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Rubble Mound Breakwater Design Example

Given:
Design Conditions
Water depth: 5.5 m
Beach slope: 1:20
Design high water: 1.7 m
Design wave H
s
= 2 m
H
1/10
= 2.5 m
T
m
= 8 sec
L
o
= 100 m
Allowable overtopping: 0.4 m
3
/sec/m
Armor unit: rough quarry stone

Soil data:

0 m
5.5 m
SM
(sand)
fine to medium
loose
= 17 kN/m
3

= 30
c = 0
21.5 m
CH
(clay)
soft
over-consolidated
= 14 kN/m
3

= 0
c = 50 kPa
e
o
= 2.2
k = 10
-5
cm/s
a
v
= 3x10
-3
m
2
/kN
C
c
= 0.3
limestone

B

crown/cap
ocean side
bay/harbor side
crest
armor layer, W
h
c

R first underlayer
DHW
SWL

h
b

b

h

second underlayer

t
toe
core/base
bedding and/or filter
B
t

Assume:
Armor and underlayer material is quarry stone:
a
= 2.5 t/m
3

Structure slope: 1:2
Structure will be symmetric (this may be changed to reduce structure size in necessary)

Specify Design Condition:
SWL = 5.5 m, DHW = 1.7 m h = 5.5 + 1.7 = 7.2 m
h = 7.2 m
Assume listed conditions are at structure toe.
H
s
= H
1/3
= 2 m
T = 8 sec
L
o
= 100 m
(

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=
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h
L
2
tanh
L
2
g
T
2
2
at h = 7.2
L
m
= 62 m
Calculate depth limited breaking wave height at structure site, compare with the
unbroken storm wave height, and use the lesser of the two as the design wave
H
b
/h
b
~ 0.78
at DHW: H
b
= 0.787.2 = 5.6 m
at SWL: H
b
= 0.785.5 = 4.3 m

Alternate methods in CEM II-4
Both wave heights in (1) are greater than H
s

waves are not breaking and design H = H
s
= 2 m
H = 2 m
Set BW Dimensions (controlled by height & slope):
Set-up: waves are not breaking per the previous calc no set-up
NOTE: there will be a set-down, but this will be neglected and considered an
added factor of safety unless required to reduce the structure size
0 =

Overtopping Discharge (CEM VI-5, pp. 19-33)
using the Owen model(Table VI-5-8):
|
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\
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=
r
m
m s
bR
exp a
T gH
q
*
where

=
2
s
H
R
R
m
s
*
m
is the relative freeboard
2
m
s
o
s
m
T
H
g
2
L
H
s

= =
2
m
s
s
*
m
gT
H
H
R
R =
from Table VI-5-8:
slope 1:2 a = 0.013, b = 22
rock riprap > 2D thick
r
~ 0.55

solving:
041 . 0
8 2 8 . 9 013 . 0
4 . 0
ln
22
55 . 0
T agH
q
ln
b
R
m s
r *
m
=
|
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\
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=
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\
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=
m 45 . 1
2
8 8 . 9
041 . 0 2
H
gT
R H R
2
s
2
m *
m s
=

= =
R
overtop
= 1.45 m
Run-up based on surf zone parameter at the structure, using CEM equation VI-5-13
Coefficients from VI-5-5: 2% run-up A = 0.96, B = 1.17, C = 0.46, D = 1.97
(D/B)
1/C
= (1.97/1.17)
(1/0.46)
= 3.1, from above
m
= 2.7
for 1.5 <
m
(D/B)
1/C

C
m S % i , u
B H R =
( ) 85 . 1 7 . 2 17 . 1 B H R
46 . 0 C
m S % 2 , u
= = =
Reduced Run-up assume 1 1 1 55 . 0
angle
wave
water
shallow berm
roughness
surface
=
( ) 1 55 . 0 85 . 1
angle
wave
water
shallow berm
roughness
surface
H R H R
S % 2 , u S uR
= = =

R = H
s
= 2m
R
run-up
= 2 m
Choose the run-up requirement (purpose has not been specified, simpler)
actual overtopping 0565 . 0
8 8 . 9
2
2
2
gT
H
H
R
R
2 2
m
s
s
*
m
=

= =
( )( )( ) m sec/ / m 2 . 0
55 . 0
0565 . 0 22
exp 8 2 8 . 9 013 . 0
bR
exp T agH q
3
r
*
m
m s

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=
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=

