDqefa&; pDwef;vrf;av#mufyGJ}uD;
jyKvkyf&m vufeufrJh &[ef;&Sifvly&dowfudk oHk;}udrfwdkif aoewfjzifh ypfcwfvlpkcGJojzifh toufaygif; (17) ouf qHk;±_H;&jyefonf/
trsm;tjym; '%f&m&=uavonf?
Todk@ wpfjynfvHk; EkdifiHa&;tHkºuGr_}uD;/ e,fcsJ@qef@usifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_}uD; jzpfyGm;um 1300 jynfhta&;awmfykH}uD;tjzpf
ordkif;wGif rSwfwrf;wif&onfh rD;awmuf rD;v#H}uD;udk }udKwifumuG,faomtm;jzifh e,fcsJ@tpdk;&u ukvm;Armt"du±k%f;
zefwD;ao;ojzifh 26-7-38 rS pwifum 28-7-38 wGif t}uD;tus,f jzpfyGm;cJhonf/ xdktcsdefY a&eHajrwGif tvkyform;oydwf}uD;
jzpfyGm;ae+yDjzpf&m xdkoydwf}uD; ao;odrfarS;rSdef oGm;ap&ef e,fcsJ@orm;u enf;y&d,m,foHk;jcif;yif jzpfavonf?
1300 jynfh ta&;awmfykHumvwGif trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;uvnf; jynfolESifh twl &yfwnfI wdkufyGJ0if=uav&m
e,fcsJ@orm;u owif;pmrsm;udkvnf; zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr-rsm; jyKavonf? ukvm;Armt"du±k%f; jzpfonfrSpI owif;pmrsm;.
vGwfvyfcGifhudk xdyg;vmum zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm; wdk;wufjyKvkyfvmonf? &efukefta&;ydkifu yk'fr 144 xkwfum vlwpfrsKd;ESifhwpfrsK;d
rkef;xm;aprnfh &efukeft"du±k%f;ta=umif; ra&;&/ "gwfyHkrsm;vnf;rxnfh&[k 28-7-38 wGifvnf;aumif;/ wpfjynfvHk;rS
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t=urf;zufESdrfeif;ojzifh aoG;ajrus&aomtcgwGifvnf; xdkae@ nae 6;30 Y &efukefc±dkif&mZ0wf w&m;ol}uD; OD;bdk;p. vufrSwfjzifh
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39

1300 jynfhta&;awmfykHumvtwGif; 1939 ck/ azazmf0g&Dv 16 &ufwGif a'gufwmbarmf. nGef@aygif;tpkd;&udk
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40

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41

tcsufay;vdkufonfESifhwpf+ydKifeuf
ajcvsifoydwfwyf}uD;rSm eHeuf 7 em&Dtcsdef csDwuf&ef tcsufay;vdkufonfESifh wpf+ydKifeuf a&S@qHk;rS pnfawmf&Grf;I
tvH}uD;rsm; v$ifhxlcsDwufoGm;&mwGif aq;vdyf/ rD;jcpf/ oa&pmrsm; urf;vSrf;a0iS=ua=umif;/ ocifrrsm;uvnf; oajyyef;rsm;
udk,fpDudk,fiS a0iS=ua=umif;/ apwDb&k m;}uD;udk uefawmh0wfajz@I qufvufcsDwuf oGm;=ua=umif;/ vdkuf@ydk@=uaom
vlxky&dowf}uD;rSm a=umufcref;vdvdyif jzpfa=umif;/ +rdK@txGufwGif vdkufvHydk@=uaom vly&dowfrSm 0rf;enf;a=uuGJ=uojzifh
tcsKd@rSm csKH;yGJcsI idk=uao;a=umif;?
ajcvsifoydwfwdk@rSm TrSa0;uGmaom c&D;udk yrm%rjyKbJ usdef;aoEdkifrnfh ppfyGJodk@ vdkufygwdkufcdkuf=u&aom
ppfonfawmfrsm;tvm; armfw+yHK;+yHK; aysmfrqHk;aom rsufESmxm;wdk@udk awG@jrif=ua=umif;?
rEdkifv#ifrjyef
Tr#a0;uGmaom a'orS ajcvsifoGm;aom vlxky&dowfrSm jrefrmjynfwGif Twpf}udrfom&dSao;a=umif;/ ajcvsifoydwf
1000 cef@onf rEkdifv#if rjyefbl;[k ajymoH=um;&ao;a=umif;/ xdkae@eHeufpmtwGuf acsmufrS 17 rdkifa0;uGmaom a*G;csKdpcef;wGif
pm;aomuf=uI naequfvufoGm;um =oZmawmwGif ntdyfI a&eHacsmif;rS ydk@vmaom npmudk pm;aomuf=ua=umif;/
aemufwpfae@ a&eHacsmif;odk@ qufvufcsDwufI a&eH acsmif;oydwfrsm;ESifh yl;aygif;csDwufrnfjzpfa=umif;?
(rEWav;ol&d,owif;pm 5-12-38)
ta&;awmfyHkumvwGif pme,fZif;aygif;pHkrS pma&;q&m/ owif;pm q&mrsm;uvnf; zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_udk uef@uGuf=uonf?
18-12-38 ae@ 12 em&DcGJwGif usif;yaom zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_ uef@uGufonfh tpnf;ta0;odk@ OD;pdef; (jrefrmhtvif;)/ OD;apm (ol&d,)/
OD;wif(jrefrmhtvif;)/ OD;odef; (wdk;wufa&;)/ OD;b&dSef (r[maqG) (&J)/ OD;jrifhOD; (jrefrmhOD;pGef;-rEWav;)/ OD;boif (jrefrmhwm&mrEWav;)/ OD;xGef;&if (rEWav;ol&d,)/ OD;qkdif (a&$"g;Adkvf)/ OD;wif (wdk@vkyfom;)/ OD;ausmfvGif (tmZmenf)/ OD;aboef; (jrefrmh aZ,sm)/
OD;pHarmif (AE<Kv)/ OD;vS (}uD;yGm;a&;)/ OD;armifarmif (jrefrm±kyf&Sif)/ OD;vSaz (±kyf&Sifody`H)/ OD;b}udKif (rEWav;ol&d,)/ OD;cifndK
(armfawmf bwfwdkuf)/ OD;bpH (&ckdifjynfowif;pm)/ OD;ausmfpdef ('dk@vuf±Hk;-ppfawG)/ OD;ausmfnGef@ (wdkvDrdkvD r*~Zif;)/ OD;atmifjrif
(q,foef;)/ OD;vSxGef;jzL (yHkESdyfXme-{&m0wD/ tvHk)/ OD;armifarmifwif (jrefrmhwm0ef)/ &rf;+AJOD;armif armif (o[m,)/ q&mxGef;
(oDwm{)/ OD;atmifodef; (bGif;bGif;ESifh tuef;wdkuf)/ polwdk@ wufa&muf=uonf?
xdktpnf;ta0;u (1) ,cktcg jrefrmjynfwpf0Srf;vHk;Y jynfol@vGwfvyfa&; wnf; [laom wdkif;oljynfom;wdk@.
tcGifhta&;rsm;udk tvGeftrif; zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fjcif; twGuf tpdk;&tm;txl; ±_wfcsuJh&J@jypfwifa=umif;/ (2) TuJhodk@ zdESdyfcsKyfcs,faom
Oya't&yf&yfrsm;udk tjrefqHk; ±kwfodrf;&ef tpdk;&tm; jyif;xefpGm awmif;qdka=umif;/ (3) rnfonfhtpnf;t±Hk; rnfolrqdk
tm%mzDqefa&;udk aqmif&Gufygu Ttpnf; ta0;}uD;u csD;usL;tm;ay;a=umif; [laom qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk csrSwf=uavonf?
(rEWav; ol&d,owif;pmrS)
a&$wd*HkwGif wyfaygif;pHkqHkrd=uaomae@}uD;
a&eHwyf/ v,form;wyf/ bwfum;wyf/ ausmif;om;wyf qHkrd=u+yD/
jrefrmjynf. EkdifiHa&;&mZ0ifwGif wpfcgbl;r# r}uHKzl;atmif tvkyf orm;qif;&Jom;rsm;ESifh &efukef+rdK@}uD;wGif
qHkrd=uaomae@}uD;onfum; Zefe0g&Dv (8) &uf 1939ck/ we*FaEGae@wpfae@vHk;yif jzpfaya=umif;/ rdk;rvif;rDtcsdefuyif a&eHajr
oydwfarSmuf tvkyform;wyf}uD;ESifh oxHke,fv,form;wyf}uD;wdk@onf &efukef+rdK@ qifajczHk; urm&Gwfodk@ qkdufa&mufrnfjzpfojzifh
wuUodkvf"rRm±Hk}uD;a&S@wGif &efukef+rdK@wpf+rdK@vHk;&dS wyfaygif;pHkwdk@rSm vma&muf }uKdqdkae=uonfrSm tHhrcef;yif &dSavawmh.?
(ol&d,owif;pm 1300 jynfh ESpf/ jymodkvjynfhausmf 5 &uf)
qGJiifwGef;xdk;I ypfjcif;
ppfykvdyfrsm;ESifh +rdK@rukvm;ykvdyfrsm;onf xdkae@eHeufu trsdK;orD;rsm;udk twif;t"rRqGJiifwGef;xdk;ypfonhftjyif
rsufESmjzLykvdyfrsm;uvnf; trsKd;orD;rsm;udk rn‡mrwm ajcESifhuefausmuf=uojzifh jrefrmjynf vGwfvyfa&; trsKd;orD;rsm;tzGJ@csKyf
twGif;a&;rSL; cifrsKd;cspf trnfcH ocifr rcifjrrSm '%f&m&&dSa=umif;/ tcsKd@ rdef;uav;rsm;rSmvnf; ykvdyfwkwfcsufESifh ajcuefcH&aom
'%fcsufrsm;&&dS+yD;/ tcsKd@rSm "gwfaiG@oifhI rl;arhoGm;=ua=umif;/ trsKd;orD;rsm;udk trsKd;om;olemjyKwyfom;rsm;u 'D;'kwfowif;
pmwdkufodk@ ydk@ay;+yD;v#if aq;ukoay;&a=umif;?
±kyf&SifZmwfvdkufrif;om;.'%f&m
xdkodk@ rsufESmjzLykvdyfrsm;ESifh ukvm;ykvdyfrsm;u trsKd;orD;rsm;udk wGef;xdk;±dkufyw
k fjcif; jyK=upOf ±kyf&SifZmwfvdkufrif;om;
armifausmfat;rSm trsKd;orD;rsm;udk umuG,f&ef a&S@qHk;odk@ wdk;oGm;pOf ykvdyfrsm;. wkwfvufeufxdI OD;acgif;wGif '%f&m 2
csuf}uD;pGm &&dSoGm;a=umif;?

42

owif;axmuf 2 OD;zrf;jcif;
xdk@aemufrS ppfom;wifaom um;wpfpD;onf rsufESmjzLykvdyf t&m&dSrsm;ESifh twl a&mufvm+yD;aemuf teD;&dS
jrefrmvufzuf&nfqkdifrS a&rsm;ESifh ykvdyfrsm; udk,fwdkif "gwf&xm;ay:odk@ wufI (rD;avmifaeaom "gwf&xm;) udk +idrf;owf
&a=umif;/ ykvdyfrsm;onf rD;avmifaeaom "gwf&xm;udk0dkif;I apmifha&SmufaepOf vltkyf}uD;rSmvnf; pk±Hk;a&muf&dSvm=ua=umif;/
rD;avmifaeaom "gwf&xm;teD;odk@ oGm;I "gwfyHk±dkuf/ owif;,laeaom wdk;wufa&;owif;axmuf udkrsKd;nGef@ESifh
q,foef;owif;axmuf udktkef;wdk@udk ykvdyfwdk@u "gwfyHkuifr&mESifhwuG zrf;qD;xm;vdkufa=umif;/
(jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm - 3/ 2/ 39)
tmVm0uzdk;vS}uD;
&efukef+rdK@
a&$wd*kHapwDawmfodk@
oydwfwyfaygif;pHk
pcef;csum=umjrifhpGm
aexdkif=u+yD;aemuf
toD;oD;tvkyfvkyfcJh=ua=umif;?odk@aomf tvDvDESifh tvkyfvkyfcJh=u&m rwfv 13 &ufae@rSpI tmVm 0uocifzdk;vS}uD;
acgif;aqmifaom a&eHajroydwfwyf}uD;rS tpjyKI rD;jcpfoydwf/ tmtD;wDoydwf ponfwdk@onfvnf; oydwfwm;jcif;paom
tvkyfvkyfudkifcJh=u&m tmVm0uzdk;vS}uD;ESifhwuG oydwfom;rsm;rSm zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&+yDjzpfa=umif;/ (q,foef;owif;pm 16-3-39)
Armjynfwdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;wdkif;odk@ qifhpm
a&eHajrtvkyform;udpPwGif rauG;axmifwGif usa&mufaeaom ocifuGef;}uD; onf ,cktcg rauG;axmiftwGif;wGif
tedpPa&muf+yDjzpfI wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;wkdif;u ocifuGef;}uD;. psmyeaeYwGif 0rf;enf;aom txdrf;trSwftjzpf wdk@ArmtvHudk
wpf0ufv$ifhxl=uapvdka=umif;?
‚if;jyif psmyeodk@ wufa&mufEkdifaom ocifrsm;onf wufa&muf ulnD=uapvdka=umif;/ uG,fvGefol ocifuGef;}uD;tm;
&nfrSef;I qGrf;oGyfjcif;/ tr#twef;a0jcif;rsm;udkvnf; jyKvkyf=uapvdka=umif;/ aiGa=u;rsm;udkvnf; wwfEdkif or# pkaqmif;I
ocifuGef;}uD;. aqGrsKd;rsm;tm; ulnD axmufyHh=uapvdka=umif;?
ta&;awmfyHkatmifygap
ocifatmifqef;
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;
XmecsKyf/ wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;}uD;
76 / a&ausmfvrf;/ &efukef+rdK@
(jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm)
25-12-39
TonfrSm oydwfwdkufyGJaygif;pHk/ vlwef;pm;aygif;pHk yg0ifqifE$J=uonfh ta&;awmfyHk/ v_yf&Sm;r_ wpdwfa'ojzpfavonf?
&mZawm0g
1939 ckESpf/ OD;yktpdk;&wufvmaomtcgwGifvnf; owif;pmrsm; cH&onfyif/ OD;yktpdk;&wufvmonfhwpfvtwGif;rSmyif
rwfv 2 &ufxkwf ocifowif;pmudk ydwfyifzrf;qD;onf? awme,frsm;wGifvnf; ocifowif;pmrsm;udk odrf;qnf;onf?
e,l;bm;rm;owif;axmufudk v$wfawmfxJrS ESifxkwfonf? Todk@ zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm; wdk;I vkyfvmonf? aemufvmonfh
armifykvJ 'dkif;0efxuf uJavonf?
owif;pmrsm; xdkodk@ cH&aomfvnf; owif;pmu iHk@cHae=uonfr[kwf/ jyefI wdkuf=uonfyif/ v$wfawmfudk
oydwfarSmufjcif;/ owif;pmq&m toif;trnfcH+yD; a=ujimcsufxkwfum ±_wfcsjypfwifjcif;rsm; jyK=uavonf? wdkif;jynfEkdifiHa&;
tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh ywfoufIvnf; a=unmcsufrsm; xkwjf yef+yD; wdkuf=uonf? owif;pmydwfI qENjy=uavonf?
yJa&mhOD;qefeD. zdwf=um;csuft& rwfv 12 &ufwGif acwWtoif; wnf&m Xmejzpfaom armfwifvrf;Y usif;yonfh
owif;pmq&mrsm;. ta&;w}uD; tpnf;ta0;u ‘Oya'jyK v$wfawmfESifhpyfvsOf;I owif;pmwdk@. w&m;ojzifh &oifh&xdkufaom
tcGihfta&;rsm;udk rw&m;zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm; aemufaemifawG@&dSygrl xdkOya'v$wfawmftpnf;ta0;owif;rsm;udk owif;pmrsm;wGif
xnhfoGif;azmfjyjcif; rjyKbJ oydwfarSmufxm;&ef’ wnDwnGwfwnf; qHk;jzwf=uonf?
TtcsdefwGifvnf;
owif;pmq&mtoif;[lI
pepfwusr&dSao;/
ta&;tcif;
ta=umif;udpP}uHKvmv#if
owif;pmq&mrsm;tpnf;ta0;vkyf=u/ qHk;jzwfcsufcs=u/ qHk;jzwfcsufcsonfhtwdkif; vdkufemvkyfaqmif=u/ a=unmcsufxkwf=u/
tpdk;&ESifh awG@qHkta&;qdkp&m&dSv#if ta&;qdk=uonfhtpOftvmom &dSao;onfudk awG@&onf?
odk@aomfvnf; owif;pmrsm; pnf;vHk;nDnGwfpGmjzifh wdkufyGJ0if=uonfu tm;&p&m aumif;vSonf? TESpfxJwGif
owif;pmrsm; r=umc% tpnf;ta0; vkyf=uonf? xdktpnf;ta0;rsm;uae+yD; wdkif;jynfvGwfvyfa&;twGufa&m rdrdwdk@
vGwfvyfcGifhtwGufyg wdkufyGJ0if=uonf? xdktcsdefu owif;pmrsm;rSm wpfOD;csif;vnf; wdkuf=u/ pkaygif;Ivnf;wdkuf=uonf? xdkodk@

43

wdkufyGJ0if=u&mwGif owif;pmrsm;pka0;+yD; tpnf;ta0;vkyf/ tpnf;ta0;u ‘owif;pmq&mtoif;’ ‘t,f'Dwmrsm;tzGJ@’ [lI
trnfcH 0dkif; vufrSwfxkd;=u+yD; a=unmcsufrsm; xkwf=uonf?
xdktzGJ@u wdkif;jynftkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh ywfoufI rauseyfonfrsm;udk uef@uGuf=uonf? 1939 ckESpfwGif
bk&ifcHqmtmcsDabmvf aumhu&def; cGifh,l+yD; t*Fvef jyefonfhtcg umuG,fa&;twdkifyifcH0ef}uD; qma0:vff wmbk*a&ADtm;
acwWbk&ifcHcef@&ef tpdk;&u pDrHonf/ xdktcg owif;pmq&mrsm;u Tyk*~dKvfrSm AsL±dku&uft}uD;pm; jynfol@csOfzwf/ Tvludk
vufrcHEkdif/ jrefrmxJu acwWbk&ifcH cef@yg[lI a=unmcsufxkwfjyef uef@uGufavonf? xdka=unmcsuf. acgif;pOfrSm –
t,f'Dwmrsm;tzGJ@
xkwfjyefa=unmcsuf
jrefrmjynfacwWbk&ifcHcef@xm;a&;
jrefrmjynfudk jrefrmrsm; rtkyfpdk;xdkufzl;avm
AsL±dku&ufwdk@. tonf;pGJ ol&J}uD;udk uef@uGufavm
[lI a&;om;azmfjyavonf?
Todk@ uef@uGufa=unmonfrSm jynfolvlxkudk,fpm; owif;pmrsm;u a&S@aqmifwdkufyGJ0ifjcif;yif r[kwfygavm? pifppf xdktcsdefu
owif;pmrsm;onf jynfolrsm;ESifhtwl wdkufyGJ0if=ujcif;yif jzpfonf/ xdktcg jynfoluvnf; trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;tay:
,Hk=unfudk;pm;vmonf/ vlxk tpnf;ta0;}uD;rsm; vkyfonfhtcg owif;pmrsm;tay: e,fcsJ@orm;ESifh taygif;tyg wdk@u
zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fonfudk vlxkuvnf; uef@uGufavonf? yHkESdyfwdkuf ta&;w}uD; Oya'udk uef@uGuf=uonf? xdktcsdefu jynfolESifh
trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;rSm woH wnf;yif? rEWav;wGif yk'fr 23 (7) zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_ Oya'xkwfonfhtcgwGifvnf;
jynfolESifhowif;pmrsm; vufwGJI wdkufcJh=uonf?
Tae&mwGif owif;pmrsm;tzGJ@[lI qdkaomfvnf; owif;pmrsm;csnf;r[kwf/ tiftm;aumif;vdkufyHkrSm r*~Zif;rsm;a&m/
*sme,frsm;yg yg=uonf? xdk@a=umifh e,fcsJ@ vufatmufwGif wdkufyGJ0if=u&mY pme,fZif; avmuwpfckvHk; pkpkpnf;pnf;
yg0ifwdkufcdkufcJh=uonf[k qdk&ayrnf? xkwfjyefa=unmcsufrsm;wGif vufrSwfa&;xdk;=u onfhtcg tmZmenf/ ol&d,/ AE<Kv/
vli,fhvuf±Hk;/ 'D;'kwf/ jrefrmjynf pmtkyfjze@csda&; Xme/ }uD;yGm;a&;/ wdk;wufa&;/ jrefrmhtvif;/ *sme,fausmf/ e,l;bm;rm;/ '*kef/
e*g;eD/ q,foef;/ vpfbmwD ponfh trsKd;om;pme,fZif;rsm; yg=uavonf?
xdktzGJ@u owif;pmrsm;tay: zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;ESifh ywfoufI aqmif&Guf&ef qyfaumfrwDwpfck zGJ@onf? aumfrwDwGif
yJa&mhOD;qefeDu aqmf=oa&;rSL;jzpfonf/ OD;qefeDu rEWav;&dS owif;pm/ *sme,f/ r*~Zif;rsm;uvnf; zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk
uef@uGuf=u&ef vSrf;Iaqmf=oonf? rEWav; pme,fZif;rsm;uvnf; wnDwnGwf wnf; uef@uGuf=uonf?
xdkESpfxJwGif tpdk;&u owif;pmrsm;udk tmrcHawmif;onf/ owif;pm q&mrsm;udk w&m;pGJ '%fwyfonf? jrefrmhtvif;
OD;pdef;ESifh OD;cspf armifwdk@ cH=u&onf? tmrcHawmif;cH&onfh owif;pmrsm;rSm - jrefrmhtvif;/ 'D;'kwf/ q,foef;/ ol&d,/
vli,fvuf±Hk;/ vpfbmwD/ vqef;a&mif*sme,f/ e,l;bm;rm;/ &Sm;owif;pm/ rl*sm[pf ponfhowif;pmrsm;jzpfonf? xdk@teuf
vli,fvuf±Hk;ESifh vpfbmwDowif;pmrSm tmrcHrwifEdkifI ydwfvdkuf=u&onf?
xdkzdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;ESifh ywfoufI jrefrmowif;pmq&mtoif;u a=unmcsuf xkwfI uef@uGufavonf?
xdka=unmcsufudk pme,fZif;rsm;wGif abmifcwf+yD; xif&Sm;pGm azmfjy=uonf? a=unmcsufacgif;pOfwGif ‘jrefrmowif;pmrsm;tm;
zdESdyfonfh udpP/ jrefrmowif;pmrsm; tpnf;ta0;}uD;. a=unmcsuf’ [lI azmfjyxm; onf? tmrcHawmif;cH&onfh
owif;pmrsm;pm&if;udkvnf; ‘jrefrmowif;pm q&mtoif;u a=unm&mYvnf; jrefrmowif;pmq&mrsm;toif; a=unmcsuf
pmwrf; trSwf (2) - &mZawm0g’ [lI acgif;pOfwyfazmfjyavonf?
owif;pm/ *sme,frsm;wGifvnf; ‘v$wfawmfudk oydwfarSmufjcif;’ ‘owif;pmvGwfvyfa&;udk csKyfcs,fjyef+yD’ ‘owif;pmESifh
tmrcH’ ‘owif;pm vGwfvyfa&; csKyfcs,fwm vGefvGef;+yD’ ‘yHkESdyfpuf vufwavmOya'’ ‘vuf&dStpdk;&tzGJ@ESifh owif;pmwdkufrsm;’
‘"e&Sifrsm;ckdif;ap&m acgif;ndwf&aom ykwfoifndK OD;yktpdk;&’ ‘tmrcHaiGrsm;awmif;jcif;’ ‘qif;&Jom; owif;pmawG ydwf&rvm;’
ponfhacgif;pOfrsKd;pHkjzifh owif;pmvGwfvyfciG fhudk xdyg; zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_ rsm;ESifh ywfoufI uef@uGufa&;om;=uonfrsm;udk
awG@&avonf?
{+yDv 27 &ufxkwf AE<Kvowif;pmwGif ‘,ckOD;yktpdk;&um; 2 v twGif; 8 }udrfxufrenf; owif;pmrsm;.
vGwfvyfr_udk ydwfyifcsKyfcs,fae&m a'gufwmbarmf tpdk;& 2 ESpfESifh OD;yktpdk;& 2 vowif;pmrsm; vGwfvyfa&; csKyfcs,fr_wGif
b,fr#avmuf uGmjcm;aeonfudk wdkif;jynfu od&dSxdkuf+yDjzpfa=umif;’ ponfjzifh azmfjycJhonf?
jrefrmowif;pmq&mrsm;u xkwfjyefonfh a=unmcsufrsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif; jzpfonf?
jrefrmowif;pmrsm;tm; zdESdyfonfhudpP
jrefrmowif;pmrsm; tpnf;ta0;}uD;. a=unmcsuf
,ck vuf&dStpdk;&onf owif;pmrsm;tm;
txl;0rf;enf;a=umif;?

wpwp

ESdyfuGyfvmjcif;udk

jrefrmowif;pmq&mrsm;toif;}uD;u

44

txl;zdESdyfjcif;udk xif&Sm;apaomtcsuf}uD;
(1)
tdENd,jynfwGif&dSaom yHkESdyfwdkuf vwfwavmOya'ESifh jrefrmjynf&dS yHkESdyfwdkuf vwfwavmOya'rsm;rSm
wpfrsKd;wpfpm;wnf;jzpfygvsuf jrefrmjynfxuf tqaygif;rsm;pGm jyif;jyif;xefxef a&;om;aeaom tdENd,jynf owif;pmwdk@udkum;
ta&;,ljcif;rcH&bJ jrefrmowif;pmwdk@rSmom tm;vHk;vdkvdk tmrcHESifhae&jcif;onf jrefrmjynftpdk;&wdk@. txl;zdESdyfjcif;udk
xif&Sm;apaom tcsuf}uD;jzpf&um; Todk@ owif;pmrsm; zdESdyfjcif;udk Tjrefrmowif;pmq&mrsm;toif;}uD;u txl;tjyif; txef
±_wfcsjypfwifa=umif;?
owif;pmwdkif;vdkvdk tmrcHESifh ae&jcif;udk axmufv#if
(2)
,ckuJhodk@ csKyfcs,f&m Towif;pmq&mrsm;u Oya'e,fodk@ oGm;a&muf usL;vGefjcif;/ Oya'u owif;pmq&mrsm;e,fodk@
vma&mufusL;vGefjcif; [lI ESpfrsKd;ESpfpm; &dSEdkifay&m &dSor# owif;pmwdkif;vdkvdk tmrcH ESifh ae&jcif;udkaxmufaomf Oya'uom
owif;pmrsm;\ e,fodk@ EdkifxufpD;eif;0ifa&mufcsKyfcs,fjcif;jzpfa=umif; xif&Sm;onf[k Tjrefrmowif;pm q&mrsm;toif;}uD;u
wnDwnGwfwnf; ,lqa=umif;?
rnfonfhenf;ESifhr# rauseyfEkdif
(3)
yHkESdyfwdkuf wpfcsufvGwfta&;w}uD;Oya'udk twnfjyKxm;I xdkOya'udk vufudkifjyKum owif;pmwdkufrsm;tay:wGif
,ckuJhodk@ qufumqufum qifhuJ qifhuJ EkdifxufpD;eif; zdESdyfcsKyfcs,faejcif;udk Tjrefrmowif;pmq&mrsm;toif;}uD;u
rnfonfhenf;ESifhr# rauseyfEkdifI txl;yif uef@uGufa=umif;?
1/ tmZmenf/ 2/ ol&d,/ 3/ AE<Kv/ 4/ vli,fhvuf±Hk;/ 5/ 'D;'kwf/ 6/ jrefrmjynfpmtkyfjzef@csda&;Xme/ 7/ }uD;yGm;a&;/ 8/
wdk;wufa&;/ 9/ jrefrmhtvif;/ 10/ *sme,fausmf/ 11/ e,l;bm;rm;/ 12/ '*kefr*~Zif;/ 13/ e*g;eD/ 14/ q,foef;/ 15/ vpfbmwD
(*sme,fausmf 19-8-39)
jrefrmowif;pmrsm;toif; a=unmpmwrf;trSwf (2)
&mZawm0g
jrefrmowif;pmrsm; tpdk;&zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fjcif; cHae=u&yHk
tmrcHwifxm;&aom owif;pmwdkufrsm;/
(1)
ol&d,
3000d
(2)
jrefrmhtvif;
2000d
(3)
'D;'kwf
1500d
(4)
wdk;wufa&;
2000d
(5)
q,foef;
2000d
(6)
rEÅav;ol&d, 1000d
(7)
e,l;bm;rm;
500d
(8)
vpfbmwD
1000d
(9)
vpef;a&mif
1000d
(10) vli,fvuf±Hk;
1000d
‚if;wdk@teuf tmrcHrwifEkdifI &yfpJypfvdkuf&+yDjzpfaom owif;pmrsm;rSm (1) vpfbmwD/ (2) vli,fvuf±Hk;
owif;pmwdk@jzpfa=umif;?
wkdif;jynftwGuf ukd,fpDudk,fiS wm0ef,lI a&;ae=uaom txufyg jrefrm owif;pmrsm;tm; aemufxyfrHI
tmrcHawmif;jcif;/ awmif;+yD;tmrcHrsm;udk odrf;jcif; wdk@ r&dS[lI rnfodk@ ajymEkdifrnfenf;?
(*sme,fausmf 26-8-39)
1939 ckESpfwGif owif;pmq&m}uD;ESifh pma&;q&m}uD; 'D;'kwfOD;bcsKd tzrf;cH&aomtcg owif;pmrsm;ydwfI
qENjyuef@uGufcJh=uao;onf? xdktcgu ol&d,owif;pmESifh tmZmenfowif;pmwdk@u qENjy&mwGif yg0ifjcif;r&dScJh[k 1939 ck/
azazmf0g&Dvxkwf AE<Kv*sme,fwGif azmfjycJhavonf?
xGufcwfcwfjcif;
OD;yk±kyfao;tpdk;&udkvnf; *VKefOD;apmu t,Hkt=unfr&dS/ tqdkwif+yD; jzKwfcsvdkufavonf? t}uH}uD;aom OD;apmonf
OD;yktpdk;& jyKwfus+yD;aemuf eef;&if;0ef&mxl;udk &,l+yD; tpdk;&opf zGJ@pnf;cJhavonf?

45

OD;apmu wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;0if ocifrsm;udk zdESdyfavonf? tzrf;tqD;rsm; vkyfavonf? xdktcg TurBmhtajctaerSm
ajymif;vJaeav+yD? 1939 ck/ pufwifbmv 3 &ufwGif t*FvdyfESifh *smr%Dwdk@ ppfa=unm+yD; Oa&mywGif 'kwd,urBmppf}uD;
jzpfyGm;aeav+yD?
'kwd,urBmppf *,ufu jrefrmjynfodk@vnf; ±dkufcwfonf? ppfaiG@ppf&dyfrsm; oef;vmonf? xdktcsdefwGif
jrefrmEkdifiHa&;twGuf tcsdeftcgaumif;jzpfonf? uGJaeaom EdkifiHa&;tzJGJ@rsm; wnDwnGwfwnf; &dS=u&ef pnf;vHk;nDnGwfpGmESifh
wdkif;jynf vGwfvyfa&;udk t&,l&ef pme,fZif;rsm;u a&;=uonf? 1939 ck/ atmufwdkbmv xJwGif EkdifiHa&;tzGJ@tpnf;
aygif;pHkygonfh ‘ArmhxGuf&yf*dk%f;}uD;udk zGJ@pnf;vdkufonf? tzGJ@acgif;aqmiftjzpf a'gufwmbarmftm;wifI twGif;a&;rSL;rSm
ocifatmifqef; (AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;)jzpfonf? wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;0ifocifrsm;u ‘t*Fvdyftcuf Armtcsuf’ [laom
aºuG;a=umfoHjzifh v_yf&Sm;vsuf&dS=uavonf?
eef;&if;0efOD;apmvufxufwGif 1940 ck/ Edkf0ifbmv 26 &ufxkwf jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmowif;ESifh xifjrifcsuftcef;Y
‘tdkifpDtufpfrsm;’ [laom a&;om;csufa=umifh OD;apmu umuG,fa&;yk'frOya' 34 (6) tufzf =uLt& jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmudk
15 &uf=um ydwfcJhavonf? xdkxifjrifcsuf. ta=umif;rSm yef;waemf+rdK@e,f/ rif;*±k&GmwGif wnf&dSaom bk&m;wpfql.
y&0k%ftwGif;odk@ rtlyifta&;ydkifrpPwm0ufzfpwmu zdeyfpD;I 0ifa&mufcJhjcif;udk ±_wfcsa&;om;xm;jcif; jzpfavonf?
rtlyifta&;ydkif
zdeyfpD;0ifonfhowif;udk
wdk;wufa&;owif;pmwGif
azmfjyyg&dSojzifh
xdkowif;udk
tajccHI
owif;ESifhxifjrifcsufa&;jcif; jzpfonf?
eef;&if;0efOD;apm\ jrefrmhtvif;ydwfaptrdef@ xGufvmaomtcg *sme,fausmf wdkufwGif pme,fZif;rsm;rS t,f'Dwmrsm;
tpnf;ta0; jyKvkyf+yD; zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_udk ±_wfcsuef@uGuf=uonf? pme,fZif;rsm;ydwfI qENjy=uonf? xdktcgu paee*g;eD
*sme,fwGif TudpPESifhywfoufI abmifcwf+yD; Todk@ azmfjycJhonf?
jrefrmhtvif;ydwfap[laomtrdef@
Edk0ifbmv 27 &ufae@nu jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm}uD;tm; &uf tuef@towf r&dS ydwfxm;&ef trdef@xkwfvdkufa=umif;/
umuG,fa&;XmerS jrefrmhtvif;t,f'Dwm OD;oef;wifhxHodk@ ay;ydk@vdkufaom trdef@pmrSm atmufygtwdkif; jzpfa=umif;?
1940 ck/ Edk0ifbmv 26 &ufae@xkwf jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm tkdifpDtufpfrsm; [laom acgif;pOfESifh 'kwd,acgif;}uD;onf
umuG,fa&;Oya'yk'fr 34(6)tufzfESihf =uLwdk@wGif t"dy`m,fowfrSwfxm;onfhtwkdif; ab;tEW&m,frsm;zG,f&mjzpfaom
owif;wpfckjzpfa=umif;/ ‚if;owif;onf bk&ifrif;jrwf aus;awmfrsKd;/ u|efawmfrsKd; tm;vHk; tcsif;csif; rkef;wD;jcif; jzpfapatmif
v_H@aqmfay;Ekdifaom owif;/ pmrsm;/ jynfolwdk@. vHk+cHKa&; tusKd;aus;Zl;udk xdckdufrnfhowif;jzpfonf[k wGufqyga=umif;?
‚if;owif;pmtm; wpfcgwkef;u qifqmvkyfcJhav+yD? ‚if;tjyif umuG,fa&; Oya' yk'frrsm;udk usL;vGefaom
aqmif;yg;rsm;udk rxnhfoGif;&ef owday;cJhonfrSm 13 }udrf&dSyg+yD? trsm;twGufvnf;aumif;/ wdkif;jynf vHk+cHKa&;udk ta=umif;jyKI
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmudk umuG,fa&;Oya' yk'fr 41(1) (bD)t& yHkESdyfxkwfa0jcif;udk wm;jrpf&ef qHk;jzwfvdkuf+yDjzpfa=umif;?
odk@twGuf jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmudk wpfcgwnf; xkwfa0jcif;rS &yfpJ&ef toifhtm; n$ef=um;vdkufonf?
tqdkyg trdef@udk zDqefonfqdku yk'fr 3 wGif yg&dSaom tjypf'%f&dSao;a=umif; u|Ekfyfu n$ef=um;vdkufa=umif;?
(yHk) OD;ausmf
jynfxJa&;ESifhumuG,fa&;wGJzuftwGif;0ef
Todk@ acgif;aqmifowif;pm}uD;wpfapmif &uftuef@towfr&dS ydwfxm;&rnf jzpfonfhtwGuf u|Ekfyfwdk@rSm
txl;0rf;enf;jcif;jzpf&aya=umif;?
paee*g;eD
(paee*g;eD*sme,f 30-11-40)
xdkudpPESifhywfoufI pme,fZif;rsm;ydwfI qENjyuef@uGuf=uojzifh jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm jyefvnfxkwfa0cGifh&cJhonf?
xdkta=umif;ESifh ywfoufIvnf; paee*g;eD*sme,fwGif abmifcwfI Todk@azmfjycJhjyefonf?
u|Efkyfwdk@*sme,f
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmtm; &uftuef@towfr&dS ydwfxm;ap[laom trdef@a=umifh owif;pmwdkufrsm;. tcGifhta&;ESifh
*k%foduQmudk umuG,f&ef owif;pm/ *sme,f/ r*~Zif;wdkufrsm;. qHk;jzwfcsuft& u|Ekfyfwdk@ paee*g;eDudk vGefcJhaom tywf 14-1240ae@wGif xkwfa0jcif;rjyKbJ ydwfxm;cJha=umif;?
'DZifbmv 12 &ufae@u jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmudk c|if;csurf &dS jyefvnf zGifhvSpf&ef trdef@&ojzifh 'DZifbmv 13
&ufae@upI jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmudk jyefvnfxkwfa0ae+yDjzpfa=umif;?
Todk@ jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm jyefvnfzGifhvSpfa&;udpPEiS fh ywfoufI 'DZifbmv 12 &ufae@ naeu usif;yaom
Armowif;pm/
*sme,fwdkufrsm;tpnf;ta0;u
owif;pmwdkufrsm;.
w&m;ojzifh
&&dSxdkufaom
tcGifhta&;udk
zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;tm; Tjrefrmowif;pmwdkufrsm;u wdkufzsuf umuG,f&mY jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmtm; ydwfyifaomtrdef@udk
jyefvnf±kwfodrf;&jcif;onf owif;pmwdkufrsm; pkaygif; aqmif&Gufcsuf. yxr atmifjrifjcif;[lI rSwfwrf;wif=ua=umif;?

