vlxktar a':trm

tifwmeufpmrsufESmrsm;ay:rS vlxka':trmtaMumif; pkpnf;csufr sm;

vlxktar a':trm
owif;pmq&m? pma&;q&mrMuD; vlxka':trmudk wynfYom;ajr; pma&;
q&mawGu tarvdkMunfndKav;pm;jyD; tarvlxka':trm vdkYac:Muyg
w,f/ wu,fawmY q&mrMuD;[m pmayavmu&JY a&SYaqmifvrf;jy jzpf&Hk
wifruyJ jrefrmEdkifiH 'Drdkua&pDawmfvSefa&;rSmvnf; rm;rm;rwfrwf&yfjyD;
jynfoleJYwom;wnf;aejycJYwJY rD;&SL;wefaqmifMuD;wpif; jzpfw,fqdk&if
vnf; rrSm;ygbl;/ jynfolvlxkMuD;w&yfvHk;&JY tarozG,f jzpfw,fqdk&if
vGefr,frxifygbl;/ 'gaMumifY q&mrMuD;taMumif;

tifwmeufay:u

&orSspkaqmif;wifjyxm;wJY 'Dpmtkyfav;&JYemrnfudk vlxktar a':trm
vdkY wyfay;vdkufygw,f/

2

vlxktar&JYaemufqHk;Mo0g' 

“wnDwnGwfwnf; vufwGJ&kef;vdkufMuyg/ 'grSatmifjrifr,f/”

3

aemufqHk;tcsdeftxd
tarqkH;wJhtcsdefrSm
ZufrusdK;usbl;
acgif;ikHY aysmhacGusroGm;bl;
tarqkH;wJhtcsdef
ukwifab;rSm &SdaewJh usaemf
aoaocsmcsm owdxm;rdw,f ...
ausmf&ifjrihf (pma&;q&m)

Hk

4

aus;Zl;wifvTm
þpmtkyfyg pmtrsm;pkudk jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rfwGif pm&dkufwifay;cJYaom (udk) 
bigpig 

tm; txl;aus;Zl;wif&dSygw,f/ pma&;q&m 0if;wifY eJY pkd;Ekdif

(rEÅav;wuúokdvf) wdkYudkvnf; olwdkY&JYpmrlrsm;twGuf aus;Zl;wifygw,f/
xdkYtjyif toHk;jyKxm;aom tjcm; pmrsm;?"mwfyHkrsm;? yef;csDrsm;twGufvnf;
bavmY*grsm;jzpfMuwJY a'gufwmvGPf;aqG? udkndKMuD;? udkarmifvS ? yef;csD
rif;ausmfcdkif wdkYeJYtwl rEåav;rD'D,m ?
tm;vHk;udkvnf; aus;Zl;wifygw,f/
av;pm;pGmjzifY
yD'DtufzfpDpOfol

pmay*sme,f ? owif;Xmersm;

rmwdum
(1) vlxktaruG,fvGefjcif;

7

(2) vlxka':trm b0eJYpmay&ufpGJrsm; (0if;wifY)

64

(3) pmay*sme,f rsufESmzHk;pmqdk

203

(4) tarYarG;aeY*kPfjyKuAsmrsm;

250

(5) awmifav;vkH;rSewfuRef;txd trSwfw& rSmpum;

277

(6) tara':trm&JYpmwcsdKY

348

(7) jrefrmhobifrI pmayyifrÍÆLxufu arT;vGef;onfh

400

yef;ig;yGifh

pkd;Ekdif (rEÅav;wuúokdvf)

6

tcef; (1)

vlxktaruG,fvGefjcif;

7

1/ tokb&IzdwfMum;vTm

tokb&I zdwfMum;vTm
rEåav;NrdKU? 32 vrf;? *kE åefaq;½dk;0if;ae OD;xif+a':pk wdkY\ orD;?
e*g;a':OD; \ nDr? OD;vSaz+a':wifwif? OD;ausmfpdef+a':MuifMuif?
OD;armifav;+a':cifvSjrifh?
a'gufwm OD;cifarmifat;+a'gufwma':Munfpdef wdkY\ tpfr?
OD;pdk;0if;? OD;cif*suf0if;+a'gufwm oef;&ifrm (a'gufwm jrrOÆL)?
OD;zdk;oHacsmif;? a':wif0if;?
OD;Nidrf;csrf;(nDykav;)+a':wifwif0if; wdkY\ arG;ordcif
rpkpkrm? udkbkdbdk? rjzLjym? rvif;vif;rGef? armifatmifbmav? ra½Tjynfpdk;
wdkY\ tzGm;
vlxkOD;vS \ ZeD;
vlxka':trm (93)ESpf onf
1369 ckESpf? wefcl;vqef; (2)&uf? 7-4-2008 (wevFmaeY) eHeuf (08;37)
em&DtcsdefwGif
b0wyg;odkY ulajymif;uG,fvGefoGm;ygojzifh MuGif;usef&pfaom
OwkZ½kyfuvmyfudk
1369 ckESpf? wefcl;vqef; (4)&uf? 9-4-2008 (Ak'¨[l;aeY) eHeuf (10;00)
em&Dtcsdef
tdrftrSwf 265? 32 vrf;? 83  X  84 vrf;Mum; aetdrfrS
MumeDuefokómefodkY
ydkYaqmifrD;oN*ÐK[frnf jzpfygí tokb&I vdkufyg ydkYaqmifMuyg&ef
av;pm;pGm zdwfMum;tyfygonf/
usef&pfol rdom;pk

8

2/ tarYema&;owif;rsm;
2?1/ {&m0wDowif;Xme

vlxk a':trm uG,fvGef
udkpdk; ? {NyD 7 ? 2008
jrefrmEdkifiH rEÅav;NrdKUae xif&Sm;onhf owif;pmq&mESihf pma&;q&mrBuD;
vlxka':trm (92)ESpfonf ,aeY eHeufydkif;u rEÅav;aq;½kHBuD; ESvkH;a&m*g
aqmifwGif uG,fvGefoGm;cJhonf/
q&mrBuD;a':trm\ om;jzpfol pma&;q&m nDykav;u  “tar reuf 8
em&D 37 rdepfu tedpöa&mufygw,f? rEÅav;aq;½kHBuD;u ESvkH;a&m*gaqmif
rSmyg? wjcm;a&m*gawmh r&Sdygbl;”[k {&m0wDodkY ajymonf/
vlxka':trmonf jrefrmEdkifiHwGif MoZmBuD;rm;aom owif;pmq&m? pma&;
q&mrBuD; wOD;jzpfonf/
q&mrBuD;onf rEÅav;NrdKU *kEÅef&yfü tb OD;xif ? trd a':pkwdkYrS 1915 ck?
Edk0ifbm 29 &uf wevFmaeYwGif arG;zGm;cJhNyD; arG;csif; 12OD;&SdonYfteuf
pwkw¬ajrmufjzpfonf/ trnf&if;rSm trm jzpfonf/

9

1920-23 ckESpf w½kwfwef; trsdK;orD;ae&S,fausmif;ESihf 

ABM 

ausmif;

wdkYwGif i,fb0 ynmoifMum;cJhum 1931-33wGif rEÅav;A[kdtrsdK;om;
ausmif;rS 10 wef;atmifonf/
1933-35 ckESpfü rEÅav; OypmaumvdyfwGif "mwk?½ly? ocsmFbmomwGJ,lí
wufa&mufcJhNyD; 1936wGif &efukefwuúodkvf bDatatmufwef;odkY wuf
a&mufpOf tif;,m;aqmif o[m,pmzwftoif; twGif;a&;rª; jzpfcJhNyD;
'kwd,ausmif;om;oydwfwdkYü yg0ifcJhonf/
xdkYaemuf tdk;a0? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif;rsm;ESihf bm;rm;*sme,fwdkYwGif pmrsm;
a&;&if; BuD;yGm;a&;OD;vSESihf pwifoduGsrf;NyD; BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif;wGif cifv0if;?
jrrOæL uavmiftrnfrsm;jzihf pmrsm;qufvufa&;om;onf/
1939ckESpfwGif BuD;yGm;a&;OD;vSESihf tdrfaxmifusNyD;aemuf vlxkwdkufudk
xlaxmifí vlxk*sme,f? vlxkowif;pmrsm;udkxkwfa0cJhonf/
q&mrBuD;onf cifv0if;? ZrÁL'DygatmifxGef;? zcifatmifEdkif? zdk;omatmif?
jrrOæL? trm? trm(wuúodkvfoydwfarSmufausmif;ol)? tif;,m;ausmif;
aqmifolwOD; ponhf uavmiftrnfcGJ 8 ckjzihf yifudka&;ESihf bmomjyef
pmayrsm;udk a&;om;jyKpkcJhNyD;? xif&Sm;aompmtkyfrsm;rSm 1964ckESpf pmay
AdrmeftEkynmqdkif&mpmay

yxrqk&

jynfolcspfaomtEkynmonfrsm;?

r[m*Dw? a½Ta'gif;awmifaqmif;yg;? urÇmh tBuD;qkH;pmtkyf? tarha&S;pum;
ponfwdkY jzpfonf/

10

EdkifiHw0ef;&Sdte,fe,ft&yf&yfrS pmay tEkynm&Sifrsm;ESihf EdkifiHa&;e,fy,f
ponhfe,fy,fpkHrSq&mrBuD;udk cspfcifav;pm;Muolrsm;onf ESpfpOf Ekd0ifbm
29&uf q&mrBuD;\ arG;aeYyGJtcrf;tem;odkY pnf;um;odkufNrdKufpGm wuf
a&mufMuonf/
q&mrBuD; vlxka':trmonf 2007 ckESpf Edk0ifbm 29 &ufu touf (92)
ESpfjynhfcJhNyD;? q&mrBuD;\ arG;aeYyGJudk ESpfpOf tr&yl&NrdKU awmifav;vkH;
ausmif;wdkufwGifusif;ycJhonf/
q&mrBuD;rSm uG,fvGefcsdefrwdkifcif tcsdeftweftMumuyif pmra&;Edkif
awmhaMumif;? ,cifa&;vufp yef;csDOD;b&ifuav; taMumif;pmtkyfrSm
tacsmowf&efomvdkawmhaMumif;? tacsmowfNyD;pD;ygu xkwfa0rnfjzpf
aMumif;vnf; q&mnDykav;u ajymonf/
pma&;q&m nDykav;u olYrdcifESihfywfoufNyD;  “taru uG,fvGefcgeD;wJh
txd tawmfowdaumif;ygw,fcifAs? olYudk cspfwJhcifwJholawG rsm;w,f
qdkwm usaemfwdkYodygw,f? 'gayr,hf tck wu,fuG,fvGefwJh tcgusawmh
vnf; rsuf0g;xifxifawGU&wm? olYudkcspfwJhcifwJholawG odkufodkuf0ef;0ef;eJY
&SdwmawGY&w,fcifAs? tarjrifaphcsifw,f? 'Dvdk olYema&;udk vmMuwJholawG
udkjrifaphcsifw,f”[kvnf; qufvuf ajymqdkonf/
q&mrBuD;\psmyeudk orD;a':oef;&ifrm\aetdrfü jyifqifxm;NyD; Ak'¨[l;
aeY eHeuf 10 em&DwGif rEÅav; MumeDuefokomefodkY ydkYaqmifoN*ÐK[f&ef
pDpOfxm;onf[k q&mnDykav;uajymjyonf/
11

q&mrBuD;uG,fvGefcsdefwGif OD;zdk;oHacsmif;? a':oef;&ifrm? a':wif0if;?
pma&;q&m nDykav;(OD;Nidrf;csrf;) ponhf om;orD; 4 OD;ESihf ajr; 6 OD;
usef&SdaMumif; od&onf/