R = 2 m
q = 0.2 m
3
/sec/m
Settlement: must be determined later assume
total
= 0.1 m

total
= 0.1 m
Design elevation = DHW + + R +
total
= 7.2 + 0 + 2 + 0.1 = 9.3 m
h + R = 9.3 m

BW Dimension Summary:
Assumed
structure is symmetric, =
b

no set-down
no crown, h
c
= R
total settlement = 0.1 m (adjust later)
h = 7.2 m
h + R = 9.3 m
tan = 1/2

Armor Unit Design:
Assume Armor unit is rough quarry stone, 2 layers, no overtopping Table VI-5-22 applies
non-breaking waves, 0-5% damage, random placement: K
D
= 4

sg =
a
/
w
= (2.5 t/m
3
)/(1 t/m
3
) = 2.5
( ) ( )
t 74 . 0
2 1 5 . 2 4
2 5 . 2
cot 1 sg K
H
W
3
3
3
D
3
a
50
=

=
Table VI-5-50 gives rock sizes: W ~ 0.77 t
W
50
= 0.77 t
Armor thickness
n = 2; k

= 1.0, P = 37% from Table VI-5-51

m 4 . 1
5 . 2
77 . 0
1 2
W
nk t
3 / 1
3 / 1
a
=
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=
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=

t
armor
= 1.4 m
Crest width (B) (minimum n = 3): m 2
5 . 2
77 . 0
1 3
W
k 3 B
3 / 1
3 / 1
a
=
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=
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=

B = 2 m
Number of armor units per unit surface area
( ) 8 . 2
77 . 0
5 . 2
37 . 0 1 1 2
W 100
P
1 nk
A
N
3 / 2 3 / 2
a a
=
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=
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=

N
a
/A = 2.8 units/m
2
Volume of armor per unit length
( ) | | | 9 . 54 2 3 . 9 2 2 4 . 1 cot R h 2 B t
L
V
= + = + + = |
V/L = 54.9 m
3
/m

Under-layer Design:
The goal to reduce the size of the stone to at point where W/w
core
15-25, where W is the
stone in the layer covering the core. Roughly, this gives a size of ~W/4000 for the core
lb stones, with 2 inch diameter. If some other size is readily available, that might be
the goal. Must check to ensure the W/w
core
15-25 is met once the core over-layer is
known.
Diagram for Volume calculations (quarry stone is sold by unit weight & total volume)

( ) c 2 a t
L
V
+
( )
+ =
+ =
2
2 2
cot 1 h
cot h h c

( ) + = sin T cot H 2 A b
( ) + = csc cot T 2 A a
a
A

c
h H
t
T
b
B

First Under-Layer
minimum two stone thick (n = 2)

under-layer unit weight = W/10 since cover layer and first underlayer are both stone
W
10
= 0.77 t/10 = 0.077 t 1000 = 77 kg
next larger available size is 90.7 kg
thickness m 66 . 0
5 . 2
091 . 0
1 2
W
nk t
3 / 1
3 / 1
a
=
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\
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=
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=

Volume per unit length of breakwater
referring to diagram:
h = 9.2 m t
armor
= 9.2 1.4 = 7.8 m;
t = t
ul1
= 0.7 m, T = t
armor
= 1.4
A = B
crest
= 2 m, cot = 2
( ) ( ) m 4 . 1 ) 2 . 2 2 ( 4 . 1 2 2 csc cot T 2 A a = + = + =
m 15 4 1 8 . 6 cot 1 h c
2
= + = + =
( ) ( ) m m 22 15 2 4 . 1 7 . 0 c 2 a t
L
V
3
= + = +

First Under-Layer
W
10
= 91 kg
t
ul1
= 0.7 m
V/L
ul1
= 22 m
3
/m

Second Under-Layer
minimum two stone thick (n = 2)

under-layer unit weight = W/20 of the layer above W/200 of armor
W
200
= 0.75 t/200 = 0.004 t 1000 = 4 kg
next larger available size is 4.5 kg
thickness m 24 . 0
5 . 2
0045 . 0
1 2
W
nk t
3 / 1
3 / 1
a
=
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\
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=
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\
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=