46

jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmrSm rvGwfvyfaom wdkif;jynfrsm;wGif awG@&p+rJ "rRwm twdkif; &uftawmf=um ydwfxm;&&mrS
jyefvnfxkwfa0&ojzifh wdkif;jynfuvnf; qxufxrf;ydk; tm;ay;vdrfhrnf[k u|Ekfyfwdk@ ar#mfvifh&aya=umif;?
(paee*g;eD*sme,f 21-12-40)
paee*g;eD*sme,fu xdkodk@azmfjy±HkESifhr+yD;ao;? ‘owif;pmrsm;. tcGifhta&;ESifh *k%foduQm’ [laomacgif;pOfjzifh
‘owif;pmonf wdkif;jynfudk rdk;xdatmif wdk;jr‡ifh&efvnf;aumif;/ apmufxdk; rdk;ar#mfjzpfatmif arSmufvSef&efvnf;aumif;/
txl;ojzifh pl;&Sxufjrufaom vufeuf}uD;wpfckjzpf&m owif;pmq&mwdk@onf rdrdwdk@. uavmifudk txl; pOf;pm;csifhcsdef
xdef;odrf;toHk;jyK&ef ta&;}uD;oavmuf tpdk;&wdk@uvnf; owif;pm rsm;tay:Y txl;ojzifh oifhjrwfcspf=unfatmif qufqH&ef
ta&;}uD;a=umif;?
u|Ekfyfwdk@rSm rvGwfvyfaom u|efEkdifiHti,fpm;r#omjzpfaoma=umifh owif;pmwefzdk;udkvnf;aumif;/ owif;pmq&mwdk@.
tcGifhta&;ESifh *k%f oduQmudk vnf;aumif;/ av;av;jrwfjrwf todtrSwfjyKjcif;udk rcH&ao;&m tqdkyg wefzdk;toD;oD;udk
umuG,fESifh jr‡ifhwif&efrSm u|Ekfyfwdk@. ra&Smifv$Jomaom wm0ef0wW&m;}uD; jzpfaya=umif;?
tcsKyftm;jzifh u|Ekfyfwdk@ a&;om;vdkonfrSm u|Ekfyfwdk@onf rvGwfvyfaom EkdifiHjzpfI vGwfvyfpGm a&;om;cGifhr&apumrl
u|Ekfyfwdk@tcGifhta&;ESifh *k%foduQmudk vdkonfxuf ydkrdkcsKyfcs,fusL;vGefonfudkum; rnfonfh *k%foduQmudk apmifhxdef;aom
owif;pmur# cHaeEdkifrnfr[kwfa=umif;’ [lI acgif;}uD;ydkif;rS a&;om;avonf?
xdktcgu OD;cspfarmifrSm jrefrmhtvif;rSxGuf+yD; *sme,fausmfudk xkwfa0ae+yD jzpfonf? *sme,fausmfuvnf;
acgif;}uD;ydkif;rSaeI TudpPESifh ywfoufI uef@uGuf a&;om;cJhavonf? jrefrmhtvif;rS OD;cspfarmifxGufoGm;jcif;rSm
xm;0,fodk@oGm;onfh qm[maA;t'yfqrf oabFm}uD;teD;wGif AHk;aygufuGJaom owif;wpfyk'fudk OD;cspfarmif u
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmwGif a&;om;azmfjycJhonf? xdkowif;udk rSm;ygonf[lI ajz&Sif;ay;&ef tpdk;&u awmif;qdkonf? jrefrmhtvif;
refae*sif;'g±dkufwmuvnf; xdkodk@ ajz&Sif;csufxnhfay;apvdkonf? odk@aomfvnf; OD;cspfarmifu jrefrmhtvif;wGif
wm0efcHt,f'Dwmtjzpf
ol\emrnfygaeor#
umvywfvHk;
Towif;rSefudk
rSm;ygonf[lI
rnfonfhtcgr#
ajz&Sif;csufxnfhray;Ekdif[k tjyif;txefjiif;onf/ xdk@a=umifh refae*sif;'g±dkufwmOD;armif}uD;u OD;cspfarmiftm; jrefrmhtvif;rS
xkwfvdkufjcif; jzpfonf?
*sme,fausmfOD;cspfarmifrSm 1936 ckESpfuvnf; owif;wpfyk'fa=umifh tpdk;&. tar;tjref;t+idKtjiifcHcJh&bl;onf?
xdkowif;rSm t*Fvefjynfh&Sif tXrajrmuf tuf'0yfbk&if (a0vrif;om;) tcspftwGuf eef;pGef@onfh owif;jzpfonf? xdkESpfwGif
tuf'0yfbk&ifonf rif;rsKd;rif;EG,fr[kwfonfh tar&duefol wpfckvyf rpPa0gvpf0gzDqifrqifudk vufxyf,lvdkufojzifh
xD;eef;pGef@cJh&onf?
xdkowif;rSm tdENd, umvuwWm;+rdK@xkwf ‘trf&pfwmbZm; yufx&Dum’ owif;pmwGif ygvm&m xdktcgu
tdENd,jynfodk@ a&mufaeaom jrefrmhtvif; owif;pm. txl;owif;axmuf OD;odef;az‘jrifh’u jzwf,l+yD; jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm
odk@ ydk@vdkufonf? xdkowif;rSm ae@csif;yif a&mufvm&m EkdifiHjcm;a=u;eef; owif; bmomjyef t,f'Dwm q&mZ0eu nwGif;csif;
bmomjyef+yD; jrefrmhtvif;rsufESmzHk; wGif ajcmufvdkif; pmvHk;rnf;}uD;jzifh azmfjyvdkufonf?
owif;ygvmaom aemufwpfae@wGif tm%mydkifrsm;avmuwGifa&m/ owif;pmavmuwGifyg *,uf±dkufoGm;onf?
owif;rSm jrefrmh tvif;owif;pm wpfapmifxw
J Gifom apmpGm ygvmjcif;jzpfonf? tpdk;&ydkif;u bdvyfrS owif; wpfpHkwpf&mrvmrD
jrefrmhtvif;u
xdkowif;udk
azmfjy&ygrvm;qdkum
txdwfwvef@
jzpfoGm;onf?
xdk@a=umifh
xdkpOfu
jynfxJa&;XmetwGif;0efcsKyf}uD; bkof*a&AvDu jrefrmhtvif;wm0efcH t,f'Dwm OD;cspfarmifudk twGif;0ef±Hk;odk@ ac:,lar;jref;onf?
twGif;0efcsKyfu Towif;rSm twnfr[kwfao;/ bdvyfu bmrS rvmao;/ eufjzefowif;pmwGif
twnfr[kwfao;a=umif; azmfjyay;&ef OD;cspfarmifudk ajym&m/ OD;cspfarmifu trSefowif;jzpfI jyifray;Ekdifa=umif; jiif;qefonf?
twGif;0efcsKyf}uD; a'gyGusefcJhonf? xdktcgu OD;cspfarmifESifhtwl tcef;xJwGif ol}uD;a*ZufOD;cifarmifESifh t,f'Dwm OD;pdef;wdk@vnf;
&dSaecJhonf[k od&onf?
1940 ckxJwGif jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm tydwfcH&jcif;onf udkvdkeD e,fcsJ@orm; u ‘xGufcwfcwfjcif;’ [kyif qdk&rnf?
e,fcsJ@orm;ESifh taygif;ygwdk@rnfonf rnfol@udkr# csrf;omray;/ ol@tusKd;udk xdyg;vmv#if zdESdyfonfyif jzpfonf?
1939-40 wGif trsKd;om;rsm;. Ekd;=um;r_u tawmf}uD;}uD;vmav+yD? EkdifiHa&;rsufpdus,fvSay+yD? 1940 wGif
ArmhxGuf&yf*dk%f;}uD;udkvnf; zGJ@pnf;+yD=u+yD? wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;rS vli,fydkif;u OD;aqmif+yD; jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf
vl}uD;ydkif;ESifhvli,fydkif;wdk@ yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf=uonf? Oa&mywGif ppfa=unm+yD; 'kwd, urBmppf}uD;puwnf;u EkdifiHwum
tajctaeudk=unfh+yD; aqmif&Guf=u&awmhrnf? jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf tcGifhaumif;yJqdkonfudk jrifae=u+yD?
TtcGifhta&;udk vufvGwfrcHzdk@ trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;uvnf; v_H@aqmfvsuf&dS=uonf? EkdifiHa&; toif;tzGJ@rsm; nDnGwf=uzdk@/
vGwfvyfa&;twGuf OD;wnfcsufwpfckwnf;xm;zdk@ owday;E_d;aqmf=uonf? jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmqdkv#if AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wdk@
EkdifiHjcm;tultnD,la&;twGuf EkdifiHjcm;odk@ oGm;&mwGif tultnDay;jcif;/ AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;wdk@. owif;rsm;udk
zHk;zdumuG,fay;jcif;rsm; jyKvkyfvsuf&dSavonf?
TtcsdefwGif r*Fvm'HkY ppfav,mOfrsm; qif;csnf/ wufcsnf vkyfaeonf/ ppfajrjyiftwGif; AHk;cdkavhusifhr_rsm;vnf;
jyKvkyfaeonf? ppf}uD;jzpf+yD[laomowif;udk =um;&aomtcg &efuek f+rdK@vlxk v_yfv_yf&G&G jzpfae=uavonf? owif;pmrsm;vnf;
ta&mif;&oGufae=uonf? wpfapmifv#if wpfrwf/ oHk;rl;txd ay;0,f+yD; ppfowif; rsm;udk pk±Hk;um zwf=uavonf?
ukefaps;E_ef;rSmvnf; xdk;wufoGm;onf/ owif;pmoHk; ypPnf;aps;rsm;vnf; wufoGm;onf?

47

xdkumvu +Adwdo#wdk@tzdk@ jymavmifcwfaeaom umvjzpfavonf? trsdK;om;owif;pmrsm;url ppfowif;rsm;udkvnf;
azmfjy=uonf? wkdif;jynf vGwfvyfa&;twGuf aqmif&Guf=u&efvnf; a&;=uonf? wpfzufu udk,fhvGwfvyfcGifh twGufvnf;
wdkufyGJ0if=u&ao;onf? +Adwdo#tpdk;&vnf; atmifjrifpGm qkwfcGmawmhonf? xdktcg ajy;umeD; xGufcwfcwfjcif; jyKonf?
owif;pmydwf pmtkyf awGodrf;/ vlawGzrf; vkyfavonf/ TonfrSm t*Fvdyfwdk@ jrefrmjynfrS ajy;umeD;Y aemufqHk;tajctae[kyif
qdk=uygpdk@?
1940 ck/ {+yDv 1 &uf eD;vmjyefaomtcg *sme,fausmfu vuf&dS tkyfcsKyfa&; pepfudk uef@uGufwdkufcdkufjyefavonf?
acgif;}uD;ydkif;ae&mwGif ‘{+yDv 1 &uf eD;vmjyef+yD’ [laomacgif;pOfjzifh vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJwGif t[ef@twm;jzpfojzifh
uef@uGuf=u&ef v_H@aqmfa&;om;=uavonf? vGwfvyfa&;ESifh a0;ap+yD; u|efouf &Snfaprnfh e,fcsJ@tvdkus pDrHaom (91) Xme
tkyfcsKyfa&;udk 1937 ck/ {+yDv 1 &ufwGif pwifusifhokH;cJhonf r[kwfygavm?
1940 ck arv 21&ufwGif ppfawG+rdK@Y wdk@vuf±Hk;owif;pm t,f'Dwm ocifpHa&$tygt0if &ckdiftrsKd;om;acgif;aqmif 3
OD;udk umuG,fa&;Oya't& zrf;qD;avonf? 1940ck/ Zlvdkifv 1 &ufwGif wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;XmecsKyfY ociftcsKd@udk
umuG,fa&;Oya'jzifh zrf;qD;onf? ocifatmifqef;udkvnf; zrf;qD;&ef pHkprf;ae=u+yD jzpfonf? ZlvdkifvxJrSmyif jzL;+rdK@/
armifarmifESifhnDrsm;xkwfa0onhf ‘urBmppfESifh jrefrmjynfpmwrf;’ pmtkyfESihf atmifvHawmfpmtkyfwdkufrSxkwfa0onfh
aysmfbG,focifba&$ a&;aom ‘ArmhykefuefrSL;rsm;’ pmtkyfudkvnf; tpkd;&u odrf;avonf?
xdkodk@ vlawGzrf;/ pmtkyfawG odrf;vkyfojzifh pme,fZif;rsm;u uef@uGuf a&;om;=uavonf? EkdifiHa&;yk*~dKvfrsm;uvnf;
jypfwif±_wfcs=uonf? xdk@a=umifh tpdk;&u a=unmcsufwpf&yfxkwfonf? tpdk;&u ‘rnfonfhenf;jzifhrqdk jyKvkyfaom
awmfvSefr_rsm; jzpfyGm;&ifhoefjcif;udkrlum; ta&;r,lbJ cGifhjyKxm;&ef }uH&G,fcsuf r&dSa=umif;ESifh a=unmavonf? tpkd;&u
'*kefr*~Zif;u wifxm;aom tmrcHaiG wpfaxmifudkvnf; ‘eodk; avmu’ aqmif;yg;udk azmfjyojzifh odrf;,lvdkufavonf?
1940 ck/ Edk0ifbmv 27 &ufwGif tpdk;&u jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmudk &uftuef@towfr&dS ydwfxm;ap&eftrdef@xkwf&m
pme,fZif;rsm;u 0dkif;0ef;qENjy uef@uGuf=uojzifh jyefvnfxkwfa0cGifh&&dSjcif;rSmvnf; ajy;umeD; t*Fvdyftpdk;&u
xGufcwfcwfjcif;yif jzpfavonf?
eef;&if0ef;OD;apm ±kyfao;tpdk;&vufxufwiG fvnf; owif;rsm;rSm zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_ cH&+rJ cHcJh&onf? owif;pmrsm;uvnf;
jyefvnfwkdufyGJ0ifqJ 0ifcJh&onf? jrefrmhtvif; 15 &uf=um ydwfxm;apcJhI owif;pmrsm;u jyefvnfwdkuf&aomwdkufyGJrSm
e,fcsJ@orm;ESifh ±kyfao;tpdk;&tay: owif;pmrsm;u atmifyJGcH&aom wdkufyGJyif jzpfavonf?
rnfokd@yifjzpfap OD;apmonf wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;0if ocifrsm;udkvnf; t}uD;tus,f zdESdyfvsuf&dSonf?
tzrf;cH&olrsm;vnf; tzrf;cHae=u&onf? OD;apmonf zdESdyf±Hkr#ru ‘v,form;zdk;a&$vHk; nnf;jcif;’ ‘ocif ËDum’
‘bmom0g'r&dSaom vuf0J0g'ocifrsm;’ paompmtkyfrsm; xkwfa0Ivnf; ocifqef@usifa&;vkyfief;udk vkyfavonf? 1939 ck/
atmufwdkbmvxJwGif OD;apmonf bdvyftpdk;&ESifh aqG;aEG;&efqdkum bdvyfodk@ xGufcGmoGm;avonf?
'kwd,urBmppf}uD;jzpf+yDqdkaomtcg &efukef+rdK@wGif tajctaersm; ajymif;vJ oGm;avonf? vlawGu ppfowif;udk
em;pGifhae=uonf? ukefonfawGu ppfudk ta=umif;jyKI ukefaps;E_ef;rsm;udk upm;ae=uonf? ukefaps;E_ef;awG wufoGm;onf?
ppfESifhvGwfrnfhxif&modk@ ajymif;olrsm;u ajymif;=uonf?
ppfowif;udkom em;pGifhae=uaoma=umifh owif;pmrsm;udkvnf; tvkt,uf 0,fzwf=uonf? 1941 ckwGif ppft&SdefrSm
jrefrmjynfodk@ tjyif;txef ±dkufcwfvmaomtcg owif;pmzwfolawG ydkrsm;vmaoma=umifh owif;pmrsm; uvnf; ppfowif;udk
OD;pm;ay;azmfjy=uonf? owif;pmrsm;. tv,fazmifudk ESpfrsufESmcGvsuf ppfowif;rsm;csnf; azmfjy=uonf? ppfjyifqifaeonfh
"gwfyHkrsm;/ urBmhppfacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;. "gwyf Hkrsm;/ ajryHkrsm;jzifh tom;ay;azmfjy=uonf?
xdk@jyif ppfowif;ESifh wdkif;jynfEkdifiHa&;owif;rsm;udk oyfoyfazmfjyonfh owif;pmrsm;vnf; xGufvmonf?
*sme,fausmfOD;cspfarmifu a&$vif;,kef t,f'Dwm trnfcH+yD; ‘ae@pOfa=u;rHk’ trnf&dS owif;pmudk xkwfonf? xdkowif;pmudk
wpfapmif ESpfjym;ESifh a&mif;onf? 1941ck/ 'DZifbmv 20 &uf naeowif;pmwGif ‘*syefESifht*Fvdyftar&duefwdkufyGJ}uD;’
‘aemufqHk; ppfajrjyifa=u;eef;owif;rsm;’ tpHkyg&dSonf[lI rsufESmzHk;wGif azmfjyxm;onf? xdk@tjyif udk;vdkif;pmvHk;}uD;ESifh xdktcg u
eef;&if;0efOD;apmowif;udkvnf; azmfjyxm;onf? xdkowif;udk ‘OD;apm tar&duefodk@ jyefoGm;&+yD; xdkatmufu ‘jrefrmjynfodk@
tjcm;vrf;jzihf rjyefEkdifao;rD rD,mrD+rdK@Y ae&OD;rnf’ [lI acgif;pOfwyfxm;onf? oHk;vkdif;pmvHk;ESifh ‘T ppft±_H;tEkdifudk ydki;f jzwfrnfh
pif+ydKiftpnf;ta0;}uD;rsm;’ vef'ef+rdK@ 'DZifbmv 9 &uf a=u;eef;owif;udkvnf; awG@&onf?
eef;&if;0efOD;apmowif;wGif ‘jrefrmjynf. eef;&if;0efOD;apmonf [ma0,Hu|ef; [dkEdkvlvl+rdK@rS tar&duefjynfodk@
jyef+yD;vSnhfvmcJh&m ,ck tar&duefjynfodk@ jyefvnfqdkufa&muf+yDjzpfa=umif;ESifh vef'ef+rdK@wGif ,ae@ cdkifvHkpGm od&dS&a=umif;/
tjcm;vrf;c&D;wpfckrS OD;apm jrefrmjynfodk@ jyefvnfa&mufEkdifzdk@twGuf tpDtpOfrsm; rjynfhpHkao;rD OD;apmrSm tar&duefjynf.
awmifydkif;zavmf&D'gu|ef;qG,f rD,mrD aexdkifvdrfhrnfjzpfa=umif;/ OD;apmrSm jrefrmjynfodk@tjyefwGif =opaw;vs/ e,l;ZDvefu|ef;odk@
oGm;a&mufvnfywfrnf[laom pdwful;jzifh tar&duefjynfrS vSnfhIjyef&m t*FvefjynfrS vGefcJhonfh Edk0ifbmv 5 &ufae@u
xGufcGmoGm;cJha=umif;/ *syefu ppf a=unmvdkufaomtcg/ xdktcsdef OD;apmrSm [ma0,Hu|ef; [dkEdkvlvl+rdK@wGif
0ifa&muf&dSaecJha=umif;’jzifh azmfjyyg&dSayonf?
xdk@aemuf ‘ppftajctaerSm wpfae@wpfjcm; ydkrdkqdk;vmvsuf&dSacs+yD/ *syefwdk@onf t*FvdyfydkifESifh tar&duefu|ef;tcsdK@
ae&ma'otcsdK@wdk@tay:wGif wufa&mufEkdifonfhtajctaewdk@yif a&muf&dSaeonf? tar&duefwdk@onf vnf;aumif;/
t*Fvdyfppfwdk@onfvnf;aumif; *syeftm; tn‡mray;/ tnhhHrcHbJ jyif;xefpGm wdkufckduf=ua=umif;udk u|Ekfyfwdk@ ,Hk=unfpdwfcsEkdif.?

48

tu,fI ,ckxuf qdk;&Gm;aom tajctaeodk@ a&muf&dSapumrlvnf; t*FvdyfESifh tar&duefwdk@onf tavsmhray;bJ
wdkufcdkuf=urnfjzpfa=umif;udkvnf; ,Hk=unfpdwfcsEkdifavonf a&$vif;,kef’ [lIazmfjyxm;avonf?
‘ArmjynfY’ [laomowif;wGif ArmjynfwGif 'DZifbmv 19 &ufae@u jrefrmjynfawmifydkif;&dS +rdK@wpf+rdK@ay:odk@
trsdK;trnfrod&aom av,mOfysHrsm; ysHoef; oGm;I avab;tcsufay;+yD; pHkprf;&ef av,mOfysHrsm; v$wfcJh&&m ta&S@ydkif;ESifh
awmifydkif;wGif ava=umif;rS qufvufuif;axmufvsuf &dSa=umif; tjcm;owif;ay; &ef r&dSa=umif;jzifh qdkif&mrS a=unma=umif;’
[lI azmfjyxm;onf? xdkowif;pmwGif pmrsufESm av;rsufESmomygonf/
1941 ck/ 'DZifbmv 23 &ufwGifrl &efukef+rdK@udk *syefav,mOfysHrsm;u ±kwfw&ufvma&mufI AHk;}uJvdkufojzifh wpf+rdK@vHk;
acsmufcsm;oGm;avonf? xdktcg &efukef+rdK@ vlxktcsKd@vnf; ajymif;=u/ a&$@=uonf/ owif;pmrsm;vnf; ae&majymif;I
xkwfa0=uavonf?
jrefrmhowif;pmrsm;teuf jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmrSm &efukef+rdK@jyif oCFef;u|ef;/ usKduUqHbk&m; y&0k%fwGif;rS
&efukef+rdK@vlxktwGufom xkwfEkdifonf? ol&d, owif;pmrSmvnf; &efukef+rdK@rS 6 rdkifccGJ ef@a0;aom ukuUdKif;&yf ol&d,wdkuftkyf
OD;buav. aetdrfrSaeI &efukef+rdK@ vlxktwGufom xkwfEkdifonf? wdk;wufa&; owif;pmum; rlvae&mrSmyif rajymif;ra&$@bJ
usef&pfcJhum xkwfa0avonf? odk@aomfvnf; owif;pmrsm;udk rD;&xm;vrf;+rdK@rsm;odk@ rydk@EdkifbJ oabFmvrf;+rdK@ rsm;odk@om
ydk@Edkifojzifh jrpf0u|ef;ay:rSvlrsm;om zwf=u&onf?
1941 ck/ 'DZifbmv 28&uf we*FaEGae@wGif ‘urBmhtvif; ppfowif;’ [laom owif;pmwpfapmif xGufay:vmonf?
wpfapmifv#if oHk;jym;ESifh a&mif;onf? ae@pOfa=u;rHkESifh urBmhtvif;ppfowif;rSm rlvuyif e,fodk@rydk@bJ &efukefwGifom
xkwfa0=uonf? odk@aomf &efukef+rdK@xJwGif vlol r&dS/ owif;pma&mif;rnfholvnf; r&dSaoma=umifh aemufydkif;wGif
ydwfvdkuf=u&onf?
*sme,fausmf/ 'D;'kwf/ e*g;eD ESifh [Hom0wD*sme,fwdk@rSm xkwf+rJxkwf&ef tm;cJ=u aomfvnf; xdk*sme,frsm;udk zwfaom
trsm;qHk; y&dowfrSm rD;&xm;vrf;+rdK@rsm;wGif &dSonf/ rD;&xm;Xmeu owif;pmxkyfrsm;udkomru tjcm;rnfonfhtxkyftydk;
ukefpnfrsm;udkr# twiftydk@rjyKvkyfaoma=umifh oabFmvrf;rsm;twGufyg rxkwfEkdif awmhbJ 1942 odk@ rul;rDrSmyif
&yfqdkif;vdkuf=u&avonf?
1942 ck/ Zefe0g&Dv 18 &ufwGif OD;apmESifh OD;wifxGËfwdk@ ygvufpwdkif; [dkif;zm;+rdK@odk@ a&mufaomtcg
*syefESifhtquftoG,f&dSonfqdkI toifhapmifhaeaom t*FvdyfaxmufvSrf;a&;tzGJ@ zrf;qD;+yD; tmz&duwdkuf ,l*ef'godk@ ydk@um
tus,fcsKyfESifh xm;avonf? OD;apm. eef;&if;0efae&mwGif jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; qmay:xGef;udk cef@xm;vdkufonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh &JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifrsm; acgif;aqmifaom jrefrmh vGwfvyfa&; wyfrawmfu 1942 ck/ Zefe0g&Dv 31
&ufwGif armfv+rdKifudk odrf;vdkuf=uonf? &JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifrsm;tm; t*Fvdyfbk&ifcH qma':refprpfESifh qmay:xGef;wdk@u
ao'%f}udK;rdef@ay;vdkuf+yD[k toHv$ifhXmeu a=unmonf? acgif;udk jzwfay;Ekdifolwdk@tm;vnf; qkaiGay;rnf[lI a=unmavonf?
aemufydkif;wGif bk&ifcHqma':refprpfESifh qmay:xGef;wdk@onf jrefrmjynfrS atmifjrifpGm qkwfcGmajy;+yD; tdENd,jynf
qif;rvm;+rdK@wGif ±Hk;pdkufum ppfajy;tpdk;& tjzpf &yfwnfaecJh=uonf?
1942 ck/ rwfv 8 &uf we*FaEGae@wGif &JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifrsm; acgif;aqmifaom ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfu &efukef+rdK@udk
odrf;ydkufvdkuf=uavonf?
*syefacwfowif;pmrsm;
1941 ck/ 'DZifbmv 7 &ufae@wGif *syefu +AdwdefESifh tar&duefudk ppfa=unmonf? 'DZifbmv 8 &ufae@
reufvif;tm;}uD;tcsdefwGif [ma0,Hu|ef;&dS yg;vfqdyfurf;&dS cHwyf}uD;udk ±kwfw&uf AHk;}uJwdkufcdkufavonf?
Tppfowif;rsm;rSm jrefrmjynfolrsm;twGuf ta&;}uD;onfh owif;rsm; jzpfonfhtavsmuf owif;pmrsm;u
jynfol@vufodk@ tjrefqHk; a&muf&ef }udK;yrf;=uavonf? wdk;wufa&;owif;pmu 'DZifbmvreufapmapmydkif;wGif
tcsKd@c±dkif+rdK@}uD;rsm;&dS owif;pmudk,fpm;vS,frsm;xHodk@ *syefu ppfa=unmonfh owif;pmESifh wdkufyGJowif;rsm;udk a=u;eef;jzifh
ydk@onf? &efukef+rdK@ol+rdK@om;rsm;twGuf ol&d,owif;pm/ &efukefwdkif;owif;pm/ &efukefa*Zufowif;pmrsm;u txl;tcsyfydk
owif;pmxkwfa0 a&mif;cs=uonf? jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmuvnf; owif;rsm;udk tcsyfydk±dkufESdyfI tcrJhxkwfa0 jzef@csday;avonf?
'DZifbmv 9 &ufae@ tul; reuf (1) em&Dtcsdefcef@wGif ol&d,owif;pm n t,f'Dwm OD;boef;tm;wdkufY
tvkyfvkyfaepOf ykvdyfrsm;u vma&muf zrf;oGm;avonf? (11-12-41 ae@xkwf wdk;wufa&;owif;pm)
1942 ck/ Zefe0g&Dvqef;wGifum; bDtdkifat ac: ArmhvGwfvyfa&; wyfrawmf om;rsm;onf ppfa=umif;av;a=umif;jzifh
jrefrmjynftwGif;odk@ csDwufvmavonf?
1942 ckESpfOD;ydkif;rSpI *syefzufqpfwyfrsm;onf jrefrmjynfwGif;odk@ tvHk;t&if;jzifh 0ifa&mufvm=u+yDjzpfojzifh
jrefrmjynfonf zufqpfvufatmufodk@ usa&mufav+yDwnf;?
xdktcsdefrSonf *syefzufqpfrsm;udk jyefvnfawmfvSefwdkufcdkufonfh 1945 ckESpfxd jrefrmjynfudk *syefrsm; tkyfpdk;oGm;onfh
tcsdefjzpfav&m
jrefrmjynfolrsm;
taejzifh
“*syefrsm;
tkyfpdk;oGm;aom
oHk;ESpfoHk;rdk;umv”
“*syefacwf”
“'kwd,urBmppftwGif;umv” [lI rSwfom;rdcJh=uavonf?

49

*syefrsm; tkyfpdk;oGm;onfh 3 ESpfumvtwGif; owif;pmxkwfa0jcif;um; &Sdonf? odk@aomfvnf; ta&twGuftm;jzifhum;
'kwd,urBmppf rwdkifrDuavmuf r&dSawmhacs/ xdkumvrSm ppftwGif;umvjzpfaeonfuwpfa=umif;/ zufqpf*syefrsm;u
owif;pmrsm; tay: zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_ vGef;onfuwpfa=umif;a=umifh owif;pm enf;yg;jcif; jzpfavonf? xdktcgu
owif;pmvGwfvyfcGifhqdkonfrSm vHk;0r&dSay? zufqpf*syefudkvnf;aumif;/ ±kyfao;tpdk;&jzpfonfh a'gufwmbarmftpdk;&udk
vnf;aumif;/ rnfodk@r# a0zefa&;om;jcif; rjyKEkdif=uay? *syefuifayrsm;rSm owif;pmwdkufrsm;odk@ ae@pOfvkdyif t0iftxGuf&dSonf?
rouFmv#if tar;tjref; jyKonf?
*syefacwfowif;pmrsm; tajctaeudk a&;&v#if jynfwGif;owif;rsm;udkvnf; zufqpf*syefwdk@ oabmusowif;udkom
a&;&onf? jynfyowif;qdkv#ifvnf; *syefwdk@uay;onfh ‘'dkar’ a=u;eef;owif;wpfckwnf;udkom azmfjy=u&avonf?
odk@jzpfaoma=umifh *syefacwfowif;pmrsm;tajctaerSm owif;pm vGwfvyfcGifh r&dSaom tarSmifzHk;aom tajctaeomv#if
jzpfavonf?
*syefacwftwGif; xkwfa0aom owif;pmrsm;rSm &efukef+rdK@wGif ol&d, owif;pm/ jrefrmtvif;owif;pm/ Armhacwf
owif;pm/ *&dwf wm;at&Sm;owif;pm (t*Fvdyb
f mom)/ bd±krm&SifbGef; (*syefbmom)/ usif;eDydk@ (w±kwfbmom) owif;pmwdk@
xkwfa0+yD; rEWav;+rdK@wGif wdkif;cspfowif;pm/ rEWav; ol&d, owif;pmwdk@ xkwfa0onf? rEWav;ol&d,u &Srf;jynftwGuf
‘uarBmZ’ trnf&dS owif;pm xkwfao;onf? xm;0,fwGif ocif}uD;jrifhu xm;0,fae@pOfowif;pm xkwfa0ao; onf[kvnf;
od&onf? 1942 ckESpf/ rwfvukeftxd rEWav;wGif txl;xkwf rEWav; jrefrmtvif;owif;pmESifh 'dka'gif;vHowif;pm
xkwfcJhao;onf?
Armhacwfowif;pmrSm a'gufwmbarmftpdk;&. tmabmfowif;pm jzpfonf? Armacwf owif;pmacgif;pnf;. txufwGif
‘waoG; woHwrdef@’ [laom pmvHk; uav;rsm; azmfjyxm;onf? Tacgif;pnf;yg pmwef;uyifv#if *syefacwf owif;pmrsm; .
tajctaeudk azmfjyaeonf[k qdk&rnfxifonf? wu,fyif owif;pmtm;vHk; onf woHwnf; xGufae&onfudk awG@&ayonf?
tvkdvkduft}udKufaqmifae&onfh*syefacwfowif;pmrsm;
*syefacwfwGif
xkwfa0&aom
ArmtrsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;rSm
owif;pm
vGwfvyfcGifh
r&dSonfhtjyif
ppftwGif;umvjzpfaeojzifh
owif;pm
oHk;ypPnf;csKd@wJhr_rsm;
&dSonf?
v#ypf pf"gwftm;csKd@wJhr_rsm;
&Sdonf?
vrf;yef;tquftoG,fraumif;ojzifh owif;pkaqmif;&,la&; tcuftcJ owif;pm jzef@csda&;tcuftcJrsm;vnf; &Sdayonf?
TcsKd@wJhcsufrsm;udk xdktcgu xkwfa0aeaom owif;pmrsm;yg tcsuf tvufrsm;t& odEkdifayonf? Oyrm
owif;pmpuULtvHktavmuf r&ojzifh pmrsufESmavsmhI xkwf&onfhta=umif; a=unmcsufrsm;/ v#yfppf"gwftm; csKd@,Gif; ojzifh
owif;pmrxGufEkdifbJ &dSonfhowif;rsm;/ tppp&dwfpu}uD;ojzifh owif;pm aps;E_ef;wdk;&onfh owif;rsm;jzpfayonf? xdk@tjyif
vrf;yef;tquftoG,f raumif;ojzifh owif;pmrsm;rSm wdkif;jynftESH@tjym;odk@vnf; ra&mufEdkifcJhay? &efukefwGif xkwfa0onfh
owif;pmrsm;rSm rEWav;odk@ 6&uf/ 7 &uf =umrS a&mufvmwwfavonf?
Todk@ csKd@csKd@wJhwJhxkwfa0ae&onfh owif;pmrsm;udkyif zufqpf*syefrsm;u owif;pmvGwfvyfcGifh vHk;0ydwfyif+yD; ‚if;wdk@
wpfbufowf 0g'jzef@csda&;twGuf aumif;aumif; toHk;csoGm;ayonf?
&efukef+rdK@udk *syefwdk@ odrf;,l+yD; 4/ 5 &uftwGif;rSmyif *syefppfzuf 0g'jzef@csda&;Xmeu owif;pmq&mrsm;/ wdkuftkyfrsm;udk
&Sm+yD; owif;pmxkwf&ef wdkufwGef;=uonf[k od&onf? &efukefwGif ol&d,ESifh jrefrmhtvif; owif;pmESpfapmif xkwfa0I 2
vcef@t=umwGif owif;pmpuULtcuftcJ&dSvmojzifh 0g'jzef@csda&;Xmeu owif;pmwdkufESpfwdkufudk wpfwdkufwnf; aygif;xkwf&ef
}udK;pm;=uao;onf? odk@aomf raygif;jzpfcJh=u[k od&onf?
rEWav;+rdK@wGif *syefwdk@ rEWav;+rdK@udk odrf;+yD;aemuf tapmqHk; xkwfa0aom owif;pmrSm wdkif;cspfowif;pmjzpfonf?
wdkif;cspfowif;pmudk 1942 ck/ arv }uD; &ufae@wGif pwifxkwaf 0onf? t,f'DwmrSm OD;armifarmifcifjzpfonf? pxkwfonfh
owif;pmrSm wpf&GufxJjzpfonf? xdkae@xkwf owif;pmwGif acgif;}uD;ydkfif;u ‘ta&;awmfyHkatmif+yD’ [laom acgif;pOfjzifh
a&;om;avonf? owif;pmudk ESpfrsufESm xJom xkwfEkdifojzifh aemufESpf&uft=umwGif owif;pmzwfolrsm;udk
puUL&Sm;yg;aecdkufjzpfI Tr#om xkwfEkdifao;onf? aemifpuUL&&dSonfhtcg pmrsufESmwdk;I xkwfygrnf[lI awmif;yefpum;
a&;avonf?
xdktcgu owif;pmrsm;rSm *syefzufqpfwdk@twGuf 0g'jzef@csda&; oufouf xkwfa0ae&onf? *syefwdk@t}udKufvdkufI
a&;om;ae=u&onf? 1942 ck/ arv 26 &uf ae@xkwf ol&d,owif;pmwGif acgif;}uD;ydkif;u ‘jrefrm*syefaygif;oif;qufqHa&;
ta=umif;’ [laomacgif;pOfjzifh u|Ekfyfwdk@ trsKd;}uD;ESpfrsKd;u wpfvHk;wnf;wpnf;wnf; pdwfwloabmwl aygif;oif;aeonf&dSaomf
(odk@r[kwf) aygif;oif;aerSef; ‚if;wdk@ od&aomf=um;vlrsm; 0ifa&muf ‘ayG’ Ekdifrnfr[kwf[k ,lqonfhtwkdif; u|Ekfyfwdk@
trsKd;}uD;ESpfrsKd;onf wpfrsKd;ay:wpfrsKd; txifrSm;tjrifrSm;rjzpfbJ aygif;oif;qufqH oGm;Ekdif&ef rsm;pGmrSyif vdktyfayonf’
ponfjzifha&;avonf?
29-7-42 xkwf jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmwGif acgif;}uD;ydkif;rSaeI ‘Tenf; tm;jzifh jrefrmjynfudk umuG,fonfomru
tm&Swdkufom;rsm; nDwlnDr#cHpm;a&;wGif r[mrdwfedyGefwdk@ESifhtwl yl;aygif;um aqmif&Gufjcif; ponfwdk@udkvkyf&ef ae@a&mnyg
jrefrmwdk@ }udK;pm;&rnfjzpfa=umif; a&;om;&ayownf;’ ponfjzifh *syefwdk@tvdkus jzpfatmifa&;om;&onfudk awG@&ayonf?