2?2/ 

Network Media Group 

vGwfvyfcGifh tm;vHk;twGuf wdkufyGJ0ifol (odkU ) vlxka':trm
twGuf ,lBuHK;r&jzpfaeMu
oDwmxGef;/
{NyDv 7 &uf? 2008 ckESpf/
owif;pmq&m? pma&;q&mrBuD; vlxka':trm uG,fvGefoGm;onfhtwGuf
e,fpyftajcpdkuf owif;pmq&mrsm;? pma&;q&mrsm;u 0rf;enf;aMuuGJ
,lBuHK;r& jzpfMu&aMumif; ajymMuonf/ 
“pmayvGwfvyfcGifhudka&m vlxkvGwfvyfcGifhudkyg vkyfaqmifcJhw,f/ 'gayrJh
uG,fvGefcsdefxd tJ'gawGudk tar rjrifoGm;vdkuf&bl;/”  [k vlxka':trm
uG,fvGefjcif;tay: jrefrmhowif;or*¾rS twGif;a&;rSL; OD;pHrdk;a0u ajym
onf/

12

vlxka':trmudk cspfcifav;pm;Muolrsm;u tarrm[k tjrwfwEdk; ac:qdk
Muonf/ 
“vGwfvyfa&;tBudKumvuae

'Dtcsdefxd

jynfolvlxktwGufqdk

&J0Hh

jywfom;wJh? &Sm;&Sm;yg;yg; trsdK;orD;wa,mufjzpfw,f/ wdkif;jynftwGufqdk
udk,fa&;udk,fwmudkawmif ta&;rxm;yJ a&SUaqmifyg0ifcJhwJh tar uG,fvGef
jcif;[m tm;vkH;twGuf ajymrjyEkdifwJh qHk;&HI;rIvnf;jzpfw,f”  [k OD;pHrdk;a0
u qufajymonf/
owif;pmq&m? pma&;q&mrBuD; vlxka':trm touf(93)ESpfonf ,aeU
eHeuf 8 em&D 37 rdepfwGif rEåav; jynfolUaq;&HkBuD;ü uG,fvGefoGm;cJhonf/
vlxka':trm uG,fvGefjcif;twGuf pma&;q&mrwOD;jzpfol a':arjidrf;u 
“tarrmu owif;pmq&maumif;vnf;jzpfw,f? pma&;q&maumif;vnf;
jzpfw,f/ rdcifaumif;vnf;jzpfw,f/ 'ghaMumifh ckvdk uG,fvGefoGm;awmh
usrwa,mufwnf; omru vlxkw&yfvHk;ua&m t&rf; 0rf;enf;MurSmyg/” 
[kajymonf/
e,fpyfwGifa&muf&Sdaeaom pmaytodkif;t0dkif;? EdkifiHa&; todkif;t0dkif;rsm;u
a':trmESifh ywfoufonfh trSwfw&pum;0dkif;rsm; jyKvkyf&ef jyifqifaeMu
onf[k pma&;q&mESifh bavmh*gwOD;jzpfol a'gufwmvGPf;aqGu ajym
onf/

13

olu  “taru wacwfrSmwa,mufr[kwfbl;? w&mpkrSmawmif wa,muf
ay:zdkUrvG,fwJh &Sm;yg; trsdK;orD;yg”  [k ajymjyonf/
vlxka':trmonf

trsKd;orD;a&;vIyf&Sm;olrsm;twGufvnf;

xGef;xGef;

aygufayguf xl;cGßefoltrsKd;orD;wOD;tjzpf pHerlem,lzG,f trsKd;orD;wOD;
jzpfcJhonf/

2?3/ rZdÑrowif;Xme

vlxka':trm uG,fvGef
aeoGif 
Monday, 07 April 2008 11:39  -

csif;rdkif/

jrefrmpHawmfcsdef

/ 0g&ifhowif;pm q&mrBuD; vlxka':trm (92) ESpfonf

,aeYeHeuf (8) em&D (37) rdepfwGif rEåav;NrhKd jynfolYaq;½kHBuD;wGif
ESvHk;a&m*gjzifh uG,fvGefoGm;onf/
pme,fZif;avmuwGif tarrmtjzpf av;pm;cspfcifjcif;cH&aom owif;pm
q&mrBuD;onf NyD;cJhaomwe*FaEGwwnf;u aq;½kHwifxm;&jcif;jzpfonf/
‘“  NyD;cJhwJh we*FaEGu wif&ygw,f/ uaeYreuf (8) em&D (37) rSm tedpö
a&mufygw,f”  [k vlxka':trm\ om;jzpfol pma&;q&m nDykav;u
w,fvDzkef;rSwqifh rZÑdrodkY ajymonf/
14

&kyftavmif;udk orD;tBuD; jrrOÆLtdrfwGifxm;&SdNyD; psmyetcrf;tem;udk
Ak'¨[l;aeY eHeuf (10) em&DwGif MumeDuef okómefwGif jyKvkyfrnf jzpfonf/
vlxka':trm uG,fvGefonfhowif;aMumifh tHMopdwfraumif; jzpfaeaom
pma&;q&mBuD; '*kefkwm&mu  “  a':trmu ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmMumNyDyJ/
wkdif;jynftwGuf aqmif&Gufaewm/ Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf aqmif&Gufaewm/
txl;ojzifh trsKd;orD;a&;&mawG r[kwfawmhbl;ayghAsm/ wkdif;jynfwjynf
vHk;eJY ywfoufwJh

udpöawGrSmvnf;

twlwlaqmif&GufcJhwm/ usaemf

odyfNyD;awmh pdwfraumif; jzpfoGm;ygw,f ”  [k rZÑdrodkYajymonf/
vlxka':trmonf trsKd;om;acgif;aqmifBuD; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;? q&mBuD;
'*kefwm&mwdkYESihf acwfNydKifjzpfonf/ 1915 Edk0ifbm (29)wGif rEåav;NrhKdwGif
tzOD;xif? trda':pkwdkYrS arG;zGm;NyD; 1930 w0kdufwGif wuúodkvfausmif;om;
rsm;\

e,fcsJYqefYusifa&; trsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;vIyf&Sm;rSKwGif oydwf

arSmuf ausmif;oltrm jzpfvmonf/
1939 wGif BuD;yGm;a&;OD;vSESihf vufxyfNyD; 1945wGif vlxk*sme,f
xkwfa0aomtcg vufaxmuft,f'Dwm? 1946 vlxkowif;pmudk xkwfa0
aomtcg t,f'DwmtzGJY0if jzpfvmonf/
1949wGif vlxkowif;pmESifh BuD;yGm;a&;yHkESdyfpufrsm; wnf&Sd&m taqmuf
ttHkudk 'dkif;erdkufESifh azmufcGJcH&onf/

15

1950 tvGefumvrsm;wGif ocifudk,fawmfrdIif; OD;aqmifaom jrefrmjynf
Nidrf;csrf;a&;? urÇmhNidrf;csrf;a&; vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;wGif aqmif&GufcJhonf/ 1953
ckESpfwGif cifyGef;jzpfol vlxkOD;vS zrf;qD;cH&onfh aemufydkif;wGif vlxk
owif;pm acgif;BuD;rsm;udk wm0efcH a&;om;cJhonf/
1959 rS 1960 twGif; vlxkowif;pmwkduf tydwfcHcJh&ovdk 1978 wGif
vlxkOD;vS? om; udkNidrf;csrf; (nDykav;) wdkYESihftwl wESpfausmfMum zrf;qD;
cHcJh&onf/
a':trmonf q&maZmf*sD? q&mrif;ok0Pf? a'gufwmoef;xGef;?vlxkpdef0if;
tif;pdefaxmifwGif

tusOf;uscHae&qJ

[Hom0wD

owif;pmq&mBuD;

OD;0if;wifwdkYESihf yk*¾Kdvfa&;&if;ESD;onf/
NyD;cJhonf rwfvwGifusa&mufaom OD;0if;wif\arG;aeYwGif a':trmu om;
ozG,f cspfcifaom OD;0if;wifudk olraocif jrifoGm;&rnf[k arSsmfvifhonf
[k rZÑdrodkY ajymMum;cJhao;onf/
ESpfpOf Edk0ifbmv (29) &ufaeYwGif usa&mufaom a':trm\ arG;aeYyGJudk
rEåav;NrhKd awmifav;vHk;ausmif;wdkufwGif ESpfpOfusif;yavh&SdNyD; wEkdifiHvHk;rS
0g&ifhpme,fZif;orm;rsm; wufa&mufavh &Sdonf/
tqdkyg arG;aeYtcrf;tem;onf 0g&ifhowif;pmq&mrsm;tjyif 'Drkdua&pD
bufawmfom;rsm;

tpHktnD

wufa&mufavh&Sdojzifh

wm;jrpfcJhonfh tBudrfrsm;vnf; &SdcJhonf/
16

tmPmydkifrsm;u

2?4/ 

AFP 

Renowned Myanmar journalist Ludu Daw Amar dies 

Mon Apr 7, 2:36 AM ET 
YANGON (AFP) ­ Ludu Daw Amar, one of Myanmar's most renowned 
writers and journalists and an outspoken critic of the military junta, died 
Monday at the age of 93, her family said. 

She died in hospital in the central city of Mandalay, where her family set 
up the town's first publishing house in the 1940s. 
"She died from heart disease at Mandalay General Hospital this morning. 
We brought her body back to our home," her son Nyi Pu Lay told AFP by 
phone. 
Ludu Daw Amar ­­ a pen name which means "of the people" ­­ was a 
famous figure among reporters and writers in Myanmar, where the media 
is tightly controlled by the military government. 
Her birthday was celebrated with all the reverence of a public holiday 
each year by writers, journalists and artists throughout Myanmar, which 
has been ruled by the military since 1962. 
"It is a big loss for us. She was not only a leader for our press society, but 
also for the people," said a local journalist who did not want to be named.