Volume per unit length of breakwater
referring to diagram:
h = 9.2 m t
armor
t
ul1
= 9.2 1.4 0.7 = 6.1 m
t = t
ul2
= 0.24 m, T = t
ul1
= 0.7
A = a
ul1
= 1.4 m, cot = 2
( ) ( ) m 1 . 1 ) 2 . 2 2 ( 7 . 0 2 4 . 1 csc cot T 2 A a = + = + =
m 6 . 13 4 1 1 . 6 cot 1 h c
2
= + = + =
( ) ( ) m m 8 . 6 6 . 13 2 1 . 1 24 . 0 c 2 a t
L
V
3
= + = +

Second Under-Layer
W
200
= 4.5 kg
t
ul2
= 0.24 m
V/L
ul1
= 6.8 m
3
/m
Core
dynamic load requirement: 25 to 15 w W
core
W = 4.5 kg
w
core
4.5/25 4.5/15 = 0.18 0.3 kg

W
4000
= 0.75 t/4000 = 0.00019 t 1000 = 0.2 kg

next larger available size is 0.23 kg
thickness m 24 . 0
5 . 2
0045 . 0
1 2
W
nk t
3 / 1
3 / 1
a
=
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\
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=
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\
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=

Volume per unit length of breakwater
referring to diagram:
h = 9.2 m t
armor
t
ul1
t
ul2
= 9.2 1.4 0.7 0.24 = 5.9 m
H = h
ul2
= 6.1 m, T = t
ul2
= 0.24
A = a
ul2
= 1.1 m; cot = 2
( ) ( ) m 1 ) 2 . 2 2 ( 24 . 0 2 1 . 1 csc cot T 2 A a = + = + =
( )

( ) m 4 . 24 2 . 2 24 . 0 2 1 . 6 2 1 . 1 csc T cot H 2 A b = + = + =
trapezoid: ( ) ( ) m m 75 4 . 24 1 9 . 5 b a h
L
V
3
2
1
2
1
= + = +

Core
W
4000
= 0.23 kg
V/L = 75 m
3
/m

Toe Design:
Toe Berm Width (B
t
) should be the maximum of B
t
= 2H or B
t
= 0.4h, and at least 3
stones wide: 2H = 4 m, 0.4h = 0.45.5 = 2.2 m (use lower water level)

assume B
t
= 4 m
assume height of toe = 1.4 m (guess) h
b
= 5.5 1.4 = 4.1 m (use lower water level)
Table VI-5-45 with h
b
/h = 4.1/5.5 = 0.75 N
s
3
~ 60
( ) ( )
t 1 . 0
1 5 . 2 60
2 5 . 2
1 sg N
H
W
3
3
3 3
s
3
S
=

m 38 . 0
5 . 2
14 . 0 W
D
3 / 1
3 / 1
s
=
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=
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= 2 stones height = 20.38 = 0.76 m < 1.4 m

Table VI-5-48
k = 2/L
m
= 2/62 = 0.101 m
-1
2kh
b
= 20.1015.8 = 1.17
( )
( ) 124 . 0 4 101 . 0 sin
17 . 1 sinh
17 . 1
kB sin
kh 2 sinh
kh 2
K
2
t
2
b
b
= = =
( )
( )
7 . 4
2
1 . 4
124 . 0
124 . 0 1
5 . 1 exp 8 . 1
2
1 . 4
124 . 0
124 . 0 1
3 . 1
H
h
K
K 1
5 . 1 exp 8 . 1
H
h
K
K 1
3 . 1 N
3 / 1
2
3 / 1
s
b
3 / 1
2
s
b
3 / 1 s
=
(

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=
(

+
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=
( )

N
s
3
~ 103
( )
t 06 . 0
1 5 . 2 103
2 5 . 2
1 sg N
H
3
3
3 3
s
3
S
=

= W

use W = 0.14 t and recalculate with h
t
= 5.5 0.8 = 4.7 m h
b
/h = 4.7/5.5 = 0.85
this is not on the chart N
s
3
~ 60 keep previous calculation

W
toe
= 136 kg
h
b
= 4.7 m
(below SWL)
toe height = 0.8 m
B
t
= 4 m
Toe volume
assume slope is 1:2 base length = B
t
+ 2(SWL-h
b
)cot = 4 + 20.82 = 7.2 m
assume trapezoidal V/L = (SWL-h
b
)(B
t
+ base) = 0.8(4 + 7.2) = 9 m
3
/m
V/L
toe
= 9 m
3
/m
Toe-to-Toe Width:
W = 2B
t
+ 2(SWL-h
b
)cot
t
+ B + 2(h
b
+ DHW + R + )cot
= 24 + 20.82 + 2 + 2 (4.7 + 1.7 + 2 + 0.1) 2 = 47.2 m

Filter/Bed Design:
To prevent material from leaching out: 0 2 to 15
W
W
) core ( 50
) bed ( 50
<

W
core
= 0.23 kg W
bed
> 3.5 4.6 kg d
bed
~ 12 cm cobble

General guidelines
for stability against wave attack, bedding Layer thickness should be:
o 2-3 times the diameter for large stone
o 10 cm for coarse sand
o 20 cm for gravel
For foundation stability Bedding Layer thickness should be at least 2 feet
Bedding Layer should extend 5 feet horizontally beyond the toe cover stone.