50

Armacwfowif;pmrSmrl tpdk;&uxkwfaom owif;pmjzpfI tpdk;& tmabmf/ tpdk;&0g'jzef@csda&;twGuf
tcgrvyfa&;om;ayonf?
rEWav;+rdK@wGif xkwfa0onfh wdkif;cspfowif;pmu 14-5-42 ae@xkwf owif;pmacgif;}uD;ydkif;Y ‘Tpum;&yfrsm;udk
owWKcsI=unfhv#if ,ck ArmEdkifiHawmf}uD; udk +Adwdo#wdk@. vufwGif;rS jyefvnf&&dSatmif wdkufcdkufay;=uaom r[mrdwf
*syefwyfrawmf}uD;. &nf&G,fcsufrSm u|Ekfyfwdk@. Armjynfudk odrf;ydkuf,liif&ef r[kwfonf omru Armjynf}uD;udk Armrsm;tm;
tyfESif;xm;cJh&ef &nf&G,fcsuf jzpfonfrSm rnfolr# ,HkrSm;oHo,jzpfp&m ta=umif;r&Sdoifhay’ ponfjzifh a&;om;onfudk
awG@&onf?
*syefacwfwGif xkwfa0aom owif;pmrsm;rSm *syefwdk@t}udKufESifh rwdrf; rapmif;&atmif a&;ae=u&onfomru
owif;pmydwf&ufudkyif wpf&ufwdk; vdkuf=u&ao;.? xdkydwf&ufrSm edyGefbk&if {u&mZfrif;jrwf. arG;ae@ jzpfavonf? Tydwf&uf
a=unmcsufudk rEWav;ol&d,owif;pmwGif Todk@ awG@&onf?
,ae@

,ae@ {+yDv 29 &uf/ wefcl;vqkwf 10&ufae@onf edyGefbk&if {u&mZfrif;jrwf. arG;ae@jzpfI u|Ekfyfwdk@
rEWav;ol&d,owif;pmudk reufjzef {+yDv 30 &ufae@wGif xkwaf 0rnfr[kwf? arv 1&ufae@rS xkwfa0vdrfhrnfjzpfa=umif;?
(rEWav;ol&d,owif;pm 29-4-41)
zufqpf*syefwdk@atmufwGif xkwfa0&aom owif;pmrsm;rSm owif;pm vGwfvyfcGifh r&dS? 0g'jzef@csda&;Xmeu
‚if;wdk@}udKufaom owif;rsm;udkom xnfhaponf/ owif;pmqifqm (jzwfawmufr_) ae@pOfvkyfonf[k od&onf?
EkdifiHjcm;owif;rsm; udkvnf; wpfckwnf;aom *syefowif;Xmejzpfonfh 'dkara=u;eef;owif;udk,fpm;vS,f (Domei News
Agency) u ay;onfhowif;udkom azmfjy=u&onf? wpfzwfowfusaom 0g'jzef@owif;rsm;om jzpfonf?
*syefacwfwGif owif;rsm;udk csKyfcs,fvsuf wpfzwfowf owif;rsm;udkom azmfjyaponfomru a&'D,dkem;axmif&mwGif
csKyfcs,fvdkufao;onf? 1943 ck/ Zefe0g&Dv 9 &ufae@wGif edyGefppfzufjyef=um;a&;Xmeu ‘jrefrmjynfoljynfom;tm;vHk;
ppfzufqdkif&mt&m&dS (odk@r[kwf) tpdk;&t&m&dS/ tvkyform;/ xrif;csuform;/ +cHtvkyform;/ ypPnf;*dka'gifxdef; pma&;rStp
vSnf;aeavSatmif; jrif;aZmif;ygrusef aexdkif=uolrsm;onf &efolwdk@. toHv$ifhcsufudk em;axmifjcif;rS usyfwnf;pGm
wm;jrpfa=umif;’
‘rnfonfh toHv$ifhjcif;udk em;axmifvdkaom taqGrsm;onf edyGefppfA[dkXmerS yxrqHk;em;axmifcGifh &&dS&rnf?
em;axmifcGifhjyKrnfh a&'D,dkrsm;rSmvnf; rufum qdkif;u,f oHk;ckxufrydkaom a&'D,dkrsm;om jzpf&rnf’
‘&efukefe,fedrdwfrSty aexdkifaomolrsm;onf rdrda&'D,dkudkteD;qHk;a=u;eef;ESifh pum;ajyma=u;eef;qufoG,fa&;Xmeodk@
,laqmifoGm;I edyGefppfA[dkXmerS taqG. a&'D,dktwGuf oHk;cGifhawmif;ygav’
‘xdkOya'udk rvdkufemaomolrsm; awG@&dScJhv#if =uyfwnf;jyif;xefpGm ta&;,lrnf jzpfojzifh taqG. a&'D,kdrsm;udk
ppfaq;&efESifh vdktyfaom ajymif;vJjcif;rsm; jyKvkyf&ef/ &efukefA[dka=u;eef;qufoG,fa&;XmeESifh teD;qHk;a=u;eef; ESifh
pum;ajyma=u;eef; qufoG,fa&;Xmeodk@ydk@&ef u|Ekfyfwdk@ =o0g'ay;yga=umif;’[lI a=unmavonf?
'dkaru ay;aomowif;rsm;
*syefzufqpfwdk@vufatmufwGif xkwfa0=u&aom owif;pmrsm;rSm *syefwdk@. wpfzufowfowif;rsm;udkom
0g'jzef@csday;&mouJhodk@ &dSae&mY jynfwGif;owif; omru jynfyowif;rsm;udkvnf; *syefwdk@. 'dkara=u;eef;owif;Xmeu ay;aom
owif;rsm;udkom xnfhoGif;azmfjyae=u&ayonf?
*syefacwfwGif
jynfyowif;rsm;udk
'dkara=u;eef;XmerS
ay;aom
owif;rsm;rSty
tjcm;rnfonfha=u;eef;owif;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;rS tquftoG,frjyK&ay?
Te&mY 'dkara=u;eef;udk,fpm;vS,f (Domei News Agency) ta=umif; udk tenf;i,f azmfjycsifygonf?
*syefjynfwGif
ar*sDbk&ifvufxuffupI
jynfwGif;owif;rsm;udkom
jzef@csdcJhonfh
‘awtdpk’
trnf&dS
owif;pmjzef@csda&;Xmewpfck &dScJhonf? 1935 ckESpfwGif refcsK;&D;,m;ta&;ay:vm.? xdktcgu tjcm;wdkif;jynfrsm;u
xdkta&;ESifhywfoufI wpfzufowf0g'jzef@csdcJh=uonf? TwGif *syefwdk@uvnf; jyefvnf0g'jzef@csd&ef owif;Xme&dSrSjzpfrnf[k
oabm&aoma=umifh 'ifwl/ aumfuqdkif/ wdk[dk/ &if*dktrnf&dS owif;jzef@csda&;Xmersm; wnfaxmif=uonf? aemifwGif aumfuqdkifESifh
wdk[dkowif; jzef@csda&;Xmersm; ysufpD;oGm;+yD; EkdifiHjcm;owif;rsm; jzef@csdonfh &if*dkESifh jynfwGif; owif;rsm;udkom jzef@csdonfh
'ifwlwdk@om usefonf? 1936 ckESpfwGif usef&pfaom Towif;XmeESpfckudkaygif;+yD; 'dkar[laom owif;jzef@csda&;Xme zGifhvSpf
vdkuf=uavonf? 'dkar[laom pum;vHk;. t"dy`m,frSm ‘tpnf;t±Hk;’ toif;[lI jzpfavonf?
'kwd,urBmppfjzpfonfhtcsdefwGif 'dkarowif;jzef@csda&;XmecGJaygif; 150 ausmfcef@ urBmhEkdifiHtrsm;tjym;wGif &dSae+yDjzpfonf?
*syefacwfwGif jrefrmjynfYvnf; 'dkarowif;rsm;axmufvSrf;&ef owif;axmufrsm; xm;&dSonf? &&dSaomowif;rsm;udk
&efukefwkdufrS AD,uferfjynfaq;*Hk+rdK@XmecGJodk@ 0g,mvufjzifh ydk@&onf? xdkrSwpfzef wdkusdKodk@ ydk@&onf? &efukefrS wdkusdKodk@
wdkuf±dkufrydk@Edkif? rydk@EkdifonfrSm v#yfppf"gwftm;enf;jcif;a=umifh jzpfonf[k od&onf? (*syefacwfxkwf pma&;q&m/ r*~Zif;q&m
OD;xif}uD;a&;aom 'dkaraqmif;yg;rS)

51

T'dkaruay;aom owif;rsm;udk Armhowif;pmrsm;u toHk;jyK&jcif;jzpfonf?
'dkaru owif;rsm;uvnf; b,fvdkowif;rsdK;enf;/ =unfhygOD;/ erlemtcsdK@ xkwfjyygrnf?
tm&SwdkufppfyGJjzpf&jcif;ta=umif;t&if;
t*FvdyfESifh tar&duefwdk@onf ta&S@wdkif;udk v$rf;rdk;vdkao }uD;us,faom avmbudk jznhfpGrf;&ef pdwfxm;jzifh
csKHuif;tzGJ@udk rD;xdk;ay;±Hkr#ru eDyGefwdk@tm; pD;yGm;a&;/ EdkifiHa&;wdk@jzifh zdESdyfI vmcJhjcif;/ (t&Sif{u&mZfbk&ifrif;jrwf.
trdef@awmfjyefwrf;)
(jrefrmhtvif; 9-12-42)
+Adwdo#}udK;pm;csufrsm; ysufjym;oGm;jyef+yD?
edyGefavwyfcGJrsm;u atmifjrifcJhyHk
(Armhacwfowif;pm 18-12-42)
jrefrmjynft}uD;yGm;qHk;jynhfjzpfrnf
wdkusdK+rdK@/ 'DZifbmv 30 / 'dkaraemufqHk;a=u;eef;
(jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm 2-1-43)
'dkaruay;aom owif;rsm;rSm Todk@v#if 0g'jzef@oufouf owif;rsm;om jzpfayonf?
&dSygao;onf? tdEdN,jynfrS owif;pmrsm;\ v_yf&Sm;r_owif;rsm; jzpfonf/ 'dkaru ay;aom owif;rsm;rSm Todk@
jzpfonf?
tdENd,owif;pmrsm;u tpdk;&wdk@. jyKrlyHkudk rauseyfojzifh owif;pmydwfI uef@uGufjcif;
tdEdN,owif;pmrsm;ydwf&ef vpPbGef;+rdK@ Zefe0g&Dv 4 &ufae@pGJ 'dkara=u;eef;
rsm;r=umrDu bHkbkdif+rdK@Y jyKvkyfaom tdENd,jynfvHk;qdkif&m t,f'Dwmrsm; uGefz&ifhu qHk;jzwfcsufcsxm;onfESifhtnD
Zefe0g&Dv 6 &uf ae@wGif tdENd,jynfwGif;&dS owif;pm/ *sme,frsm;xkwfa0jcif;rS &yfpJxm;&ef ta=umif;=um;xm;onf[k
e,l;a'vD+rdK@rS a&'D,dktoHv$ifhowif;Y yg&dSa=umif;/ TuJhodk@ owif;pmwpf&ufydwf&ef t,f'Dwmrsm; uGefz&ifhu
qHk;jzwfjcif;ta=umif;rSm tdENd,jynfe,ftoD;oD;rS tpdk;&wdk@u *±krpkdufaom tajctaeudk uef@uGufaomtaejzifh jyKvkyf&jcif;yif
jzpfonfqdka=umif;?
(jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm 7-1-43)
owif;pmydwf=ujcif;ta=umif;
tDpwefblvf+rdK@ Zefe0g&Dv 5 &ufae@pGJ 'dkara=u;eef;
t*Fvdyfqdkif&m t&m&dSrsm;u axmufxm;n‡mwmjcif;r&dSbJ owif;pm qifqm vkyfaoma=umifh ykefuefaomtaejzifh
tdENd,jynfowif;pmtm;vHk; ydwfxm;&ef qHk;jzwfxm;a=umif;/ TuJhodk@jzpf&jcif;rSmvnf; tdENd, uGefu&uftzGJ@u t*Fvdyf
qef@usifa&;vkyfief; pwifjyKvkyfuwnf;u rpPwm*E<D. owif;pmyif ‚if;vkyfief;ESifh ywfoufI zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fojzifh xkwfa0jcif;
&yfpJr_rsm; pwifjyKvkyfcJhonfqdka=umif;/ tdENd,jynf&dS t*Fvdyftpdk;&u owif;pmrsm;tay:Y oabmxm;rajymif;vJrcsif; xdkudpPrSm
+yD;jywfonfr[kwf[k qdka=umif;?
(jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm 1943ck/ Zefe0g&Dv 9&uf)
tdENd,jynfwGif owif;pm 150 cef@ &yfpJvdkuf+yD
(vpPbkef;+rdK@ Zefe0g&Dv 6 &uf ae@pGJ 'dkara=u;eef;)
±dkufwmowif;axmuf. owif;ay;csuft& e,l;a'vD+rdK@rS od&dS&onfrSm tdENd,jynf&dS owif;pmaygif; 150 cef@
tdENd,trsKd;om;wdk@ tkyfcsKyfvsuf t*Fvdyf bmomjzifh xkwfa0aom *sme,frsm;yg ,ae@rSpI xkwfa0jcif;udk &yfpJxm;vdkuf+yD
jzpfa=umif;/ xdkuJhodk@ tdENd,jynf&dS owif;pm 150 cef@ xkwfa0jcif;udk &yfpJxm;jcif; ta=umif;rSm tdENd,tpdk;&u
tdENd,owif;pmrsm;tay:wGif =uyfwnf;pGm csKyfcs,f wm;jrpfaom tjyKtrludk rauseyf=uojzifh uef@uGuf=ujcif;yif jzpfa=umif;/
xdktcsdef wGif tdENd, tpdk;&. 0g'jzef@jzL;vufpGJ tvdkawmf&d owif;pmjzpfaom t*Fvdyf bmomjzifh xkwfa0onhf
umvuwWm;pwdwfpfrif;ac: *sme,fuyifv#if xdkuJhodk@ tdENd,tpdk;&ESifh owif;pmrsm; oabmuGJvGJaecsufrSm tajctaeraumif;
vSa=umif;?
tdENd,tpdk;&\vufxyfwGif tdENd,owif;pmrsm;rSm 'kuQtrsKd;rsKd; awG@}uHKae=u&a=umif;ESifh twdtvif;yif
0efcHa&;om;azmfjyxm;a=umif;?
(jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm 10-1-43)

52

'dkaruay;aom
Towif;rsm;udk=unfhv#if
tb,fr#
&,fp&m
aumif;vdkufyg
oenf;?
+Adwdo#e,fcsJ@vufatmufwGif&dSaom tdENd,owif;pmrsm;rSm owif;rsm;udk qifqmvkyfjcif;/ zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fjcif;rsm; cHae&I
wdkufyGJ0if=uonfh owif;rsm;udk olwdk@0g'jzef@csda&;twGuf 'dkaru tm;&0rf;om owif;ay;xm;onf?
*syefzufqpfwdk@vufatmufwGif usa&mufaeaom jrefrmowif;pmrsm;rSm awmhaum b,fvdkvJ/ owif;awG qifqmvkyf/
owif;pmwdkufawGudk *syefuifay awG 0if/ olwdk@ay;onfh owif;omxnfh tpGrf;ukef csKyfcs,fxm;onfyif r[kwfygvm;?
xdktcgu 'dkaru ay;aom tdENd,owif;pmrsm;\ owif;pmvGwfvyfcGifh wdkufyGJowif;udk zwf&aom
jrefrmowif;pmq&mrsm;\ &ifxJwGif rnfodk@ &dSayvdrfhrnfenf;? tdENd,owif;pmrsm;tay: udk,fcsif;pmem=uifemrdrnfum;
trSefyif [lI ,Hk=unfrdygonf?
ppftwGif;umv uAsm
ppftwGif;umvwGif pme,fZif;xkwfa0r_ enf;yg;aoma=umifh pma&;q&mrsm; tzdk@ a&;p&ma&;uGufvnf;&Sm;yg;onf?
xdk@a=umifh ppftwGif;umv (*syefacwf) jrefrmpmaya&;om;xkwfa0r_rsm;udk tenf;i,fom awG@&onf?
xdktxJwGif uAsma&;om;r_rSm ydkIenf;vSayonf? uAsmudk owif;pmrsm;wGif xnfhoGif;azmfjyonfhtavhtxrSm
ydkIenf;av&m/ *syefacwfwGif uAsmudk tawG@& enf;vSayonf? a&;p&m pmapmifuvnf; xifxif&Sm;&Sm;rSm pma&;q&mtoif;u
xkwfa0onfh pma&;q&m pmapmifwpfckom &dSayonf?
ppftwGif;umvwGif xkwfa0aom pme,fZif;rsm;Y uAsmrsm;udk &SmazG avhvmaomtcg pma&;q&mpmapmifwGif
uAsmtcsKd@udk awG@&onf? owif;pmrsm; wGifrl ,cktxd awG@&or#um; rEWav;+rdK@rSxkwfa0onfh rEWav;ol&d, owif;pmYomv#if
uAsmtcsKd@ awG@&ayonf?
pma&;q&mpmapmifwGifvnf; emrnf}uD; uAsmq&mrsm;. uAsmqdkI r&dSoavmufyif &Sm;avonf? xdkpmapmifwGif
jynfp}uFm/ azatmif/ vSxGef;at;-tr&yl&/ jra'gif;awmif/ ewfarmufbkef;ausmf ponfh uAsma&;om;olrsm;avmufom
awG@&onf? emrnf}uD;uAsmq&mxJu q&maZmf*sDudkrl 1943 ckESpfu *syefuay;aom vGwfvyfa&;twkta,miftwGuf
txl;xkwfa0aom ‘Armopf’ pmapmifwGif awG@&onf? xdkpmapmifwGif q&maZmf*sDu ‘a'gif;oH’ trnf&dS uAsmwpfyk'fudk
a&;avonf? q&maZmf*sDonf *syefacwfwGif xkwfa0aom pme,fZif;rsm;Y xkduAsmwpfyk'fomv#if a&;zGJ@cJh[ef &dSayonf?
uAsmonfvnf; acwf.a=u;rHkyif jzpfav&m *syefacwfwGif a&;zGJ@=uaom uAsmrsm;onfvnf; *syefacwfa=u;rHk[kyif qdk&ayrnf?
a&;zGJ@onfhta=umif;t&mrsm;rSm ppfESifhppfom;ta=umif;rsm;om rsm;avonf? Oyrm Adkvfatmifqef;/ ppfom;/ armfawmfa,mif/
a,musfm;jrwf/ ava=umif;&ef/ edyGefpum;oif&r,f ponfhuAsmrsm; jzpfonf? ArmopfpmapmifwGif ygonfh q&maZmf*sD. uAsmESifh
pma&;q&m pmapmifwGifyg0ifaom uAsmtcsKd@udk 1969 ckESpfu txufArmEdkifiH pma&;q&mtoif;u xkwfa0aom
uAsmta=umif;/ pmta=umif; pmtkyfyg armifpGrf;&nf. pmwrf;wGif zwf±_Ekdif=uayonf?
*syefacwfu uAsmrsm;udk aemufxyfvkdufvH &SmazGaomtcg rEWav;ol&d, owif;pmwGif awG@&ayonf? owif;pmwGif
awG@&aom uAsmrsm;rSmvnf; ppfom;ta=umif;udkyif zGJ@qdkonfom awG@&avonf?
1944 ckESpfwGif ‘cspfav;/ tm&Svli,f/ bkwvif’ . uAsmESpfyk'fudk awG@&onf? Tcspfav;onf ,ck bkwvifcspfav;
[laomuavmif trnfjzifh a&;aeaom OD;cspfav;yif jzpfvdrfhrnf[k xifygonf? uAsm wpfyk'fu ppfxGufoH/ uAsmwpfyk'fu
usm;qdkrSusm;jzpfonf? aemufxyf awG@&aom uAsmESpfyk'f&Sdao;onf? wpfyk'frSm jrifhrsdK;EG,f. wyfrSL; armifESifh wyfrSL;armif.
wkdufr,ftrnf&dS uAsmjzpfonf?
uAsmtm;vHk;rSm ppfom;ta=umif; a&;zGJ@onfh uAsmrsm;jzpfavonf? jrifhrsKd;EG,fESifh wyfrSL;armifwdk@. uAsmrsm;rSm
wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; tjyeftvSef a&;=uaom uAsmrsm;jzpfonf?
*syefacwf uqkefvjynfhae@ txl;xkwf rEWav;ol&d,owif;pmwGif rEWav;q&mr$ef;}uD; uavmiftrnfcH
rEWav;ol&d,owif;pm/ t,f'DwmOD;Edkif. uqkefvjynfhae@ta=umif; aw;xyfwpfyk'fudkvnf; awG@&ayonf?
ppftwGif;umvwGif xkwfa0aom owif;pmrsm;Y awG@&aomuAsmrsm;tae ESifh cspfav;/ bkwvif/ jrifhrsKd;EG,fESifh
wyfrSL;armifwdk@. uAsmrsm;udk Taqmif;yg;wGif azmfjyvdkufygonf?
ppfxGufoH
cGeftm;wJh &maxmif
Avarmif aqmifv#ifjzihf
armifrSmjrifao;/
'Dta&;
ppfaw;oHausmfausmfeJ@
wyfrawmfac:&mvrf;udk
vSrf;xGufpdk@av;/
cspfav; tm&Svli,f/ bkwvif
(rEWav; ol&d,owif;pm 9-6-44)

53

usm;qdkrSusm;
&Jygbd 'dk@vli,f
Zmwdrmef&dSef[kefjyif;
oGif;vmcJhw,f/
udk,fusKd;y,f
jrifhw,fuGJ@ pdwfxm;
jynftwGufomjzifh
'DtoufbmrxDbk
tmZmenfjrefjynfbGm;&,f
usm;qdkrSusm;/
cspfav;/ tm&Svli,f/ bkwvif
(rEWav; ol&d,owif;pm 11-6-44)
wyfrSL;armif
&Jw,f&Jw,f
ig&Jw,fvdk@
rmefudkwif;cg
ajcvSrf;ygvnf;
cGifhcgta&;
vdkao;aeI (vdkaeao;I)
apmifhawG;ar#mfrd
jrifhrcsdcJh/
wdkufr,fwdkufr,f
igwdkufr,fvdk@
'g;udkqGJcg
}uH&G,fygvnf;
cE<mudk,fppf
ÁwWdjzpfI
aqG;npfidkifrd
jrifhrcsdcJh/
odk@a=umifh
&Jygwdkufyg
udkArm&J@
oifomwdkuf&if
rSefatmifjrifvdrfh
'g;udkqGJawmh
ppfudkE$Jaemh
a&SmhygeJ@armif
wyfOD;aqmify
xl;pGmatmif&
a'gif;r,furnf
wufavmhjrifhaemif - wyfrSL;
armif/
aZ,smtm&S-jrifhrsKd;EG,f
(rEWav;ol&d,owif;pm 5-9-44)
wdkufr,f
wdkufr,fwJhcdkufr,f
cdkufr,fwJh wdkufr,f
wyfrSL;armif jrifhaemif}uD;u
jiif;ygbl;uG,f/

54

a=umufaoG;udky,f
E$Jr,fuJG@ppfa&;
ppfxGufol&mtaxmifeJ@
ysKdwdk@armifa±S@aqmifvSrf;vdk@
jref;yghr,faZ,smjrifh&,f
pdk;ESifheJ@av;/
wyfrSL;armif
(rEWav; ol&d,owif;pm 3-10-44)
*syefacwfpmayxkwfa0a&;
*syefacwfwGif
jrefrmtrsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;
csKyfcs,fcH&+yD;/
owif;pm
vGwfvyfcGifhr&dSonfhta=umif;udk
a&;om;azmfjycJhygonf?
*syefacwfwGif owif;pmvGwfvyfcGifh/ pmayvGwfvyfcGifh r&dSonfh=um;rSyif owif;pmxkwfjzpfatmif xkwfcJh=uao;onf?
tjcm;pmay vkyfief;tcsKd@vnf; vkyfjzpfatmif vkyfcJh=uao;onf? xdkacwfwGif owif;pmESifh pmtkyfxkwfvkyfa&; twGuf
ukef=urf;ypPnf;rsm;uvnf; ppftwGif; umvjzpfI &Sm;yg;vSonf? xdk@a=umifh pmtkyfrsm;udk &onfhpuULrsm;jzifhyif
xkwfa0cJh=uavonf? pma&;q&m r*~Zif;qdkv#if oHk;+yD;om; wzufvGwf av#mufv$m puULrsm;jzifhyif xkwfa0cJhonf? aiGpuULwefzdk;
uvnf; bmr#r&dS/ aiGazmif;yGvGef;I pmtkyfaps;E_ef;rsm;u acgifcsOf;aeonf?
Todk@ tcuftcJrsm;=um;rS xkwfa0cJh=uaom pmtkyfrsm;ESifh xkwfa0a&; vkyfief;udk rSwfwrf;wifoifhonf xifygonf?
xdk@a=umifh awG@or# pmtkyfuav;rsm;udk wifjyygonf?
pma&;q&mokc. vif,l&'g 0wˆK 1942/ ydÉuwfawmf trsKd;aygif; 30ausmf/ 1942 ck/ wpftkyfwpfusyf/ pma&;q&m
r*~Zif;rsm; 1943/ jra'gif;ndK. &JabmfoHk;usdyf 1943 ck/ wpftkyfoHk;usyf/ ppfom;txl;E_ef;qifh 250/ ocifxGef;tkyf. u|EkfyfpGef@pm;cef;
1943/ wpftkyf ESpfusyf qifhig; q,f/ }uD;yGm;a&;OD;vS. yef;ESifhppfom;/ &$H@ESifhppfom;/ 1943ck/ ^m%. ÁwWd,odkufq&m 1943 ck/
wpftkyfqifhESpfq,fhig; aoe*FAsL[m ppforkdif; 1943/ vk&GmESifhvl&Gm 1943/ wpftkyf 95qifh/ okc. edyGefbmom oifcef;pm 1943/
r[maqGESifh okca&; ^m%form; 1943/ 125qifh/ jra'gif;ndKa&; a&$awmif wdkufyGJ 1943/ ocifEk\ pum;oHk;vHk; 1943/
cspfr,m;ESifhppfom; 1943/ rif;aqG. 'g; 1943/ r[maqG. pm;wwfol 1944/ 15usyfESifh ig;q,fqifh/ *sme,fausmfrrav;. olr
1944/ 9usyf/ r[maqG. rif;acgifaemf&xm 1944/ ig;usyf qifh50/ &JxGef;vif;. tm; 1944/ yckuULrlo#Dumausmf ed\,opf 1944
±dk;±dk;zHk; 20d/ uwfxlzHk; 25usyf/ qHk;rpum;csKyf ig;rsKd;tpHk 10d/ 1944/ r[mAk'<0iftar;tajztusOf;csKyf 1944/ 5usyf/ rEWav;ol&d,.
pmpOf(1)/ tdENd,vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJ 1944/ 6usyf 50/ rEWav;ol&,
d . pmpOf (2)/ acwfopful;oef;a&mif;0,fa&; 1944/ 6usyfESifh
qifh50/ Ak'<rEWmefawmf}uD; 1944/ 75 qifh/ OD;armifarmifwif. OD;yknordkif; 1944/ 8usyf/ omoemhwHcGef 1944/ 6usyf/ OD;odef;wef
bDat. qyfjymvkyfief; 1944 12usyfESifh qifh 50/ qdkAD,ufavmu 1944/ 4usyf/ }uD;yGm;a&;OD;vS. vl&nfc|ef 1944/ 17usyf
qifh50/ rEWvmbkrRdwdkufrS *Dwaygif;csKyf 1944/ 15usyf/ a&$Oa'gif;. tm[m&jzifh usef;rmenf; 1944/ 17 usyf qifh50/
wdkif;cspfrSxkwfonfh Armhpmapmif 1944/ 20usyf/ arSmfbDq&modef;}uD;. pum;ya'om 1944/ 5usyf/ rtrm bmomjyef
t&DSa[;[D;Edk;. *sKHESifhppfom; 1944 15usyf/ e0&wf. o&Jvrf;jy 1944/ 35usyf/ rEWav;ol&d, udkoef;armif. acwfopfom;acsmh 1/
1/ 45/ 10usyf?
'kwd,urBmppftwGif;
*syefacwfwGif
r*~Zif;oHk;apmif
xGufonfudk
od&onf?
xdkr*~Zif;rsm;rSm
jrefrmEdkifiHpma&;q&mtoif;u 1942 ckESpfrS pI xkwfonfh ‘pma&;q&m’ rEWav;+rdK@ wdkif;cspfowif;pmyHkESdyfwdkufrS 1944 ckESpfwGif
xkwfonfh Armpmapmif/ (xdkr*~Zif;xkwfa0&mwGif ppfaoG;ppfpdwf pdwf0ifpm;=u&ef Arm-edyGef pma&;q&m}uD;rsm;
uavmifvufpGrf;jy [lI a=unmonf)ESifh ArmEkdifiH EkdifiHjcm; a&;&mtoif;rS t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh xkwfa0onfh bm;rm;r*~Zif;
(1944)wdk@ jzpfonf?
*syefacwfwGif tm&Svli,ftpnf;t±Hk;rsm;vnf; zGJ@pnf;=u&m tcsKd@+rdK@e,f rsm;wGif tm&Svli,ftpnf;t±Hk;u
vufa&;r*~Zif;rsm; xkwf=uonfudkvnf; awG@&onf? pmwrf;+ydKifyGJrsm;vnf; jyKvkyf=uonf? &efukefynm wHcGeftoif;uvnf;
pmay+ydKifyGJ jyKvkyf=uonfudk awG@&onf?
*syefacwfowif;pmrsm;wGif aqmif;yg;&Sifrsm;vnf; &dSonf? q&mZ0eu jrefrmhtvif;ESifh Armacwfowif;pmwGif
a&;onf? q&m}uD; '*kefa&$r#m;u 1942 ckwGif Armacwfowif;pmY *syefpma&;q&m tD*sD,kd&dSu0g; a&;onfh uacsonfrav;
0wˆK&Snfudk tcef;qufbmomjyef azmfjyonf? xdk@jyif q&m}uD;'*kefa&$r#m;uyif Armacwfowif;pmwGif 1942ckY Armh aoG;
0wˆK&Snfudk tcef;qufa&;om;onf?
q&mnm%u jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmwGif 1943 ckY vGwfvyfa&; 0g'acgif;pOfjzifh aqmif;yg;&Snf}uD; a&;onf? 1943ckY
rEWav;ol&d, owif;pmwGif rsKd;wifhtrnf&dS aqmif;yg;&Sifu aqmif;yg;rsm; a&;aeonfudk awG@&onf?
xdk@jyif 1944 ckY rEWav;ol&d,owif;pmwGif emtdk&$D&$Drm aemufcsD (Naoshi Shimanouchi) . ‘edyeG Ef idk if .
H
jynfwGif;ppfrsufESm ppfwdkufaeaom vlwpfrsKd; vkyfief;=unfh±_csuf’ aqmif;yg;&Snf}uD;udk &ufqufazmfjycJhavonf?

55

1-8-43 ckae@xkwf Armacwfowif;pmwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u ArmhvGwfvyfa&;ta&;awmfyHk trnf&dS
aqmif;yg;a&;onfudk awG@&onf?
*syefacwfpmayv_yf&Sm;r_ESifh pmtkyfxkwfa0a&;vkyfief;udk &SmazGonfhtcg tcsKd@rSm pmtkyftjzpfxkwfa0onfudk awG@&+yD;
tcsKd@rSm owif;pmrsm;wGif a=unmonfudkom awG@&+yD; pmtkyfxkwfjzpfonf rxkwfjzpfonfudkum; taotcsm rod&yg?
*syefacwfrSmvnf; pmayacwfwpfacwfjzpfaoma=umifh jrefrmpmayorkdif; jyKpkonfhtcg wduszdk@ vdktyfonfjzpf&m *syefacwf
pmayv_yf&Sm;r_ESifh pmtkyf xkwfa0a&;vkyfief;udk 0dkif;0ef;&SmazGavhvm+yD; azmfxkwf=u&ef oifhonf[k ,lqygonf?
,cifwpfywfu *syefacwfpmayxkwfa0a&;vkyfief;udk vufvrS f;rDor# a&;om;cJh&m ,ckwpfywfwGif ,cifwpfywfu
usefaeonhf aemufawG@ pmtkyfrsm; ta=umif;udk a&;om;azmfjyygOD;rnf?
*syefacwfu
ocifEka&;onfh
‘tcgopf/
urBmopf/
Armopf’
trnf&dS
pmtkyfwpftkyfudkvnf;
wdk@Armqif;&Jom;tpnf;t±Hk;rS 0g'jzef@jzL;a&;rSL; ocifwifu a=unmao;onf? xdkpmtkyfrSm cg;ydkufaqmift&G,f pmrsufESm 50 cef@
&dSrnf? pmtkyf 100 v#if aiG 30ESifh ±dkufEdSyf&onf? wpf}udrfv#if pmtkyf 50 xuf renf;rSmyg? pmtkyf 100 rSmv#if 25 usyfaps;ESifh
t±_H;cHI a&mif;rnf? xkyfcpmwdkufcudk owfowfay;&rnf/ pmwpftkyfv#if qifh 30 xuf ydkrdkaom tzdk;ESifha&mif;pm;jcif;rjyK&[k
a=unmonfudk awG@&onf?
OD;y*sDidku ‘*syefpum;oifq&m’ trnf&dSpmtkyfa&;om;xkwfa0onf? wpftkyf v#if qifh50 jzpfonf? xdkpmtkyfrSm
q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfr_dif;u a&;ckdif;aom pmtkyfjzpfonf[k od&onf? xdkpmtkyfudk a=unmaomtcg
‘ocifudk,fawmfr_dif;’
q&m}uD;cifAsm; odomawmfrl&efrSm q&m}uD;a&;cdkif;xm;aom *syefpum;oif pmtkyfrSm ,ckvjynfhae@wGif pmtkyfa&
3000 xkwfa0 a&mif;csawmhrnfjzpfyga=umif; tpD&ifcHygonf q&m}uD;cifAsm;?
y*siD dk
[lI a=unmygonf?xdk@tjyif *syefacwfwGif q&mZ0e. ‘oCFef;0wf’ 0wˆKudk *syefjynfxkwf tqm[dowif;pmwGif
bmomjyef+yD; xnfhoGif;azmfjyonf? xdk0wˆKudk *sme,fausmfOD;cspfarmifu ed'gef;a&;+yD; t*FvdyfjrefrmESpfbmomjzifh
jrefrmhtvif;wdkuf u xkwfa0cJhonf?
om*&ipdk;u ‘edyGef,Ofaus;r_ordkif;’ pmtkyfa&;+yD; [Hom0wDyHkESdyfwdkufu ±dkufESdyfxkwfa0onf? wpftkyfv#if qifh 50 ESifh
a&mif;onf?
ol&d,OD;odef;armif wnf;jzwf+yD; rif;om;a&;onfh a&$wltrnf&dS pmtkyfudkvnf; *syefacwfwGifyif xkwfonf[k od&onf?
xdk@tjyif wdkif;jyKjynfjyK yHkESdyfwdkufu ‘ajrya'om’ trnf&dS bmomjyefpmtkyfwpftkyf xkwfao;onf? wpftkyf 15usyfESifh
a&mif;onf? bmomjyefoludkum; rod&ay? xdkyHkESdyfwdkufrSyif ocifEka&;onfh &ufpufygayhuG,fESifh ‘ykxkZaem OrRmwaum’
pmtkyfrsm;udkvnf; xkwfa0cJhayonf?
*syefacwfwGif ocifApdefa&;onfh ‘ocifrsm;. ArmhvGwfvyfa&; }udK;yrf;r_’ wdkif;cspfowif;pmydkif&Sif ocifodef;az.
‘AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wdk@’ apmOD;. ‘'dk@eJ@rwef’ OD;b&Sif. ta&S@tm&Sppf}uD;e@ omwlnDr# tusKd;cHpm;a&;pepfpmtkyfrsm;vnf;
xkwfa0cJh=uao;onf?
29-5-43 ae@xkwf rEWav;ol&d,owif;pmwGif a=unmxm;aom pmtkyfa=unmt& ppftwGif;umvY
tysif;ajyzwfp&m 0wˆKpmtkyfrsm;tjyif umwGef;pmtkyfrsm;vnf; xkwfa0onfudk od&ayonf? xdka=unmwGif ... pmtkyfrsKd;pHk
ylylaEG;aEG;a&muf+yD/ ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf. pGrf;&nfjy 'kwd,pifumylwdkufyGJ ta=umif;udk zwfvdkovm;? Armocifrsm;.
vGwfvyfa&;}udK;yrf;r_udk tao;pdwf odvdkovm;? ppftwGif;rdk@ tysif;ajy0wˆKudkyJ zwfvdkovm;? umwGef;udkyJ =unfhvdkovm;?
pma&;q&mnGef@aygif; uavmifpGrf;jyxm;onfh pmrsm;udk jrnf;vdkovm;/ vdkcsifwmudk &Ekdifonf/ rEWav; ol&d,pmtkyfXmeodk@
ºuGcJhyg[lI azmfjyxm;onf?
puULjy\emwufaeaom ppftwGif;umvwGif jyuQ'defrsm;udkvnf; xkwfjzpfatmif xkwf=uonfudk awG@&ygao;onf?
odk@aomfvnf; aps;E_ef;rSmrl }uD;vSygonf? &J&Jawmuf jyuQ'defu wpfck 15usyf/ ynmhtvif; jyuQ'defu wpfckudk 12 usyfESifh
ig;q,fjym;/ orŠKa'< jyuQ'defu wpfckudk 12usyfESifh 50jym;jzpfonf? xdkjyuQ'defrsm; xkwfonfhESpfrSm 1944 ckESpf jzpfonf? 1944
ckESpftwGuf jrefrmhtvif;u xkwfonfh 'dkif,m&Dpmtkyf wpftkyf. tzdk;E_ef;rSm 20 usyf jzpfonf?
Tr#txd azmfjyxm;onfrSm vufvSrf;rDor#om jzpfygonf? *syefacwfwGif xkwfa0cJhaom tjcm;pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;vnf;
&dSaumif;&dSygvdrfhOD;rnf? *syefacwfxkwf owif;pmrsm;ta=umif;udkrl vlxkOD;vS jyKpkxkwfa0aom owif;pmrsm;ajymjywJh ppftwGif;
Armjynfpmtkyfrsm;wGif u|efawmfwdk@ avhvmcGifh&=uayonf?
*syefcwf pmayxkwfa0a&;vkyfief;ta=umif;udk txufArmEdkifiH pma&;q&m toif;u 1969 ckESpfwGif xkwfa0onfh
uAsmta=umif;/ pmta=umif; pmtkyfY rif;vS*k%fa&mif. 25 ESpftwGif; xkwfa0cJh=uwJh owif;pm/ *sme,f/ r*~Zif;rsm; pmwrf;wGif
tawmfuav; jynfhpHkpGm azmfjyxm;onfudk awG@Edkifygonf?
xdk@tjyif *syefacwfwGif edyGefppfaoemywd}uD; tufpftD;'g;ESifh a'gufwmbarmf. Armjynf&dSwdkif;&if;om;rsm;tm;
rdef@cGef;pum;pmtkyf/ ArmEkdifiHawmf tm%m&Sif 0ef}uD;csKyf. Armhacwfopf rdef@cGef;rsm;pmtkyf/ ocifEk. pum;oHk;vHk;/ tcgopf/
urBmopf/ Armopfpmtkyf/ jrefrmEkdifiHawmfpnf;rsOf;Oya'pmtkyf/ Armopf pmapmif twGJ(1) trSwf(1) ArmvGwfvyfa&;
txl;xkwfpmapmif/ *syefpum;ajym q&m OD;armif}uD;pmtkyfESifh *syeftajccHoifcef;pm'kwd,wGJ q&mausmfpmtkyfrsm;vnf;
xkwfa0cJhao;onf[k od&onf?