17

Ludu Daw Amar and her husband published a pro­independence political 
journal, the Ludu Daily News, in the 1940s. 
"She was a very progressive woman at the time," Thailand­based 
Myanmar expert Win Min told AFP. "You didn't have many women 
writing articles." 
The journal eventually fell foul of government censors and was shut 
down in the 1960s, but this did not silence left­leaning Ludu Daw Amar, 
and she carried on giving interviews criticising junta policy into her old 
age. 
She also translated foreign works and wrote books on women's issues and 
Myanmar culture, with the junta keeping a close eye on her, Win Min 
said. 
"She has been very critical of the government along the way," he said. 
"She is like the mother of all journalists, she is the ethical symbol. People 
are very proud of her." 
Most recently, Ludu Daw Amar called on the junta to stop using force 
during a crackdown on street demonstrations in Yangon last year that left 
at least 31 people dead, according to UN estimates, and hundreds 
detained. 
Some journalists were briefly arrested during the protests, but Ludu Daw 
Amar's age appeared to have protected her from retribution by the junta. 
Ludu Daw Amar is survived by two sons and two daughters.

18 

2?5/ acwfjydKifowif;Xme

jynfolYpma&;q&m vlxka':trm uG,fvGef 
NEJ/  7

{NyD 2008

jynfolvlxk cspfcifav;pm;onfh owif;pmq&m? pma&;q&mrBuD; vlxk
a':trm touf (93) ESpfonf ,aeYeHeuf (8) em&D (3&) rdepfwGif
rEÅav;NrdKU jynfolYaq;½HkBuD;ü uG,fvGefoGm;aMumif; rdom;pk0ifwOD;u
ajymonf/
a':trm\ om;jzpfol udknDykav;u  “ck (8) em&D (37) rdepf aq;½HkrSm
qHk;w,fcifAsm/ rEÅav;aq;½kH ESvHk;a&m*gtxl;ukoaqmifrSmyg”  [k ajym
onf/
vlxka':trmonf udkvdkeDacwfuwnf;u e,fcsJUqefYusifa&; oydwfarSmuf
ausmif;olwOD;tjzpf yg0ifcJhNyD; b0wavSsmufvHk; jynfolbufrS tpOf
&yfwnfum tusKd;jyKpmayrsm; tqufrjywf a&;om;cJholjzpfonf/
arvwGif usif;yawmhrnfh vlvkqE´cH,lyGJESifh ywfoufí vlxka':trmu 
“wnDwñGwfwnf; vufwGJ½kef;vdkufMuyg/ 'grSatmifjrifr,f”  [k ruG,f
vGefrDu acwfNydKifodkY aemufqHk; ajymMum;cJhonf/
vlxka':trm uG,fvGefoGm;onfhtay: pma&;q&m? uAsmq&m? q&m
armifpGrf;&nfu  “usaemfwdkY tarvdkaevmwJh yk*¾Kdvfwa,mufjzpfw,f/
usaemfwkYd

'Drdkua&pDbufu

jynfolvlxkbufu

rm;rm;rwfrwf&yfwJh

uavmifowif;pmq&mrBuD; pma&;q&mrBuD;wa,muf qHk;½HI;oGm;w,fqdk
19

awmh usaemfwdkYrSm a&TawmifBuD;NydKovdk wu,fhudk 0rf;yef;wenf; jzpfrdyg
w,f” [k ajymonf/
vlxka':trmudk 1915 ck Edk0ifbm (29) wGif rEÅav;NrdKU *kEÅef&yfü tz
OD;xif? trd a':pk wdkYrS arG;zGm;cJhonf/ arG;csif; (12) a,mufteuf pwkw¬
ajrmuforD;jzpfonf/ 1920jynfhESpfwGif w½kwfwef; trsKd;orD;ae&Sife,f
ausmif;wGif pwifynmoifMum;cJhNyD; 1923 ckESpfü tar&duef omoemjyK
ausmif; (atbDtrf) wGif wwd,wef;rS e0rwef;txd wufa&muf ynm
oif,lcJhonf/
1931ckwGif A[dktrsKd;orD; txufwef;ausmif;rS q,fwef;atmifjrifcJhonf/
1933- 35 ckwGif rEÅav; Oypmaumvdyf? 1936 ckwGif &efukefbDat
atmufwef;wGif ynmoif&if; 'kwd,ausmif;om;oydwfwGif oydwfarSmuf
ausmif;olwOD;tjzpf yg0ifcJhonf/
1936ckwGif tdk;a0r*¾Zif;? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif;? bm;rm;*sme,fwdkYwGif pmayrsm;
a&;om; cJhonf/ 1939 ckwGif vlxkOD;vSESifh vufxyfcJhNyD; zdk;oHacsmif;?
&JabmfxGef;ausmf? nDykav; wdkYtygt0if om;orD; (5) OD; xGef;um;cJhonf/
1945ckwGif vlxk*sme,f vufaxmuft,f'Dwm? 1946ckwGif vlxkowif;pm
t,f'Dwmtjzpf

vkyfudkifcJhonf/

ruG,fvGefrDtcsdeftxd

rEÅav;NrdKUü

aexdkifum pmtkyfrsm;a&;om;xkwfa0jcif;? vpOfxkwfr*¾Zif;rsm;wGif tcg
tm;avsmfpGm aqmif;yg;rsm; a&;om;jcif;wdkY jyKvkyfcJhonf/ vlxka':trm\
psmyeusif;yrnfh&ufudk rdom;pk wdkifyifnd§EdIif;aeqJjzpfaMumif; od&onf/

20

2?6/ &dk;r 3 owif;Xme

q&mrBuD;vlxka':trm uG,fvGef
½kd;r 3/ {NyD 7? 2008
owif;pmq&m? pma&;q&mrBuD; vlxka':trm touf (93)ESpf onf
rEåav;NrdKU? jynfolYaq;½Hk BuD;wGif uG,fvGefoGm;onf/
,aeYeHeufydkif; (8)em&D (37) rdepfwGif ESvHk;a&m*g txl;ukaqmifwGif
aq;ukorIcH,laepOf uG,fvGefoGm;jcif;jzpfonf/
tarrm uG,fvGefjcif;eJYywfoufí om;jzpfol udknDykav;u  “tarukd
vlawGu cspfMurSef;awmh odw,f? tckawmh tarhtay: trsm;jynf olawG
&JU arwåmBuD;rm;wmudk vufawGY awGY&ygNyD? tEkynmtodkif;t0dkif;u
rdwfaqGawGawmh awmfawmfrsm;rsm;a&mufaeygNyD? q&marmifrdk;olwdkYu awmh
a&mufaeMuw,f” [k ajymonf/
rEåav;om;?olrsm;u vlxka':trmuG,fvGefonfhowif;udk Mum;odojzifh
ema&;udpö

vma&mufar;olrsm;&SdaeNyD;

tEkynmtodkif;t0dkif;rSvnf;

pkHvifpGma&muf&Sdaeonf[k ¤if;u qufvufajymqdkonf/

21

q&mrBuD;vlxka':trmudk rEåav;NrdKU? *kEåef&yfü tz OD;xif? trd a':pkwdkYrS
29? 11? 1915 ckESpfwGif zGm;jrifcJhNyD; arGcsif; (12)a,muf½Sdonfhteuf
pwkw¬ajrmufjzpfonf/
1931 ckESpfwGif A[dktrsKd;orD;txufwef;ausmif;rSq,fwef;atmifjrifcJhNyD;
1936 wGif &efukefbDatatmufwef;wGif ynmoif&if; 'kwd,ausmif;om;
oydwfwGif yg0ifcJhonf/ 1936 ckESpfrSpwifí tdk;a0r*¾Zif;? BuD;yGm;a&;
r*¾Zif;? bm;rm;*sme,frsm;wGif pwifí pmayrsm;a&;om;cJhonf/
1939 ckESpfwGif vlxkOD;vSESifhvufxyfcJhNyD; om;orD; (5)a,mufxGef;um;
cJhonf/ 1945 ckESpfwGif vlxk*sme,f vufaxmuft,f'Dwm? 1946 wGif
vlxkowif;pm t,f'Dwm wm0efrsm;udk xrf;aqmifcJhonf/
vlxka':trm\ psmyeudk 32 vrf;½Sd orD;jzpfol\ aetdrfwGif jyifqif
xm;NyD; 9? 4?2008 reuf (10)em&DwGif MumeDuefokomefü rD;oN*dKvfrnf
jzpfonf/
q&mrBuD;vlxka':trmudk

cspfcifjrwfEdk;Muonfh

te,fe,ft&yf&yfrS

pmaytEkynm&Sifrsm; wzGJzGJa&muf&SdvmaeNyD; &efukefESifh tjcm;rSa&muf&Sdvm
rnfh olrsm;ESifhywfoufí udknDykav;u  “&efukefuawmh ckrSodMuwm
olwkdYvnf;vmzdkY

pdkif;jyif;aeygw,f?

reufjzefvnf;

a&mufvmrSmyg?

q&marmifrdk;olwdkYuawmh e*kdvfxJua&mufaewm? odvkdYawmh r[kwfbl;?
wdkufqdkifoGm;wmyg” [kqdkonf/