Bedding layer should be 0.6 m thick, d
50
~ 12 cm (cobble)
Extent: toe-to-toe width + 21.5 m = 47.2 + 3 = 50.2 m

Structure Summary:
total height (h + R): 9.3 m
slope (tan ): 1:2
Crest Width (B): 2 m
Freeboard (R): 2 m
Estimated Overtopping (q) 0.2 m
3
/sec/m
Settlement (): 0.1 m (assumed)
Toe-to-Toe width: 47.2 m
Armor: W
50
= 0.77 t
n = 2, t = 1.4 m
N
a
/A = 2.8 units/m
2

V/L = 54.9 m
3
/m
First Under-Layer: W
50
= 91 kg
n = 2, t = 0.7 m
V/L = 22 m
3
/m
Second Under-Layer: W
50
= 4.5 kg
n = 2, t = 0.24 m
V/L = 6.8 m
3
/m
Core: W
50
= 0.23 kg
V/L = 75 m
3
/m
Toe: W
50
= 136 kg
h
b
= 4.7 m below SWL
toe height = 0.8 m
B
t
= 4 m
toe base width = 7.2 m
V/L = 9 m
3
/m
Bedding: W
50
= 4.5 kg
thickness = 0.6 m
horizontal length = 50.2 m
V/L = 30.1 m
3
/m

Settlement & Bearing Capacity:
Volume & Weight above SWL (dry, unsubmerged load):
Height = 9.3 5.5 = 3.8 m
B = 2
Width at WL = B + 2hcot = 2 + 23.82 = 17.2 m
V/L = 3.8(2 + 17.2) = 36.5 m
3
/m
Weight of material = W
above WL
= (1-P/100) V/L = 2.5 (1 0.37)36.5 = 57.5 t/m
Submerged Volume & Weight
Submerged
V/L
total
= (V/L)
armor
+ (V/L)
ul1
+ (V/L)
ul2
+ (V/L)
core
+(V/L)
toe
+ (V/L)
bed

= 55 + 22 + 6.8 + 75 + 9 + 30.1 = 198 m
3
/m
V/L
submerged
= 198 36.5 = 162 m
3
/m
W = [(1 P/100) +
w
(P/100)] V/L
submerged
= [2.5(1-0.37) + 10.37]162
W
below WL
= 315 t/m

= (W
above WL
+ W
below WL
)/(foundation width)

Sand Layer: = (57.5 + 315)/47.2 = 7.9 t/m
2

Clay Layer correct for distribution of load through sand layer (see diagram)
= (57.5 + 315)/[47.2 + 2(5.5-0.6)2] = 5.5 t/m
2

DHW
SWL
Sand
H
1
' = 7 kN/m
3

= 35
Clay
BB
' = 4 kN/m
3

c = 20 kPa
BB + 2H
1
cot

Bearing Capacity
Evaluate the ultimate bearing capacity, q
u
, for each level (very conservative, but simple)
For saturated, submerged soils
strip foundations:

+ + = + + = BN 5 . 0 qN cN q q q q
q c q c u

NOTE: This formula is not for multiple layer soils. This calculation will only give a
rough approximation.
Sand Layer:
= 17 kN/m
3
, = 30, c = 0
Terzaghi Table: N
c
= 37.16, N
q
= 22.46, N

= 19.13
D
f
= Foundation depth (bedding layer thickness) = 0.6 m
Assume
w
= 10 kN/m
3

BW foundation width (neglect bed) = 47.2 m
q
c
= cN
c
= 0
q
q
= 'D
f
N
q
= (17-10)0.622.46 = 94 kN/m
2

q

= 'BN

= (17-10) 47.219.13 = 3160 kN/m

2

q
u
= 0 + 94 + 3160 = 3254 kN/m
2
= 325 t/m
2

= 7.9 t/m
2

FS = q
u
/ = 325/15.1 = 21.5
FS
sand
= 21
Clay Layer:
= 14 kN/m
3
, = 0, c = 50 kN/m
2