56

ppftwGif;umvpma&;q&mtoif;
ppftwGif;umv *syefacwfwGif pma&;q&mtoif; pepfwus jyefvnfxlaxmif zJG@pnf;Ekdifojzifh pmayv_yf&Sm;r_
txdkuftavsmuf jyefvkyfEkdifcJhonf[k qdk&ayrnf?
*syefacwfwGif pma&;q&mtoif; jyefvnfxlaxmifEkdifonfrSm ppftwGif; umvY wuGJwjym;pD a&mufaeaom
pma&;q&mrsm;udk jyefvnf pkpnf; ay;Edkifjcif;vnf; jzpfayonf? *syefacwfrwdkifrD rlvu pma&;q&m toif;&dScJhonf? xdktoif;udk
1937-38 ckESpfu wnfaxmifcJhonf? xdktcgu toif;OuUXrSm q&m'D;'kwfOD;bcsKd jzpfonf? 'kwd,urBmppfjzpfaomtcg
pma&;q&mrsm; wuGJwjym;pD a&mufukef=uonf? xdk@a=umifh *syefacwfwGif pma&;q&mrsm; waygif;wpnf;wnf;ESifh
pma&;q&mtoif; &dSoifhonf[k ,lqaoma=umifh ol&d,OD;odef;armif/ vlxkOD;vS/ *sme,fausmf OD;cspfarmifESifh q&mZ0ewkd@
aqmf=ocsuft& pma&;q&mtoif;udk jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;jcif; jzpfonf?
‘jrefrmjynf pma&;q&mtoif;’ udk 1304 ck/ 0gacgifvjynfhausmf 14 &uf ae@wGif &efukef+rdK@/ &efEdkifaps; txyfxyf&dS
usef;rma&;jywdkufcef;Y tpnf;ta0; jyKvkyf+yD; zGJ@pnf;cJh=uonf? yxrqHk;toif; trlaqmiftzGJ@rSm OuUXol&d,OD;odrf;armif/
'kwd,OuUX '*kefewf&Sif/ tusKd;aqmif Z0e/ wGJbuftusdK;aqmif oD&darmif/ aiGxdef; +rdK@rq&m[def/ pm&if;ppf jrefrm±kyf&Sif
OD;armifarmif/ aumfrwDvl}uD;rsm;/ *sme,fausmf OD;cspfarmif/ awmuom'Gef;/ q&mausmf/ +rdK@rarmif/ ocFg/ '*kefq&mwif/ cifrsKd;csp/f
'*kefcifcifav;ESifh ta0;a&muftr_aqmiftjzpf }uD;yGm;a&; OD;vS(vlxkOD;vS) wdk@ jzpf=uonf? toif;. em,uvl}uD;rsm;rSm
q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;/ ol}uD;a*Zuf OD;cifarmifESifh jrefrmhtvif; OD;pdef;wdk@ jzpf=uonf? xdktcgu jrefrmjynf pma&;q&m
toif;0ifaygif; 90 ausmf &dSonf[k od&onf?
txufArmEdkifiH pma&;q&mtoif;udk 1306(1944)ckESpfwGif zGJ@pnf;jzpfonf? pwifzGJ@pnf;onfhae@rSm 19-7-44 jzpfonf/
toif;wGif usufoa&aqmif em,u vl}uD;rsm;tjzpf opfawm0efaxmufa[mif; OD;armifarmifausmf/ omoemn$ef=um;a&; 0ef
OD;csif/ rEWav;ol&d, t,f'DwmcsKyf OD;cifarmifwifhudk wifajr‡muf=u+yD; tr_aqmif tzGJ@rSm OuUX OD;udkav;/ aiGxdef; OD;bZif/
twGif;a&;rSL; rEWav;ol&d,OD;oef;armif/ pm&if;ppf e*g;eD OD;armifarmif/ tr_aqmifrsm;tjzpf OD;cifarmifºuG,f/ &JAkdvfocifA[Hk/
OD;omjr/ wdkif;cspfOD;odef;azwdk@ jzpf=uonf? toif;zGJ@pnf;onhf tpnf;ta0;wGif jrefrmjynfpma&;q&mtoif; ta0;a&muf
tr_aqmif OD;vS(vlxkOD;vS) u jrefrmjynf pma&;q&mtoif; jzpfay:vmyHk/ toif;. &nf&G,fcsufESifh pnf;rsOf;Oya'rsm;udk
&Sif;jyonf? xdktcgu a&$bdkc±dkif rusnf;wHk&GmwGif &dSaeaom q&m}uD;a&$Oa'gif;ESifh ppfudkif;awmif±dk;wGif &dSaeaom
q&m}uD;jrrsKd;vGifwdk@tm; txl;t}uH^m%fay; yk*~dKvfrsm;tjzpf wm0efay;&ef qHk;jzwfcJh=uavonf?
ppftwGif;umvwGif jrefrmjynf pma&;q&mtoif; wnfaxmifEkdifcJhojzifh pma&;q&mrsm; pkpnf;pnf;vHk;EdkifcJhjcif;/
pmqdkawmfae@[lI pwifusif;yEdkifjcif;/ pma&;q&m vpOfpmapmif xkwEf kdifjcif;/ pmqdkawmfae@ txdrf;trSwf jyZmwfrsm; ujyEdkifjcif;/
pmay+ydKifyGJrsm; jyKvkyfEkdifjcif;ponfh tusKd;tjrwfrsm; &&dScJhayonf/ ‘pma&;q&m’ pmapmifudk ta&S@tm&SppfESpfywfvnfae@ (8-1242)wGif pwif xkwfa0cJhavonf?
jrefrmjynfpma&;q&mtoif;}uD;u pma&;q&mrsm; pmtkyf xkwfa0Edkifa&; twGuf ‘pmtkyfoif;’ (or0g,r) zGJ@pnf;a&;
‘jrefrmtbd"gef’ pmtkyf}uD; jzpfajrmufa&;twGuf }udK;yrf;cJhao;onf? odk@aomfvnf; xdkvkyfief;rsm;rSm ratmifjrifcJhay?
toif;. em,uvl}uD;wpfOD;jzpfaom jrefrmhtvif; OD;pdef; 1942ck/ Edk0ifbmv 13 &ufae@wGif uG,fvGef&m toif;u
tokbp&dwftwGuf aiG 25 usyf yg0ifulnDcJhonf? pma&;q&mjra'gif;,Of uG,fvGefonfhtcgwGifvnf; toif;uyif uruxjyKum
o+*õK[fcJhayonf?
1942 ck/ 'DZifbm 16&ufae@wGif jrefrmjynfodk@ a&muf&dSvmaom *syefjynfrS pma&;q&mrsm;ESifh Armpma&;q&mrsm;
rdwfqufvufzuf&nfyGJ usif;y+yD; *syefpmayESifh jrefrmpmayta=umif;udk tjyeftvSef aqG;aEG;=uonf? xdktcgu jrefrmjynfodk@
a&mufvmaom *syefpma&;q&mrsm;rSm trsKd;orD;pma&;q&mr rpPa&maumrDZluD;/ trsKd;om;pma&;q&m rpPwm ,ltlcsDumrD&mrm/
rpPwmqDtDcsD±dktdk*g;0g;ESifh rpPwm tDtlcsDu0gjrL&m wdk@ jzpf=uonf?
*syefacwfu txufjrefrmEdkifiH pma&;q&mtoif;rSmvnf; rdwfquf {nfhcHyGJ wpfck vkyfcGifh}uHKcJhayao;onf? ‚if;{nfhcHyJGrSm
15-10-44 ae@wGif rEWav;odk@ qHkI a&mufvm=uaom q&m}uD;a&$Oa'gif;/ pma&;q&m &JxGef;vif;/ (uG,fvGefol
um,AvOD;ae0if;) ESifh owif;pmq&m rpPwmcsufwmcsDwdk@udk {nfhcHaomyGJ jzpfavonf?
*syefwdk@u twkta,mif vGwfvyfa&;ay;+yD;p 1943 ckESpfwGif pma&;q&m rif;aqGu‘"g;’ 0wˆK (,ck ±kyf&Sif±dkufaeonf) udk
a&;om;xkwfa0&m jrefrmjynf pma&;q&mtoif;u pma&;q&mrif;aqGtm; pmayqktjzpf qkaiG 1000 usyf csD;jr‡ifhonf/
jrefrmpma&;q&mtoif;u pmayqk csD;jr‡ifhonfrSm xdkt}udrfonf yxrqHk;t}udrf jzpfayonf?
ppftwGif;umvwGif pma&;q&mtoif;udk zGJ@pnf;Ekdif+yD; pmayv_yf&Sm;r_rsm; txdkuftavsmufjyKvkyfEkdifcJhonfudk
rSwfwrf;wifp&m
awG@&onhf
enf;wl
wpfzufwGif
pmaytEkynm&SiftcsKd@
uG,fvGefcJhojzihf
0rf;enf;zG,f&m
rSwfwrf;wifp&mrsm;udkvnf; awG@&ayonf?
ppftwGif;umvwGif uG,fvGef=uukefaom pma&;q&mrsm;rSm ynm0ef OD;zdk;usm;/ ody`Harmif0/ pum}uD;xdyfwif/
jrefrmhtvif;OD;pdef;/ A[kdpnf OD;bOD;/ pDyD OD;cifarmif/ jrefrmynm&dSq&m}uD; OD;ab/ q&mr$ef;}uD; trnfcH rEWav;ol&d, t,f'Dwm
OD;Ekdif/ ta0;a&muf OD;atmif}uD;/ arSmfbDq&m odef;}uD;/ jrpvG,f/ owdk; oDv/ jra'gif;,Ofwdk@ jzpf=uonf? &Gmpm;}uD; pdefaA'gESihf
yef;csDq&m}uD; OD;baZmf wdk@vnf; ppftwGif;umvrSmyif uG,fvGef tedpPa&mufcJh=u&ayonf?

57

ppftwGif;umvY pma&;q&mtoif;udk jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;onfrSm 1304 (1942)ck 0gacgifvjynfhausmf 14&ufae@wGifjzpfonf?
xdktcg toif;.trnfrSm ‘jrefrmjynf pma&;q&mrsm;toif;’ [lI jzpfonf? toif;zGJ@pnf;+yD;I oHk;vausmft=umwGif
toif;trnfajymif;&ef oifhroifh pOf;pm;=uonf? tr_aqmiftzGJ@. av;}udrfajrmuf tpnf;ta0;Y jrefrmjynf
pma&;q&mrsm;toif;[laom trnfwGif ‘(jrefrmjynf)’ tpm; xdktcgu tpkd;&toHk;jyKaeonfh ‘ArmEdkifiHawmf’[k ajymif;&ef
oifhroifh pOf;pm;=ujcif; jzpfonf?
xdkudpPudk oif;vHk;u|wf txl;tpnf;ta0;u qHk;jzwf&ef tr_aqmiftzGJ@u qHk;jzwfonf? odk@jzifh 1304 ck ewfawmfvqef;
6 &ufae@wGif oif;vHk;u|wf tpnf;ta0;udk &efukef+rdK@/ a,mufvrf; trSwf (35) &dS toif;wdkufY usif;y&m xdktpnf;ta0;u
rlvtwdkif; jrefrmjynfpma&;q&mtoif;[lIyif ac:a0:&ef qHk;jzwfvdkufayonf?
odk@aomfvnf; 1305-06 ckESpftwGuf pma&;q&mrsm;toif; tr_aqmiftzGJ@ jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;onfhtcgwGif
‘jrefrmEkdifiHpma&;q&mtoif;’ [lI ajymif;vJvdkuf =ujyefavonf?
1305-06 ckESpftwGuf tr_aqmiftzGJ@rSm OuUXOD;odrf;armif (ol&d,)/ 'kwd,OuUX OD;armifarmif}uD; ('*kefeuf&Sif)/
twGif;a&;rSL; OD;wifjrifh (ocFg)/ aiGxdef; OD;[def (+rdK@rq&m[def)/ pm&if;ppfOD;armifarmif (jrefrmh±kyf&Sif)/ pm=unfhtzGJ@ wm0efcH
q&mausmf/ a[majymyGJwm0efcH OD;cspfarmif (*sme,fausmf)/ taqmuftODwm0efcH OD;oef;wifh(jrefrmhtvif;)/ tr_aqmifrsm;
OD;odef;(Z0e)/ OD;a,m(aZ,s)/ OD;b&dSef (r[maqG)/ '*kefcifcifav;/ rcifjr (cifrsKd;cspf)/ OD;tkef;armif(OD;^m%)/ ocifxGef;tkyf/
ta0;a&muftr_aqmif OD;vS (}uD;yGm;a&;)/ r*~Zif;wm0efcH tr_aqmifOD;odef;armif/ OD;cspfarmif/ OD;a,m/ q&m[def/ OD;armifarmif/
ppfaq;a&;tzGJ@ OD;a,m/ r[maqG/ OD;^m% [lI zGJ@pnf;a=unmonfudk awG@&avonf?
pma&;q&mtoif; trnfajymif;vJjcif;ESifhywfoufI avhvm&mY 'kwd, urBmppfrwdkifrD yxrqHk;t}udrf
pma&;q&mtoif; zGJ@pnf;cJhonfrSm t*Fvdyf pma&;q&m}uD; tdyfcsf*sD0J jrefrmjynfodk@ vma&muf+yD; 1937-38 ckESpfu jzpfonfudk
trsm;od=u+yD; jzpfygonf? xdktcg pma&;q&mtoif;udk ‘jrefrmjynfpma&;q&mrsm; tpnf;t±Hk;’ [lI trnfwifcJhonf[k
od&ygonf? *syefacwfpma&;q&mtoif; tpnf;ta0;rSwfwrf;wpfckY ‘,cifacwf rysufrDu zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmifxm;aom
jrefrmjynfpma&;q&mrsm; tpnf;t±Hk;rS vufusefaiG 37 usyfESpfyJudk Tjrefrmjynf pma&;q&mrsm; toif;}uD;odk@ v$Jtyf=uojzifh
toif;}uD;u txl;aus;Zl;wifpGmjzifh vufcHvdkufavonf’ [lI awG@&dS&ygonf? ‘jrefrmjynfpma&;q&mrsm; tpnf;t±Hk;’
rwnfaxmifrDu ('kwd,urBmppfrjzpfrD) tjcm;+rdK@e,ftcsKd@wGif pmaytzGJ@tpnf;rsm; zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmif=uonfudkvnf;
awG@&ayonf? 1933 ckESpfavmufu om0wˆd+rdK@rS ‘om0wˆdpma&;q&mtoif;’ zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmifcJhonfudk awG@&zl;onf?
xdktoif;u ol&d,owif;pmY a=unm&mwGif pm=unfhwdkufwpfckwnfaxmif+yD; r*~Zif;wpfapmif xkwfa0&ef pkdif;jyif;vsuf
&dS=uonf[k zwfvdkuf&zl;ayonf? 1936 ckESpfwGif awmifwGif;}uD;+rdK@Y pmaytoif; zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmif=uonf? xdktoif;trnfudk
‘The Literary Society' [lI ay;xm;onf? xdktoif;u &Jowif;pm(19-7-36) wGif toif;. &nf&G,fcsufrsm;udk
a=unm&mY (1) jrefrmEkdifiHawmf vGwfvyfa&;ESifh Ak'<omoemawmfjrwf pnfyif jyef@yGm;a&;udk t"duxm;I pmaya&;om;xkwfa0&ef/
(2) jrefrmpmayudk wdk;wuf}uD;yGm;I txufwef;pm;odk@a&mufatmif wifajr‡muf&ef/
(3) jrefrmEkdifiHawmfbGm; &[ef;/ &Sifvltrsm; ynmA[kokw zGH@xGm;apEkdifaom pmaumif;/ ayaumif;rsm;udk
t*Fvdyfbmom/ [dENLbmom/ ouUËwfbmomwdk@rS jrefrmbmomodk@ jyefqdkxkwfa0&ef/
txufyg &nf&G,fcsuf (3) t& jrefrmEkdifiHawmf w0ef;vHk;&dS owif;pm/ pme,fZif;wdk@u jzpfap/ toif;tyif;rsm;ujzpfap/
jrefrmvlrsdK;rsm;twGuf tusKd; oufa&mufrnfh t*Fvdyfbmom/ [dENLbmom/ ouUËwfbmom pmtkyfpmwrf; rsm;udk
jrefrmjyefqdk&ef Ttoif;}uD;odk@ ydk@ay;ygu tcrJhbmomjyefay;rnfjzpfa=umif; ponf jzifh azmfjyxm;avonf?
pma&;q&mtoif;
trnfrsm;odk@yif
ajymif;vJvmcJhaomfvnf;
*syefacwfwGif
aemufqHk;ajymif;vJcJhonfh
‘jrefrmEdkifiHpma&;q&mtoif;’ [laom trnfonf 'kwd,urBmppf+yD;onfbuf jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&; &+yD;aemufydkif;txd
wnfwHhcJhayonf?
*syefacwf jrefrmEkdifiHpma&;q&mtoif;u pma&;q&mrsm; pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk; &Sdapzdk@ &nf&G,fcsufvnf;ygay&m
toif;om;rsm;udk ‘(u) (c)’ cGJI vufcHojzifh toif;om;aygif; 90 ausmf &dScJhonf? vufcH&ef oifhroifh pOf;pm;qJjzpfolaygif;rSm 20
cef@ &dSao;onf[k *syefacwfpma&;q&mtoif; tpnf;ta0;rSwfwrf;wpfae&mwGif awG@&onf? toif;0if (u) rSm pma&;jcif;jzifh
toufarG;0rf;ausmif;&Smol/ pma&;jcif;jzifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif; r&Smaomfvnf; pmtkyfpmwrf;a&;om;ol jzpfap&rnf? toif;0if
(c) rSm pmayta&;tom; 0goemygI vufoifa&;om;aeo jzpf&rnf[lI owfrSwfxm;avonf? ppftwGif;umvY
toif;om;aygif; 90 ausmf txd &dScJhonfqdkojzifh pma&;q&mtoif;. pnf;±Hk;a&;tiftm;onf rao;vS[k qdkEkdif&mayonf?
jrefrmowif;pmukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@ yxrqHk;jynfyc&D;
jrefrmowif;pmorkdif;wGif rSwfwrf;wif&rnfh ta=umif;wpf&yf *syefacwfY jzpfay:cJhavonf?
xdkta=umif;rSm
*syefjynf
wdkusKd+rdK@wGifusif;yaom
r[mta&S@tm&S
owif;pm
q&mtpnf;ta0;odk@
Armowif;pmudk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@wpfzGJ@ wufa&mufcJhonfh ta=umif; jzpfonf?
Todk@ jrefrmudk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@ wufa&mufcJhonfudk ‘urBmYowif;pm avmuwGif jrefrmowif;pmq&mwdk@
yxrqHk;yGJv,fwifhcJhjcif;yif jzpfonf’ [lI ‘avhvmolwpfOD;’ u 1964ck/ Zefe0g&Dvxkwf owif;pmwpfapmifwGif rSwfwrf;wif
cJhzl;onf?

58

xdktcgu
jrefrmowif;pmudk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@0ifwpfOD;jzpfonhf
OD;xGef;az
(xGef;ae@pOf)
uvnf;/
xdktpnf;ta0;ta=umif;ESifh *syefjynfta=umif; xifjrifcsuf rsm;udk vnf;aumif;/ t,f'DwmcsKyftjzpf aqmif&GufcJhonfh
*syefacwfxkwf Armhacwf owif;pmwGif ‘ta&S@odk@’ [laom acgif;pOfjzifh aqmif;yg;&Snf}uD; a&;om;cJhonf?
‘avhvmolwpfOD;’
a&;onfhtwkdif;
xdktcgu
jrefrmowif;pmq&mwdk@
urBmh
owif;pmavmuwGif
yxrqHk;yGJv,fwifhcJhjcif;yifjzpfonf?
tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf xdk,cifu urBmhowif;pmtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. nDvmcHrsm;/
tpnf;ta0;}uD;rsm;/ aqG;aEG;yGJ}uD;rsm;odk@ jrefrmowif;pmudk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@tjzpf wufa&mufEdkifcJhjcif; r&dSaoma=umifhyif
jzpfavonf?
'kwd,urBmppfrjzpfrDu OD;bvGif/ ocifEk polwdk@ acgif;aqmifaom w±kwf-jrefrm cspf=unfa&;udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@
w±kwfjynfodk@ oGm;a&mufcJhzl;onf?
xdktzGJ@wGif jrefrmowif;pmq&mrsm; yg0ifcJhzl;onf? xdktzGJ@onf w±kwfjynfodk@ 1940 ck/ 'DZifbmvwGif oGm;cJh=uonf?
w±kwfjynfodk@ roGm;rD 'DZifbm 21 &uf/ n 8 em&DwGif &efukef+rdK@ px&,f[dkw,fY w±kwfjynfoGm;udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@udk &efukef&dS
w±kwfowif;pmq&mrsm;u *k%fjyK{nfhcHcJh=uao;onf? xdk{nfhcHyGJodk@ 'D;'kwfOD;bcsKd/ OD;cifarmif(ol}uD;a*Zuf)/ OD;bvGif (+rdK@r)/
rpPwm*efumqif/ OD;xGef;ndK/ a':rrcif/ w±kwfava=umif;ukr`%Drefae*sm rpPwm0dkif;/ w±kwfaumifppf0efuav; rpPwm&SD/
rpPwmwDauqif;/ OD;ausmf/ OD;wifhaqG polwdk@ wufa&muf=uonf? TtzGJ@udk owif;pmq&mrsm;u w±kwfjynfoGm;
owif;pmq&mtzGJ@ [lI azmfjy=uaomfvnf; ‚if;wdk@onf urBmhowif;pmtzGJ@tpnf; nDvmcH (odk@) tpnf;ta0;}uD;odk@ oGm;=ujcif;
um; r[kwf/ cspf=unfrdwfquf/ oGm;cJhjcif;r#om jzpfonf?
*VKefOD;apmonfvnf; ol&d,owif;pm t,f'DwmcsKyfjzpfpOfu *syefjynfodk@ udk,fydkifp&dwjf zifh avhvmoltaeESifhom
oGm;a&mufcJhzl;onf? *syefacwfwGif apv$wfaom jrefrmowif;pmudk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@onfom jynfy wGif usif;yonfh
owif;pmtpnf;ta0;odk@ yxrqHk;t}udrftjzpf oGm;a&mufcGifh }uHKcJhjcif; jzpfavonf?
Tjrefrmowif;pm udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@onf *syefjynf/ wdkusKd+rdK@wGif usif;yaom r[mta&S@tm&Sowif;pmq&mrsm;
tpnf;a0;}uD;odk@ wufa&mufcJh=uayonf?
r[mta&S@tm&Sowif;pmq&mrsm; tpnf;ta0;}uD;udk 1943 ck/ Edk0ifbmv 17 &ufae@rS 19 &ufae@txd usif;yonf?
xdktpnf;ta0;odk@ jrefrmowif;pmq&mudk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf wkd;wufa&; owif;pm t,f'DwmcsKyfa[mif;
OD;xGef;oef;(uG,fvGef)ESifh
Armacwf
owif;pm
t,f'DwmcsKyf
OD;xGef;az
(xGef;ae@pOf)
wdk@
wufa&muf=uonf?jrefrmowif;pmq&mrsm;onf Ekd0ifbmv 1 &ufae@wGif &efukefrS av,mOfysHjzifh xGufcGm&m wdkusKd+rdK@odk@
Edk0ifbmv 13 &ufae@wGifrS a&muf=uonf?
tpnf;ta0;odk@ tm&S 6 EkdifiHrS owif;pmq&m 84 OD;wufa&muf=uonf?tpnf;ta0;udk Ekd0ifbmv 17 &ufae@ ae@vnf
1 em&D tcsdefwGif wdkusKd+rdK@ r[mta&S@tm&Scef;rY zGifhvSpf&m/ jrefrmhudk,fpm;vS,f OD;oef;xGef;rSm tpnf;ta0;.
'kwd,em,utjzpf wifajr‡mufjcif; cH&onf? tpnf;ta0;obmywd *syefowif;pm q&mtoif; OuUX wdkuDcsDwmemumu
obmywdrdef@cGef;ajym=um;&mwGif r[m ta&S@tm&SppfyGJ}uD;qifE$J&mY owif;pmq&mrsm;u rdrdwkd@qdkif&mwm0efudk xrf;&Guf&ef
ta&;}uD;a=umif;ESifh ajym=um;oGm;onf?
*syeftpdk;&
jyef=um;a&;XmeOuUX
tDcsDtmrmtl/
r[mta&S@tm&Sqdkif&m
0ef}uD;
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rdef@cGef;ajym=um;=uonf?
Edk0ifbmv 18 &ufae@ nDvmcHwGif jrefrmhudk,fpm;vS,f OD;oef;xGef;u e,fcsJ@orm;rsm;. zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fjcif;cH&aeqJjzpfaom
tdrfeD;csif;tdENd, owif;pmq&m rsm;ukd udk,fcsif;pmem*±k%moufa=umif;tqdkudk wifoGif;&m/ tqdkudk nDvmcHu
vufcHvkdufavonf?
xkdae@ tpnf;ta0;t+yD;wGif *syef0ef}uD;csKyfwdk*sKdu udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk ae@vnfpmjzifh {nfhcHonf?
aemufqHk;ae@ tpnf;ta0;wGif &efolt*FvdyfESifh tar&duefwdk@. t}uHtpnfrsm;udk acsr_ef;jcif;jzifh urBmh+idrf;csrf;a&;
wnfaqmuf&ef ta&S@tm&Swdkuf owif;pmq&mrsm;u }udK;yrf;rnf[laom a=unmpmwrf;ESifh
r[mta&S@tm&S
owif;pmtzGJ@wpfck zGJ@pnf;a&;tqdkrsm;udk qHk;jzwf+yD; nDvmcHudk ±kwfodrf;vdkuf avonf?
tpnf;ta0;+yD;v#if+yD;csif; yxrae@ tpnf;ta0;u a&G;cs,fvdkufaom r[m ta&S@tm&Sowif;pmq&mtzGJ@
'g±dkufwmvl}uD;rsm;. tpnf;ta0;udk usif;y&m tzGJ@csKyf OuUXtjzpf *syefowif;pmq&mtoif; OuUX wdkuDcsDwmemumudk
wifajr‡muf+yD;/ jrefrmudk,fpm;vS,f OD;oef;xGef;udkvnf; tzGJ@csKyf 'g±dkufwmvl}uD;tjzpf a&G;cs,fvdkuf=uonf?xdkae@ nydkif;wGif
wdkusKdowif;pmwdkufrsm;ESifh 'dkara=u;eef;Xmeu udk,fpm;vS,f rsm;udk *k%fjyK{nfhcH&m/ udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk,fpm;
jrefrmudk,fpm;vS,f OD;oef;xGef;u rdef@cGef;ajym=um;avonf?
jrefrmukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf *syefjynfwGif owif;pmvkyfief;rsm;udk vSnhfvnf avhvm+yD;aemuf Edk0ifbmvtwGif;
jrefrmjynfodk@ jyefvnf xGufcGmvm=u&m/ 'DZifbm 22 &ufwGif &efukefodk@ jyefvnfa&muf&dS=uavonf?
TonfrSm
*syefwdk@taeESifh
ol@vufatmufcHEkdifiHrsm;udk
pkpnf;+yD;
toHk;csjcif;
jzpfaomfvnf;
jrefrmowif;pmudk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@wpfzGJ@
jynfywGifusif;yaom
owif;pm
tpnf;ta0;wpfckodk@
yxrqHk;t}udrf
oGm;a&mufcGifh}uHKcJhonftaejzifhum; rSwfwrf;wif&rnfjzpfonf?,cktcgwGifum; jrefrmowif;pmq&mrsm;onf urBmtESH@
aygufa&mufae=u+yD?

59

owif;pmq&mtoif; oaE<
jrefrmjynfwGif owif;pmq&mtoif;udk 'kwd,urBmppf+yD;onfhaemufwGif pepfwus w&m;0ifzGJ@pnf;EkdifcJh=uayonf?
owif;pmq&mtoif;udk
pepfwus
rzGJ@pnf;Ekdifao;rDurl
wkdif;jynfEdkifiHa&;ESifh
ywfoufIvnf;aumif;/
owif;pmvGwfvyfcGifhESifh ywfoufIvnf;aumif;/ ta&;qdk wdkufyGJ0ifp&m&dSv#if trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;onf tcgtm;avsmfpGm
pnf;a0;wdkifyif aqG;aEG;+yD; aqmif&Gupf &m&dSonfwdk@udk aqmif&GufcJh=uavonf?
Oyrm-jrefrmjynftkyfcsKyfa&;ESifhywfoufI
uef@uGufonfh
a=unmcsufrsm;udk
trsKd;om;owif;pmq&mrsm;u
pnf;a0;qHk;jzwf+yD; xkwfjyefa=unmjcif;rsm; jyKvkyfcJh=uonf? jrefrmjynfowif;pmq&mrsm;toif; pepfwus wnfaxmif zGJ@pnf;Ekdif
a&;twGuf oaE<wnftpysKd;aejcif;onf xdktcgavmufqDu trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm; . v_yf&Sm;r_yif jzpfayvdrfhrnf?
1936
ckESpfu
91
XmetkyfcsKyfa&;udk
uef@uu
G fwdkufckduf&ef
trsKd;om;owif;pm
q&mrsm;u
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmwdkufwGif tpnf;ta0; jyKvkyf=uonf? xdktpnf;ta0;rS qHk;jzwfcsuft& owif;pmq&mrsm;
tr_aqmiftzGJ@u wdkif;jynfodk@ yef=um;v$mrsm; xkwfcJh=uonf? xdkv_yf&Sm;r_ESifh ywfoufI q&m}uD;r[maqGu ‘r[maqG’
pmtkyfwGif ‘Todk@ jrefrmtvif;owif;pmwdkufwGif usif;yaom owif;pmq&mrsm;. tpnf;ta0;ESifh owif;pmq&mrsm;
tr_aqmiftzGJ@udkom zGJ@pnf;EdkifcJhjcif;rSm jrefrmEdkifiHvGwfvyf+yD;acwfY ay:aygufvmaom bDa*satac: owif;pmq&mtoif; udk
rsKd;aphcsay;cJhjcif;yif jzpfonf[k qdkygu rSm;vdrfhrnfrxifay’ [lI a&;cJhayao; onf?
xdk@xufapmonfh owif;pmq&mrsm;tzGJ@tpnf;taeESifh v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udkvnf; awG@&ao;onf? 1919 ckESpfwGif
jrefrmowif;pmt,f'Dwm q&moif towfcH&r_ESihf ywfoufI w&m;cHay:aygufa&;twGuf owif;pmq&mrsm; toif;zGJ@pnf;+yD;
aqmif&GufcJh=uonf[k od&onf? xdktoif;udk 1924 ckESpf apmapmydkif;wGif zGJ@pnf; aqmif&GufcJh=uonf? 10-8-24 ae@xkwf
0HomEkowif;pmacgif;}uD;ydkif;wGif ‘ tqdkyg t,f'Dwm armifykuav;onf ynmtvif;owif;pmrS xGufoGm;+yD;v#if tjcm;
owif;pmwdkufY 0ifvkyfaomtcg jrefrmt,f'Dwmtoif;[lI ay:aygufvmojzifh’ a&;om;xm;onfudk awG@&ayonf?
Towif;pmtoif; wnfaxmifcJhjcif;ESifh ywfoufI AE<KvOD;pdefu 17-1-63 ae@xkwf vkyfom;jynfolae@pOfowif;pmwGif
a&;om;aom aqmif;yg;Y ‘ed*Hk;csKyfvdkwmu 1923-24 ckESpfusawmh ol&d,/ jrefrmh tvif;/ AE<Kv/ 'D;'kwf/ =u,fwHcGef/ vpfbmwD
pwJh pme,fZif;wdkufrsm;u t,f'DwmawG[m owif;pmq&m toif;udk pwifzGJ@pnf;+yD; q&moif owfr_ vufonfw&m;cHudk
rdatmifzrf;zdk@ r=umc% v_H@aqmf=uyga&m’ [lI a&;om;=uavonf?
xdk@aemuf 1929 ckESpfrwdkifrDuvnf; yHkESdyfwdkufydkif&Sifrsm;ESifh owif;pmq&mrsm; toif; wpfoif;zGJ@pnf;&ef
}udK;yrf;=uao;onfudkvnf; awG@&ayonf? Todk@ }udK;yrf;=uonfhta=umif;udk avmuom&r*~Zif;wGif awG@&ayonf? xdkr*~Zif;rSm
xkwfa0onfhckESpf/ &ufpGJrygawmhI rnfonfhESpfu xkwfa0onf[lI rod&aomfvnf; 1929 ckESpfrwdkifrDu xkwfa0onfh
r*~Zif;jzpfonfudkum; cef@rSef;Edkifayonf/ tb,fa=umifhqkdaomf }udK;yrf;tm;xkwf=uolrsm;wGif OD;wkwf}uD; (ol&d,)
yg0ifaeaoma=umifh jzpfayonf? OD;wkwf}uD;rSm 1929 ckESpfwGif armfv+rdKifrSaeI auo&owif;pm udk pwifxkwfa0ae+yDjzpfayonf?
1931ck/ arvxJwGif OD;wkwf}uD; uG,fvGefavonf?
tqdkygtoif; wnfaxmif&ef }udK;yrf;tm;xkwf=uonfh owif;udk azmfjycJhonfh avmuom&r*¾Zif;wGif ‘pmyHkESdyfwdkufykdif&Sifrsm;ESifh owif;pmq&mrsm; tpnf;ta0;ta=umif; pmyHkESdyfwdkufydkif&Sifrsm;ESifh owif;pmq&mrsm;.
tpnf;ta0;udk ,ck atmufwdkbm 17 &uf/ we*FaEGae@ nae 3em&DtcsdefwGif &efuke+f rdK@ ql;avbk&m;vrf; bm;rm;&Dazmif;vd
toif;wkdufY jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm wdkuftkyfOD;pdef;udk cs,f,mrifwifajr‡mufI usif;yjyKvkyfavonf? xdktcg
jrefrmh,leD,efowif;pmwdkuf/ jrefrmhjynfapmifh owif;pmwdkuf/ jrefrmhusufoa&pmyHkESdyfwkduf/ ynmhtvif;owif;pmwdkuf/
jrefrmhtvif; owif;pmwdkuf/ atmhAZm;bm;owif;pmwdkuf/ e,l;bm;rm;owif;pm wdkuf/ ol&d, owif;pmwdkuf/ wDbDtufpf
pmyHkESdyfwdkuf/ jrefrmh0efxrf;owif;pmwdkuf/ armf'efbm;rm;owif;pmwdkuf/ avmuom&owif;pmwdkuf toD;oD;wdk@.
wdkuftkyfrif;ESifh t,f'Dwmrsm; ºuGa&muf=ua=umif;//
qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;rSm(1) ‘jrefrmvlrsKd; pmyHkESdyfwdkufrsm;\toif;’ [lI zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmif&ef qHk;jzwf=uavonf/ (2) qyfaumfrwDwpfck
zGJ@pnf;&ef/ ‚if;qyfaumfrwDwGif OD;om'if (jrefrm,leD,rf) cs,f,mrif/ OD;wkwf}uD; (ol&d,) puU&Daw&D/ ‚if;tjyif tjcm;
aumfrwDvl}uD;rsm;rSm OD;bv_dif (e,l;bm;rm;)/ OD;pdef; (jrefrmhtvif;)/ udkcifarmif (atmhbZm;bm;) yg0if &ef qHk;jzwf=uavonf?
(3) ‚if;qyfaumfrwDu xifjrif&&dSaom toif;. pnf;urf;Oya'=urf;udk a&S@Edk0ifbmv 22&uf we*FaEGae@Y
jyKvkyfrnfhtpnf;ta0;wGif wifoGif;&ef qHk;jzwf+yD; tpnf;ta0;udk ±kwfodrf;vdkufavonf[lI owif;ay; azmfjyxm;onfudk
awG@&avonf? Ttoif;zGJ@pnf;jzpfonf/ rjzpfonf/ toif;zGJ@pnf;v#ifvnf; rnfr# wm&SnfcJhonfum; rod&ay?
rnfodk@yifjzpfap/ Todk@v#if owif;pmrsm;u tcgtm;avsmfpGm pka0;pnf;a0;=ujcif; ‘owif;pmq&mtzGJ@’ t,f'DwmtzGJ@
ponfjzifh trnfwyfum wdkif;jynfEkdifiHa&;ESifh ywfoufI a=unmcsurf sm;xkwfjcif;/ jynfolESifh twl yg0if v_yf&Sm;jcif;rsm;onf
'kwd,urBmppft+yD;wGif pepfwuszGJ@pnf;aom jrefrmowif;pm q&mrsm;toif; ay:aygufvma&;twGuf oaE<wnf
tpysKd;v_yf&Sm;cJhjcif;yif jzpfonf[k qdk&rnf?