22

2?7/ rZdÑrowif;Xme

tarrmtwGuf a':pk ay;ydkYonfqdkaom yef;jcif;wjcif; a&muf&Sd
eef;a'0D 
Tuesday, 08 April 2008 15:48  -

e,l;a'vD/

jrefrmpHawmfcsdef

/ vlxka':trm\ psmyeodkY jrefrmh'Drfkdua&pD acgif;aqmif

a':atmifqef;pkMunf trnfESifh vGrf;olYyef;jcif;wck ,refaeYnu ydkYaqmif
cJhonf/
teDa&mif ESif;qDzl; 100 ausmf xnfhxm;onfh yef;jcif;tm; ,refaeYn 11
em&DcJGwGif vltcsKdhu 38 vrf;&Sd vlxka':trm½kyfuvyf xm;&Sd&m aetdrfwGif
vma&muf ydkYaqmifoGm;jcif; jzpfonf/ 
“a':pk yef;jcif;ydkYw,fqdkwm [kwfygw,f/ ESif;qDzl;teDa&mifawG csnf;ygyJ/
rEåav;u vkyfazmfudkifzufawGuae pDpOfwmjzpfygvdrfhr,f/ b,folawG
,lvmw,fqdkwmawmh rawGYvdkuf&bl;cifAs/ pmwrf;u ‘a':atmifqef;
pkMunfvGrf;olYyef;acG qdkNyD;awmh pmwrf;xdk;xm;ygw,f”  [k vlxka':trm
\ om;jzpfol pma&;q&m nDykav;u rZdÑrudk ajymonf/
Edkb,fjidrf;csrf;a&;qk&Sif

trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJYcsKyf

atmifqef;pkMunfonf

aetdrftus,fcsKyf

23

acgif;aqmif

uscHae&csdefwGif

a':

rnfuJhodkY

yef;jcif;ay;ydkYcJhonfudk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; rod&ao;ay/ vma&muf ydkYaqmif
olrsm;udk psmyewGif&Sdaeolrsm; rodMu[k ajymonf/
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJGYcsKyf ajymcGifh&yk*¾Kdvf OD;ÚmPf0if;u  “tzGJYcsKyfuae
NyD;awmh yef;jcif;? yef;acG 2 ck ydkYygw,f/ wcku trsKd;om; 'Drdkua&pD
tzGJYcsKyf emrnfeJY jzpfNyD;awmh aemufwcku a':atmifqef;pkMunf emrnfeJY
raeYu ydkYygw,f/ &NyD;NyD vdkYvnf; Mum;ygw,f/ rEåav;tzGJYcsKyfeJY aygif;NyD;
usaemfwdkYpDpOfwmyg/ aemufwcku a':atmifqef;pkMunf uaeNyD;awmh
ouFef; 5 pHk vSLw,fvdkY ajymygw,f/ tJ'gawmh b,folawG pDpOfvnf;
qdkwm usaemfrodygbl;” [k ajymonf/
rEåav; 38 vrf;aetdrfwGif ½kyfuvyftm; xm;&Sd&m ,aeYeHeufrS aeYvnf
xrif;pm;csdeftxd *g&0jyKol {nfhy&dowf 1000 ausmf&SdNyD;? pmaytodkif;
t0dkif;rS q&marmifrdk;ol? q&mOD;Munfatmif? q&marmifomEdk;? q&mr
oef;jrifhatmif? a':uvsmESifh om;*sme,fausmf wdkYvnf; vma&mufcJhonf/
aetdrftjyifbufwGifrl t&yf0wfESifh apmifhMunfhaeonfh vl 5 OD;cefY &SdNyD;?
yef;acG? yef;jcif; vma&mufydkYaqmifolrsm;udk "mwfyHk½kduf,lMuaomfvnf;
tjcm;enf;ESifh aESmifh,Sufjcif;r&SdaMumif; od&onf/
&efukef&Sd EkdifiHa&;todkif;têdkif;uvnf; psmyeyJGtrD rEåav;odkY um;rsm;ESifh
vma&mufaeonf/

24

vlxka':trmuG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf 93ESpf &SdNyD;? usef&pfonfh ½kyfuvyf
tm; reufjzef eHeuf 10 em&DwGif aetdrfrS MumeDuefokóefodkY ydkYaqmifum
rD;oN*ØK[frnf jzpfonf/

2?8/ 

Network Media Group 

vlxka':trm psmye vlaxmifcsD vdkufygydkUaqmif
cGefatmifjrwf/
{NyDv 9 &uf? 2008 ckESpf/
owif;pmq&m? pma&;q&mrBuD; vlxka':trm\ psmyeyGJ ,aeUjyKvkyf&m
vlaygif;axmifcsD vdkufygydkU aqmifMuonf/
a':trm\ psmyetcrf;tem;udk vkdufygydkUaqmif&mwGif um;tpD;aygif;
&mESifhcsDí vkdkufygydkUaqmifMuonf[k psmyeydkU&mwGif vdkufygcJhonfh vl&Tif
awmf OD;ygygav;u ajymonf/ 
“pnfwmuawmhAsm um;tpD;aygif; (130)ausmfyJAs/ qdkifu,fuawmhAsm
a&udk ra&Ekdifawmhbl;yJ/ trsm;BuD;Asm vlxky&dówfuawmh/ aemufwcg
okóefrSmvnf; jynfhnyfoGm;wmyJ um;awmifxm;p&mr&Sdawmhbl;/ &Sm;w,f
&Sm;ygw,f/ 'Dvdk tarrsKd;uawmhr&Sdygbl;/ yef;acG yef;jcif;uawmh trsm;
BuD;yJAs/ pmayavmuAsm? tEkynm&Sifavmu uawmh usaemf vl&Tifawmf
25

Ekwfcrf;arG; ygygav; rdom;pkayghAsm/ aemuf pmayavmuygw,f? aemuf
pme,fZif;awG/ aemuf trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJUcsKyf? aemufNrdKUrwD;0dkif;?
aemuf Xmeqkdif&mayghAsm/ awmfawmfav;ygygw,f/ awmfawmfhudk rsm;w,f
As/” 
vlxka':trm\ psmygetcrf;tem;wGif rD;roN*ÐKvfrDtcsdefwGif 'Drdkua&pD
acgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pkMunf ay;ydkUonfqdkonfh vTrf;olUyef;jcif;udk
a':trm\acgif;&if;wGif axmifxm;aMumif; OD;ygygav;u ajymonf/ 
“xl;jcm;wmwckuawmh tarhudkrD;oN*ÐvfcgeD;av;rSm usaemfwdkU tm;vHk;
ayghAsm? ADG'D,dkuifr&mawG &dkufwmuawmh tvHk;uawmh ra&Ekdifbl;As?
vlwkdif;vdkvdk &kdufwJhtcgrSm tJ'DrSm usaemf vlxkacgif;aqmif a':
atmifqef;pkMunfyef;jcif;udkav

tarhacgif;&if;uaeNyD;awmh

olwckxJyJ

axmifxm;wmAs/ axmifNyD;awmhudk wa,mufuudkifay;xm;w,f/ tJ'gawmh
xl;jcm;w,fAs/ vlawG vlwkdif; MuufoD;xNyD; 0rf;omMuwmayghAsm/ [m
[meJU aewmyJAsm/ 0rf;omMuwmayghAsm/ tJ'gav;uawmh usaemfwdkU
&ifxJrSmvnf; auseyfoGm;wmayghAsm/” 
psmyetcrf;tem;wGif

jrefrmppftpdk;&\

axmufvSrf;a&;jzpfyHk&olrsm;u

rSwfwrf;"mwfyHk &dkuf,lrIrsm; jyK vkyfonf[k 4if;u qufajymonf/
EkdifiHausmf owif;pmq&m? pma&;q&mrBuD; vlxka':trmonf {NyDv 7
&ufaeU wGif rEåav;jynfolU aq;&HkBuD;wGif ESvHk;a&m*gjzifh uG,fvGefcJhonf/

26

2?9/ rZdÑrowif;Xme

vlxktarrm psmye usif;y
armif'D; 
Wednesday, 09 April 2008 15:57  -

e,l;a'vD/

jrefrmpHawmfcsdef

/ pma&;q&mrBuD; vlxka':trm\ aemufqHk;c&D; psmye

yJGudk ,aeYjyKvkyfjyD; t&dk;jymudk {&mêwDjrpfxJ arSsmvdkufMuonf/
psmyeyJGudk eHeuf 10 em&DwGif pwifcJhNyD; pma&;q&mrBuD; vlxka':trm (92
ESpf) udk cspfjrwfEdk;onfh omreft&yfom;rsm;ESifh &efukef-rEåav; pme,fZif;
e,fy,frSyg vma&mufMuum *g&0jyKolaygif; axmifcsD &Sdonf/
q&mrBuD;\ ½kyftavmif;udk MumeDuefokomefwGif rD;oN*dK[fNyD; usef&pfol
rdom;pk0ifrsm;\qE´t& t½dk;jymudk {&m0wDjrpfxJodkY arSsmcJhMuonf[k om;
jzpfol pma&;q&m nDykav;u ajymonf/
jrefrmjynforkdif;0if pma&;q&mrBuD; vlxka':trm\ psmyeodkY rEåav;NrhKdrS
*sme,f? r*¾Zif;wdkufrsm;? pme,fZif;orm;rsm;? pmayynm&Sifrsm; tm;vHk;
eD;yg; wufa&mufcJhjcif;vnf; jzpfonf/ xdkYtjyif &efukefrS pma&;q&mrsm;
vnf; wufa&mufvmMuonf/ 
“y&dowf awmfawmfrsm;ygw,fcifAs/ udk,fydkifum;eJY vdkufydkYMuwm usKH;
ywfcsmvnf ESpfjypmayghAsm/

usKH;NrhKd½dk; ESpfzufpmaygh um;wef;awGu/
27

a&Shuae qdkifu,fawGeJY oGm;Muwmvnf; trsm;BuD;yg/ ta&twGuftaeeJY
qdk&if 2 axmifavmuf&Sdr,fAs”  [k psmyetcrf;tem; wufa&mufol
ausmif;q&mwOD;u ajymonf/ 
“usaemfhtaeeJYawmh ouf&Sdxif&Sm; ordkif;pmtkyfBuD;wtkyf? jrefrmEkdifiH&Jh
orkdif;0if

q&mrBuD;wa,mufvdkY

oabmxm;ygw,f/

usaemfwdkY&Jh

,Ofaus;rIeJY "avhxkH;wrf;pOfvmudk xdef;odrf;wJh q&mrBuD;taeeJY av;pm;
cJh&wm jzpfygw,f/ ½dk;om;rIeJY rSefuefwJhbufu &yfwnfcJhwJh? vlxkbufu
&yfwnfcJhwJh?

wdkif;usKd;jynfusKd;udkom

tpOfa&Sh½IcJhwJh

q&mrBuD;taeeJY

av;pm;cJhygw,f/ 'Dvdk q&mrBuD; qHk;oGm;wJhtwGuf rDScdk&m? tm;xm;&m?
tm;jyK&m qHk;½IH;oGm;&ovdk cHpm;&ygw,f” [k olu xyfajymonf/
rEåav;NrhKdudkcspfaom q&mrBuD;udk rEåav;NrhKdol NrhKdom;rsm;uvnf; cspf
jrwfEdk;av;pm;Mu&m tokb,mOfwef; jzwfoef;oGm;onfhtcg vufckyfcsDNyD;
q&mrBuD;udk 0rf;enf;pGmjzifh EIwfqufcJhMuonf[k od&onf/
jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&;ordkif;wavSsmuf pmayrdwfaqGtjzpf jzwfoef;vmcJh
onfh q&mBuD; '*kefwm&mudk  “udkaX;jrdKifa& usrwdkY aovdkYrjzpfao;bl;” 
[k ajymqdkcJhonfh vlxka':trmonf NyD;cJhonfh wevFmaeY? {NyDv 7 &uf
eHeuf 8 em&D 37 rdepfwGif ESvHk;a&m*gjzifh qHk;yg;cJhjcif; jzpfonf/