Terzaghi Table: N
c
= 5.7, N
q
= 1, N

= 0
D
f
= 0
q
c
= cN
c
= 505.7 = 285 kN/m
2
q
q
= 'D
f
N
q
= 0
q

= 'BN

= 0
q
u
= 285 + 0 + 0 = 285 kN/m
2
= 28.5 t/m
2

clay layer also supports the sand layer:
sand
= 0.74.9 t/m
2
= 3.4 t/m
2
= 5.5 t/m
2
+ 3.4 t/m
2
= 8.9 t/m
2

FS = q
u
/ = 28.5/8.9 = 3.2
FS
clay
= 3.2

Preliminary Safety Factor
FS = 3.2
Settlement
Sand Layer: = 7.9 t/m
2

Clay Layer: = 5.5 t/m
2

Settlement in Sand:
Assume L/B > 10
I
z
= I
z10
= 0.2
depth of I
zp
: z = z
10
= 1.0B Z = 1
'
zp
=
zp
u = 'ZB = (1.7 1) B = 0.747.2 = 33 t/m
2
'
z
= q - '
0
= 7.9 - (1.7 1)0.6 = 7.5 t/m
2

55 . 0
33
5 . 7
1 . 0 5 . 0
'
'
1 . 0 5 . 0 I
zp
z
zp
= + =

+ =
depth of influence: z = 4B = 447.2 = 190 m
assume one layer z = 4.9 m
z = 4.9/2 = 2.45 m 22 . 0 45 . 2
2 . 47
2 . 0 55 . 0
2 . 0 z
z
2 . 0 I
2 . 0 I
p
zp
z
=

+ =

+ =
assume q
c
/N
60
~ 5 bar = 50 t/m
2
(see table in notes)
L/B = 10 E = 3.5q
c
= 3.550 = 175 t/m
2

(note: E table in notes gives E 10 higher for loose sand)
( )
97 . 0
5 . 7
6 . 0 1 7 . 1
5 . 0 1
'
'
5 . 0 1 C
Z
0
1
=
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\
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=
|
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.
|

\
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=
5 . 1
1 . 0
25
log 0.2 1
1 . 0
t
log 0.2 1 C
10
yrs
10 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
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.
|

\
|
+ = , assume 25 yr life

m 01 . 0 9 . 4
175
0.22
1.5 0.97 z
E

C C
i
i
n
1 i
z
2 1
=
|
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
=

=

sand
= 0.01 m

Settlement in Clay:
Primary Consolidation Settlement (
c
)
= 14 kN/m
3
, = 0, c = 50 kPa, e
o
= 2.2, k = 10
-5
cm/s, a
v
= 3x10
-3
m
2
/kN, C
c
= 0.3
= 5.5 t/m
2

'
0
= (1.7 1)4.9 + (1.4-1)21.5 = 7.7 t/m
2

assume C
R
= 0.2C
c
= 0.06
Over-consolidated: m 09 . 0
7 . 7
5 . 5 7 . 7
log
2 . 2 1
5 . 21 06 . 0
c
=
|
.
|

\
| +
+

=
Consider time to consolidate:
k = 10
-5
cm/s 10
-2
m/cm 3600s/hr 24hrs/day 365days/yr = 3.15 m/yr
( ) ( )
yr / m 336
10 3 10
2 . 2 1 15 . 3
a
e 1 k
c
2
3
v w
0
v
=

+
=

+
=

N = 1, T
v
(95%) = 1.129
( )
2
v
v
N H
t c
T = yrs 55 . 1
336
5 . 21
129 . 1
c
H
T t
2
v
2
v
= = =
Secondary Consolidation Settlement (
s
)
Assume C

/C
c
~ 0.03 C

~ 0.01
assume t
p
= 2 yrs and the breakwater lifetime is 25 yrs
m 07 . 0
2
25
log
2 . 2 1
5 . 1 2 01 . 0
t
t
log
e 1
H C

P
F
0
s
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=

m 16 . 0 07 . 0 09 . 0 0
s c i
= + + = + +
/
=

clay
= 0.16 m

Total Settlement
=
sand
+
clay
= 0.01 + 0.16 = 0.17 m

total
= 0.17 m
should recalculate design with ~ 0.2 m vice 0.1 m