60

owif;pmq&mtoif; arG;zGm;jcif;
jrefrmEkdifiH owif;pmq&mtoif;rSm 1946 ck/ azazmf0g&Dv 25 &ufae@wGif arG;zGm;vmayonf? aemufydkif;wGif
txufjrefrmjynfowif;pmq&mtoif;
jrefrmEkdifiH
toif;axmuftoif;/
jrefrmEkdifiH*sme,fr*~Zif;toif;/
jrefrmEkdifiHowif;pmvkyfief; qdkif&m tvkyform;rsm;tzGJ@csKyf/ pme,fZif;aumifpDponfjzifh owif;pmqdkif&m tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;
tqifhqifh zGJ@pnf;cJh=uavonf?
'kwd,urBmppf+yD;pwGif owif;pmpuUL &Sm;yg;r_/ yHkESdyfpufvnf&ef v#yfppf "gwftm; cufcJr_/ EkdifiHjcm;a=u;eef;owif;rsm;
aps;E_ef;}uD;jrifhr_ponfh tcuftcJrsm;ESifh &ifqdkifae=u&aoma=umifh xdktcuftcJrsm; ajyvnfap&ef
tm%mydkifrsm;ESifh
aqG;aEG;ta&;qdkI 1945 ck/ atmufwdkbmv 27 &uf/ paeae@wGif ol&d,owif; pmwdkufY tpnf;ta0;wpf&yf usif;y=uonf?
xdktpnf;ta0;odk@ ol&d,/ jrefrmhtvif;/ oHawmfqifh/ Armhacwf/ e,l;&efukef naeowif;pmopf/ e,l;csKdif;em;ydk@/
bpfpeufpfrif;/ &mpDum&ef *smeD/ ±dkufwma=u;eef;owif;XmerS udk,fpm;vS,frsm; wufa&muf=uonf? tpnf;ta0;wGif
obmywdtjzpf uG,fvGefol ol&d,owif;pm wdkuftkyfOD;buav;u vnf;aumif;/ tcrf;tem;rSL;tjzpfOD;boef; (,lyDtdkif)
uvnf;aumif; aqmif&Guf=uonf?
xdktpnf;ta0;u wdkif;jynfwGif jzpfay:aeaom tcuftcJrsm;a=umifh EkdifiHjcm; a=u;eef;owif;rsm;udk
aps;E_ef;}uD;jrifhpGmay;I toHk;rjyKEkdifojzifh toufomqHk;aom aps;E_ef;ESifh ±dkufwma=u;eef;owif;rsm;&&dSatmif aqmif&Gufay;&ef
+Adwdo#tpdk;&xH
tultnDawmif;&efESifh
owif;pmwdkuftoD;oD;wGif
yHkESdyfpuf
vSnhfvnfEkdifzdk@
v#yfppf
"gwftm;qufoG,fay;&efwdk@udk qHk;jzwf=uonf?
xdk@aemuf 1945ck/ atmufwdkbmv 31&uf/ Ak'<[l;aeYwGif 'kwd,t}udrf tpnf;ta0;usif;yjyef&m ol&d,/ jrefrmhtvif;/
oHawmfqifh/ e,l;&efukef nae owif;pm/ e,l;csKdif;em;ydk@/ vGwfvyfa&;/ vrf;n$efef/ bpfpeufpfrif;/ &mpDum&ef*smeD/ bmvm;bm;rm;/
y&mcsDy&muwf/ ArmhacwfESifh zdk&rf;em;owif;pmwdkufrsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,frsm; wufa&muf=uonf?
xdktpnf;ta0;wGif OuUXtjzpf OD;buav;(ol&d,)u aqmif&GufI twGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf OD;boef;(,lyDtdkif)u
aqmif&Guf+yD; OD;oef;wifh (jrefrmhtvif;)/ rpPwmtufpfyDav; (&mpDum&ef*smeD)/ rpPwmtdufbmvf (±dkufwm)ESifh e,l;&efukef
naeowif;pmrS udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifaom tzGJ@zGJ@pnf;+yD; xdkaumfrwDudk ±dkufwm owif;udpP/ owif;pmpuULudpPESifh
v#yfppf"gwftm;&&dSa&;wdk@twGuf tm%mydkifrsm; ESifh awG@qHk&ef wm0efay;onf?
xdk@jyif OD;buav; (ol&d,) u OuUXtjzpf aqmif&GufI OD;odrf;armif (oHawmfqifh)/ OD;bdk;csdrf(ol&d,)/ OD;oef;wifh
(jrefrmhtvif;)/ OD;xGef;az (Armhacwf)/ OD;cifarmif (vGwfvyfa&;)/ rpPwmrefeD(&mpDum&ef*smeD)/ rpPwmpD*GrfcsKdif (bpfpeufpfrif;)/
rpPwmwdwftrf;(e,l;&efukefnaeowif;pm) wdk@ yg0ifaom aumfrwDwpf&yfzGJ@+yD; xdkaumfrwDudk owif;pm odk@r[kwf
owif;pmq&mtoif; wpfoif; zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmif&efESifh toif;pnf;rsOf; t=urf;a&;qGJ&ef wm0efay;onf? xdkaumfrwDwGif
twGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf OD;boef; (,lyDtdkif) u aqmif&Gufonf?
xdkaumfrwDu toif;pnf;rsOf;t=urf;a&;qGJ+yD;aemuf 1946 ck/ azmfazmf0g&Dv 25 &uf/ wevFmae@wGif &efukef+rdK@
za&Zmvrf;&dS ol&d,owif;pmwdkufY tpnf;ta0;usif;y&m owif;pmq&m 61 OD; wufa&muf+yD;/ xdktpnf;ta0;u uG,fvGefol
OD;buav; (ol&d,) tm; OuUXtjzpfvnf;aumif;/ OD;boef;(,lyDtdkif) tm; twGif;a&;rSL;tjzpfvnf;aumif; wifajr‡mufv#uf
jrefrmjynfwGif
yxrqHk;
‘jrefrmEdkifiHowif;pmq&mtoif;’
udk
zGJ@pnf;vdkufavonf?
toif;wnf&mXmeudk
ol&d,owif;pmwdkufwGif ,m,DzGifhvSpfcJhavonf?
r=umrD toif;wdkufudk r*dkvrf; 201 &dS toif;0ifwpfOD;jzpfol rpPwmcsmwm*sD. tvkyfwdkufodk@
a&$@ajymif;zGifhvSpfxm;avonf? 1947 ck ESpfOD;wGif tpdk;&jynfol@ qufqHa&;Xme. cGifhjyKcsuft& tpdk;&uay;onfh
toif;wdkuftaqmuftODodk@ ajymif;a&$@cJh=uavonf?
toif;wdkufajymif;a&$@+yD; r=umrD jrefrmjynfowif;axmuftoif;ESifh jrefrmjynf pma&;q&mtoif;rsm;vnf;
owif;pmq&mtoif;ESifhtwl yl;aygif;zGifhvSpf=uav onf?
owif;pmq&mtoif; wnfaxmif+yD;aemufwGif tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;u owif;pmq&muGefz&ifh (Press
Conference) rsm; pDpOfusif;yvmonf? aemuf wGif owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJ ac:a0:=u+yD; tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;omru
vlxktzGJ@tpnf; rsm;uvnf; owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJrsm; jyKvkyf=uonf? tcsKd@yk*~dKvfa&;qdkif&m &Sif;vif;yGJ rsm;vnf; jyKvkyfvm=uonf?
awmfvSefa&;tpdk;&wufvmonfhaemuf 1962 ckESpf/ {+yDv 17 &uf ae@wGif usif;yaom jrefrmEkdifiHowif;pmq&mtoif;.
16 }udrfajrmuf ESpfywfvnf tpnf;ta0;wGif ‘jrefrmEkdifiH pme,fZif;aumifpD’ udk pwifzGJ@pnf;cJhavonf?
tqdkyg nDvmcHu jrefrmEkdifiHowif;pmq&mtoif;rS OD;tkef;cif/ OD;pdef0if;/ OD;xGef;az/ OD;tkef;jrifh/ OD;,karmif/ OD;baz/
OD;cifarmif&D/ OD;vS=unf/ txufjrefrmEkdifiH owif;pmq&mtoif;rS OD;omxGef;/ *sme,fr*~Zif;rsm;rS OD;baomf/ OD;ausmf/ OD;at;armif/
OD;ausm±dk;ESifh OD;udkudkav;wdk@ yg0ifaom pme,fZif;aumifpDOD;pD;tzGJ@udk zGJ@pnf;cJhonf?
pme,fZif;aumifpDtzGJ@0ifrsm;tjzpf owif;pmwdkufrsm;rS 29 OD;/ tywfpOf pmapmifrsm;rS 4 OD;ESifh *sme,fr*~Zif;rsm;rS 14 OD;
pkpkaygif; (47) OD; yg0ifonf?
pme,fZif;aumifpDonf usifh0wfrnDaom owif;a&;om;r_rsm;ESifh ywfoufI vnf;aumif;/ owif;pmq&mrsm;tm;
tzrf;tqD;udpPrsm;ESifh ywfoufIvnf;aumif;/ owif;pmwdkufrsm;twGuf vdktyfaom puUL/ yHkESdyfypPnf;ud&d,mrsm;&&dSa&;ESifh
ywfoufIvnf;aumif;/ tm%mydkifrsm;ESifh aqG;aEG;nd‡E_dif;um aqmif&Gufay;cJhav onf?

61

jrefrmEkdifiHowif;pmq&mtoif;u xkwfa0onfh 1963 ckEpS f/ Edk0ifbmvxkwf ‘owif;pm’ pmapmif. azmfjycsuft&
jrefrmjynfwGif owif;pmt,f'Dwm/ owif; axmuf/ pmjyifq&mponfh owif;pm wnf;jzwfr_vkyfief;jzifh toufarG;ol 1000
ausmf &dS+yD; &efukefwpf+rdK@wnf;rSmyif oHk;&mausmfav;&mcef@ &dSonf[k od&dS&avonf?
yxrowif;pmq&mtoif;0ifrsm;
jrefrmEkdifiH owif;pmq&mtoif;udk 'kwd,urBmppft+yD; 1946 ckESpf/ rwfvwGif pepfwus zGJ@pnf;cJhavonf?
xdktoif;wGif {+yDvqef;txd toif;om;aygif; 73 a,muf&dSonf[k owif;pmrsm;yg rSwfwrf;rsm;t& od&Sd&ayonf?
toif;wGif jrefrmowif;pm/ t*Fvdyfowif;pm/ ukvm;owif;pm/ w±kwfowif;pmrsm;rSm yk*~dKvfrsm;ESifh toHv$ifhXmerS
yk*~dKvfrsm;vnf; yg0ifayonf? 1946 ckESpf/ {+yDv 7 &uf/ we*FaEGae@wGif owif;pmq&mtoif;0ifrsm; wpfpk wpfa0;xJ
tkyfpk"gwfyHk±dkuf=uonf? "gwfyHk±dkufonfhtcg toif;0ifaygif; 73 a,muf &Sdonfhteuf 52 a,muf vma&muf"gwfyHkt±dkufcH=uonf?
21 a,mufrSm xdkae@u ta=umif;rnDnGwfI "gwfyHk±dkuf&ef rvma&mufEkdif=uay?
21 a,mufrSm "gwfyHk±dkuf&ef rvmEkdifI rnfonfhowif;pmrS owif;pmvkyfom; rnfolawGrSef; rod&aomfvnf;
"gwfyHkt±dkufcH=uonfh 52 a,mufudkrl od&ayonf? xdk"gwfyHkrSm owif;pmq&mtoif; zGJ@pnf;+yD;aemuf yxrqHk;±dkuful;aom"gwfyHk
jzpf&ef &dSygonf? xdk"gwfyHkrSm jrefrmEkdifiHowif;pmq&mtoif;twGuf rSwfwrf;0if"gwfykH uav; jzpfaeayonf?
xdk@a=umifh xdk"gwfyHkyg yk*~dKvfrsm;.trnfESifh pme,fZif;rsm;onfvnf; rSwfwrf; wifxm;oifhaoma=umifh toif;0if 52
a,muf. trnfESifh pme,fZif; trnfrsm;udk azmfjyygrnf? ,ckwifjyonfhtrnfrsm;rSm "gwfyHk±dkuf&mwGif tpDtpOftwkdif;
xdkifvsuf/ rwfwyf&yfvsuf "gwfyHkt±dkufcH=uonfh yk*~dKvfrsm; jzpfygonf? xdktrnfrsm;udk =unfhjcif;jzifh owif;pmq&mtoif;wGif
rnfonfh owif;pm/ *sme,f/ (jrefrm/ t*Fvdyf/ w±kwf/ ukvm;) rsm; yg0ifonfudkvnf; odEkdifayonf?
toif;0if 52a,muf. trnfrsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf?
a':cifpD bm;rm;'dkif*suf/ OD;wifarmif e,l;bm;rm;/ rpPwmp_kbif e,l;&efukefnaeowif;pm/ OD;boef;
(toif;twGif;a&;rSL;) ol&d,/ OD;odef; armif(oHawmfqifh)/ OD;buav; (toif;OuUX) ol&d,/ OD;wifxGËf (vef'efwdkif;)/
rpPwmcsmbmcsD,lbD/ OD;tkef;cif (Armhacwf)/ rpPwmyGef;eD,m;yD;av; &mpDum&ef*smeD/ rpPpfatvmrlum*sD &efukef&DAsL;?
OD;uGef;jynfol@tm%m/ rpPwm&SyfvsL; &efukefnaeowif;pm/ rpPwm,ef; &efukefnaeowif;pm/ OD;vSarmif oHawmfqifh/
OD;baomif; [Hom0wD/ OD;csefxGef; toHv$ifhXme/ OD;ykuav; acwfopf/ OD;udkudkav; Armhacwf/ rpPwmqGmrd yl&wfcsD/ rpPwm
Aifuwm&rf bmvmAm;rm;/ OD;wifhaqG bm;rif;/ OD;,karmif pD;yGm;a&;/ uspfzl; &efukefnae/ &$D;e,l;csKdif;em;/ pGD*Grf &efukefnae/ OD;pdef
ol&d,/ OD;boef; [Hom0wD/ trfbdk;csdef ol&d,/ *GrfcsKdif bm;rif;/ OD;odef; Z0e*sme,f/ r[mruftDb&m[if qefoD/ OD;ausmfpdk;
bm;rm;'dkif*suf?
OD;wifarmif}uD; qdk&S,fvpf/ udkwD,m; tD&m0wD/ Edkuf'l;bmvmAm;rm;/ tDvD[m;tef'&mab&D/ rlol &efukef&DAsL;/ wmum
y&mcsDy&muwf/ OD;t&m}uD; ol&d,/ plb&mEkduf'l; yl&wfcsD/ OD;bwif wdk;wufa&;/ OD;udkudk}uD; umwGef;/ OD;atmifjrif pD;yGm;a&;/
ulrm&mqGmrd qefoD/ OD;wifhaqG [Hom0wD/ OD;atmifodef; oHawmfqifh/ &wfoeefyl&wfcsD/ OD;nDnD umwGef;/ yDacs;/ pl'ef'&m tdENd,/
tvD ydkif*ef/ OD;atmifxl; ol&d,?
TonfrSm jrefrmEkdifiH owif;pmq&mtoif;zGJ@pu toif;0if wpfcsKd@wpf0ufESifh owif;pmq&mtoif;wGif yg0if=uonfh
pme,fZif;rsm;udk rSwfwrf;wifazmfjyjcif; jzpfayonf/ useftoif;0ifrsm;udk od&dSolrsm;u azmfxkwf=uzdk@ wdkufwGef;ygonf?
Todk@ wdkufwGef;&onfrSm ta=umif;&dSygonf?
jrefrmEkdifiHowif;pmorkdif;wpfav#mufvHk;Y
trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;onf
rdrdowif;pm
vGwfvyfcGifhomru
trsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;/ wdkif; jynfvGwfvyfa&; twGufvnf; wdki_fyGJ0ifqifE$J=uonf? odk@aomfvnf; xdkowif;pmvkyfom;rsm;.
trnfrSm ay:vGifonf[lI r&dSyg? wpfwyfwpftm; yg0ifqifE$J=uonfum; trSefjzpfaomfvnf; owif;pmvkyfom;rsm;onf
&Gufykef;oD;yrmom &dSygonf? ‚if;wdk@ onf pma&;q&mrsm;ESifh rwlyg/ pma&;q&mrsm;rSm olwdk@pmwpfyk'fvkyfv#if pmwpfyk'fESifh twl
emrnfazmf jyjcif;cH&ojzifh vlodrsm;ygonf? owif;pmvkyfom;rsm; rSmrl owif;pmwpfapmif xGufay:vma&;twGuf wpfaeukef
tyifyef;cHum vkyf=u& aomfvnf; emrnfESifhwuG azmfjyjcif;cH&onf r[kwfaoma=umifh owif;pmq&mrsm; (odk@)
owif;pmvkyfom;rsm;udk vlodenf;vSayonf?
owif;pmorkdif;wpfav#mufY
owif;pmvkyfom;rsm;rSm
Todk@om
jzpfayonf?
xdk@a=umifh
owif;pmvkyfom;rsm;tzGJ@tpnf;ESifh pepfwus aqmif&Guf=u&mwGif xdktoif;Y yxrqHk; yg0ifolrsm;udk *k%fjyKaomtm;jzifh
emrnfrsm;ESihfwuG pme,fZif; trnfrsm;udk azmfjyvkdufjcif; jzpfayonf?
owif;axmuftoif;rsKd;aph
jrefrmjynfowif;pmorkdif;wGif owif;pmq&mtoif; zGJ@pnf;+yD; vGwfvyfcGifh wdkufyGJrsm;/ v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; jyKvkyfouJhodk@
owif;axmuftoif; zGJ@pnf;Ivnf; wdkufyGJ0ifv_yf&Sm;r_rsm; jyKvkyfcJh=uonfudk awG@&avonf?
owif;pmq&mrsm;/ owif;axmufrsm;ESifh pma&;q&mrsm;onf pmay vkyfom;rsm; jzpfI b0wlrsm;jzpf=uonfhtwdkif;
vGwfvyfcGifhwdkufyGJrsm; qifE$J&mwGif wpfaoG;wnf;wpfom;wnf; &dScJh=uavonf?

62

Todk@ wpfaoG;wnf;wpfom;wnf; &dS=uonfrSmvnf; 'kwd, urBmppft+yD;wGif ydkI xif&Sm;avonf? ppf+yD;acwfwGif
xdktoif; 3 oif;onf taqmuftODwpfckxJY twl&dScJh=uonf? toif; 3 oif;pvHk; pepfwus zGJ@pnf;rd=uonf? owif;pm
vGwfvyfcGifhwdkufyGJ ay:vmonfh tcgwGif yl;aygif;vufwGJI aqmif&Guf=uonf?
'kwd,urBmppfrwdkifrDurl owif;pmq&mtoif;udkvnf; pepfwus rzGJ@Ekdif/ e,fcsJ@tpkd;&ESifh &ifqdkifp&m&dSonfhtcgwdkif;
awG@qHkaqG;aEG;pnf;a0;=u+yD; aqmif&Gu p&m &dSonfrsm;udk aqmif&GufcJh=u&onf? pma&;q&mrsm; qdkv#ifvnf; pma&;q&m toif;
pepfwus zGJ@pnf;Ekdifzdk@ }udK;yrf;tm; xkwfcJh=uonfom awG@&onf? owif;axmufrsm;onfvnf; xdkenf;‚if;yif/ toif;wpfoif;udk
pepfwuszGJ@pnf;Ekdifzdk@ }udK;pm;cJhonfom jzpfonf? xdktcgu pnf;±Hk;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;onf 'kwd, urBmppf+yD;onfhtcg pepfwusESifh
ckdifrmawmifhwif;onfhtoif;}uD; jzpfay:vm&ef twGuf rsKd;aph[lI qdk&ayrnf?
xdkodk@&dS&mY
owif;axmufrsm;onf
e,fcsJ@tpkd;&atmufwGif
rnfonfhtcg
avmufupI
pnf;±Hk;v_yf&Sm;cJh=uavoenf;qdkonfudk avhvm=unfh&m ,cktxd tapmqHk; awG@&onfum; 1932 ckEpS favmufu oJvGefpwpfckudk
awG@&ayonf?
xkdta=umif;rSm jrefrmjynf Oya'jyKv$wfawmftpnf;ta0;rsm;wGif owif; ,l&aom owif;axmufrsm;.
pnf;±Hk;r_uav;yif jzpfavonf? Oya'jyKv$wfawmfY owif;,l=uonfh (xdktcgu tac:) owif;pm udk,fpm;vS,frsm;rSm 8
a,muf&dSonf? ‚if;wdk@rSm rpPwmtufpfcsufwm*sD (tufqdkqDa,;wufa=u;eef;)/ rpPwmqD;Am; (tdyfufpfcsdef;a*Zuf)/
OD;armifarmifcif (jrefrmhtvif;)/ OD;pdef (v$wf±Hk;)/ OD;xGef;az (ol&d,)/ rpPwma&mif; (a';vD;e,l;pf)/ rpPwmuGm;'&wf(&efukefa*Zuf)
ESifh rpPwm *sDpDtyf (&efukefwkdif;) wdk@ jzpf=uonf?
1932 ck/ rwfv (2) &ufxkwf ol&d,owif;pmyg owif;t& Towif;axmufrsm;onf OuUXESifh
twGif;a&;rSL;wifajr‡mufI pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk; cspfcspfcifcif &dScJh=uonf[k od&onf? ol&d,u ‘xdkowif;pm udk,fpm;vS,frsm;onf
bmomtav#muf vma&mufa&;,loGm;aom olrsm;omr[kwf? ‚if;wdk@wGif *k%0kÊdk0&0kÊdk udkvdkufI OuUXtusKd;aqmifrsm;
cef@ay;jcif; tcsif;csif; ulnD aqmif&GufcJh=u&m ,ck ‘'dkiftmcD’ . oufwrf;aphcgeD;onfhwdkifatmif tcsif;csif; txifvGJonf[k
r&dScJhzl;a=umif;’ [lI a&;om;rSwfwrf;wifcJhavonf?
xdkowif;wGif OuUXrnfol/ twGif;a&;rSL; rnfol[lI rawG@&aomfvnf; OuUXESifhtwGif;a&;rSL;ESifh pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk;
&dSonfudkum; od&ojzifh tzdk;wefaom rSwfwrf;wpfck[kyif qdk&ayrnf? xdkolrsm;wGifrsm;aomtm;jzifh 9 ESpfvHk;vHk; Oya'jyK
v$wfawmf owif;rsm;udk a&;om;vmolrsm;ygonf[kvnf; od&onf?
xdk 9 ESpfumvwGif Oya'jyKOuUX (1) qmruUmao;/ (2) qma&mh bwf*sKdif;/ (3) qmtdk'D*vifADESifh OD;ykwdk@ 4 qufwkdif
aqmif&GufoGm;&I ‘owif;pmudk,fpm;vS,f’ tjypfwpfpHkwpf&m r&dS=u[kvnf; od&onf?
ol&d,u owif;ay;azmfjyaomae@wGif 'dkiftmcDoufwrf;ukefqHk;rnfhae@ jzpfonf[k qdkonf? xdk@a=umifh v$wfawmfwGif
owif;,l=uaom owif;axmuf 8 OD; onf v$wfawmfowif;,lonfhtcef;Y wpfpkwpfa0;wnf; "gwfyHk±dkuf=uonf? xdk"gwfyHkudk
'dkiftmcD oufwrf;ukefqHk;rnfhae@ txdrf;trSwftjzpf owif;pmrsm;wGif azmfjy=uonf? ol&d,url xdk"gwfyHkxdyfuacgif;pD;wGif
‘Oya'jyK v$wfawmfowif; udk,fpm;vS,frsm;’ ‘jynfoljynfom;wdk@. rdwfaqGrsm;’ [lI azmfjyavonf?
xdkowif;pm
"gwfyHk.atmufwGif
‘aemifjrefrmjynfwGif
jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;
tkyfcsKyfa&;topf&I
v$wfawmftopfxlaxmif=u&onfhtcg xdkowif;pm udk,fpm;vS,frsm;yif ,ck&&dSxm;aom tcGifhta&;xuf ydkrdkydkifqdkifvsuf
qufvuf aqmif&GufEkdif=uvdrfhrnf[k ar#mfvifh&aya=umif;’ [lI ol&d,u aemufwufvmrnfh v$wfawmfopfu
owif;axmufrsm;. tcGifhta&;udk rxdyg;apa&;twGuf wdkufwGef; a&;om;xm;avonf?
,ckazmfjyonfh v$wfawmfowif;axmuf 8 a,muf. pnf;vHk; cspf=unfa&; onf owif;axmuftoif;\
rsKd;aphwpfaph[lI qdk&ayrnf?
owif;axmufrsm;. us,fjyef@vmaom pnf;±Hk;a&;
1933 ck/ rwfv 11 &ufae@ naewGif &efukef 36 vrf;&dS ±dkrefepf [dkw,fY jrefrmjynfOya'jyKv$wfawmfwGif
owif;,l=uaom owif;axmufrsm;. npmpm;yGJ usif;y=uonf?
xdknpmpm;yGJodk@ &efukef-a*Zuf owif;pmrS rpPwmuGm'&wf/ ol}uD; a*Zuf t,f'Dwm OD;cifarmif/ ol&d,owif;pmrS
OD;xGef;az/ &efukefwdkif; owif;pmrS rpPwmtuf'f/ OD;pdef/ OD;cifarmif/ tufqdkqDa,;wuf a=u;eef;owif;pmudk,fpm;vS,f rpPwm
tufpfcsufwm*sD/ rpPwmqDAmqefw&ef/ &efuek fa*Zufowif;pmrS rpPwm vifuufpwif;/ rpPwmvlyuf/ jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmrS
OD;armifarmifcif/ OD;vSxGef;jzL/ &efukefa';vD;e,l;pfowif;pmrS rpPwm'ef;pfzdk@/ z&D;y&ufpfa=u;eef;owif; udk,fpm; vS,f
rpPwmtufpfESifh ol&d,owif;pm "gwfyHkowif;axmuf OD;uH}uD;wdk@ wuf a&muf=uonf?
rwfv 14 &ufae@xkwf ol&d,owif;pmyg npmpm;yGJ owif;t& Oya'jyK v$wfawmfowif;axmufrsm;.
‘toif;uav;’ wGif OuUXrSm rpPwm uGm'&wfjzpfI twGif;a&;rSL;rSm rpPwmqDAmqefw&ef jzpfonf[k od&ayonf?
npmpm;yGJwGif OuUX rpPwmuGm'&wfu ‚if;rSm jrefrmjynfwGifaeoljzpfI ‚if;onfvnf; jrefrmyifjzpfonf[lI
ajym=um;+yD; ‘wdk@wdkif; jynf’ [laomtqdkudk wifonf?
ol&d,OD;xGef;azu rpPwmuGm'&wf. tqdkudkaxmufcH+yD; ‘t,ltqcsif; rwlaom owif;pmwdkufrsm;.
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;/ vlrsKd;csif;rwlaom udk,fpm;vS,f rsm; tcsif;csif; aygif;oif;=u&m/ vlrsKd;cGJjcm;aom pdwf&dSovm;/ r&dSaybl;/

63

vlenf;pk. tcGifhta&;[lI &Sdovm;/ r&Sdaybl;/ r&dSonfhta=umif;rSm &efukefa*ZufrpPwm uGm'&wfudkyif OuUXtjzpf
tm;vHk;oabmwlwifajr‡mufxm;a=umif;
rpPwmqDAm
qefw&eftm;
puU&Daw&Dtjzpf
wifajr‡mufxm;=u&m
tm;vHk;auseyf=ua=umif;/ wdk@wdkif;jynfonfvnf; xdkuJhodk@yif jzpfvdrhfrnf[k ar#mfvifha=umif;’ ESifh ajym=um;av onf?
rpPwmcsufwm*sDu z&D;y&ufpfa=u;eef;owif;udk,fpm;vS,fopf rpPwm'wfpfESifh {nfhonfrsm;udk rdwfqufay;+yD;
tdENd,jynfwGif owif;axmufrsm; nDnGwf oifhjrwf=uyHkudk ajymjyavonf? xdk@jyif ,cifu v$wfawmfwGif tpdk;&awmif;qdkaom
aiGpm&if;pmtkyfrsm;ESifh tpdk;&trdef@pmrsm;udk owif;axmufrsm; &&dScJh=uaomfvnf; ,cktcgr&I ol}uD;a*Zuf
t,f'DwmOD;cifarmifu xdkudpPudk aqmif&Gufay;&ef wdkufwGef;ajym=um;avonf?
ol}uD;a*Zuf OD;cifarmifu owif;axmufrsm;udk wdkif;jynfu tod trSwfjyK&ef vdka=umif;/ a&S@u
tpdk;&npmxrif;pm;yGJodk@ owif;axmufrsm; owif;vm,lEdkifonf? odk@aomf xrif;pm;cef;xJodk@ r0if&[k ydwfyifavh &dSa=umif;/
‚if;uyif pwifI udfk,fwdkifr=um;&v#if rnfodk@owif;,l&rvJ [k ajymqdkcJhzl;a=umif;/ taumif;qHk;rSm owif;axmufrsm;udk
rzdwfbJESifh tyifyef;cH+yD; oGm;a&mufowif;a&;&ef rvkda=umif;/ wdkif;jynf. pdwf"gwfudk jyKjyifay;aomolrsm;udk
todtrSwfjyK&efvdka=umif;ESifh ajym=um;onf?
OD;cifarmifuyif qufvufI v$wfawmfwGif owif;axmufrsm;twGuf ae&may;&ef v$wfawmfOuUX qmruUao;ESifh
twGif;a&;rSL; rpPwmtuf*g (aemif tpdk;&a&S@ae}uD;jzpfvmol) wdk@udk owif;axmufrsm;u awmif;qdk=uI OuUX.
vuf0Jbuftcef;wGif owif;axmufrsm;ae&m&cJhyHkudk ajymjyonf?
Towif;axmufrsm;. npmpm;yGJonf npmpm;yGJ[k qdkapumrl owif;axmufrsm; npmpm;yGJusif;yI awG@qHk=u+yD;
tqdkwifoluwif/ axmufcHolu axmufcH=uum rdrdwdk@twGuf vdktyfcsufrsm;udk awmif;qdk=uonfh tpnf;ta0; wpf&yfvnf;
jzpfayonf?
xdknpmpm;yGJowif;udk ol&d,owif;pmu ‘jrefrmjynfOya'jyKv$wfawmf owif;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;. npmpm;yGJ
owif;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tm; v$wfawmf tpnf;ta0;wGif tjynfhtpHktcGifhta&;ay;&ef’ [lI acgif;wyfazmfjycJhayonf?
1939 ckESpfwGifum; us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ESifh owif;axmufrsm; pnf;±Hk;Ekdifonfudk awG@&ayonf? xdkESpfxJwGif
owif;axmufrsm;toif;udk zGJ@pnf;Ekdif=uayonf? toif;trnfrSm ‘&efukef+rdK@/ jrefrmowif;axmuf tzGJ@’ [lI jzpfonf?
toif;wGif wpfjynfvHk;&dS owif;axmufrsm; yg0ifEkdif&ef pnf;±Hk;zdk@ }udK;yrf;tm;xkwf =uonfudkvnf; awG@&ayonf? T toif;.
twGif;a&;rSL;rSm OD;cspfarmifjzpfonf?
q&mawmfOD;OwWr ysHvGefawmfrlaomtcg 1939 ck/ pufwifbmv 11 &ufae@ wGif &efuke+f rdK@/ ykvdyf±Hk;}uD;ESifh
[dkufukyfv$wfawmfqdkif&m owif;axmufrsm; tpnf;ta0;wpf&yf usif;y=uonf? xdktpnf;ta0;wGif obmywdtjzpf
OD;vSxGef;jzL u aqmif&GufI tcrf;tem;rSL;tjzpf OD;armifarmif}uD;u aqmif&Gufavonf?
ol&d,OD;bodef;u ,ckysHvGefawmfrlaom q&mawmfOD;OwWrrSm jrefrmjynf. aus;Zl;&Sif wdkif;a&;jynfa&;wGif
EdkifiHolEkdifiHom;wdk@tm;
rsufpdyGifhapjcif;iSm
yxrqHk;
acgif;aqmif
yk*~dKvfjzpfjcif;a=umifh
Ttpnf;ta0;u
0rf;enf;jcif;txdrf;trSwftjzpf ig;rdepfwdwd +idrfoufpGmaexkdif&ef tqdkwif&m tqdkudk armifausmfav;u axmufcH+yD; ig;rdepfwdwd
+idrfoufpGm ae=uonf?
OD;armifarmif}uD;u q&mawmf. ausmuf±kyf odk@r[kwf a=u;±kyfjyKvkyf&ef xdkudpPudk wdkif;jynfu ulnD&ef Ed_;aqmfa=umif;
tqdkwif&m ‘AE<Kv armifapmcdkif’ u axmufcH+yD; trsm;oabmwl twnfjyK=uavonf?
&efukef+rdK@ jrefrmowif;axmuftzGJ@ tr_aqmiftpnf;ta0;udk 1939 ck/ atmufwdkbmv 15 &ufae@ }uD; em&Drdepf 50
tcsdefwGif twGif;a&;rSL;OD;cspfarmif. aetdrfY usif;y+yD;/ aq;±Hkowif;rsm;,l&mwGif tusyftwnf;ESifh awG@}uHK&onfh udpPtwGuf
toif;u ta&;,laqmif&Guf&ef wdkif=um;csufudk vufcHpOf;pm;=uonf?
xdkudpPudk &efukefaq;±Hktkyf}uD;xH oGm;a&mufawG@qHkI wifjyta&;qdk&ef tpnf;ta0;u OD;bESif;/ OD;pdef/ OD;udkudkav;/
OD;cspfOD;/ OD;bcsdKESifh OD;wifhaqGwdk@tm; wm0efay;avonf?
oif;vHk;u|wftpnf;ta0;udk Edk0ifbmvtwGif; usif;y&efvnf; qHk;jzwf=uonf? xdk@tjyif ‘Ttoif;}uD;wGif
jrefrmwjynfvHk;&dS owif;axmuf [lor# yg0ifEdkif&eftwGuf E_d;aqmf&efudpPudk OuUXESifhtusKd;aqmif puU&Daw&Dwdk@tm;
v$Jtyfvdkufa=umif;’ [lI qHk;jzwf=uavonf? TqHk;jzwfcsufrsm; atmifjrifonf? ratmifjrifonfudkum; rod&ay? xdktcsdefwGif
'kwd,urBmppft&dyfu v$rf;vmay+yD?
rnfodk@yifjzpfap 'kwd,urbmppf+yD;onfhtcg jrefrmwpfjynfvHk; +rdK@e,f c±dkifrsm;wGif owif;axmuftoif;rsm;zGJ@I
‘jrefrmjynfowif;axmuf toif;}uD;’ ESifh qufoG,faqmif&Guf=uav&m +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@vufatmufwGif owif;axmufrsm;u
wpfcef;wpfu¾rS yg0ifv_yf&Sm;pnf;±Hk;cJh=uonfrSm ‘jrefrmjynfowif;axmuf toif;}uD;’ twGuf rsKd;aphcscJh=ujcif;yif
jzpfonf[kqdk&rnf jzpfygonf?
awmfvSefa&;owif;pm wdkif; 4
zufppf*syefawmfvSefa&;umvwGif jrefrmjynfY wpfckwnf;aom awmfvSefa&; owif;pm xkwfa0cJhonf? xdkowif;pmudk
zufppfawmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;udk,fwdkif xkwfa0cJhonf/ xkwaf 0onfhXmerSm zufppfawmfvSefa&;wdkif; 4 ppfXmecsKyfjzpfonf?