28

3/ tarYtwGuf0rf;enf;rSwfwrf;rsm;
raojrpfodkY OD;ñTwfjcif;

vlxk&JU “ pdwf” urf;
vGwfajrmufa&;odkY oGm;&mvrf;
vufeufrcswrf; / /
tarhom; atmifa0;
..............................................
tar uG,fvGefcJhayr,fh
tar[m usaemfeJY ra0;
usaemfh&JU tawG;? usaemfh&JUab;rSm
jrifhjrwfwJh tbd"r®m
jrifhjrwfwJh arwåmw&m;
jrifhjrwfwJh pdwf"mwfcGeftm;awGeJY
xm0& teD;uyf
rwfrwf&yfaeqJvdkY
,HkjrJ,HkMunfvsufyg tar .../
a'gufwmvGPf;aqG

29

tarrm[m tzdESdyfcH jynfolvlxkbufu tNrJwrf; awmufavSsmuf &yfwnf
NyD;awmh trSefw&m;twGuf? w&m;rSswrItwGuf tarrm[m i,fpOfcg
uwnf;u oludkifwJh uavmifpGrf;eJYckcHNyD;awmh &yfwnfvmcJhwJh ol&Jaumif;
tmZmenfwOD;vdkY ajymvdkY&ygw,f/ tarrm tckvdkuG,fvGefoGm;wm usaemf
wdkY wdkif;jynftwGuf? 'Drdkua&pDbufawmfom;awGtwGuf tifrwef qHk;½IH;rI
BuD; jzpfygw,f/
tarrmwdkY vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJ wavSsmufvHk;uae uaeYxufxd arSsmfrSef;cJh
wJh jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk; vGwfajrmufa&;eJY 'Drdkua&pD wdkif;jynfwckudk rjzpf
jzpfatmif wnfaqmufoGm;zdkY usaemfwdkY oHEéd|mef csxm;ygw,f/ 'gaMumifhrdkY
vdkY tarrm qHk;yg;oGm;ayr,fh tarrmqHk;rcJhwJh pum;awGuawmh usaemfwdkY
wdkif;jynfrSm uaeYxufxd &SifoefaeqJyg/ tarrm rSmcJhwJhtwdkif;yJ usaemf
wdkY wdkif;jynf vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf usaemfwdkY vkyfoGm;Muygr,f/
udkxGef;jrifhatmif (88 rsKd;qufausmif;om;rsm;tzJGY)
.................................................................................................................
tar qHk;oGm;wJhtcg usrwdkYtwGufa&m? jrefrmjynfrSm&SdwJh vlxkawGtwGuf
a&m wu,fudk pdwfraumif;p&m jzpfw,f/ tar[m trSefw&m;bufu?
jidrf;csrf;a&;bufu? vlxka&Shuae rm;rm;rwfrwf &yfwnfay;cJhwJh rdcif
aumif;wa,muf jzpfygw,f/ usrwdkY axmifxJrSm&SdaepOfrSm tarh&Jh pum;
30

awG[m usrwdkY axmifxJuvlawGtwGuf cGeftm;awG jzpfcJh&w,f/ tjyifrSm
vkyfaewJh 'Drdkua&pD vIyf&Sm;olawGtwGufvnf; tarh&Jhpum;? tarh&Jh
trSefw&m;? tarh&JhNidrf;csrf;rIawG[m usrwdkY ajcvSrf;wdkif;twGuf wu,fudk
cGeftm;awG jzpfapcJhygw,f/ tck tarqHk;yg;oGm;wJhtcg usrwdkYtwGuf
wu,fudk ESajrmrdygw,f/
tckqdk&if usrwdkY&Jh rqHk;wJhc&D;wckayghaemf/ yef;wdkif ra&mufcif? ratmifjrif
cifrSm tarqHk;yg;oGm;ayr,fh tarh&Jh&ifxJu qE´awGudk usrwdkYawG tm;vHk;
u atmifjrifwJhtxd qufvuf vkyfaqmifoGm;rSmyg/
reDvmodef; (88 rsKd;qufausmif;om;rsm;tzJGY)
...................................................................................................................
usaemfwdkYuawmh txl;yJ 0rf;enf;ygw,f/ bmvdkYvnf;qdkawmh tarvlxk
a':trmu tNrJwrf; jynfolbufu&yfwnfw,f/ EkdifiHa&;t&vnf; trsKd;
om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJYcsKyftay:rSm tNrJwrf;  Sympathy  xm;w,f/ 'Dvdk yk*¾dKvf
rsKd;wa,muf qHk;yg;oGm;wmuawmh usaemfwdkY txl;yJ aMuuGJ0rf;enf;
ygw,f/
OD;ÚmPf0if; (  NLD ajymcGifh&yk*¾Kdvf )
...................................................................................................................

31

tifrwefrS BuD;rm;wJh qHk;½IH;rIwckayghAsm/ a':trmu toufvnf; &Snfyg
w,f/ qHk;½IH;oGm;wm? uG,fvGefoGm;wmu 0rf;enf;p&mayghAsm/ &Snfvsm;wJh
oufwrf;wavSsmufrSm ArmpmaytwGuf tusKd;jyKwJhpmawG? todtjrif
~uG,f0apa&;pmawG trsm;BuD;a&;cJhw,f/ wkdif;jynfaumif;&maumif;aMumif;
twGuf vkyfoihfvkyfxdkufwm rSeforSsrSmvnf; udk,fusKd;udkriJhbJ tNrJwrf;
vkyfcJhw,f/ tifrwefrS aus;Zl;BuD;rm;wJh pmaye,ftwGufa&m wkdif;jynf
twGufa&m aus;Zl;BuD;rm;wJh yk*¾dKvfwa,muf jzpfygw,f/ tifrwefrS
0rf;enf;p&m qHk;½IH;rIwckvdkY ajymcsifygw,f/
pma&;q&m azjrifh
...................................................................................................................
a':trm uG,fvGefoGm;w,f qdkwJh[mu usaemfwdkYrSmu rdom;pkwpktaeeJY
ajym&r,fqdkvdkY&Sd&if usaemfwdkY&Jh tdrfOD;cef;rSm *kPfusufoa&&Sd&Sd tav;
teufxm;&wJh tzGm;wa,muf rdcifBuD;wa,muf uG,fvGefoGm;ovdkygyJ?
pmayavmutwGufa&m tm;vHk;twGufyg tzdk;rjzwfEdkifwJh qHk;½HI;rIvdkYyJ
ajymyg&ap/ usaemfawmfawmfvnf; pdwfraumif; jzpfaeygw,f/
armf'efpma&;q&m rif;cdkufpdk;pH
...................................................................................................................

32

qHk;½HI;qHk;rIw&yfvdkY

ajym&rSmaygh/

a':trmu

ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmMumNyDyJ/

wkdif;jynftwGuf aqmif&Gufaewm/ Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf aqmif&Gufaewm/
a':trm[m 1936

'kwd,ausmif;om; oydwfrSm pawGYzl;w,f/ usaemf

wdkYu (10) wef;aygh/ ol&Jh cifyGef;aygh OD;vSqdk&ifausmif;om;b0wnf;u
cifw,f/ olvnf; Nidrf;csrfa&;udpöawG yg0ifaqmif&GufcJhwmyJ/ oleJY
udkatmifqef;eJYu arG;ESpf twlwlyJ/ a':trmeJY ywfoufvdkYajym&&if
ajymp&mawGu

trsm;BuD;aygh/

taMumif;t&mawGu

csufcsif;

tcsuftvufeJYajymrS

pDumywfuHk;ajymzdkYu
jynfhpHkr,f/

wcsKdY

Nidrf;csrf;a&;

aqmif&GufwJhtcgrSm a':trmeJY awGY&ygw,f/ rMumcP/ rEåav;a&muf&if
awmh 0ifw,fayghAsm/ olYtdrfrSmyJ wnf;&wmayghAsm/ txl;ojzifh trsKd;
orD;a&;&mawG r[kwfawmhbl;ayghAsm/ wkdif;jynfwjynfvHk;eJY ywfoufwJh
udpöawGrSmvnf; twlwlaqmif&GufcJhwm/ usaemfodyfNyD;awmh pdwfraumif;
jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
q&mBuD; '*kefwm&m
...................................................................................................................
olrsm;wwkdif;jynfvHk; usOf;xJusyfxJtcsdefrSm qHk;½HI;rIudk cHpm;&w,f
qdkwmavmufygyJ/
&Jabmf zkd;oHacsmif; (tarrm\ om;? Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwD
ajyma&;qdkcGifh&Sdol)
33

{NyD 7 &uf reufcif;
a':a': usaemfwdkYeJY þb0 þrSsom
rEÅav;qdkwm a':a':&SdaevdkYom wihfw,fwm ...
oihfaemf (pma&;q&m)
...................................................
{NyD 7 ? 2008
tarqkH;NyD
'gayr,hf tarb,fawmhrS rao
urÇmwnf Armjynf wnfoa½GU ...
*g&0 jzihf
ql;iSuf (pma&;q&m)
....................................................
tar&,f
tarY&JUom;awG
trdrJhom; a&enf;ig;ES,f ...
odkufxGef;ouf (pma&;q&m)
34

odygw,f
a':a': arSsmfvihfapmihfpm;&if;uG,fvGefwm
usaemfwdkY odygw,f ...
armifopfvGif(vlxk)
....................................................
tar
a&;p&m pum;vkH;&Smr&wm
tarcGihfvTwfygaemf ...
ararmif (pma&;q&mr)
................................................................
tarqkH;wJhtcsdefrSm
ZufrusdK;usbl;
acgif;ikHY aysmhacGusroGm;bl;
tarqkH;wJhtcsdef
ukwifab;rSm &SdaewJh usaemf
aoaocsmcsm owdxm;rdw,f ...
ausmf&ifjrihf (pma&;q&m)
35

tpm;xdk;r&wJh qHk;&HI;rI
{jyD7&uf2008 reuf8em&D37rdepf/
tarrm(vlxka':trm) touf 93ESpf/
wdkufwdkufqdkifqdkif raeY({jyD6&uf)u q&mMuD;a'gufwmoef;xGef;&JU arG;aeY/
q&mMuD;u tarharG;aeYtjyD; aemufw&ufrSm uG,fvGefqHk;yg;cJhw,f/
ck tarrmuvnf;
q&mMuD;a'gufwmoef;xGef;arG;aeYtjyD;aemufw&ufrSmygyJ/
jyD;cJhwJh {jyDv(3)&ufaeYwkef;uvnf; tarwdkYvdkyJ rw&m;tpdk;&udk
acwftqufquf awmufavSsmufwdkufvmcJhwJh owif;pmq&mMuD; tb
aMu;rHkOD;aomif;(atmifAv) uG,fvGefcJh/ ckxd psmyeawmif rusif;y&ao;bJ
&SdqJ../
tpm;xdk;r&wJh qHk;&IHk;rIawGu wdkufwdkufqdkifqdkif/
'DvdkeJU aemufxyf r[mMu,fwyGifh... 'grSr[kwf vrif;wql..
uG,fy&jyefygjyD/
a&mufvmr,fh waeYvdkY odayrJh .. csdefwefjyDvdkY vufcHayrJh..
aemufxyf b,fvdkrS tpm;xdk;r&EdkifwJh qHk;&IH;rI/
owif;pmq&maumif;? pma&;q&maumif;? EdkifiHa&;orm;aumif;?
rdcifaumif;? jynfolaumif;? vlxka&SUaqmifaumif;.. pHjyyk*¾dKvftrGef... tar
vlxka':trmudk ESajrmwopGm tEl;tnGwf tav; *g&0jyKygw,f../
arjidrf;
...................................................................................................................
36

tarharG;aeYwdkif;
usaemfwdkY a'gif;&ifjyifrSm tarhudk atmufarh*g&0jyKyGJav;
tjrJvkyfaecJhwm 10 pkESpfwck &Sdawmhr,f/
xl;jcm;wdkufqdkifrIvdkY ajym&rvm;bJ/ tarh (90)jynfharG;aeYyGJu tjyef
q&mBuD; a'gufwmoef;xGef; uG,fvGefw,f/
raeYu q&mBuD;arG;aeY? 'DaeY taruG,fvGefoGm;cJhw,f/
aMuuGJESajrmrqkH;qdkwJh pum;xuf av;eufydNydKwJh pum;vkH; usaemf
&SmazGaerdw,f/ usaemfawmh wdkif;EdkifiHwck xyfrHqkH;½IH; &jyefNyDayghav/
armifvGrf;PD
...................................................................................................................
vlxktwGuf
vlxka':trmqdkwm jzpfvmw,f/
uG,fvGefcsdefxd
vlxkeJY wxyfwnf; wom;wnf;&SdcJhwJh
tarvlxka':trm[m
vlwa,mufrSm &SdoifhwJh
vlYwefzdk;awGudk
o,fydk;oGm;cJhEdkifygw,f
uefawmhvdkufygw,f tar .../
ta0;a&muforD; at;rdjzL
37

tarrm odkY
armifpGrf;&nf
{jyD 9? 2008
tbdk;qkH;í
ndSK;csKH;tm;rmef? &SdcJhjyefaomf 
“ref;awmif” o@ef? “tvS”usefí
tm;rmefrus wif;EdkifMu\/
tbqkH;í
ndSK;csKH;tm;rmef? &SdcJhjyefaomf 
“csKd;jzL” o@ef? “trd” usefí
tm;rmefrus? wif;EdkifMu\/ 
“trd”qk;Haomf
rqkH; tm;rmef? cGyfa'gif;usefjyD
a'gif;vHjrSifhí
vTifhMuukef/

/

( rdk;rc rD'D,mrS )

38

ref;awmif&dyfidk

jynfyu
om;awG orD;awGudk
tm;udk;ygw,fvdk h ajymoGm;wJh
tar ajymoGm;wJh pum;twGuf
orD; &SufvSygw,ftar&,f /
ESif;qD
jreE´meJ h
oMuFefudkvGrf;
wrf;wrf;qGwfqGwf
vlu
ydawmufuAsm jzpfae&if;
39

tarhowif;u ? &if0xdk;cJG
aoG;u
tarh&hJ aoG;awG /

tar&,f
rEåvmudk ? jrefrmjynfudk
vlxkudk ? atmifqef;pkMunfudk
rif;udkEdkifwdkYudk ? ta0;a&mufom;orD;awGudk
tm;udk; ,HkMunfw,fqdk /

csif;wGif; ?{&m0wD
&kd;rwaMum ? aomvIyfrkefwdkif;
vdIif;awG ckefaygufaeMujyD /
awmifav;vHk;
awmiforef ? r,fZ,fyifwef;
idkcef;awGtcef;quf? &ufpufwJh Zmwfvrf;&Snf
aMuuJGvdk hrqHk;? ppfrkef;pdwfu rdkifaxmif&Snf /

40

ol&Jaumif; vlxk
aoG;pkr,fh ae&m
tar azG&Smawmhavovm; /

aoG;ajrus oHCmawmfawGudk
vdkufvH ylaZmfaewmvm;tar /

tEkynm
pmay tjidrfh obif
rjrif&ufawmhbl;vm; tar /

jrKdh½dk;jyó'f
usKH;wywfrSm
qHk;jzwfoGm;cJhwmvm;tar /

tar jrifcsifwJhacwf
tar awG csifwJhpepf
usaemfwdkY cspfw,f

41

usaemfwdkY acwf ? opfudk opf&r,f
jzpfudk jzpf&r,f
a&mufudk a&mufap&r,ftar /

tar
&SufaeOD;rnf
qufrnf wdkufyJG
,HkMunf cJG&pfcJhygawmh/
armifvGrf;PD (7-4-08)
(rZdÑrowif;XmerS ul;,lazmfjyygw,f/ )

42

4/ tarYema&;yHk&dyfrsm;
4?1/ tarYpsmyewGifa0iSaom vufurf;pmapmif

43

44

45

46

47

4?2/ tarYema&; "mwfyHkrsm;

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

tcef; ( 2 )

vlxka':trm
b0eJYpmay&ufpGJrsm;

0if;wifY

64

vlxka':trm
b0eJYpmay&ufpGJrsm;
0if;wifh

vlxkBuD;yGm;a&;pmtkyfwkduf rdom;pk&JU
vlxka':trm (80)jynfharG;aeY
trSwfw&vufaqmif

++++++++++++++++++++++++++

'Dpmtkyfjzpfajrmufa&;twGuf 0kdif;0ef;ulnDMuwJh ukd0if;wifh? ausmf&ifjrifh?
OD;ausmfZHvSeJY ql;iSufwkdYukd txl;aus;Zl;wif ygw,f/

+++++++

65

rmwdum

1/ tEkynmpmtkyfawGukd bm&nf&G,fcsufeJY a&;ovJ
2/ tw¦KyÜwåda&;r,fqkd&if
3/ pmayeJY cspfMunfa&;
4/ pma&;jzpfwJhtaMumif;&if;
5/ vlxka':trm b0eJYpmay&ufpGJrsm;
6/ vlxka':trm uavmiftrnfcGJrsm;
7/ pmpkpm&if;qkdwm
8/ vlxka':trm pmpkpm&if;

66

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
pma&;w,fqkdwm yg;pyfeJYajymvkdY rMum;ra&mufwJhqD pmeJY a&mufatmif
vkyfwm? pum;ukd tu©&meJY zvS,fay;wmukd pma&;w,fvkdY ac:wmygyJ?
pmpay:wkef;u ajymwmukd a&;cswmu pmpay:wmyJ? pmu t&ifay:wm
r[kwfbl;/
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

tEkynmpmtkyfawGukd bm&nf&G,fcsufeJY a&;ovJ
(pmay*sme,f trSwf(5)? 1989)

ar 27 &ufaeYu tr&yl& awmifav;vkH; OD;ynmausmif;rSm jynfolcspfaom
tEkynmonfrsm; pmtkyfxGufwm 25ESpfjynfhwJh txdrf;trSwfeJY awGUqkHyGJ
uav; vkyfMuw,f/ rEÅav;? ppfukdif;? tif;0? wHwm;OD;? pOfhukdif?
&Gmaxmif? NrKdUompwJh 0ef;usifu pma&;q&m? uAsmq&mawG? obife,f?
*Dwe,fuvlawG awmfawmfpkHpkHvmMuw,f/ ½kyf&Sifrif;om; ukdxGef;a0BuD;
vnf; ygw,fav/ a&eHajra':cifpkvnf; a&mufvmao;/ eef;awmfa&SU
q&mwifhom; a&Teef;wif? NrKdUrNidrf;om; NrKdUrukd&Tef;NrKdif? pdefaA'gBuD;&JUom;
OD;aX;? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ñGefYwif? vrif;w&mukdjrwfrIdif;eJY yefwsmaX;aX;jrifh?
vl&Tifawmf ukdom"k? apmif;rlrlodef;wkdY nDtpfr pojzifh vlu awmfawmfpkH
vmawmh qkdMuwD;MueJY aysmfp&mvGrf;p&mBuD;ygyJ/ tJ'DrSm vGefcJhwJh 25 ESpfu
xGufcJhwJh

uRefra&;cJhwJh pmtkyf[m

ckaetcgrsm; a&;prf;ygqkdvm&if

[kdwkef;u uRefrawGUqkHar;jref;cJholawG tm;vkH;eD;yg; aoqkH;ukefwmvnf;
67

waMumif;? uRefrukd,fwkdif [kdwkef;uavmuf tyifyef; rcHEkdifawmhwmvnf;
waMumif;aMumifh 'DpmtkyfrsKd;jzpfzkdY rvG,fbl;/ i,f&G,folawG ukd,fvkyfcsif
wmukd tm;aumif; armif;oefjzpfwkef; NyD;ajrmufatmif BuKd;pm;vkyfaqmifMu?
tcsdefumvqkdwm

apmifhaewmrsKd;r[kwfbl;vkdY

ajym&w,f/

'DpmtkyfeJY

ywfoufNyD; uAsmq&m ukdMunfatmifu &oajrmufwJh tw¦KyÜwådpmayvkdY
ajymvkdY uRefru a&;pOftcgwkef;uawmh tw¦KyÜwåd&,fvkdY a&;wmr[kwfwJh
taMumif; enf;enf;yg;yg; ajymjycJhw,f/ tdrfjyefa&mufawmh 'DtaMumif;
a':a':rEÅav;NrKdUawmfcef;r (1)rSm wcgu a[majymzl;om;yJvkdY uaeYtcrf;
tem;wufwJh rdw¦Dvmaumvdyf pmMunfhwkdufrSL; ukd0if;wifhu ajymygw,f/
[kwfvm;? wkdYrrSwfrdawmhbl;vkdY ajymawmh olu olodrf;xm;wJh uRefr
a[majymcsufuav;ukd rdw¦Dvmuae jyefykdYay;vkdufygw,f/ odrf;xm;azmf
&vkdY aus;Zl;wif& ygw,f/

bmvkdYa&;ovJ
trsKd;om;obifeJY ywfoufNyD; a':a': pm 4-5 tkyf a&;cJhygw,f/
(1) jynfolcspfaom tEkynmonfrsm;
(2) atmifAv? zkd;pdef? pdefuwkH;
(3) a&Tref;wifarmif
(4) tNidrfh
'DpmtkyfawGxJu tukefvkH;ukdr[kwfawmif wcsKdUukdawmh zwfzl;MurSmyg/
'gawGa&;jzpfwJh aphaqmfcsufu ppfNyD; 'DbufumvrSm trsKd;om;obif&JU
tqifhtwef; tifrwef edrfhusvmwmukdawGU&awmh pdwfxJrSm t&ifu
68