64

+Adwdo#ESifh tar&duefwdk@u *syefawmfvSefa&;udk ‚if;wdk@omv#if tvHk;t&if;ESifh wdkufcdkufqifE$JbdouJhodk@ 0g'jzef@ae=uonfh
owif;pmrsm;=um;wGif ‚if;wdkif; 4 owif;pm ArmtrsKd;om;wdk@. awmfvSefa&;wdkufyGJrsm;udk owif;ay;azmfjyjcif;jzifh
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wpfapmif taejzifh rSwfwrf;wifoifhaom owif;pm jzpfayonf?
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wkdif; 4 u txl;owif;pmudk (21-10-45) ae@wGif xkwf+yD; E_wq
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odk@&mwGif jynfol@qufqHa&;XmerS vufESdyfpuf udk}udKifrSm puftm;csdefwGif uyfuyfowfowf ±dkufI jzef@csda&;rS pufvSnfh udkaxG;ESifh
udkatmif}uD;wdk@u jzpfatmif ±dkufay;=uonf? wdkif; 4 tywfpOf yxrpmapmifrSm ZGefv 25 &ufae@wGif pxGufcJhonf?
acgif;}uD;ydkif;udk wdkif;rSL;a&;I tjcm;tcef;rsm;jzpfaom urBmph pfowif;/ EkdifiHa&;owif;ESifh wdkif; 4 wdkufyGJ owif;rsm;udk XmerSL;u
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wkdif; 4 'kwd,pmapmifxkwfa0pOfwGif ppfXmecsKyf +rdK@axmifhausmif;odk@ a&mufcJh&onf? wwd,pmapmifudk xkwf&ef
pDpOfaepOfwGif yHkESdyfpufESifh wcrf;wem; ±dkufxkwf&ef jynfol@qufqHa&;Xmeu }udK;pm;vsuf&dSonf?

65

pufwpfvHk; vlwpfa,muf
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wdkif;owif;axmufESifh &efukefowif;axmufrsm;vnf; xm;&dScJhonf?
udkxGef;a&$udk ulnD&ef pmpDorm;wpfa,mufudk xyf&Sm&onf? udkpD qdkoludk &onf? udkpD qdkonhftwdkif;
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pufwpfvHk;/ pmwpfcHk/ vl 2 a,muf/ pmwpfazmif oGif;+yD;v#if uysmu,m±dkuf/±dkuf+yD;+yD;csif; pmypf/ aemufwpfazmiftwGuf qufpD/
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tcGifhomovdk azmfjycJhonf? aeol&defjynfol@ tpnf;ta0;wGif ajym=um;cJhaom AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; rdef@cGef;/ wkdif; 4 v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk
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ppfacgif;aqmifwdk@. aqmif&Gufcsufowif;rsm;/ wyfrawmf jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;a&;twGuf r[mrdwfwdk@ESifh oabmwlcsKyfqdkcJhaom pmcsKyf
ponfwdk@udk xnfhoGif;azmfjycGifh&cJh.? xdkrSwpfyg; ppfXmecsKyfrS vkdtyfaom Z,m;rsm;/ vufrSwfrsm;/ a=unmcsufrsm;udk wdkif; 4
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udkwifOD;/ Xmeom;rsm;tm; rdrdtdrfwGif aecGifhay;I pufxm;&ef EGm;wif;ukyfudk toHk;jyKcGifhay;aom OD;bOD;/ puftoHk;twGuf
u|JaumfrStp puULtxd ulnDcJhaom jrefrmhtvif; OD;wifwdk@tm; wkdif; 4 u txl; aus;Zl;wifa=umif;udk azmfjy&ayonf?
wyfrawmf jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;a&;twGuf aq;ppfrSwfyHkwif+yD;v#if &Jabmfwdk@ cGifhESifh jyef=uawmhrnf? odk@ESifhcGifhtjyefwGif
E_wfquftxl; pmapmiftjzpf TpmapmiftrSwf 27 aemufqHk;pmapmifudk xkwfa0I wdkif; 4 u E_wfqufvdkufyga=umif;?
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t"dXmefjyKyg.?’ (wkdif; 4 owif;pm 1307 ck oDwif;u|wfvqef; 15 &uf/ we*FaEGae@ 21/ 10/ 45)
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xkwfcJhonf?
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owif;pmvGwfvyfcGifhr&dS/ ‘wpfaoG;wpfoH wpfrdef@’ atmufwGif &yfwnfae=uykHudk azmfjycJhygonf?
xdktcgu jrefrmjynftwGif;wGif xkwfa0=uaom owif;pmrsm;teuf twdkuftcHowif;pm[lIum; wpfapmifr#r&dScJh?
odk@aomfvnf; jynfyrSaeI jrefrmjynf twGuf xkwfa0aom twdkuftcHowif;pmrsm;um; &dSayonf? ‚if;wdk@rSm +Adwdo# avwyfu

66

ava=umif;rS }uJcsjzef@csday;aom ‘avewfom;’ owif;pmrsm;ESifh +Adwdo#wdk@udk r=umr=um ava=umif;rS }uJcsjzef@csdcJhonfh
pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm; jzpfav onf?
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awmfvSefaomumv +Adwdo# wyfrsm;uvnf; jrefrmjynftwGif; 0ifa&mufwdkufcdkufaomtcgwGif avewfom;u wdkufyGJowif;rsm;/
atmifjrifonfh owif;rsm; ±dkufESdyfazmfjyavonf?
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awG@&mocsKdif; "g;rqkdif;bJ okwfoif=uavmh/ *syefarmfawmf,mOfrsm;/ &duQmrsm;/ ppfvufeufud&d,mrsm;ESifh pum;ajyma=u;eef;/
w,fvDzkef;}udK;rsm;udk zsufpD;ypf=uukefavmh/ *syefudk jrefrmjynfokd@ rnfonfhtcgr# jyefIrvmEkdifatmif armif;ESifxkwfaeonfh
tiftm;}uD;rm;vSaom r[mrdwfppfwyfrsm;tm; ulnD=uukefavmh’ ponfjzifh a&;om;xm;aom ‘taqG Armppfonfawmfwdk@’
acgif;pOfyg pm&Gufrsm;udk }uJcs=uavonf?
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‘Towif;pmudk tar&duefrsm;u }uJcsonf’ [lI azmfjyxm;onf? ‘Towif;pmonf oifwdk@. rdwfaqGjzpfaom tar&duefrsm;
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owif;pmrsm; udkvnf; av,mOfay:rSyif }uJcs0g'jzef@=uao;onf?
xdk@jyif +Adwdo#tpkd;u +Adwdo#tpdk;&. a=unmcsuf[laom acgif;pOfjzifh t*Fvdyf jrefrmbmom wpfjcrf;pD a&;om;aom
pm&Gufrsm;udkvnf; av,mOfay:rS }uJcs=uao;onf? xdka=unmcsufwGif ‘tcdkuftwef@tm; *syef. v$rf;rdk;jcif;udk cHae&aom
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vufpm;acsyvdkaom qENrsKd;jzifh jyef0ifvdrfhrnf r[kwfa=umif; azmfjyxm;avonf?
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jzef@csdcJhaomowif;pm[lI qdk&ygrnf?
+Adwdo#wyfrsm; jrefrmjynfwGif;odk@ 0ifa&mufvmonfhtcgwGif &efukef+rdK@rSaeI tcrJh owif;pmrsm; xkwf+yD;
qufvuf0g'jzef@csd=uavonf? ‘wdk@atmifajr’ owif;pm ESifh ‘acwfopf’ (New Age) owif;pmwkd@rSm +Adwdo#wdk@u &efukefrS
tcrJhxkwfa0 0g'jzef@csdaom jrefrmbmomowif;pmrsm; jzpf.? rEWav;wGif ‘rEWav;/ ar+rdK@ ppfowif;v$m’ trnfjzifh
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1945 ck/ ZGefv 7 &ufupI ‘a&$ref;atmifpnf’ [laomtrnfjzifh tcrJh xkwfa0avonf?
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(Rangoon Liberator) ‘&efukef vpfba&;wm;’ ESifh ‘Burma Star bm;rm;pwm;’ wdk@ jzpfonf? &efukefvpfba&;wm;udk
aemifwGif ‘New Times of Burma’ e,l;wkdif;pfatmh Am;rm;trnfjzifh qufvufxkwfa0onf? t*Fvdyfbmomjzifhyif
ta&S@awmiftm&S ppfXmecsKyf[lI t"dy`g,f&onfh SEAC pD;&uf owif;pmudkvnf; 0g'jzef@csda&; twGuf xkwfcJhonf?
+Adwdo#ESifh tar&duefwdk@u jzef@csdcJhonfh azmfjyygowif;pmrsm;u ‚if;wdk@. wyfrsm; tvHk;t&if;jzifh *syefrsm;tm;
ArmjynfrS wdkufxkwfcJh=uonf[k 0g'jzef@csDcJh=uayonf/?
pifppf jrefrmzufqpfawmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh jrefrmjynfolwdk@onf zufqpf*syefrsm;tm; rdrdwdk@wdkif;jynftwGif;rS
t+yD;wdkifwdkufxkwf&ef oE<dXmefcscJh=u+yD; jzpfonf/ oEMdXmefcsxm;onfhtwdkif; zufqpf*syefwdk@tm; awmfvSefwdkufcdkuf=uonfyif
r[kwfygvm;/ xkdtcgu +Adwdo#wdk@xHrS tultnD&onfjzpfap/ r&onfjzpfap awmfvSef=urnf[lI oEMdXmefcsxm;onfhtwkdif;
zufqpfwdk@udk awmfvSefcJh=uonf?
puULjzLwdkufyGJ
'kwd,urBmppfwGif jrefrmjynfu qkwfcGmoGm;onfh +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@orm;u jrefrmjynfodk@ jyefra&mufrDuwnf;u
jrefrmjynf jyefa&mufv#if rnfodk@ tkyfcsKyf &rnf[lI ol@udkvdkeD vufqkyfrajz&a&;twGuf pDrHudef;rsm;csvsuf aqmif&Gufaeav +yD?
1943 ckESpfavmufuyif +Adwdo#ygvDrmefwGif uGefqmaA;wpftrwfrsm;u acgif;aqmifI ‘Armjynfaemifa&;aqG;aEG;&ef’
[laom tpD&ifcHpmudk jrefrmjynf twGuf ‘puULjzLpmwef;’ tjzpfjzifh +Adwdo#ygvDrmefodk@ wifoGif;cJh=uonf? xdkpuULjympmwef;udk
1944 ck 'DZifbmv 12&uf ae@wGif ygvDrmefY *kd%f;aygif;pHku aqG;aEG;=uavonf?
xdk@aemuf 1945 ck/ arv 17 &ufae@wGif +Adwdo# ygvDrmefodk@ tdENd,jynfqdkif&m twGif;0efrpPwm atrm&Du
jrefrmjynftwGuf ,m,DtkyfcsKyfa&;pnf;rsOf;jzpfonfh puULjzLpmwrf;udk wifoGif;avonf? ppfajy; bk&ifcH qma':refprpf
jrefrmjynfodk@ jyefa&mufonfhtcg jrefrmjynfudk xdkpuULjzLpmwrf;yg pnf;rsOf;twkdif; tkyfcsKyfoGm;& rnf jzpfavonf?

67

+Adwdo#wdk@. puULjzLpDrHudef;udk owWKcs=unfhvdkufaomtcg yxr jrefrmjynfwGif ppftkyfcsKyfa&;xm;rnf?
ppftkyfcsKyfa&;+yD;onfhtcg bk&ifcHwpfOD;wnf;oabmESifh 1948 ckESpftxd tkyfcsKyfrnf? 1948 usrS 91 Xme tkyfcsKyfa&;t&
a&G;aumufyGJrsm; usif;yrnf? xdka&G;aumufyGJrsm;rSm a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufaom v$waf wmfu jrefrm jynf tkyfcsKyfa&;opfudk
a&;qGJrnf? odk@aomf xkdtkyfcsKyfa&;opfrSm 'dkrDeD,rf twef; tpm; tkyfcsKyfa&;rsKd; jzpf&rnf[k qdkxm;avonf? Toabmxm;udk
=unfhv#if +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@orm;u udkvdkeDvufqkyfrajzcsifonfhoabmudk t&Sif;om; awG@&ay onf?
1945 ckESpf ZGefv 20 &ufae@wGif bk&ifcH qma':refprpf jrefrmjynf acwWvm+yD; oabFmay:Y jrefrmjynfrS
acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh awG@qHk&mwGifvnf; +Adwdo#tpdk;&. pDrHudef;atmifjrifa&;twGuf ulnD=u&ef vSnfhvSnhfywfywf
ajymoGm;ayonf?
odk@aomfvnf;
jrefrmtrsKd;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh
jynfolu
puULjzLpDrHudef;udk
rvdkvm;=uay?
trsKd;om;pme,fZif;rsm;uvnf; uef@uGuf=uavonf? 1945 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv 19 &ufae@wGif &efukef+rdK@/ aeol&def±HkY
jynfol@tpnf;ta0;}uD; usif;yonf? xdktpnf;ta0;}uD;u (1) trsKd;om;tpdk;&zGJ@pnf;a&;/ (2) t&G,fa&mufolwdkif; rJqEN
ay;ydkifcGifh/ a&G;aumufyGJrsm; tjrefusif;ya&;/ (3) xdka&G;aumufyGJrS a&G;cs,fwifajr‡muf vdkufonhf wdkif;jynfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifh
wdkif;jyK/ jynfjyKv$wfawmf ac:qdka&;wdk@udk awmif;qdkqHk;jzwf=uavonf? aeol&defvlxktpnf;ta0;rsm;ESifh qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk
trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;u azmfjy=uavonf?
puULjzLpmwrf;ESifhywfoufI 'D;'kwf*sme,fu puULjzLpmwrf;avm/ pmrnf; avm/ [laom acgif;pOfjzifh t*FvefwGif
qmxGef;atmifausmf. ajym=um;csuf/ vef'ef&dS jrefrmtoif;. a=unmcsuf/ 1945ck arv 28 &ufxkwf tar&duefwdkif;r*~Zif;
a&;om;csuf/ bk&ifcH qma':refprpf (1942) ajym=um;csufwdk@udk udk;um;+yD; a0zef uef@uGufavonf?
'D;'kwfu ed*Hk;csKyfwGif ‘zufqpfwdkufzsufa&;/ jynfol@vGwfvyfa&; tzGJ@csKyfrS }uD;rSL;Iusif;yaom jynfol@tpnf;ta0;}uD;rS
jrefrmjynftem*wftkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh pyfvsOf;I awmif;qdkaomtcsufrsm;rSm (1) ,m,Dtpdk;&tzGJ@jzpfaom bk&ifcH. tr_aqmif aumifpDzGJ@&mY Xme toD;oDwdk@wGif wdkif;jynfudk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@}uD;u
a&G;aumufay;aom jrefrmh acgif;aqmif udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk cef@xm;aom trsKd;om;tpdk;& zGJ@&ef/
(2) xdktzGJ@u wdkif;jynf/ jynfjyK v$wfawmf}uD;udpP/ +Adwdo#ESifh pmcsKyf&efudpP/ wdkif;jynfjyefvnfxlaxmifa&;udpPwdk@udk
aqmif&GufoGm;&ef [laom tcsufwdk@yif jzpfav&m tdENd,twGuf avmh'fa0b,fvf. pDrHudef;xuf ydkonf[krqdkom/ wef;wl
r#avmufom&Sdaom awmif;qdkcsufrsm;jzpfI Tawmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk rvdkufavsm Edkifv#if +Adwdo#wdk@tzdk@ vGefpGm
t±kyfqdk;ayvdrfhrnf’ [lI a&;om;xm;avonf?
puULjzLpmwrf;ESifhywfoufI tdENd,jynfol e,l;a'vD+rdK@xkwf [dENLpwefwdkif; owif;pmu ‘Tta=umif;wdk@a=umifh
Tr#om
vkyfEkdifygonf[k
t+rJwrf;
qifajcay;I
&atmifzef;wD;xm;aom
Tpnf;urf;csufrsKd;jzifh ydwfqdk@0dkif;&Hxm;onfh (puULjzL pmwrf;yg) Tr&Sif;rvif;aom uwdrsKd;onf wm0efudk v$Ja&Smif&ef
pum;vHk;rsm;jzifh vSnfhpm;jcif; oufoufomjzpfavonf’ [lI a0zefa&;om;cJhavonf?
xdktcgu zqyvtzGJ@csKyf. tmabmf/ jynfol@tmabmf[k qdktyfaom jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmu 1-9-45 ae@wGif
‘u|Ekfyfwdk@. vdkvm;csuf’ [laom acgif;pOfjzifh acgif;}uD;ydkif;a&;onf? xdkacgif;}uD;ydkif;rSm
‘(1) ppftkyfcsKyfa&;udk tjrefqHk; ±kwford f;&ef/ (2) +rdK@rqdkif&m tpdk;&jyefvnf xlaxmif+yD; jynfol@udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifI
vHk;0tm%m v$Jtyfjcif;cH&aom ,m,D tpdk;&zGJ@pnf;&ef/ (3)a&G;aumufyGJrsm;udk tjrefqHk;usif;y&ef/ (4) a&G;aumufyGJ usif;y&mwGif
1935 ckESpf/ jrefrmjynftkyfcsKyfa&;/ Oya't& a&G;aumufjcif;tm;jzifh jrefrmjynfol/ jynfom;tm;vHk;wdk@. udk,fpm;vS,fjzpfaom
wkdif;jynfjyKv$wfawmf}uD; tjzpfodk@ ra&muf&dSEkdifojzifh vlvm;ajrmufolwdkif; rJqENay;EkdifcGifhpepfjzifhomv#if a&G;aumufyGJ usi;f y&ef/
(5) Tvkdvm;csufrsm;twkdif; jzpfap&ef u|Ekfyfwdk@EkdifiHokd@ ay;tyfpOftcguyif rESpfouf/ rauseyfojzifh trsKd;rsKd; tzHkzHk
uef@uGufwdkufzsuf vmcJhaom 1935 ckESpf/ jrefrmjynftkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'udk zsufodrf;&ef’ ponfwdk@ jzpfavonf [lI
a&;om;awmif;qdkcJhavonf?
+Adwdo#e,fcsJ@orm;url ol@pDrHudef;twdkif; qufvufaqmif&Gufonfudk awG@&ayonf? 1945 ck/ atmufwdkbmv 9
&ufae@wGif puUjzLpDrHudef;t& jrefrmjynfudk ppftkyfcsKyfa&;rS +rdK@rtkyfcsKyfa&;odk@ajymif;I qmay:xGef;. puULjzL tpdk;& wufonf?
1945 ck/ Edk0ifbmv 10 &ufae@ nae 6 em&DtcsdefwGif jrefrmjynf bk&ifcH. owif;pmuGefz&ifhudk bk&ifcH.tdrfY
usif;yonf? xdkowif;pm &Sif;vif;yGJY bk&ifcHu puULjzLpmwrf;t& txrajrmuf ajrmufatmif vkyfoGm;rnfudkum; ,HkrSm;oHo,
r&dSyg[k ajym=um;onf?
owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJwGif owif;pmq&mrsm;u ykvdyfESifhwdkif;jynf/ ykvdyfESifh owif;pm =unf=unfjzLjzLr&dS/ trSeftm;jzifh
ykvdyftzGJ@rSm vl}udKufenf;aeonf? ykvdyf tzGJ@udk wpfrsKd;wpfzHk ajymif;vJ&efvdkonf[k ajym=um;&m/ bk&ifcHu wpfrsKd;wpfzHk
ajymif;vJ&ef toifhjzpfae+yD[k jyefvnf ajym=um;avonf?
xdk@aemuf
owif;pmq&mrsm;u
owif;pmrsm;rSm
puULvHkavmufpGmr&ojzifh
puUL&Gufa&
tm;&yg;&
rxkwfEkdifjzpfaeonf[k ajym=um;&m bk&ifcHu puULvHkavmuf pGm &ygaprnf[k ajym=um;avonf?
TonfrSm jrefrmjynfvHk;0vGwfvyfa&;&&dSa&;twGuf trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm; u +Adwdo#tpdk;&. puULjzLpDrHudef;udk
uef@uGufwdkufzsuf=uonfh aqmif&Gufr_ wpfpdwfwpfa'oomv#if jzpfonf?

68

'kwd,urBmppf+yD;aomtcg bk&ifcHqma':refprpfonf puULjzL pDrHudef;}uD; ukdif+yD; jrefrmjynfxJ 0ifvmavonf?
xdkpuULjzLpDrHudef;rSm jrefrmjynf u|efouf&Snfzdk@ udkvdkeDvufqkyfrajz&zdk@ }uH&G,fvmonfh pDrHudef;jzpfI trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;u
uef@uGufa&;om;cJh=uavonf?
owif;pmrsm;u puULjzLpDrHudef;omru +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@orm;ESifhtwl aemufu xyf=uyfruGm wpfyg;wnf;0ifvmrnfh
t&if;&Sifrsm;udk tusKd;jyK&ef }uH&G,fonfh pDrHudef;rsm;udkvnf; uef@uGuf=uonf?
+Adwdo#tpdk;&u ‚if;wdk@zGJ@xm;onfh ‘jrefrmjynftpdk;&’ qdkonfudk jrefrmjynf jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;twGuf[kqdkum
twdk;r&dS aygif 87 oef; acs;onf? xdkaiGjzifh pDrHudef;tzGJ@rsm; zGJ@+yD; jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;vkyfief;awG vkyfrnf[k qdkonf? xdkpDru
H def;
tzGJ@rsm;. vkyfief;rsm;udk jrefrmowif;pmrsm;u xkdokd@rjrif/ +Adwdo#tpdk;&. pDrHudef;rsm;onf 'kwd,urBmppf rjzpfrDu
jrefrmjynfwGif aoG;pkyfoGm;onfht&if;&Sif ukr`%D}uD;rsm; jyefvnfxlaxmifaoG;pkyfEkdif&ef +Adwdo#tpdk;&u aiG&if;pdkufxkwf+yD;
tusKd;jyKjcif; jzpfonf[k jrif=uonf? jrifonfhtwkdif;yif e,fcsJ@orm;. t}uHudk jypfwifa0zef=uonf? jynfol@tusKd;udkom=unfh+yD;
jynfol@bufu &yfwnf=uonf?
Oyrm - jynfwGif;/ a&a=umif; o,f,lydk@aqmifa&;vkyfief;rsm;wGif +Adwdo# tpdk;&u {&m0wDukr`%Dudk wm0efay;onf?
{&m0wDESifh bk&ifcHpmcsKyf csKyf=uonf? xdkpmcsKyf}uD;udk tcsKd@pme,fZif;rsm;u tjynhftpHkazmfjy=uonf? azmfjy+yD; t&if;&Sif
{&m0wDukr`%DtwGuf tusKd;jzpfxGef;onfh tuGufrsm;udk axmufjy+yD; a0zef=uonf?
xdkodk@ a0zefa&;om;=uaomtcg bk&ifcHu tcH&cuf&Smonf? a'go t}uD;tus,f xGuf&Smonf? xdk@a=umifh 1946 ck/
arv 5 &ufwGif bk&ifcHu owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJvkyfonfqdk+yD; owif;pmrsm;udk ac:}udrf;avonf? xdkowif;pm &Sif;vif;yGJwGif
bk&ifcHu ‘u|EkfyfESifhtwl u|Ekfyfwdk@ tpdk;&tzGJ@&J@ oabmxm;uawmh owif;pmrsm;ESifhawG@+yD; pum;ajym&wm
tm;&0rf;omr&dSvSbl;? pDrHudef;awGeJ@ ywfoufvdk@ Armowif;pmawGudk }udKwif&Sif;vif;ajymjyxm;ayr,fh 'DpDrHudef;rsm;[m
EkdifiHa&;e,fcsJ@r_/ pD;yGm;a&;wdk;csJ@r_/ pDrHudef;jzpfw,fvdk@ a&;+rJa&;ae=uao;wmyJ? ‘e,fcsJ@ w,f’ qdkwJh pum;t"dy`m,fudk
em;rvnfEkdifatmif jzpf&w,f? tpdk;&eJ@ bk&ifcHudk a0zefcGifh&dSygw,f? odk@ayr,fh wpfcsKd@olrsm;u t&rf;rJh/ pnf;rJhurf;rJh a[majym
a&;om;ae=uw,f? 'gudk tpdk;&u a&&Snf=unfhaer,fr[kwfbl;/ 'Dvdk =unfhraeEkdifvdk@ ta&;,lwJhtcg EkdifiHa&;t,ltqcsif;rwlvdk@
ta&;,lw,fvdk@awmh r,lqapcsifbl;’ ponf ajym=um;onf?
bk&ifcHajymonfhpum;udk +cHK=unfhv#if (1) tpdk;&pDrHudef;rsm;udk ra0zefESifh/ (2) pnf;rJhurf;rJh a0zefa[majyma&;om;v#if
ta&;,lrnf/ (3) ta&;,lv#if EdkifiHa&; tjrifrwlI ta&;,lonf[k rrSwf,lapcsif[lI jzpfonf?
bk&ifcHu vGwfvyfpGm a&;om;cGifhudk Todk@ csKyfcs,f+cdrf;ajcmufaomfvnf; iHkcHrae=uay? jyefvnfxdk;ESuf=uonf? 1946ck/
arv 23&uf xkwf vuf±Hk;*sme,fu ‘bk&ifcHonf zufqpfpepfudk twdtvif;oHk;I jynfol@rsufvHk;rsm;udk ydwfzHk;um "e&SiftusKd;&dSr_vkyfief;rsm;udk
tvkdwlonfjzpfap/ rwlonfjzpfap vkyfudkif aqmif&GufoGm;rnf [kqdkv#if bk&ifcHrSm yk'fr 139 t& tm%m&Siftjzpf&dSaeI
oHk;Ekdifrnf jzpfaomfvnf; Armvlxk}uD;tm; Todk@ ydwfyifcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk 1941 ck/ t&ifESpfumvrsm;uJhodk@ 1946 ckESpfESifh
tem*wfumvrsm;wGif iHk@cHaernfr[kwfbJ w&m;aom enf;vrf;rsm;jzifh wdkufzsufacsr_ef;=uvdrfhrnfudk awG@&rnfrSm aocsm
a=umif;ESifh bk&ifcHESifh t}uHay;tr_aqmif0ef}uD;rsm;tm; }udKwifowday;&awmh ownf; [lI a&;avonf?
xdktcsdefrSm zufqpfpepfudk toufawG trsm;}uD;paw;+yD; awmfvSefvmcJhonfh awmfvSefa&;t&dSefESifh wpfqufwnf;
jynfol@tm;uvnf; aumif;/ aumif;aeonfh tcsdeyf if/ &efukef+rKd@/ aeol&def±Hk}uD;wGif jynfol@tiftm;jyonfh vlxktpnf;ta0;}uD;yif
usif;ycJhonf
r[kwfavm?
xdk
tcsdefu
jrefrmwpfrsKd;om;vHk;onf
csKyfcs,fr_uif;onfh
vGwfvyfa&;
tmomqENjyif;jyaeonfhtcsdefjzpfavonf? jynfoluvnf; Ekd;=um;wuf ºuGaeonf? trsKdom;pme,fZifrsm;uvnf;
jynfolESifhtwl Edk;=um;wufºuGvsuf &dSavonf?
xdktcsdefwGif owif;pmq&mtoif;vnf; pepfwus zGJ@pnf;+yD;+yD? pnf;pnf; vHk;vHk;ESifh vkyfudkif=uzdk@ toifhyif? xdk@a=umifh
bk&ifcHu owif;pmrsm;tay: xm;&Sdonfh oabmxm;ESifh ywfoufI pOf;pm;&ef 1946 ck/ arv 11 &ufwGif ‘jrefrmjynf
owif;pmrsm;toif;’ tr_aqmiftzGJ@ txl;tpnf;ta0; ac:,lonf? xdktpnf;ta0;wGif bk&ifcH. oabmxm;/ bk&ifcH.
pum;udk pOf;pm;aqG;aEG;=uonf/ tpnf;ta0;u ‘owif;pmrsm;tay:wGif bk&ifcHonf aemufxyf rnfodk@ oabmxm;OD;rnfudk
apmifhqdkif;=unfh±_&ef’ qHk;jzwfvdkuf=uonf? qHk;jzwfonfhtwdkif; bk&ifcH. oabmxm; udk apmifh=unfh=uavonf?
vGwfvyfpGm a&;om;cGifh
1946 ckESpfxJwGif jrefrmjynf bk&ifcH a':refprpfonf jrefrmjynftajctaeudk +Adwdo#tpdk;&odk@ tpD&ifcH&ef bdvyfodk@
acwWjyefonf? ol jyefaomtcg acwW bk&ifcHopf qm[ife&DEdkuf a&mufvmonf?
olwdk@ESpfa,mufpvHk;um; +rHKpdESifh +rdpHkyif/ a':refprpfwkef;uvnf; owif;pmrsm; tay: zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fawmhrnfh
t&dyfta&mifjyonf? +cdrf;ajcmufonf/ [ife&DEdkuf uvnf; yxrqHk;t}udrf owif;pmrsm;ESifh awG@onfhtcg EkdifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;ESifh
olcdk;/ "g;jrxºuGr_udk a&maxG;ypfum owif;pmrsm;udk zdESdyfcsKyfcs,frnfh t&dyfta&mif jyavonf?
xdkodk@ awG@qHkajym=um;+yD; r=umrDrSmyif owif;pmrsm;udk w&m;pGJjcif;/ tmrcH awmif;jcif;/ EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;udk w&m;pGJjcif;/
axmifcsjcif;rsm; jyKvkyfavonf? ocifpdk;. uGefjrLepfygwD(Armjynf)udk rw&m; owif; a=unmvdkufonf?

69

xdktcsdefwGif urBmhtajctaet& jrefrmjynfolvlxk. EkdifiHa&; Edk;=um;v_yf&Sm;r_t& +Adwdo#wdk@onf jrefrmjynfudk
vufv$wf&awmhrnf? odk@aomf vG,fvG,fESifh vufrv$wf&a&;/ ol@t&if;tESD;/ tusKd;aus;Zl;rsm;udk rxdckdufa&; uvnf;
olt"dutvkyfyif r[kwfygvm;? xdkodk@ +Adwdo#udkvdkeDorm;u awmifhwif; cdkifrmaom zqyvtzGJ@}uD;udk +zdKcGJonf? tay:ydkif;u
tenf;i,ftufaomfvnf; atmufajc&dS jynfolvlxkrSm pkpnf;odyfonf;vmonf?
xdktwGif; owif;pmrsm;u jynfolvlxk\ rauseyfr_rsm;udk tjyif;txef a&;=uonf? udkvdkeDorm;u owif;pmrsm;ay:
ydkrdkzdESdyfcsKyfcs,fvmonf? tcsKd@ owif;pmrsm;qdkv#if xkwfa0jcif;rjyKrDuyif tmrcHawmif;r_rsm; jyKvmonf? rD;&xm;
tvkyform;or*~u r*~Zif;pmapmifxkwf&ef &efukefta&;ydkifxH av#mufonf? ta&;ydkifu xkwfa0rnfhol OD;oifudk ykHESdyfwdkuf
Oya'yk'fr 7(1) t& r*~Zif;xkwfvdkv#if tmrcHaiG 1000d t&if wif&rnf[kqdkavonf?
a&S@aqmifowif;pmudk yHkESdyfwdkuf vwfwavm tcGifhtm%mrsm; Oya't& tmrcHaiG 1000d awmif;onf?
pD;yGm;a&;owif;pmudkvnf; 1946 ck/ ZGefv 27 &ufae@pGJESifh tmrcHaiGwpfaxmifawmif;onf? jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmudkrl
ykvdyfrif;}uD; rpPwmumwm;u jrefrmjynfumuG,fa&; Oya' yk'fr 38(1)(*)/ 34(6)(C)(i) t& w&m;pGJonf? jrefrmhtvif;u
a&;onfrSm tpdk;&tay: t=unfndKysufaponfqdk.?
xdktcg rEWav;+rdK@wGifxkwfa0aom vlxkowif;pmu ‘t=unfndKysufaponf qdkaom pum;’ [laomacgif;pOfjzifh
acgif;}uD;ydkif;rSaeI ‘=unfndKjcif; qdkaom pum;. t"dy`m,frSm a=umuf&GH@jcif;/ ±dkaojcif;/ jrwfEdk;jcif;/ tm;udk;jcif;/ usKd;EGjH cif; paom
pum;tm;vHk; odrf;usKH;yg0ifvsuf&dSav&m tb,fwkdif;jynfom;onf tb,ftpdk;& rsKd;udk =unfndKjcif;iSm jzpfEkdifygrnfenf;’ [lI
a&;om;onf?
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm ‘jrefrmhZmwfcHk’ tcef;wGifrl ‘w&m;pGJ/ tmrcHawmif;ESifh ta&;,laeojzifh w&m;rpGJEdkif&ef
puULjzLaumif;onf/ tpdk;& aumif;onf/ ykvdyfaumif;onf/ tukefvHk; rSef&mvkyfonf/ bk&m;od=um;wr# w&m;=uygayonf[k
a&;&awmhrnfuJhodk@ &dSav&m *syefacwfowif;pmrsm; tqifhtwef;okd@ a&mufrSef;rod a&mufukef=uawmhrnf xifonf’ [lI
a&;onf?
owif;pmrsm;u Todk@ jyefvnfa&;±HkESifhr+yD;ao;/ owif;pm/ *sme,f/ r*~Zif;tm;vHk; pkpkpnf;pnf;ESifh vGwfvyfpGm
a&;om;cGifhudk zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fvmonfudk jyefvnfwkdufckduf&ef }udK;yrf;=uavonf?
,ckuJhodk@ zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_ cHae&onfudk rnfodk@wkef@jyef&v#if aumif;rnf qkdonfudk pOf;pm;aqG;aEG;=u&ef owif;pm/
*sme,f/ r*~Zif;wdkufrsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;/ 1946 ck Zlvdkifv 4 &ufae@wGif *sme,fausmfESifh jynfol[pfwdkif owif;pmwdkufodk@
vma&muf=u&ef zdwf=um;onf? aqmf=oonfh yk*~dKvfrsm;rSm OD;bcsKd ('D;'kwf)/ OD;oef;wifh (jrefrmhtvif;)/ OD;budk; (jynfol@tm%m)/
OD;tkef;jrifh (Z0e*sme,f)ESifh OD;apmOD; (*sme,fausmfESifh jynfol@[pfwdkifowif;pm) wdk@ jzpf=uonf?
Zlvdkifv 4 &ufae@wGifum; tpnf;ta0;vkyfjzpfonf? xdktpnf;ta0;u atmufygqHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk
csrSwfawmif;qdk=uonf?
±_wfcsjcif;

(1) jrefrmjynftpdk;&onf ,ckuJhodk@ 'Drdkua&pD0g'wdk;wufaeaomacwf}uD;wGif 'Drdkua&pD0g'ESifh tvGefqef@usifaom
acwfrrDonfh yHkESdyfwdkufOya'/ jynfol@ vGwfvyfr_udk rw&m;csKyfcs,faom umuG,fa&;Oya'wdk@udk vufudkifjyKum jrefrmjynf
owif;pmyHkESdyfwdkufrsm;tm; 'Drdkua&pD. yifroabmw&m;rsm;jzpfonfh vGwfvyfpGm a&;om;cGifh/ vGwfvyfpGm ajymqdkcGifhwdk@udk
wzwfowf zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_jzifh tmrcH awmif;qdkjcif;/ w&m;pGJqdkjcif;wdk@rSm tEkdifusifhr_ zufqpfpepfrsm;tajcodk@ a&muf&dS aeojzifh xdk
csKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk Ttpnf;ta0;}uD;u jyif;xefpGm ±_wfcsa=umif;?
tpGrf;ukefwkdufzsuf&ef
(2) yHkESdyfwdkuf vGwfvyfcGifhudk tjcm;aom 'Drdkua&pDEkdifiHrsm;uJhodk@ usyfjynfh/ 'ifjynfh cHpm;Ekdif=u&ef yHkESdyfwdkuf
zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fonhfrSefor#udk atmifjrifonftxd tpGrf;ukefwdkufzsuf=u&ef Ttpnf;ta0;}uD;u oabmwl qHk;jzwfjyXmef;a=umif;?
jyefvnf±kwfodrf;&ef
(3) yHkESdyfwdkufrsm;. vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;udk zdESdyfcsKyfcs,faomtm;jzifh umuG,fa&; Oya't& tcsKd@owif;pmrsm;ESifh
yHkESdyfpufrsm;tm; w&m;pGJqdkxm;jcif;udkvnf;aumif;/ yHkESdyfwkdufOya'/ yHkESdyfwdkuf vwfwavmOya't& tcsKd@owif;pmwdkufrsm;ESifh
owif;pm rxkwf&ao;aom wkdufwpfwkduftm; tmrcHawmif;qdkaom trdef@rsm;udk vnf;aumif;/ jyefvnf±kyfodrf;&ef
Ttpnf;ta0;}uD;u av;eufpGm awmif;qdka=umif;?
xdkqHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk oufqdkif&mtpdk;& owif;pmpmq&mtoif;/ pma&;q&m ponfh pmaytoif;rsm;ESifh
EkdifiHjcm;owif;pmrsm;/ yHkESdyfwdkuf toif;tzGJ@rsm;odk@ ay;ydk@=uonf?
qHk;jzwfcsuf (2) t& a&S@qufvufaqmif&Guf&ef aumfrwDwpf&yfvnf; zGJ@ao;onf? xdkaumfrwDwGif OuUX OD;bcsKd
('D;'kwf)/ OD;wifarmif (e,l;bm;rm;)/ aqmf=oolrsm;wGif OD;tkef;jrifh (Z0e*sme,f)/ OD;apmOD; (*sme,fausmf)/ OD;cifarmif (vGwfvyfa&;)/
OD;csif;pdef (at0rf;)/ OD;bwif (wdk;wufa&;)wdk@ yg=uonf?
xdkaumfrwDtpnf;ta0;udk 'D;'kwf*sme,fwdkufwGif usif;y+yD; OD;bcsdK ('D;'kwf)/ OD;wifarmif (e,l;bm;rm;)ESifh OD;cifarmif
(vGwfvyfa&;)wdk@udk jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;ESifh awG@qHkta&;qdk&efvnf; qHk;jzwf=uonf?