vlawGukd vGrf;NyD; ukd,fodcJh rDcJh MunfhcJh jrifcJh&wJh obifynmonfawG
Mum;zl;em;0&SdaewJh obifynmonfawG [kdwkef;u b,fvkdtvkyfvkyfMu
wmuvm;qkdNyD; uaeYobifavmuxJukda&m yGJMunfhy&dowfjynfolukda&m
jyefajymjycsifvkdY a&;wmyg/
ppfNyD; 'DbufacwfrSm trsKd;om;obifawG&JU tqifYtwef;u awmfawmfBuD;
ukd

edrfhusysufpD;vmygw,f/

bmvkdYvJqkdawmh

e,fcsJU,Ofaus;rIawG&JU

txkd;tESufukdcH&vkdY ukd,fhrlukd,f qkyfukdifrxm;EkdifbJ wzufu u,drf;
u,kdif jzpfwmeJYtwl ajymif;vJaewJh acwftajctaeukdrSDNyD; tawG;tac:
opfawGeJY wDxGifqef;opfrIawGukd uRefrwkdYobiform;awG vkdufrvkyfEkdif
vkdY a&SUrrD aemufra&mufeJY paumpu jzpfae&wmvnf; ygygw,f/ tJ'Dvkd
trsKd;om;obifawGjzpfwJh Zmwf? ½kyfao;? tNidrfh? qkdif;awG tqifhtwef;
edrfhusaewmawG awGU&awmh pdwfxJrSm tm;rvkd tm;r&jzpfaeNyD; ajymif;vJ
aewJh tajctaeopfawGukd EkdifiHa&;todr&Sdao;vkdY vkdufrrD&if&Sdygap?
&Sd&if;pGJ trsKd;om;obif&JU tqifhtwef;ukdawmh qkyfukdifvkdYxm;zkdY aumif;yg
w,fvkdY atmufarhNyD; ukd,fodrDwJh jrefrmhobifukd jyefa&;jywmygyJ/
tw¦KyÜwådvm;
a':a':hpmtkyfawGukd wcsKdUu jrefrmobif ynm&SifawG&JU tw¦KyÜwådawG
jzpfw,fvkdYqkdNyD; tw¦KyÜwådpmayxJ oGwfoGif;Muygw,f/ wcsKdUuawmh
jrefrmobif orkdif;yJqkdNyD; orkdif;pm&if;xJ oGwfoGif;Muygw,f/ orkdif;eJY
tw¦KyÜwåd[m qufEG,frI &Sdygw,f/ 'gaMumifh a&;cJhwJh pmtkyfawG[m
tw¦KyÜwåde,fxJ 0ifoavmufawmh 0ifygvdrfhr,f/ EkdYayr,fh a&;pOftcg
wkef;uawmh tw¦KyÜwåda&;wm r[kwfygbl;/ OD;zkd;pdefwkdY? a,musfm;rif;orD;
OD;atmifAvwkdY? OD;pdefuwkH;wkdY? &Gmpm;BuD; pdefaA'gwkdY tw¦KyÜwådawGukd
69

tjcm; pma&;q&mawG a&;NyD;om;rsm; &Sdygw,f/ wtkyfru wcsKdUyk*¾Kdvf
awGqkd&if ola&;iga&; ESpftkyfokH;tkyf &Sdygw,f/ EkdYayr,fh olwkdYa&;xm;wm
awGeJY uRefra&;wmeJY ,lwJh pmay½Iaxmifhcsif; rwlygbl;/

yGJMunfh½Iaxmifh
uRefrpmtkyfawGu yGJMunfh½Iaxmifhu a&;wmyg/ uRefrwkdY yGJMunfhwJhtcg
aemufw&uf 'DyGJukdMunfholcsif;qkHrd&if yGJpm;NrKHUjyefwwfygw,f/ vljyufu
bmukd b,fvkdjyufvkdufwmuvm;qkdNyD; jyufvkH;ukdjyefajymNyD; &,f&w,f/
rif;om; rif;orD;qkdwJh oDcsif;awGxJu ukd,f&wJh tvkdufuav;eJY tykd'f
uav; qkdMunfh&w,f/ Zmwf0ifcef;xJu ukd,fESpfoufwJh pum;vkH;av;awG
jyefajym&w,f/ yGJMunfhcsif; 'Dvkd yGJpm;NrKHUjyef&wm yDwdeJYyg/ uRefr
i,fi,fu tvkyform;awGMum;xJ BuD;jyif;vmcJhwmyg/ uRefrwkdY rdb
bkd;bGm;awGu aq;? aq;½kd; a&mif;0,fMuolawGrkdY tdrfrSm aq;ayghvdyfckH?
aq;jyif;vdyfckH&dSygw,f/ tJ'Dawmh aq;vdyfonfvkdYac:wJh tvkyform;
awGMum;xJrSm aecJh&wmyg/ uRefr olwkdYeJYtwl yGJpm;NrKHUjyefwmawGukd tck
jyefowd&NyD; tJ'Dtvkyform;awG&JUaveJY 'DpmtkyfawGukd a&;wmyg/

b,fvkdpkovJ
uaeY jrefrmhobifonfawG trsKd;om;obif tpOftvmawGukd av;av;
pm;pm; rxm;bJ jzpfuwwfqef; vkyfpm;aeMu&ykHawGukd tm;rvkdtm;r&
&SdwmrkdY [kdwkef;uawmh qkdif;ynmqkd&if &Gmpm;BuD;pdefaA'gwkdYu b,fvkd&SmrS;D
qnf;yl;cJhwm? tEkynmorm;wa,muf[m aowyefoufwqkH; ynm
qnf;yl;jznfhwif;ae&w,fvkdY pdefaA'gBuD;u ,kHMunfNyD; olU,kHMunfcsuf
70

twkdif; rsufpdESpfvkH;zGifhuwnf;u rSdwfwJhtcsdefxd ynm,lwm? tvkyf
vkyfcsdefusawmhvnf; tvkyfukd b,fvkdav;av;pm;pm; vkyfoGm;wmqkdwm
rsKd;awGukd wifjyEkdifatmifvkdY olwkdYtvkyfvkyfcJhwJhacwfukd wu,frDcJhwJh
vlawG? olwkdYeJY wGJzufvkyfukdifoGm;olawGukd vkdufvHpkHprf;NyD; olwkdYqDu
ar;jref;rSwfom;ygw,f/ uRefra&;wJh tEkynmonfawGxJu taraxG;
ac:wJh raxG;av;&,f? q&mykBuD;&,f? atmifAv&,fukdawmh rrDvkdufbl;/
uRefr rarG;cifu 'DynmonfawGu aoqkH;Muwm/ EkdYayr,fh wu,fh
ynmBuD;wJhvlawGjzpfavawmh olwkdY&JUynm&nfu orm;pOf trSwftom;
tjzpfeJY ajymprSwfawG obifavmurSm trsm;BuD;usef&pfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh
tJ'DajymprSwfawG olwkdYwynfhwyef;awGqDu vkdufvH&SmazG pkaqmif;&
ygw,f/
useftEkynmonfawGuawmh odvkdufwm? rDvkdufwm? Munfhzl;vkdufwm?
wcsKdUu

uRrf;uRrf;0if0if&SdwmawG

t&if;ESD;qkH;wa,mufyg/

ygygw,f/

ukdwifarmifukd

a&Tref;wifarmifqkd&if

rif;om;rjzpfcif

q&mawmf

OD;auo&qDrSm bkef;BuD;ausmif;om;b0uwnf;u odygw,f/ olUq&m
awmfu uRefrwkdYvnf; ukd;uG,fwmukd;/ olUukd rif;orD;BuD; raiGNrKdifqDukd
ynmoiftyfawmhvnf; odwmyJ/ raiGNrKdif&JU yÍÆif;u uRefrwkdYtdrfu
qGrf;cHukd,fawmfukd;/ aemuf ol rif;om;jzpfvmw,f/ ausmfMum;vmw,f/
aemuf urÇmppfBuD;jzpfvmw,f/ ola&m uRefrwkdYa&m a&Tref;q&mawmf
OD;auo& ppfwGif;oDwif;okH;wJh uykdifawmifilpkausmif;xJrSm oGm;NyD;ckdukd;
&w,f/

w0kdif;wnf;

okH;ESpfavmuf

twlaezl;oaygh/

ppfNyD;awmh

ukdwifarmifjyefuw,f/ xef;jrif&yfxJ raecsifbl;? uRefrwkdYtem; aecsif
w,fqkdvkdY uRefrcJtkdu olUwkdufukd BuD;Muyfaqmufay;w,f/ uRefrwkdYeJY
ig;tdrfyJjcm;w,f/
71

tJ'Davmuf

&if;ESD;ayr,fh

oltedpöa&mufvkdY

jrefrmZmwfobifavmu

twGuf? olUtaMumif;a&;r,fqkdawmh oleJY od½kH uRrf;½kH &if;ESD;½kHeJY pmtkyf
wtkyf rjzpfygbl;/ oleJYtwl wGJzuftvkyfvkyfMuwJh ZmwfolZmwfom;awG
tm;vkH;eD;yg; ac:awGU&? ar;&? jref;&? rSwfom;&ygw,f/ olUxrif;csuf?
olUrefae*smygrusef awGUqkH&ygw,f/ NyD;awmh olay:vm? oltvkyfvkyf
oGm;wJh acwfwavQmufvkH;ukdvnf; NcKHNyD;odxm;zkdY 'DrSm 'Dvkday:vmwJh
rif;om;qdkwm yDyDjyifjyif jyEkdifzkdY avhvmrSwfom;&ygao;w,f/ NyD;awmhrS
olUukd,fa&;ukd,fwmawGukd olUaqGrsKd; olUtdrfoltdrfom;awGqDu wcg
ar;jref;,lNyD; wifjy&ygw,f/

aumufoif;aumuf
tEkynmonfawGtaMumif; 'Dvkd&SmazGwifjywJhtcg jrefrmhobifynmrSm
xkH;pH&SdwJhtwkdif; okH;pGJwJh uAsmvuFm pmtzkd;wefav;awG &Sdw,f/ Zmwfjzifh
vnf; ZmwfrSmrkdYvkdY? ½kyfao;jzifhvnf; ½kyfao;rSmrkdYvkdY? tNidrfhjzifhvnf;
tNidrfhaygh/ wdrfxkd;wJh? avajywJh? qkdif;qifhwJh? ywfwkdufwJh? cGef;axmufwJh?
awmvm;wJh? oajyvm; a&vm;wJh/ 'DuAsmvuFmawGu olUae&meJYol
okH;&EIef;&ygw,f/ ckawmh obiftqifhtwef;awGu edrfhusvkdufvmawmh
'DuAsmvuFmawGvnf;

aysmufrSef;rodaysmufukefNyD/

tJ'guav;awG[m

raysmufysufxkdufbl;/ odrf;qnf;xm;Ekdif&if aumif;w,f/ ESajrmp&mawG
qkdwJh todeJY uRefra&;wJh pmtkyfawGrSm obifqkdif&m 'DuAsmvumFawGukd
ae&m&SmNyD; xnfhygw,f/
'gav;awG[m uRefrawGUqkHar;jref;xm;wJh obifonfBuD;awG&JU ajympum;
awGxJu aumufoif;aumufxm;wmawGyg/ NyD;awmh yGJMunfhawG yDwdeJY