70

xdkvGwfvyfpGm a&;om;cGifhwdkufyGJudk
vGwfvyfcGihfwkdufyGJrsm;um; a&S@wGif qufvsuf?

vlxktoif;tzGJ@rsm;uvnf;

axmufcH=u

onf?

pme,fZif;rsm;.

zdESdyfcsK,fcs,fr_ wdkufzsufa&;
1946 ckESpfwGif jrefrmjynf&dS pme,fZif;rsm; vGwfvyfpGma&;om;cGifh csKyfcs,f ydwfyifr_/ w&m;pGJcH&rI/
tmrcHawmif;cH&r_rsm;udk bdvyftpdk;&u bmrSrodyg[k qdkonf? pme,fZif;rsm;udk ta&;,lxm;onfhta=umif;
jrefrmjynftpdk;&uvnf; tpD&ifrcHyg[k qdkonf? xdkta=umif;rsm;udk Zlvdkifv 16 &ufurS od&onf[k qdkonf/ Zlvkdifv 17 &uf
ae@pGJjzifh bdvyf&dS jrefrmhtvif;owif;axmufu bdvyftpdk;&rodyg qdkonfhta=umif;udk owif;ydk@avonf?
jrefrmjynfwGifrl zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_cH&vGef;I Zlvdkifv 18 &ufae@ 'D;'kwf *sme,fwdkufY owif;pm/ *sme,f/ r*~Zif;
yHkESdyfxkwfa0olrsm;/ t,f'Dwmrsm; tpnf;ta0;wpf&yf usif;y+yD;/ ,if;tpnf;ta0;u zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_ wdkufzsufa&; twGuf
EkdifiHvHk;qdkif&m pmyHkESdyfwdkufrsm;toif; zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmif&ef qHk;jzwf vkduf=uavonf?
xdktzGJ@tpnf;rzGJ@rD vGwfvyfpGma&;om;yHkESdyfcGifhudk csKyfcs,fonfhtrdef@ Oya'rsm; jyefvnf±kwfodrf;a&;twGuf
w&m;aomenf;vrf;jzifh wdkufzsufoGm;&ef cef@tyfxm;onfh 7 OD;aumfrwD. n$efum;csufrsm;udk waoGrwdrf; vdkufemygrnf[lI
owif;pm/ *sme,f/ r*~Zif; wm0efcHrsm;u vufrSwfa&;xdk;xkwfjyef=uonf? Zlvdkifv 18 &uftxd vufrSwfa&;xdk; a=unmonfh
yHkESdyfwkdufaygif;rSm 35 wdkuf &dSoGm;+yD; jzpfonf?
vufrSwfa&;xdk;a=unmonfh pme,fZif;wdkufrsm;ESifh wm0efcHrsm;rSm
(1) OD;csif;pdef (at0rf;±kyfpHk*sme,f)
(2) q&mausmf (u0drdwfaqG)
(2) aiGodef; (jynfol@&Jabmf*sme,f)
(4) oef;wifh (jrefrmhtvif;)
(5) budk; (jynfol@tm%m)
(6) apmOD; (*sme,fausmfESifh jynfol@[pfwdkif)
(7) wifarmif}uD; (qdk&S,fvpfwyfOD;)
(8) oef;wif (vlr_a&;owif;pOf)
(9) apmarmif (jrefrmhody`H)
(10) odef;armif (Armopf)
(11) rcifvS (wevFmowif;pm)
(12) atmifEkdif (rD;owfpmapmif)
(13) cifarmif (vGwfvyfa&;)
(14) bwif (wdk;wufa&;)
(15) oufcif (a&S@aqmifESifhvuf±Hk;)
(16) 0if;=unf (bm;rm;'dkuf*sufpf)
(17) ,karmif (pD;yGm;a&;)
(18) armifxGef; (ta&S@wdkif;)
(19) atmifabmf (acgif;aqmif rEWav;)
(20) tkef;jrifh (Armhacwf)
(21) ocifbdk;[ef ("-r-v-r pmapmif)
(22) pHat; (atmif*sme,f)
(23) armifnGef@ (pmrsdK;pHk)
(24) odef;aqG (&Jabmfpmapmif)
(25) armifcsKd (acwfopf±kyfajymif)
(26) xGef;&Sdef (ZGJ yHkESdyfwdkuf)
(27) ocifbarmif (wdk@Armowif;pOf)
(28) armifpdef ([Hom0wD)
(29) autufpfyDyDav; (&mpDum&ef*smeD)
(30) rpPwmbD;vm;rlumcsD (&efukef&DAsL;)
(31) ocFg (pma&;q&m pmapmif)
(32) vSarmif (owif;pHk*sme,f)
(33) tkef;jrifh (Z0e*sme,f)
(34) bcsKd ('D;'kwf)
(35) wifarmif (zqyv owif;pOf) wdk@ jzpf=uonf?

71

xdktcsdefu puULrSmvnf; &Sm;aeonf? puUL&zdk@udkyif tpdk;&ESifh tawmf ajymae&onf? ZGefv 22 &ufae@wGif
trsKd;om;pDrHudef;ESifh pufr_vufr_ tvkyform;Xme tr_aqmif0ef}uD; ocifxGef;tkyfu owif;pmq&mrsm;udk zdwf+yD; owif;pm puUL
(2) ESpfpm &awmhrnfhta=umif; ajymjyao;onf? ppfppf puULrSm trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;tzdk@om &Sm;aeonf? +Adwdo#
±kyfao;tpdk;&u 0g'jzef@csdonfh owif;pmrsm;twGufum; aygaeonf? tcrJhjzef@csdonfh owif;pmrsm;yif &dSao;onf?
puUL&Sm;onfESifh ywfoufI 1946 ck/ Zlvdkifv 30 &ufxkwf jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm/ jrefrmhZmwfcHktcef;wGif
‘puUL&Sm;yg;onfhacwfwGif tpdk;&u Zlvdkifvqef;wGif awmifil tmabmf [laom owif;pmwpfapmif xkwfa0&m
jynfol@qufqHa&;Xmeonf 0g' jzef@aom Xmer[kwfyg[k ajymoH=um;&zl;ojzifh rnfokd@oufqkdifonfudk rajymwwfay’ [lI
a&;vdkufao;onf?
'kwd,urBmppf}uD; +yD;qHk;+yD;aemuf jrefrmjynfudk +Adwdo#wdk@u ppftkyfcsKyfa&; pepfjzifh tkyfcsKyfaepOftwGif; e,frsm;wGif
0g'jzef@csda&;twGuf owif;pmrsm; ±dkufESdyfxkwfa0 jzef@cscd Jhonf? &efukefwGif &efukef vpfbma&wm t*Fvdyfowif;pm/
acwfopfowif;pm/ rEWav;+rdK@wGif a&$ref;atmifpnfowif;pm/ armfv+rdKifwGif a&$+rdKiftoHowif;pm/ om,m0wD+rdK@wGif
wufacwfjrefrmhowif;pmESifh xm;0,f+rdK@wGif xm;0,fowif;pm ponfjzifh xkwfa0cJhavonf?
jrefrmtrsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;tzdk@ puUL&Sm;yg;aeonfhtcsdefwGif zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_ uvnf; rnfr#txdcHae&oenf;qdkaomf
owif;pmrxkwfa0rDuyif tmrcHaiG awmif;cH&onf? jynfol@tm%m ae@pOfowif;xkwfa0&ef OD;budk;u &efukefta&;ydkif±Hk; wGif
av#mufonfhtcg tmrcHaiG 1000d wifxm;rS xkwfa0cGifhjyKrnf[k qdkavonf?
Zlvdkifv 27 &ufwGif Armhacwfowif;pmwdkufY yHkESdyfxkwfa0olrsm; tpnf;ta0; usif;y+yD; ‘jrefrmjynf
pmyHkESdyfwdkuftoif; zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmif vdkuf=uonf’ xdktoif;. tvkyftr_aqmiftzGJ@wGif OD;bcsKd(OuUX)/ ocifat;ESifh OD;oef;wif
('kwd,OuUX)/ OD;tkef;cif (aiGxdef;)/ OD;wifarmif (twGif;a&;rSL;)/ OD;wifarmif}uD;ESifh OD;ausmfpdk; (wGJbuf-twGif;a&;rSL;)/
tr_aqmifrsm;tjzpf rpPwmacsmufxyf/ rpPwmyDav;/ OD;ausmf/ OD;bcspfwif/ OD;bwif/ OD;vSarmif/ OD;oef;xGef;/ OD;apmOD;ESifh
OD;csif;pdefwdk@ yg0if=uonf?
vGwfvyfpGma&;om;cGifh zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_ wdkufzsufa&;twGuf qufvufaqmif&Guf &ef 7 OD;aumfrwDudkyif wm0efay;onf?
toif;wGif yg0ifaqmif&Guf&ef vufrSwf a&;xdk;onfh wdkufrsm;vnf; wdk;vmonf? oHawmfqifhowif;pmtwGuf OD;armifarmif/
w±kwfowif;pmrsm;twGuf rpPwm acsmufxyf/ ukvm;owif;pmrsm;twGuf rpPwmyDav; wdk@u wm0ef,l=uonf?
xdkodk@ toif;tzGJ@}uD;zGJ@pnf;+yD;aemuf toif;ukd,fpm;vS,f 7 OD; aumfrwDu zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fonhf Oya'trdef@rsm;
±kwfodrf;ay;&ef jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; qmay:xGef;ESifh awG@qHkawmif;qdk=uonf? qmay:xGef;u bk&ifcHxH wifjy+yD;
‘txl;}udK;pm;ay;ygrnf’ [k ajym=um;onf? odk@aomf tpdk;&xHrSmum; tajzr&acs/ aemufxyfI tmrcH awmif;jcif;/
w&m;pGJjcif;rsm;om vkyfvmonf? xdktcg trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;onf rnfokd@v#if =um=umcHEkdifrnfenf;? xdk@a=umifh
owif;pmrsm;u zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk qef@usifwdkufyGJ0ifonfh yxrajcvSrf;vSrf;&ef 1946 ck/ =o*kwfv 15&ufudk owfrSwf
vdkuf=uonf?
1946ck/ Zlvdkifv 29&ufwGif 'D;'kwf*sme,fwdkufY jyKvkyfaom jrefrmjynf yHkESdyfwdkuftoif;tpnf;ta0;u =o*kwfv
15&ufae@udk ‘yHkESdyfwdkuf zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_ wdkufzsufyGJ tpae@’ [lI owfrSwfvdkuf=uonf? xdkae@rSmyif toif;u wdkufyGJtpae@
owfrSwfonfh a=unmcsuf xkwfjyefonf?
yHkESdyfwdkufrsm;u vGwfvyfpGm a&;om;cGifh/ zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm; &yf&ef ta&;,l cHae&onfh pme,fZif;rsm;. tr_rsm;udk
±kwfodrf;&ef oufqdkif&mrsm;odk@ wifjycJh+yD;+yD? udk,fpm;vS,fvw
$ fIvnf; awmif;qdkcJh=u+yD? odk@aomf tpdk;&bufu bmr#vdkufavsmr_
r&dS/ ae@pOf owif;pmwpfapmif xkwfa0&ef av#mufonfudkyif owif;pmrxGufcif tmrcHaiG awmif;cH&onf? xdk@a=umifh
zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk xdxda&mufa&muf ckcH wdkufzsuf&ef tcsdefwef+yD[k ,lqojzifh =o*kwfv 15 &ufae@udk yHkESdyfwdkuf zdESdyf csKyfcs,fr_
wdkufzsufyGJtpae@ [lI owfrSwfvdkuf=u+yD[k a=unmavonf?
toif;0if owif;pm/ *sme,f/ r*~Zif;tm;vHk;onf tr_aqmiftzGJ@u aemufxyf wpfpHkwpf&m !$ef=um;csufrxkwfrcsif;
=o*kwfv 15 &ufae@upI tpdk;&uac:onfh owif;pmwdkufrsm;ESifh aqG;aEG;yGJrSefor#odk@ owif;pmwdkufrS udk,fpm;vS,f/ t,f'Dwm/
owif;axmuf rnfol@udkr# rv$wf=uESifh? owif;pmwdkufrsm;ESifh tpdk;&aqG;aEG;yGJ owif;rsm;udkvnf; rnfonfh pme,fZif;wGifr#
rxnhf=uESifh[lI !$ef=um;vdkufonf? 'kwd, ajcvSrf;udk toihfapmifhae=u[lIvnf; ta=umif;=um;vdkufonf?
xdktcsdefwGif zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_ uef@uu
G fyGJrsm;vnf; jyKvkyfvsuf&dS=uonf? xkdjynfol@tiftm;jyyGJrsm;wGif pme,fZif;rsm;tay:
zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;udkvnf; uef@uGuf=uavonf? Todk@ jynfolvlxkESifhtwl owif;pmrsm;u wdkufyGJ0if=uaom tcg e,fcsJ@orm;u
csKyfudkifxm;onfh ‘jrefrmjynf tpdk;&’ qdkonfu wkefv_yfvm[ef wlonf? =o*kwfvxJwGif a=unmcsuf xkwfjyefvm&onf?
a=unmcsufwGif (1) pD;yGm;a&;owif;pmESifh a&S@aqmifowif;pmtay: tmrcHwif&ef awmif;qdkxm;onfhtrdef@udk
±kyfodrf;vdkufonf? (2) &efukefta&;ydkifudk tvkyform;or*~pmapmiftwGuf tmrcHaiG rawmif;&ef ajymxm;onf? aemifwGif
vnf; xkwfa0olwpfOD;wpfa,mufonf ,cifu yHkESdyfwdkufOya't& tjypfay;cH&zl;ol r[kwfcJhv#if ‚if;xkwfa0rnfh owif;pm/
*sme,f/ r*~Zif;rsm;twGuf tmrcHaiG rawmif;&ef !$ef=um;xm;rnf? (3) ‘jrefrmjynf uGefjrLepfygwDESifh Ak'<bmom’ pmtkyfyg
tydk'frsm;twGuf jynfol@tm%myHkESdyfwdkuftm; w&m;pGJqdkxm;onfhtr_udk quf vufxm;&dS+yD;/ jynfol@tm%myHkESdyfwdkufudk
w&m;pGJqdkxm;onfhtr_udk qufvuf xm;&dSrnf/ jynfol@tm%m*sme,ftay: pGJqdkxm;onfhtjcm;tr_ESpfckudkrl ±kyfodrf;rnf/ (4)
tm%mopfudk pGJqdkxm;onfhtr_udk qufvufzGifhxm;rnf/ (5) jrefrmhtvif;tay: w&m;pGJxm;onfhtr_udk jyefvnfpOf;pm;rnf/ (6)

72

owif;pmwdkufESpfwdkufESifh ywfoufI w&m;pGJawmhrnfqJqJ&dSonfh udpPudk ta&;r,lawmhbJ oufqdkif&m yk*~dKvfrsm;udk jyif;xefpGm
owday;rnf [lI yg&dSavonf?
odk@aomf tpdk;&bufu vdkufavsmjyef=um;csufudk jrefrmjynf yHkESdyfwdkuf toif;u rauseyfay? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf
tcsKd@pme,fZif;rsm;tay: ta&;,lr_ rsm;u usefaeonfr[kwfygvm;? xdk@a=umifh toif;tr_aqmifrsm;/ zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_
wdkufzsufa&;aumfrwDESifh ta&;,lcH&onfh pme,fZif;rsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0if onfh rsufESmpHknDtpnf;ta0;u tpdk;&.
vdkufavsm jyef=um;csufudk rauseyf[lIyif qHk;jzwf=uavonf?
xdk@tjyif xdktpnf;ta0;u jrefrmjynfwGif pme,fZif;rsm;onf udk,fhwm0ef udk,f od&dS±dkaoonfh pme,fZif;rsm;
jzpfonfhtwdkif; wdkif;jynfjyefvnfxlaxmifa&;ESifh olcdk;/ "g;jyESdrfeif;a&;wGif tpdk;&ESifh oifwifh oifh wifh qufqH&ef qEN&dS=uojzifh
pme,fZif;rsm;. apwemaumif;udk jyoonfhtaejzifh tpdk;&aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;/ owif;pm &Sif;vif;yGJrsm;odk@ rwuf=u&ef
qHk;jzwfxm;onfhudkrl wdkufyGJaumfrwDrS xyfrH !$ef=um;csuf r&ao;rD acwW±kyfodrf;xm;rnf[kvnf; qHk;jzwf=uonf? vGwfvyfpGm
a&;om;cGifh zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fcH&onfudk qufvufwdkufcdkufoGm;&ef wdkufzsufa&; aumfrwDudk v$Jvdkuf=uonf?
xdktcsdefwGif jynfolvlxk. EdkifiHa&;tHkºuGr_ t&dSeft[kefrmS tvGef}uD;aeonf? =o*kwfv 24 &ufae@wGif zqyvtzGJ@csKyfu
}uD;rSL;+yD; ‘jynfol@vGwfvyfa&;/ csKyfcs,fr_uef@owfyJG}uD;’ usif;y&ef pDpOfvsuf&dSonf? xdkuef@uGufyGJwGif pme,fZif;rsm;
pkpnf;xm;onfh yHkESdyfwdkuftoif;uvnf; yg0ifqifE$J=urnf?
jrefrmjynf yHkESdyfwdkuftoif;u zqyvtzGJ@csKyf}uD;u }uD;rSL;usif;yonfh =o*kwfv 24 &ufae@ tpdk;& zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_
uef@uGufyGJudk vHk;0axmufcHonf? 'Drkdua&pD0g'. tajccHoabmw&m;rsm;udk azmufzsufusL;vGefaeonfh jynfol@ vGwfvyfa&;/
zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_
t&yf&yfESifh
csKyfcs,fr_qdkif&m
Oya'pnf;rsOf;rsm;udk
tjref
qHk;
±kwfodrf;&yfpJ&ef
toif;u
tav;teufawmif;qdkonf[kvnf; a=unmavonf?
=o*kwfv 21 &ufwGif usif;yonfh yHkESdyfwdkuftoif; tr_aqmif tpnf;ta0;Y tpdk;&u zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fonhfudpPrsm;ESifh
ywfoufI vlxktoif;tzGJ@rsm;u 0dkif;0ef; uef@uGuf=uonfudk yHkESdyfwdkuftoif;u txl;aus;Zl;wifonf[lI rSwfwrf;wif=u
ao;onf? zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_ wdkufzsufa&;aumfrwDwGifvnf; OD;oef;wifh (jrefrmhtvif;) ESifh OD;oef;xGef; (a&S@aqmif)wdk@udk
wdk;csJ@xnfhoGif;vdkuf=uonf?
=o*kwfv 24 &ufwGifum; jrefrmtrsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;. tpOftvm twkdif;yif jynfol@vGwfvyfa&; csKyfcs,fr_
uef@uGufyGJ}uD;wGif jynfolvlxkESifhtwl yg0ifqifE$J=uavonf?
1946 ckESpfxJwGif jrefrmjynfolvlxk\ EkdifiHa&;tHkºuGr_ t&dSeft[kefu }uD;rm;aeonf? +Adwdo#udk udkvdkeDorm;.
zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk pnf;vHk;nDnGwfonhf jynfol@tiftm;ESifh jyefvnfwdkuf=uonf?
tpdk;&vcpm; tvkyform;wdkufyGJrsm;vnf; ay:aygufaeonf/ tm;&p&m}uD;yif/ zqyvu }uD;rSL;+yD; e,fcsJ@tpkd;&.
zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_ uef@uGufyGJrsm; vkyfawmhvnf; vlxkvlwef;pm;tzGJ@tpnf;aygif;pHku yg0ifqifE$J=uonf? tiftm;}uD;rm;onfh
tvkyform; oydwf}uD;rsm;uvnf; v_yfv_yf&G&GESifh e,fcsJ@orm;udk +cdrf;ajcmufvsuf &dSaeavonf? tm;vHk;u
jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJudk wmplae=uavonf?
xdkEdkifiHa&; tHkºuGr_ owif;rsm;rSm ae@pOfowif;pmrsm;wGif ygaeonf? trsKd;om; owif;pmrsm;u xkdowif;rsm;udk
rsufESmzHk;owif;}uD;rsm;tjzpf azmfjy=uonf? tcsKd@owif;pmu tvkyform;oydwfowif;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI txl;xkwf
owif;pmyif xkwfa0=uonf? Oyrm- rEWav;+rdK@wGif xkwfa0onfh vlxkowif;pm?
xdktcgu jrefrmtrsKd;owif;pmrsm;onf jrefrmjynf vHk;0vGwfvyfa&; &&dSa&; twGuf pnf;vHk;nDnGwfonfhtiftm;ESifh
wdkufyGJ0if=u&ef acgif;}uD;ykdif;rsm;uae+yD; wyfvSef@E_d;aqmfae=uonf? tm;vHk;onf vGwfvyfa&;udk OD;wnfae=uonfyif/
zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_
uef@uGufa&;wdkufyGJrsm;qifE$J=u&efvnf;
owif;pmrsm;u
pnf;±Hk;
v_H@aqmf=uonf?
xdkumvwGif
trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;ESifh jynfolvlxkwpfxyfwnf; jzpfaeonfrSm xif&Sm;onf? xdk@jyif owif;pmrsm;u rdrdwdk@
wdkif;jynfvGwfvyfa&; wpfckwnf;udkcsnf; OD;wnfwdkufae=uonfr[kwf? tjcm;vGwfvyfa&; r&ao;onfh nDtpfudkEdkifiHrsm;.
wdkufyGJrsm;udkvnf; axmufcH=uonfyif? nDtpfudkEdkifiHrsm;rS jynfolrsm;. wdkufyGJowif;rsm;udk tpOfrjywf azmfjyae=uonf?
trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;u
Todk@
wdkif;jynfvGwfvyfa&;/
zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_
qef@usifawmfvSefa&;twGuf
pnf;vHk;v_@Haqmfae=u&m +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@orm;u vGwfvyfpGm a&;om;cGifhudk csKyfcs,fzdESdyfvmaoma=umifh trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;rSm
udk,fh vGwfvyfcGifhtwGufvnf; jyefwdkufae&onfh owif;rsm;udk owif;pmrsm;wGif awG@ae&onf/ owif;pmvGwfvyfcGifh/
vGwfvyfpGm a&;om;cGifhwdkufyGJudk pme,fZif;rsm; pkaygif;+yD; wdkuf=uonfvnf; &dSonf/ tcsKd@oD;jcm;wdkuf=u&onfvnf; &dSonf?
Tae&mwGif Oyrmtm;jzifh rEWav;+rdK@wGifxkwfa0onfh wdkif;cspfowif;pm qdkygv#if zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_cH&vGef;I
olwpfapmifwnf; qENjywdkufyGJ0ifonfudk azmfjy&ayvdrfhrnf? 1946 ck/ Zlvdkifv 6 &ufwGif wdkif;cspfowif;pmu ol@wdkufyGJudk ponf?
xdkae@xkwfowif;pmrsufESmzHk;wGif av;vkdif;pmvHk;ESifh ‘rauseyfI u|Efkyfwdk@ owif;pmydwf+yD’ [lI azmfjyonf? xdkatmufwGif
‘rauseyfI wdkif;cspfowif;pmudk &uftuef@towfr&dS ydwfvdkuf+yD’ [lI azmfjyxm;onf? xdkacgif;pOfrsm;. atmufwGifrl wdkif;cspf
owif;pm bmudk rauseyfonfqdkonfudk a=u;eef;0dkif; abmifcwf+yD; azmfjyonf? xdkpmwGif (1) rEWav;tkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&Sdrsm;u owif;pmay;ydk@oltm; ol@xHodk@ ay;ydk@&rnf[k twif;t=uyf awmif;aejcif;?
(2) ppf+yD;ygvsuf umuG,fa&;Oya'jzifh +cdrf;ajcmufaejcif;/
(3) owif;pmxkwfa0&ef puULrSm tpdk;&xHrSmom &ojzifh tpdk;&ay;aom puULudk trSDjyKae&onfhtwkdif; tpdk;&owif;pmuJhodk@
jzpfaeI rESpfoufjcif;wdk@a=umifh vHk;0rauseyfI ydwfxm;vdkuf+yD?

73

tajctaet&vnf;aumif;/ auseyfzG,fjzpfvmonfhtcgY vnf;aumif; quf vuf xkwfa0rnfjzpfa=umif; [lI
azmfjyxm;avonf? Zlvdkifv 7 &ufupI owif;pmudk rxkwfbJ uef@uGufqENjy+yD; =o*kwfv 18 &ufwGifrS jyefvnfxkwfa0onf?
qENrjyrDu wdkif;cspfowif;pm wm0efcHt,f'DwmrSm ydkif&Sif OD;odef;az jzpfonf? =o*kwfv 18 &uf owif;pm
jyefvnfxkwfa0aomtcg wm0efcH t,f'DwmrSm Adkvfxdefvif; jzpfonf? xdktcsdefwGif &efukefY vGwv
f yfpGm a&;om;cGifh wdkufyGJudk
pme,fZif;rsm;u qifE$Jvsuf&dS=uonf?
&efukefwGif vGwfvyfpGma&;om;cGifh zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_ wdkufzsufa&; aumfrwDu OD;aqmifwdkufyGJ0ifae=u&m xdkwdkufyGJudk
rEWav;rS owif;pmrsm;uvnf; axmufcH wdkufyGJ0if=uonf? rEWav;u owif;pmrsm;u +idrfrae/ wpfaoG;wnf;/ wpfoHwnf;yif/
rEWav;rS owif;pmrsm;wdkufyGJrSm xdkr#omru tvkyform;rsm;ESifh jynfolvlxk. EkdifiHa&;wdkufyGJrsm;udkvnf; ulnDaxmufcH=uonf?
tpnf;ta0; vkyfonf? a=unm csuf xkwf=uonf? Tae&mwGifvnf; jynfolvlxkESifh owif;pmrsm; wpfxyfwnf;
&dSae=uonfrSm xif&Sm;onf?
1946 ck/ pufwifbmv 11 &uf 2 em&Dtcsdef rEWav;+rdK@ zqyvtzGJ@csKyf±Hk;wGif owif;pmwdkufrsm;rS
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;wufonfh tpnf;a0;u tpdk;&vcpm; ykvdyf tr_xrf;/ t&mxrf;/ tvkyform;/ v,form; paom
rvkHavmufaom rdrdwdk@. pm;a&;/ 0rf;a&;twGuf tcGifhta&;rsm;udk oydwfarSmufjcif;/ ta&;qdkjcif;jzpfojzifh qENjyvsuf&dSa=umif;/
xdkqif;&Jolrsm; rdrdwdk@ &oifh&xdkufaom tcGifhta&;udk awmif; qdkonfrSm w&m;onf[k owif;pmq&mrsm;u
,Hk=unf,lqa=umif;?
wpfEdkifiHvHk;wGif jzpfysufaeaom tajctaeESifh pyfvsOf;I rSefuefaom owif;rsm;udk }udK;yrf;&SmazG azmfjyjcif;/ rrSefaom
owif;rsm;udk acsyjcif;/ vrf;pOfrSefudk csay;jcif; pojzifh aqmif&GufoGm;rnfjzpfa=umif; [lI qHk;jzwf=u+yD;/ xdkqHk;jzwfcsuf rsm;udk
owif;pmrsm;wGif azmfjy=uonf?
xdktpnf;ta0;odk@ wufa&muf=uonfh owif;pmrsm;ESifh udk,fpm;vS,frsm;rSm acgif;aqmifowif;pmwdkuf OD;cifarmif/
rEWav;ol&d,owif;pmwdkuf OD;wif/ A[dkpnf owif;pmwdkuf OD;baomif/ pD;yGm;a&;owif;pmwdkuf ocifnD/ wdkif;cspf owif;pmwdkuf
OD;odef;az/ vGwfvyfa&; owif;pmwdkuf ociftkef;az/ vlxkowif;pmwdkufOD;wdk;ºuG,f/ jrefrmOD;pGef;owif;pmwdkuf OD;jrifhOD;/
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmwdkuf OD;udkudkvwf/ e*g;eD *sme,fwdkuf OD;armifarmif/ *G*sme,fwdkuf OD;cspfaqG/ r[maAm"dwdkuf OD;at;jrifh/ oH
awmfqifh owif;pmwdkufOD;at;armif/ Armhwm&mowif;pmwdkuf OD;cspfwdk@ jzpf=uonf? xdktxJwGif &efukefowif;pmwdkufrsm;.
owif;axmufrsm;/ udk,fpm;vS,frsm;vnf; ygavonf?
,ckazmfjyonfh owif;pmrsm;. qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk =unfhv#if trsKd;om; owif;pmrsm;u jynfol@wdkufyGJESifh wom;wnf;/
wpfxyfwnf; &dSonf? jynfol@wdkufyGJ owif;rsm; azmfjyay;onf? jynfol@bufu &yfwnfonf? wdkufyGJvrf;pOfcsay;onf qdkonfrSm
xif&Sm;aeonfyif?
owif;pmrsm;. puULwdkufyGJ
'kwd,urBmppf}uD;+yD;pwGif jrefrmjynfY &efukef-rEWav;+rdK@rsm;wGif owif; pmrsm; jyefvnfxkwfa0=uonf? 1945
ckESpfxJwGif &efukefY ol&d,jrefrmhtvif;/ Armacwfowif;pmrsm; xkwfa0+yD; rEWav;wGif wdkif;cspf/ rEWav;ol&d,owif;pmrsm;
xkwfa0=uonf? xdk@aemufrS &efukef-rEWav;+rdK@rsm;Y wjznf;jznf;ESifh owif;pmrsm; wdk;wufrsm;jym;vmonf?
'kwd,urBmppf+yD;pwGif +Adwdo#tpdk;&u jrefrmjynfudk ppftkyfcsKyfa&;jzifh tkyfcsKyfavonf? xdkumvwGif
trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;udk +Adwdo#wdk@u qifqmvkyf+yD; rS xkwfa0cGifhjyKavonf? xkdta=umif;udk jrefrmh tvif;owif;pmrSaeI
‘*sKdum’ u oa&mfwdkufcdkufonf? odk@aomfvnf; +Adwdo#wdk@url yHkESdyfwdkufrsm;udk umuG,fa&; Oya'jzifh xdef;csKyfxm;onf?
ZGefvxJwGif yHkESdyfwdkufrsm;ESifh ywfoufI umuG,fa&; Oya'xkwfjyefavonf/ xkwfjyefcsufrSm Todk@ jzpf.?
a=unmpm
ydkpwmrsm;/ qm=uLvmrsm;ESifh rnfonhfpm&Gufpmwrf;rqdk yHkESdyfxkwfa0&mY yHkESdyfwdkufqdkif&m Oya'wpf&yf wnf+rJ&ef
vdktyfonfjzpfI jrefrmjynf umuG,fa&; Oya' yk'fr 41 t& trdef@xkwfjyefvdkufonf?
jrefrmjynf ppfzufqdkif&m tpdk;&. ydkpwmrsm;/ qm=uLvmrsm;/ pm&Gufpmwrf; rsm;rSwpfyg; rnfonfh pm&Gufpmwrf;rqdk
a*:'0ifvrf; +rdK@rausmif;&dS 'kwd, ykvdyfrif;}uD;. cGifhjyKcsufr&bJ yHkESdyfxkwfa0jcif; rjyK&? xdktrdef@onf aemufxyf a=unmcsuf
rjyKor# &efukef/ tif;pdefESifh [Hom0wDe,frsm;wGif wnf+rJap&rnf?
trdef@udk remcHcJhaomf axmif'%f 5ESpf (odk@r[kwf) '%faiG (odk@) axmif'%f/ aiG'%f ESpf&yfvHk; uscHay;aqmifap&rnf?
pDwD&if;epf +rdK@jyqkdif&m 'kwd,rif;}uD; (ol&d,owif;pm 7-6-45)
+Adwdo#wdk@u Todk@xdef;uGyf csKyfcs,fr_rsm;jyKvkyfxm;aomfvnf; ‚if;wdk@ taeESifhrl 0g'jzef@csda&;vkyfief;udk
wGifwGifus,fus,fyifvkyfvsuf&dSavonf? tpdk;& owif;pmrsm;uvnf; trsm;tjym;xkwfvsuf &dSonf?
&efukefwGif e,l;wdkif;/ atmhzfbm;rm; (t*Fvdyf)/ owif;pm/ acwfopf owif;pm/ jynf+rdK@wGif jynfO=ooowif;pm/
om,m0wD+rdK@wGif jrefrmhwufvrf; owif;pm/ rEWav;+rdK@wGif a&$+rdKifoHowif;pm/ awmifil+rdK@wiG f awmifil tmabmf owif;pm/
ykodrf+rdK@wGif a&$armif;oHowif;pm/ rEWav;+rdK@wGif a&$ref;atmifpnf owif;pm [lI toD;oD;xkwfa00g'jzef@vsuf &dSavonf?

74

tpdk;&u owif;pmrsm; tjyif 0g'jzef@csda&;vkyfief;twGuf toHv$ifhXmeESifh e,fvSnfh±kyf&SiftzGJ@rsm;vnf; &dSao;onf? xdk@jyif
pmzwfcef;rsm;vnf; zGifhao;onf? owif;jzef@csda&;cef;rrsm;vnf; zGifhonf?
wdk@atmifajrtrnf&dS owif;pmudk qdkygv#if tdENd,wGif ±dkufESdyfI jrefrmjynfodk@ av,mOfjzifh ydk@um
xkwfa0jzef@csdvdkufao;onf?
odk@jzpfav&m tpdk;&0g'jzef@csda&; owif;pmrsm;uom xdktcsdefu rsm;ae+yD; Armh trsKd;om;wdk@. qENudk xkwfazmfaom
trsKd;om;owif;pmu tenf;i,fom &dSaeay onf? ‘xdkowif;pmrsm;rSm +Adwdo#wdk@ jrefrmjynfodk@ jyefa&mufvmonfrSm ckepfv
wdkifwdkif&dSaomfvnf; tpdk;&wdk@xHrS puUL wpf&Gufr# r&&dS=uay? ppfrjzpfrDu usef&dSaom puULrsm;teuf *syefu oHk;ESpfausmfausmf
jzKef;csifoavmufjzKef;oGm;+yD;rS usefonfh tºuGif;tusefrsm;udk tqrwefaomaps;jzifh &Sm;yg;vSpGm ol@xufigaumif; tvkt,uf
0,f,l=u&.? ,ck 0,fIvnf; r&Edkif=uay? xdktxJrS +Adwdo#tpdk;& vufxufu &Ekdifoavmuf vkdufvHzrf;qD;odrf;,lxm;.?
odk@a=umifh jrefrmh owif;pm rsm;rSm owif;pm&Gufa&udk uef@owf &±Hkr#ru owif;pmapmifa&udkvnf; rsm;aom tm;jzifh
wpfaxmifESifh oHk;axmift=um; uef@owfI xkwfa0ae&.? xdk@a=umifh owif;pmtm;vHk;. apmifa&udk aygif;ygrS 10000/ 20000
cef@yif &dSEdkifayrnf[lI 'D;'kwf*sme,fu ppf+yD;powif;pmrsm; tajctaeudk a&;om;azmfjycJhayonf? tpdk;&u 0g'jzef@onfh
owif;pmrsm;udkrl aomif;csDI xkwfa0ay;onf?
trsKd;om;owif;pm*sme,frsm;rSm o,f,lydk@aqmifjzef@csad &;twGufvnf; tcuftcJ &dSao;onf? tpdk;&owif;pmrsm;udk
jzef@csd&mY ppfarmfawmfum;/ ppfrD;& xm;/ ppfarmfawmfbkwf/ av,mOfysHwdk@jzifh jzef@csdonf? +rdK@e,faus;&GmtESH@ a&mufEkdifonf?
trsKd;om;owif;pm*sme,frsm;rSm pmwdkufzGifh xm;aom +rdK@rsm;odk@ ukeful;oef;oGm;vmonfh armfawmfbkwfrsm;/
c&D;onfwifarmfawmfum;rsm;jzifhom ydk@Edkifavonf?
tajctae Todk@&dSonfrSm +Adwdo#wdk@u jynfol@em;udk ydwfapI ‚if;wdk@ 0g'jzef@csda&;udkom tm;oGefjyKvkyfay;ouJhodk@
&dSavonf?
1945 ck/ Edk0ifbmvavmufwGifum; vlxk*sme,f/ jynfo@l tm%m*sme,f/ vuf±Hk;*sme,frsm;ESihf trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;
tawmftoifh &dSae+yDjzpfonf? trsKd;om; owif;pmrsm; tiftm;toifhtwifh&dSvm+yD[k qdk&ayrnf?
odk@jzifh trsKd;om;owif;pm*sme,frsm;u pnf;vHk;aomtiftm;jzifh wdkufyGJ0if=uav+yD?
1945 ck/ Edk0ifbmv 14 &ufae@wGif ol&d,owif;pmwdkufY owif;pmq&mrsm; tpnf;ta0;jyKvkyf+yD;tpdk;&xkwf owif;pmrsm; &yfpJay;yg
Edk0ifbmv 14 &ufae@u ol&d,owif;pmwdkufwGif usif;yaom owif;pm q&mrsm; tpnf;ta0;wGifvuf&dS owif;pm/
*sme,frsm;tm; puULrsm; tnDtr# &&dSatmif tpdk;&u ta&;,laqmif&Gufay;&efESifh
,cktcg owif;pmrsm;tvkHtavmuf &dSae+yDjzpfI tpdk;&xkwfa0aom owif;pmrsm; csufcsif;&yfpJ+yD; tpdk;&vuf&dS
puULrsm;udk owif;pm/ *sme,frsm;odk@ oifhwifhaom tzdk;xm;ESifh a0iSa&mif;cs&ef awmif;qdkqHk;jzwfa=umif;[lI
qHk;jzwfawmif;qdk=uavonf?
'D;'kwf*sme,furl ‘wdkif;oljynfom;wdk@. wpfzufem;udkydwfI rdrdwdk@ 0g'udkom oGif;ay;aompepfrSm *smrmefESifh *syefwdk@
oHk;cJhaompepf jzpf.? ,ckwdkuf±dkuf r[kwfaomfvnf; wdkif;jynfowif;pmwdk@tm; puULKray;bJ tpdk;&owif;pmrsm;
r}uHKzl;avmufatmif xGufay:aejcif;rSm oG,f0dkufaomenf;jzifh zufqpfpepfyifjzpfI aeonfudk tpdk;&wdk@onf av;av;eufeuf
pOf;pm;oifhayrnf+yD[lI a&;avonf?
('D;'kwf*sme,f 19/ 11/ 45)
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmrS *sKdumtcef;u
‘tpdk;&toHjzpfaom owif;pmawGudkom e,fvmvlxkwdk@rSm bH;kabmvatm zwfI ae=uavawmhonf?
puULu&Sm;/ puULaps;uwuf/ rD;&xm;uvnf; rxGuf/ pmwdkufc uvnf; t&rf;wuf/ =umv#if jynfol@toHjzpfaom
owif;pm/ *sme,f awGratmfEkdifatmif jyKwfukef=uawmhrnfrSm rkcsjzpfonf?
'Drdkua&pDEkdifiHwdk@wGif tpdk;&toHygaom owif;pmwGifru/ jynfoltoHygaom owif;pmawG bkH;abmvatm
xkwfa0jzef@csdpmawGonfudk vlxku zwf&onf/ zwf&atmifvnf; tpdk;&u tm;ay;onf?
*

*

*

jrefrmEkdifiHonf 'Drkdua&pD tpkd;&EkdifiHjzpfojzifh 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHyDyD jynfol@toH awGudk v$ifhay;xdkufonf ponfjzifh
a&;avonf?
TonfrSm jrefrmjynfowif;pmorkdif;wGif +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@orm;ESifh &ifqdkifqifE$JcJh&aom trsKd;om;owif;pmwkduf.
wkdufyGJwpfpdwfwpfa'o jzpfayonf?
xdktcsdefu ‘zufqpfwdkufzsufa&;/ jynfol@vGwfvyfa&;tzGJ@csKyf’ u OD;aqmif vsuf jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&; &&dSa&;twGuf
EkdifiHa&;t& wdkufyGJ0ifvsuf&dSayonf? xdk@a=umifh trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;onf rdrdwdk@twGuf puULwdkufyGJvnf; 0if&onf/
EkdifiHa&;t& puULjzLwdkufyGJvnf; qifE$J=u&ayao;onf?

75

1946 ckESpfwGif zGJ@pnf;onfh vGwfvyfpGma&;om;cGifh/ zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_/ wdkufyGJaumfrwDu OD;aqmif+yD; pme,fZif;rsm;u
tpdk;&udk awmif;qdkwdkufyJG0if&mwGif owif;pm/ *sme,f/ r*~Zif;rsm;twGuf t"duuke=f urf;jzpfonfh puUL&&dS&efvnf; vdkayonf?
udkvdkeDorm;u ol@tmabmf/ ol@0g'jzef@csda&;/ tpdk;&owif;pmrsm;udkom puULxkwfay;+yD; trsKd;om;pme,fZif;rsm;udkrl
puULvHkavmufatmif ray;bJ tcuftcJ ESifh &ifqdkifaponf? xdk@a=umifh puUL&zdk@vnf; qufvufwdkuf,l&onf? puUL&zdk@
ta&;qdk=uaomtcg tpdk;&u puULtkyfcsKyfa&; t&m&dSqdk+yD; cef@xm;ay;onf? wwfEdkifor# puULa0iSay;&onf?
1946 ck/ 'DZifbmv 6&ufwGifrl tpdk;&u owif;pmwdkurf sm;odk@ puULudpöESifh ywfoufI a=unmcsufxkwfonf?
puULr&v#if wdkifyg[k azmfjyxm;onf? xdk a=unmcsufwGif ‘wpfurBmvHk;wGif puULrsm; rvHkravmufjzpfaeonfhtjyif wifaqmif
o,fydk@a&;tcuftcJrsm; &dSaejcif;a=umifh jrefrmjynfokd@ ,cifppfrjzpfrDuavmuf puULrsm; vHkavmufpGm wifydk@jcif;
rjyKEkdifao;onfudk ta=umif;jyKI yHkEdSyfwdkufrsm;ESifh t&yfom;rsm;okd@ puULrsm;udk w&m;r#wpGm a0iSjzef@jzL;Ekdifap&eftvdk@iSm puUL
tkyfcsKyfa&; t&m&dSwpfOD;udk tpdk;&u cef@xm;vdkuf+yDjzpfa=umif; puULtkyfcsKyfa&; t&m&dSu vsmxm;cGJa0ay;aom owif;pmESifh
tjcm;puULrsm;udk &,l&ef tcuf tcJrsm; awG@}uHKaeygu rdrdwdk@ awG@}uHKvsuf&dSaom tcuftcJrsm;udk tao;pdwf azmfjy+yD;
tvkyform;Xme/ twGif;0efxHodk@ wdkif=um;ygu csufcsif;ta&;,l aqmif&Gufay;rnfjzpfa=umif;’ [lI azmfjyxm;onf? TonfrSm
puUL&&dSa&;twGuf ta&;qdkwkdufyGJ0ifI &&dSonfhtjrwfyif?
Ta=unmcsufESifh wpfqufwnf;yif/ b,fpme,fZif;twGuf puUL b,favmuf&onfqdkonfh a=unmcsufudkvnf;
awG@&onf? Ta=unmcsufudk =unfhjcif;jzifh xdktcsdeftcgu jrefrmjynfwGif pme,fZif;tiftm; rnfr#&dSonf/ rnfonfhowif;pm/
*sme,f/ r*~Zif;ESifh pmtkyfxkwfonfhwdkufrsm; &dSonfudk odEkdifonf?
jrefrmjynftpdk;& puULtkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&dSu 1946 ck/ Edk0ifbmvtwGif; jrefrmjynfyHkESdyfwdkufrsm;ESifh yHkESdyfxkwfa0olrsm;tm;
uef@owfonfh E_ef;jzifh a0iSxkwfay;vsuf&dSaom puULtcsKd;tpm;pm&if;rSm atmufygtwdkif; jzpfonf?
ae@pOfowif;pmrsm;
(1)
jrefrmhtvif;
puULxkyf 130
(2)
[Hom0wD
130
(3)
vGwfvyfa&;
130
(4)
a&S@aqmif
130
(5)
e,l;csKdif;em;ydk;
95
(6)
ulrifwpfydk;
95
(7)
&efukefe,l;tD;zeif;ydk@
95
(8)
&mpDu&ef*smeD
90
(9)
Amvmbm;rm;
36
(10) Armhacwf
130
(11) oHawmfqifh
130
(12) pD;yGm;a&;
130
(13) bm;rif;
100
(14) y&mcsDy&muwf
35
(15) ay*rf
22
(16) yl&mcsd
34
(17) qk[ef'gtdENd,
76
(18) qefoD
32
(19) jynfol@[pfwdkif
130
(20) urBmhtvif;
130
(21) acgif;aqmif (rEWav;)
86
(22) vlxk (rEWav;)
130
(23) 'eft*sm'D
21
(24) rEWav;ol&d,
130
(25) jrefrmhOD;pGef;
130
(26) wdkif;cspf
82
(27) ta&;awmfyHk
72
(28) orm"d
72
(29) tJA&D;abm'D;
72
(30) a'vDtdyfpy&uf (Z0eae@pOf)

70

76

*sme,fESifhr*~Zif;rsm;
(1)
'D;'kwf puULxkyf
40
(2)
*sme,fausmf
40
(3)
*&dwfx&efuGD;vDwm;
30
(4)
ypfwdk&,fpwdwf (*sf) ±kyfpHkobif
(5)
atmif*sme,f
30
(6)
y[kd&fpnf (rEWav;)
40
(7)
wdk;wufa&;
30
(8)
jynfol@toH
30
(9)
vlr_a&;
30
(10) jynfol@&Jabmf
30
(11) jynfol@tm%m
30
(12) vlxk*sme,f
40
(13) Armopf
30
(14) 0duvD;e,l;pf
20
(15) pwl;'ifh'dkif*suf
30
(16) qdk&S,fvpfwyfOD;
20
(17) a&;(pf)
20
(18) owif;pHk
30
(19) qef;a';'dkif*suf
30
(20) wdkif;&if;ol
20
(21) 0duvD;[±l;rm;&pf
30
(22) at0rf;±kyfpHk
30
(23) e*g;eD (rEWav;)
40
(24) bm;rD;(p) &DAsL;
36
(25) Z0e*sme,f
40
(26) ZGJ
30
(27) ,k0wD
30
(28) ndKjr
30
(29) 0duvD;yg;um;
20
(30) *G*sme,f (rEWav;)
40
(31) r[maAm"d
40
(32) zqyvowif;pOf
80
(33) ywfAvpftdkyDeD,H
20
(34) 'dk@Armowif;pOf
20
(35) jynfnGef@
30
(36) paeowif;
20
(37) tvif;a&mif
10
(38) pwm;atmhzfbm;rm;
30

20

14&uf wywfpmapmifrsm;
(1)
umwGef;±kyfpHk
puULxkyf 20
(2)
bm;rm;'dkif*sufpf
20
(3)
bm;rD;pf'dkuf*sufpf
20
(4)
ta&;ay:pmapmif
20
(5)
opfqef;
20
(6)
wm&mr*~Zif;
15
(7)
acwfqef;pmapmif
20
(8)
e,l;zef;
20
(9)
&J&Jawmuf
20
(10) csrf;ompmapmif
20
(11) pwl;'ifhe,l;pf
20

77

(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
(22)
(23)
(24)
(25)
(26)

&Jabmfpmapmif
pma&;q&m
acwftrsKd;orD;
vufr_ynm
Armhtm;
ta&S@wdkif;
aoG;aomuf
rD;owfpmapmif
&efukef&DAsL;
wdkif;&if;om;
}uD;yGm;a&;
w±kwfr*¾Zif;
acwfopf±kyfpHk
w±kwfvli,frsm;*sme,f
rGefowif;pOf

20
20
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
10

pmtkyfwdkufrsm;
(1)
e,l;bm;rm;pmtkyfwdkuf
15
(2)
z&ifh,leD,efpmtkyfwdkuf
15
(3)
±_awmfrl
15
(4)
bGef0SmyHkESdyfwdkuf
15
(5)
ZGJ
15
(6)
0wˆKv$m
15
(7)
rwifwifpmtkyfwdkuf
15
(8)
acwfopf
15
(9)
atmif
15
(10) acwfvl
15
(11) Z0epmtkyfwdkuf
15
(12) ±_r0pmtkyfwdkuf
15
(13) jrefrmh&mZ0ifpmtkyfwdkuf
15
(14) orm"dpmtkyfwdkuf
(15) aoG;pmtkyfwdkuf
(16) *dkvf;'if;vifhpfpmtkyfwkduf
(17) zHk;ºuG,fpmtkyfwdkuf
(18) ynmody`Hpmtkyfwdkuf
(19) pmaypmtkyfwkduf
(20) *|ef=unfpmtkyfwdkuf
10
(21) jrefrmjynfvHk;qdkif&m &[ef;ysKdtzGJ@csKyf (rEWav;) 150
(22) y&d,wˆdomoemh[dwpmtkyfwdkuf 30
(23) ukef;abmifoD&dpmtkyfwdkuf
50
(24) OD;vS
60
(25) OD;atmifpdef
30
(26) +rdK@rynma&;Xme
20
(27) OD;bdk;xif
96
owif;pmwdkufrsm;rSm ‘puULwdkufyGJ’ twGufatmifjrifr_ &aomfvnf;/ t"duusonfh vGwfvyfpGm a&;om;cGifh&&dSzdk@
wdkufyGJu usefao;onf? wdkif;jynf vGwfvyfa&;twGuf wdkufyGJuvnf; &dSao;onf? 'kwd,urBm ppft+yD;wGif puULjzL pDrHudef;udk
udkif+yD; 0ifvmonfh bk&ifcH. pDrHcsufrsm;udk uef@uGufcJh=u+yD; jzpfonf? odk@aomf udkvdkeDorm;u ol@udkvdkeD vufqkyfrajz&a&;twGuf
'kwd,t}udrf puULjzL pDrHudef; 0ifvmjyefonf?
puULjzLpDrHudef;vkyfvmjyefonf? xdktcgwGifvnf; trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;u 0dkif;wdkuf=u&jyefonf? jynfol@qENESifh
OD;wnfcsufu vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;r[kwfvm;/ xdk@a=umifh trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;onf 'kwd,t}udrf puUjzLwdkufyGJudk qifE$J=u&jyef
avonf?

78

puULjzLtay: oabmxm;
1946-47 ckESpfwGif bdvyfu tufwvDacgif;aqmifonfh tpdk;&tzGJ@ESifh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;acgif;aqmifaom
jrefrmudk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@wdk@ jrefrmjynf vGwfvyfa&; udpPESifh ywfoufI bdvyfwGif aqG;aEG;=uonf?
1947 ckESpf azazmf0g&DvxJwGifum; ‘udk,fpm;vS,fawmfrsm;u ta&;qkdaom *&dwf+AdwdefESifh jrefrmEdkifiHwdk@.
tem*wfqufqHa&;ESifh
oufqdkifaom
udpPt00udk
bk&ifrif;jrwftpdk;&ESifh
jrefrmEkdifiHwmf
tr_aqmifaumifpD.
udk,fpm;vS,fawmfrsm; aqG;aEG;wkdifyif+yD;v#if ‘aumfef/ armfef/ 0Jvfof’ twGif;wGif jzpfap/ tjyifrSjzpfaom aqmvsifEdkifor#
aqmvsifpGm jrefrmEkdifiHawmfol EdkifiHawmfom;rsm;wdk@onf rdrdwdk@. vGwfvyfa&;udk qGwfcl;Ekdifaprnfjzpfaom enf;vrf;rsm;ESifh
pyfvsOf;I atmufyg oabmwlnDcsuf tqHk;owfcsufrsm;udk a&muf&dS=uavonf’ qdk+yD; 'kwd,t}udrf puULjzLpmwrf;udk
xkwfjyefa=unmvdkufonf? xdkpmwrf;.atmufwGif yDtm&ftuf wvDESifh atmifqef;wdk@u vufrSwfa&;xdk;=uonf?
puULjzLpmwrf;qdkonfrSm
jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&;&&dSzdk@
1935
ckESpf/
tufOya'ESifh
1945
ckESpf/
,m,DpDrHcsuftufOya'rsm;t& rnfokd@aqmif&Guf=urnfqdkonfh pDrHudef; jzpfonf?
puULjzLpDrHudef;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;u awmfawmfuav; a0zefa&;om;=uonf? q&mZ0eu
‘awZukrRm’ qdk+yD; tcef;qufa&;onf? a&;onfrSm AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wdk@. ta=umif;rsm; jzpfonf? AdkvfcsKyfudk Zmwfvdkuf tjzpf
xm;onf? b}uD;bazwdk@/ ocifApdefwdk@ yg0ifonf? b}uD;bazudk 'lvma'0[k trnfay;onf? q&mZ0e. Zmwfaumifrsm;u
xif&Sm;onf? 'gb,folqdkonfudk y&dowfu odonf/ q&mZ0eu puULjzLpDrHudef;udk t"duxm; wdkufonf? xdktcsdefu twdkuf
tcHta&;qHk;rSm Z0eESifh jynfol@tm%mwdk@ jzpfonf?
q&mZ0eu ‘'Dwkef;u zqyvtm%m&aew,f/ yk*~dKvft&/ uavmift& vGwfvyfcGifh&dSw,f/ puULjzLpmwrf;udk
wdkufw,f? zqyvu 'dkrDeD,rf/ ,lrvdkvdk vkyfvdk@ wdkuf&w,f? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wdk@ tm%m ,lvdrfhr,f? tpdk;&tzGJ@
vufcHvdrfhr,f qdkwmawG a0zefa&;w,f? 'Dtcg Z0eudk av;av;pm;pm; jzpfvmw,f’ [lI u|efawmhfudk ajymjyonf? Z0eudk
av;av;pm;pm; jzpfvmw,fqdkonfrSm ,cifu Z0eqdkv#if [moavmufom a&;oljzpfonf[k todtrSwfjyK=uonfudk ajymjcif;
jzpfonf?
'kwd,puULjzLpmwrf;xGufvmonfhtcg q&mZ0e. Z0eae@pOf owif;pm xkwfaeqJ jzpfonf? Tae&mwGif Z0e ae@pOf
tygt0if jrefrm trsKd;om; owif;pmrsm;. puULjzLpmwrf;tay: oabmxm;udk xdktcgu xkwfa0aeaom owif;pmrsm;xJrS
enf;enf;pD aumufEkwfazmfjyvdkufygonf?
ArmhtaeESifhwdkuf
wdk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;}uD;u }uD;rSL;I vGefcJhonfh we*FaEGae@u ql;avbk&m;vrf;Y usif;yaom tpnf;ta0;u
bdvyfpmcsKyfudk wdkufzsufrnf qdk&mY twGif;vrf;avm/ tjyifvrf;avm/ cGJjcm;I rod&acs? u|Ekfyfwdk@ oabmrSm ,cifa&;om;
azmfjy+yD;onfh twdkif; bdvyfpmcsKyfudk vHk;0auseyfjcif; r&dS=uapumrl vGwfvyfa&; jrefjref&atmif twGif;vrf;jzifh
oGm;=uapvdkonf? xdk@tjyif bdvyfpmcsKyfudk twdkuftcHjyK&mYvnf; a'gufwmbarmf ajymouJhodk@yif yk*~v"dXmefvHk;0rzufbJ/
"rR"dXmefoufoufjzifh jrefrmtaeESifh twdkuftcHjyK=uapvdkownf;?
(orm"d)
vufcHolESifh vufrcHol
atmifqef;tufwvDpmcsKyfudk vufrcHolrsm;rSm qma':rmefvufxuf wdkif;jynfESifh twkduftcHjyKI bk&ifcH. aumifpDwGif
&mxl;vufcHolrsm;ESifh wdkif;jynf tusKd;&dSr_vkyfief;xuftajymwGif oefae=uolrsm;jzpfonfudk wdkif;jynfu rodrjrif &dS=urnf
r[kwfacs?
(pD;yGm;a&;)
+Adwdo#y&d,m,fcsD;usL;zG,f
,cktcsdefY 'kwd,puULjzLudk ta=umif;jyKvsuf +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@orm;wdk@tm; wdkufaomwdkufyGJudkpcJhv#if xdkodk@
wdkufzsufolrsm;onf +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@orm;tm; wdkufzsuf&m ra&mufbJ AdkvfcsKyfESifh zqyvvkyfief;udk uzsufu&uf vkyfaom
tajcrsKd;odk@ qkdufa&mufrnfjzpf&um; jynfolvlxk}uD;. rsufarSmufwGif &efoljzpfaom +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@orm;. ±kyfoGifaysmufvsuf
nDtpfudktcsif;csif; wkduf&rnf uJhodk@aom tajctaersKd;odk@ qdkufa&mufvsuf &dSaeonfudk u|Ekfyfwdk@ awG@&dS&aya=umif;/ odk@jzpf&um;
jrefrmvlxk}uD;udk ESpfjcrf;uGJapvsuf &efole,fcsJ@ orm;tm; onf;onf; rJrJwdkuf&rnfh tdrf=uufcsif;cGyfaomwdkufyGJtjzpfodk@ jyKjyif
ajymif;vJay;vkdufEdkifaom +Adwdo#e,fcsJ@orm;. EkdifiHa&;y&d,m,fudk rsm;pGm csD;usL;zG,faumif;a=umif;?
(Armhacwf)

79

tjrefa=unm
atmifqef;tufwvDpmcsKyf[k ac:aom EkdifiHa&;enf;y&d,m,f}uD;ay:wGif ta=umif;jyKI EkdifiHa&;twdkuftcHrsm;
ay:ayguf=uawmhrnfjzpf&m &mxl;ay:wGif ta=umif;jyKI twdkuftcH jzpf=u&onfxufydkI enf;vrf;rSefonf[k u|Efkyfwdk@
0efcH=u&ayvdrfhrnf? xdkxufydkI enf;vrf;rSefuef&eftwGuf atmifqef;tufwvD oabmwlcsufxufydkI rSefuefonf[k
twdkuftcHorm;wdk@u ,lqaom enf;y&d,m,f udk wdkif;jynfodk@ twdtvif; a=unm+yD;aqmif&Guf&ef?
(jrefrmhtvif;)
t=uyf

'kwd,puULjzLudk ocifApdef/ OD;apm/ a'gufwmbarmf tp&dSaom yk*~dKvfwdk@u uruxjyKvkyfI wdkufzsuf&ef
ajcvSrf;jyif=uonfudk awG@&dS&aomtcg u|Ekfyfwdk@rSm xdkolrsm;. twdwfEdkifiHa&;usifhpOfudk taxmuftxm;jyKvsuf 'kwd,puULjzL
pDrHudef;udk u|Efkyfwdk@ raxmufcH rESpfouf Ekdif±dk;yif rSefapumrl xdkolrsm;. EkdifiHa&; pwef@udk rnfonfhenf;r# raxmufcHEkdifa=umif;
awG@&dSvm&ayonf? OD;atmifqef;wdk@. trSm;udk a0zefjyefv#ifvnf; wpfbufu Adkvfvk&ef }udK;pm;aeaom azmufjyefa&; orm;rsm;
jzpfonfh OD;apm/ ocifbpdefESifh a'gufwmbarmfwdk@. ajcvSrf;udk az;ul yifhajr‡mufay;ouJhodk@ jzpfaejyef&m t*Fvdyfwdk@.
t}udKufomv#ifjzpfI jzpfIvm+yD; wdkif;jynftwGufrl a&S@wdk;a&yHk;/ aemufqkwfa&ykef;qdo
k uJhodk@om t=uyf jzpfvm &awmha=umif;?
([pfwkdif)
vGwfvyfa&;twGufom tm;pk
qef@usifa&;orm;rsm;tm; rqef@usif=uygESifh[k vrf;jyawmif;yefjcif;jzifh tusKd;xl;Ekdifrnf r[kwf&um;/ vlxktm;
em;ra,mifygESifh[kom owday;I vGwfvyfa&;twGufom ydkI tm;pktm;jznfh=uygav[k wdkufwGef; a&;om;&ayo wnf;?
(a&S@aqmif)
vufiif;tajctae
vufrSwfrxdk;rDu ta&;}uHKv#if toihf&dS=u&ef jyifqifxm;=uaom awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;onfvnf;aumif;/ e,fcsJ@orm;
t&if;&Sifrsm;udk wpf+ydKifwnf; +zdKcGif;ypf&ef oydwfvufeufjyifqifxm;=uaom tvkyform;rsm;onf vnf;aumif;/ tkHºuGqlyGufrnfh
ab;tEW&m,f}uD;udk +Adwdo#tpdk;&onf rdrdwdk@udk,fwdkif &ifqdkif ESdrfeif;jcif; rjyK&bJ tvkdtavsmuf toufaysmufoGm;&ef
'kwd,puULjzLopfjzifh y&d,m,foHk;I acsr_ef;vdkuf&mwGif zqyvESifh qdk&S,fvpfwdk@wpfbuf/ armf/ apm/ pdef/ ay:wdk@u
wpfbuftcsif;csif; wdkufyGJqif=uawmhrnfh tajctaeodk@ qdkufa&mufoGm; atmif ar#mfvifhonfxufydkI vufeufpl;0if
atmifjrifxda&mufoGm;avawmhonf?
,cktcsdeftcgwGif zqyvzufvnf;ryg/ tjcm;rnfonhfygwDzufodk@vnf; ryg=uaom =um;aevlxk. pdwfY rnfol@udkr#
r,Hk=unf=uyJ &dSae=uavonf?
tuJcwfolwdk@url 47 ckESpf/ puULjzLudk ygvDrmefY aqG;aEG;=uonfhtcg ta&;edrfhcJhaomf tufwvDvnf; jyKwfusrnf/
jrefrmjynftpkd;&tzGJ@vnf; tajymif; tvJ &dSrnf? xdktcgwGif csufaumif;0ifI tkyf=u&ef pDrHpdkif;jyif;ae=ujcif; jzpfonf[k
,lq=uavonf?
ocifpdk;wdk@rSm ajrv#dK;aeojzifh tvHeDuGefjrLepfwdk@rSm wdkufzsufa&;bufu yg0if=uvdrfhrnf? 'DZifbmv 20 &ufae@u
tufwvD. a=unmcsufxGufpOfu ygwDtoD;oD;u xkwfjyefcsufjyK=uaomfvnf; odef;oef; uGefjrLepfwdk@u a=unm rvdkvdk/
bmvdkvdkESifh bmrSrvkyf/ ,ck puULjzL pmwrf;xGufay:vmaomtcgvnf; odef;oef;wdk@omv#if wHk%Sdabm +rHKpdpd vkyfae=u.?
xdk@a=umifh odef;oef;uGefjrLepfawGudk tacsmiform;awG[k tvHeDu pGyfpGJ=uaywmyJ[k ,lq=u.? ,ckvnf;
zqyvESifhaygif;&ef }udwf}uHonfhjyif a&G;aumufyGJudk 0if&ef [efjyif=uonf[k wGufudef;csxm;.?
u|Ekfyfwdk@. oabmum; tcsKyftcsmtm%mtjynfhtpHk&dSrnfh wdkif;jynfjynfjyK v$wfawmf tjrefzGJ@pnf;a&;udk a&S;±_Ivsuf
bmr#tm%mr&dSaom wdkif;jynfjyK v$wfawmf zefwD;rnfh 47 ckESpf puULjzLudk wu,fhapwemt&if;jzifh wdkufcdkuf +zdKzsufjcif;udk
tvdk&dS.? tcsif;csif;wdkufcdkufI udk,fusdK;&Smonfh wdkufckdufjcif; udkum; rvdkvm;Ekdifay? e,fcsJ@v,form;}uD;onf
rdrdtdk;rnf;okwfxm;aom =uufESpfaumif cGyfI tvJwGif qGJoGm;rnfudk owd& oifh=u+yD; jzpfayownf;?
(Z0e-ae@pOf)
aoa&;&Sifa&;
u|Ekfyfwdk@u ,ckzJG@pnf;xm;aom 'kwd,puULjzLpmcsKyf wdkufzsufa&;ESifh ywfoufI ,cktcg txl;wvnf a0zefajymqdkjcif;
rjyKao;rD wdkif;jynfESifhvlxkuom rdrdwdk@. aoa&;&Sifa&; jzpfvmonfudk OayuQm±_raeap=uvdka=umif;/ E_d;aqmfpum;
a&;om;&ayownf;?
(ol&d,)
wpfrsKd;vHk;csDI wdkufzsuf=uaytHh/ bdvyftpdk;&wdk@ vSrf;vdkufonfh ausmhuGif; 0ifrwdk;ESifh? Tpmwrf;yg tcsufrsm;onf
ArmqENtppftrSefrsm; r[kwfygvsufESifh Armudk,fpm;vS,frsm;onf rnfonhfpdwful;ESifh oabmwl vufcHvdkuf&ygayownf;?

80

‘'dkrDeD,rftvdkr&dS 1935 ckESpf tufOya' rvdkcsif/ vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;ay;yg/ tm%m usyfjynfh&aom trsKd;om;tpdk;&tzGJ@
tjrefzGJ@avmh’ [laom rqGu}uHK;0g;oHrsm;udk OD;atmifqef;onf bdvyfY jyefvnfjrnfwrf;usL;&ifh&ef arhavsmhoGm;av+yDavm?
(1) Ttcsufrsm;udk zqyvtzGJ@csKyf}uD;ESifh jrefrmjynfolvlxkonf tjrefqHk; pdppfoHk;oyfI jrefrmqENESifh
rudkufnDa=umif;/ uef@uGufqENjyK&ef/
(2) jrefrmhqEN oHk;csufESifh rudkufnDojzifh rlvtpDtpOftwdkif; zqyv 0ef}uD;rsm;udk &mxl;rSxGufap
!$ef=um;csufxkwf&ef/
(3) jrefrmqEN jynfh0onftxd tHkºuGaomenf;vrf;jzifh tjyifvrf;rS t&,l&ef/
TtcsufoHk;csufudk wpfrsKd;vHk;csDI vkyfaqmifoifhrnfjzpfa=umif; t¹rGuftm;jzihf owday;vdkuf&aya=umif;?
(*sme,fausmf)
±dkufwmudk oydwfarSmuf
1947 ckESpfwGif jrefrmjynf yHkESdyfwdkuftoif;u ±dkufwma=u;eef; owif;c E_ef;xm;rsm;vGef;I avsmhaygh&ef
±dkufwma=u;eef;owif;Xmeudk ta&;qdk=uonf?
±dkufwm a=u;eef;owif;Xmeu TudpPudk auseyfavmufatmif ta=umif; rjyefay? xdk@a=umifh jrefrmjynf
yHkESdyfwdkuftoif;u ±dkufwmESif tqufjzwf&ef qHk;jzwfvdkufonf? qHk;jzwfcsufudk jrefrmjynfyHkESdyfwdkuftoif;u ±dkufwma=u;eef;
owif;Xmeodk@ ydk@onf? owif;pmwdkufrsm;u oHk;v Ekd@wpfay;onf? Ekd@wpfrSm 31-4-47 qdkv#if aphonf? xdkudpPESifh ywfoufI
aqmif&Guf&ef toif;u OD;oef;wifh/ OD;tkef;cifESifh OD;bcifwdk@udk wm0efay;onf?
±dkufwmESifh tqufjzwfvdkufv#if owif;pmrsm;tzdk@ EkdifiHjcm;owif;rsm; jynfhjynfhpHkpHk&zdk@ tcuftcJ&dSvdrfhrnf? xdk@a=umifh
EkdifiHjcm;owif;rsm; tqufrjywf &Ekdifap&ef toif;u }udK;yrf;&onf? owif;pmzwfy&dwfowftwGuf urBmhowif; rsm;ESifh
tqufrjywf&efuvnf; ta&;}uD;onf r[kwfygvm;?
xdk@a=umifh
±dkufwmESifh
ta&;qdkaepOfrSmyif
EdkifiHjcm;owif;rsm;
tqufrjywf
&Ekdif&ef
toif;u
tpdk;&jynfol@qufqHa&;Xmeudk tultnD awmif;&onf? jynfol@ qufqHa&;Xmeuvnf; EkdifiHjcm;a&'D,dkowif;rsm;udk
jzef@csday;avonf? xdktcg ±dkufwmESifh jynfol@qufqHa&;Xmewdk@ &ifqdkif&jyefonf? xdktcgu jynfol@qufqHa&; Xmet&m&dSrSm
OD;pdef&Gufjzpfonf? ±dkufwm a=u;eef;owif;Xme refae*smrSm rpPwmpDbm&rf; jzpfonf?
{+yDv 4 &ufwGif jynfol@qufqHa&;Xmeu owif;pmwdkufrsm;odk@ xkwfa0onfh EkdifiHjcm;a=u;eef;wpfyk'frSm
atyDtdkifa=u;eef;owif;[lI ygvmonf? TwGif ±dkufwmowif;Xmetzdk@ tuGufawG@av+yD? odk@jzifh rpPwmpDbm&rf;u xdkowif;udk
udkifvm+yD; OD;pdef&Gufudk ol@wdk@ rlydkifowif;udk tcGifhr&bJ owif;pmwdkufrsm;udk tpdk;&Xmeu jzef@jzL;ay;&rnfvm;[k
uef@uGufavawmhonf?
xdktcg jynfol@qufqHa&;Xmeuvnf; tjyif;txefjiif;onf? rpPwm pDbm&rf; ajymonhfowif;udk aoaocsmcsm
jyef=unfhaomtcg atyDtdkifa=u;eef;owif; r[kwfbJ attdkifat a=u;eef;owif;jzpfaeavonf? xdktcgwGifrS ±dkufwmu
vufavsmhoGm;avonf?
xdkr#ESifhr+yD;ao;? ±dkufwm rwfv 21 &ufae@pGJESifh ydk@onfh rEWav;axmifESifh ywfoufaom owif;wpfyk'frSm
rSm;aeonfqdk.? xdkowif;udk jyifay;&ef rEWav; ta&;ydkifESifh jynfol@qufqHa&;Xmeu ±dkufwma=u;eef;owif;Xmeudk {+yDv 5
&ufu uef@uGufxm;onf? xdkudpPrSmvnf; ,cktcsdeftxd jyifqifcsuf rawG@&ao;onfh ta=umif;/ OD;pdef&Gufu ajymjyaomtcg
rpPwmpDbm&rf;u {+yDv 8 &ufae@txd jyifqifcsufrydk@&ao;a=umif; 0efcH+yD; awmif;yef&onf?
±dkufwma=u;eef;owif;crsm;udk avsmh&ef jrefrmjynf ykHESdyfwdkuftoif;u ta&;qdkcJh&m {+yDvukeftxd ±dkufwmu
avsmhray;/ avsmhray;v#if ±dkufwmESifh tqufjzwfrnf[k oHk;v}udK+yD; Edk@wpfay;cJhonf? toif;u qHk;jzwfonfhtwdkif;qdkv#if arv
1 &ufae@up+yD; tqufjywf=uawmhrnf? odk@aomf tcsKd@owif;pmrsm;u Ekd@wpfay;xm;onfh tawmftwGif;rSmyif ±dkufwmESifh
tqufjzwfvdkuf=uonf?
xdkowif;pmrsm;
repfem&atmif
qkd+yD;
jynfol@qufqHa&;Xmeu
odoifhodxdkufonfh
EkdifiHjcm;owif;rsm;udk jzef@csday;aeonf?
jrefrmEkdifiHyHkESdyfwdkuftoif;u qHk;jzwfwdkufwGef;ojzihf 1947 ck/ arv 1 &ufu p+yD; ±dkufwma=u;eef;owif;rsm;udk
r,lawmhbJ tqufjzwf rnf[lI owif;pmrsm;u a=unmonf? xdkowif;pmrsm;rSm (1) jynfol@[pfwdkif (2) [Hom0wD (3)
Armhacwf (4) a&S@aqmif (5) oHawmfqifh (6) wdk;wufa&;/ (7) &mpDum&m*smeD/ (8) ol&d,/ (9) orm"d/ (10) &efukef/ (11)
pD;yGm;a&;ESifh (12) jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmwdk@ jzpfonf?
xdkodk@ a=unm+yD;onfhaemuf owif;pmrsm;u ±dkufwma=u;eef;owif;Xmeudk oydwfarSmuf=ujcif;ESifh ywfoufI
jrefrmhtvif;u owif;ay;azmfjy+yD; Todk@ rSwfwrf;wifavonf?
±dkufwma=u;eef;owif; owif;pmwdkuftcsKd@u tquftoG,fjzwf+yD
jrefrmjynf yHkESdyfwdkuftoif;u ±dkufwma=u;eef;owif;Xmeodk@ owif;ay;c E_ef;xm;udk avsmhaygh&ef awmif;qdkcJhaomfvnf;
±dkufwm. jyef=um;csufrSm auseyfzG,f r&dSjcif;a=umifh jrefrmjynf yHkESdyfwdkuftoif;0if owif;pmwdkufrsm;tm; ±dkufwma=u;eef;
udk,fpm;vS,fESifh tquftoG,fjzwf&ef toif;u qHk;jzwfcsuf csrSwfcJh&m xdkuJhodk@ qHk;jzwfcsuf csrSwfcJhonfhtwdkif;

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toif;0ifowif;pmwdkufrsm;onf Zefe0g&Dvukef avmufu ±dkufwm a=u;eef;udk,fpm;vS,fxHodk@ jrefrmjynfyHkESdyfwdkuf toif;rS
wpfqifh 3 v Edk@wpfay;cJh&m xdk 3 v Ekd@wpfrSm ,ckvukefv#if aphawmhrnf jzpfa=umif;?
xdktawmtwGif;rSmyif tcsKd@aom owif;pmrsm;u ±dkufwm a=u;eef; owif;rsm;udk azmfjyjcif;rjyKbJ &yfpJvdkuf+yDjzpf&m
xdkodk@&yfpJaom owif;rsm; epfemjcif; r&dSap&eftwGuf jrefrmjynftpdk;& jynfol@qufqHa&;XmerS jrefrmjynfu odoifh odxkdufaom
EkdifiHjcm;owif;rsm;udk owif;pmwdkufodk@ jzef@a0vsuf&dSa=umif;/ xdkodk@ qHk;jzwfaqmif&Guf+yD;onfh aemufydkif;wGif ±dkufwmESifh
owif;pmrsm; ajyvnfr_ &&SmcJhonf? xdk@a=umifh ±dkufwm a=u;eef;owif;rsm; owif;rsm;wGif azmfjyonfudk awG@&avonf?
vGwfvyfa&;ESifhtwl
+Adwdo#udkvdkeDorm;ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm; aqG;aEG;=uI jrefrmjynf vGwfvyfa&;taumiftxnf
ay:vmawmhrnfhtcsdef 1947 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv 19&uf ae@wGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh acgif;aqmiftcsKd@udk vkyf}uHojzifh
usqHk;=u&avonf? xdktxJwGif owif;pmq&m pma&;q&m}uD; 'D;'kwfOD;bcsKdvnf; ygoGm;onf? owif;pm q&mOD;bcsKdrSm
vGwfvyfpGm a&;om;cGifh&zdk@ wdkufyGJ0if&mwGifvnf; acgif;aqmifwpfOD; yif?
vkyf}uHcH&r_ESifh ywfoufI trsKd;om;owif;pmrsm;u 0rf;enf;a=uuGJ=uonf? vkyf}uHr_udk ±_wfcs=uonf?
jrefrmjynfwGif vGwfvyfa&;&zdk@uvnf; eD;uyfvm+yD?

82