72

oDqkdcJh&wJh ocsif;av;awGukdvnf; &wwforQ jyefazmfxkwfNyD; uRefrpmtkyf
xJrSm xnfhxm;ygw,f/ 'gav;awGvnf; ESajrmvkdY raysmufysuf&atmif
odrf;qnf; ay;wmyg/

owif;pmq&m&JU owif;ay;csuf
tJ'Dvkd awGUqkHar;jref;NyD; pkaqmif;NyD;wJhtcg owif;pmq&mwa,muf&JU
vmbfeJY b,ftuGufukdazmf&if bmygrS jynfhpkHr,f/ jcL;a&;&if NcKHygawmh
ykdraumif;vm;qkdwJh toeJY qDqkdif&m ygoifhygxkdufwmawGukd ukd,fjrif
oavmuf vufwHt&SnfqkH;eJY vufvSrf;rDorQukd &,lw,f/ NyD;awmh
owif;axmufaumif;wa,muf&JU
vnfvnf

owif;ay;ykHrsKd;eJY pkHpkHaphaph

a&;om;owif;ay;ygw,f/

tuGuf

owif;,lpOftcgwkef;uvnf;

obifonfawG&JUavukd wwfEkdifoavmuf trdzrf;w,f/ olwkdYokH;EIef;
ajymqkdwJh olwkdYykdifa0g[m&? olwkdY bef;pum;awGukdvnf; &atmif,lNyD;
owif;ay;ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh uRefrpmtkyfawGpm trsm;a&;wmeJY rwlwmyg/
ta&;tom;
'DpmtkyfrSm jynfolcspfaom tEkynmonfrsm;pmtkyfuvGJ&if usefpmtkyf
awGrSm pum;ajymwJhtwkdif; a&;xm;ygw,f/ tJ'gvnf; uRefrajymcsif
wmawGukd 'DykHpHeJYa&;rS ukefpifatmifajymjyEkdifr,f/ zwf&wJholvnf; 'grS
t&omjynfh cHpm;Ekdifr,fqkdNyD; a&;wmyg/ pma&;w,fqkdwm yg;pyfeJYajymvkdY
rMum;ra&mufwJhqD pmeJYa&mufatmifvkyfwm? pum;ukd tu©&meJY zvS,fay;
wmukd pma&;w,fvkdY ac:wmygyJ/ pm pay:wkef;u ajymwmukda&;cs&mu pm
pay:wmyJ/ pmu t&ifay:wm r[kwfbl;/ pum;u t&ifay:vmwm/ pmu
73

aemufrSay:vmwm/ 'gaMumifh ta&;[m tajymukdajymwJhtwkdif; a&;wm
ygyJ/ ta&;wrsKd; tajymwrsKd;vkdY ay:wkef;u r&SdcJhygbl;/ EkdYayr,fh
vlUpum;qkdwm ausmufwkH;BuD;vkd ikwfwkwfaewJhoabm r&Sdbl;/ pum;rSm
touf&Sdygw,f/ vlUtajctaeawG ajymif;vJwkd;wufwmeJYtrQ pum;awG
vnf; ajymif;vJvm&w,f/ pum;vkH;awG wkd;vm&w,f/ pum;wkd;wuf
ajymif;vJovkd pum;ukda&;wJhpmuvnf; trDvkdufNyD; wkd;wuf ajymif;vJ
&w,f/

uRefrwkdYpmrSm

wcsdefwcgwkef;u

tajymeJYta&;

wajy;nD

&SdcJhayr,fh wcsdefusawmh tajymuom ajymif;ajymif;vmNyD; ta&;u
wae&mrSm rkd;wkd;rwfwwf &yfusef&pfw,f/ 'gaMumifh a&;pmeJY ajympum;
enf;enf; uGm[oGm;w,f/ 'gukd a&;pmu ajympum;rDatmifajymif;zkdY
rBuKd;pm;MubJ ta&;u ta&;wrsKd;? tajymu tajymwrsKd; &Sd&r,fvkdY
ynmwwfwcsKdUu qkdaeMuygw,f/ ynmukd vlwpkvufxJrSmom qkyfxm;
csif&if? ynm&Sd vufqkyfukd tajzcsif&ifawmh xm;yg/ 'Dvkdr[kwfbJeJY
pmqdkwmukd vlwkdif; a&;Ekdif zwfEkdifapcsifw,f/ vlwkdif; vG,fvG,f em;vnf
apcsifw,fqkd&ifjzifh

pum;ajymwwfw,f/

pum;yDem;Mum;&Sdw,fqkdwJh

vlwa,mufu tJ'Dpum;ukd tu©&mpmvkH;eJY zvS,fwwfw,fqkd&if olvnf;
pma&;Ekdifygap? pmzwfEkdifygap? 'grS pD;yGm;a&;edrfhusvSwJh uRefrwkdY tvkyf
orm; v,form;awG pma&;wwf zwfwwfvmMurSmyg/ uRefrpmtkyfawGukd
pum;ajymwJhykHpHeJY

a&;awmh

uRefrbmajymcsifwmwkH;/

ajymcsifwmukd

tdwfoGefzmarSmuf pmeJY ajymvkdY&vmw,f/ 'dtjyif b,fapwemeJY ajymcsif
wmvJ/ wdrfaumukefwmawG ESrdESajrm wifjycsifwmvm;? aESmif;vlawG
ayghayghwefwef tvkyfvkyfaeMuvkdY u½kPma'gaomeJY ajymcsifwmvm;/
'Da&;enf;u uRefrrSm&SdwJh apwemtwkdif; wdwdusus a&;jyvkdY &ygw,f/
'gaMumifh pum;ajymwJhtwkdif; a&;xm;wmyg/
74

trsKd;om;obifqkdif&m pmtkyf 4 - 5 tkyfukd 'Dvkd BuKd;BuKd;pm;pm;
a&;&wJhtwGuf

wkdY,Ofaus;rIrSm

'gawG

'gawG&Sdygw,f/

wkdYwawG

wwfEkdifoavmuf qufvufxdef;odrf;r,fvkdY oabmaygufwJh ynmonf
wcsKdU ay:xGufvmygw,f/ 'g[m tjrwfyg/ EkdYayr,fh jrwfoifhjrwfxkdufwJh
twkdif;twmtxdawmh

rjrwfvmao;ygbl;/

ukd,fykdif&SdwJh

trsKd;om;

,Ofaus;rIukd qufvufxdef;odrf;NyD; ajymif;vJvmwJh tajctae t&yf&yf
eJYtnD trsKd;om;[ef rvGwfbJ qef;opfwDxGifrIawGukd jyKMu&rSmu vlawG
cH,lusifhokH;&r,fh vrf;pOfygyJ/
'gaMumifh

a':a':uawmh

wkdY,Ofaus;rItarGawGukd

wwfEkdifoavmuf

pkpnf;NyD; pmtkyfawGtjzpfeJY rif;wkdYvufukd tyfcJhr,f/ rif;wkdYu 'Dta[mif;
ukd qkyfukdif? ta[mif;xJu taumif;ukd,lNyD; vlUabmifopftwGuf
jynfolukd tusKd;jyKr,fh tEkynmukd zefwD;MuayawmhvkdY wkdufwGef;&if;
ed*kH;csKyfygw,f/

(12-12-1975 aeY? n 7 em&D? rEÅav;NrKdUawmfcef;r (1)rSm vlxka':trm
a[majymcJhwJhpmwrf;) jzpfygw,f/
vlxka':trm

75

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
ukd,fazmfcsifwJh ½kyfvkH;ukd NrJNrJqkyfukdifNyD; yDyDBuD; azmfEkdifzkdY uspfvspfrI&SdzkdY
tjr§KyfxaewJhpm? yGa&mif;a&mif; ay:aewJhykH? jcL;a&; NcKHygaewmrsm;?
wEG,fiif

wpifygaewJh

pmawGukd

ESajrmraebJ

wnf;jzwfokwfoif

z,f&Sm;Ekdif&ygr,f/
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

tw¦KyÜwåd a&;r,fqkd&if
(pmay*sme,f? 1995? Zefe0g&D)

uRefr wlvkdom;vkdaewJh pma&;q&mwa,mufu q&mawmfBuD;wyg;&JU
ax½kyÜwådukda&;r,fvkdY olpkaqmif; a&;om;aewm? vufa&;rl zl;puufeJY
vufESdyfpuf½kdufNyD; pmrsufESm 800 ausmfaeNyD? taMumif;t&mawGu
rukefao;bl;/ pmtkyfBuD; odyfxlaeawmhr,fvkdY olUtcuftcJukd ajymjyNyD;
tBuHawmif;ygw,f/ olajymwm[m tw¦KyÜwådvkdY ac:wJhpmrsKd;a&;wJhtcg
awGU&BuKH&wwfwJh jyóemygyJ/ 'Djyóemu ajz&Sif;wJhtcgawmh vG,frvkd
vkdeJY cufygw,f/ uRefrtaeeJY tcufqkH;vkdYyJ xifygw,f/ 'DjyóemrSm
ajyvnf&if pmtkyfaumif;wtkyf jzpfawmhwmygyJ/ 'g[m vkyfMunfhrS
od&wm? awGU&wmyg/
q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;? a&T½kd;buav;? atmifAv? zkd;pdef? pdefuwkH;?
jynfolcspfaomtEkynmonfrsm;? a&Tref;wifarmif pwJh pmtkyfawGukd uRefr
a&;cJhwkef;u yxrtqifhtaeeJY 'Dyk*¾KdvfawGeJY oufqkdif&m tcsuftvuf
76

awGukd

pkaqmif;ygw,f/

tcsuftvufpkwJhtcg

pmzwfy&dowftay:

ukd,fu apwemxm;&if xm;oavmuf tcsuftvuf pkHpkHvifvif &atmif
&SmpNrJyg/ vltyifyef;cH&w,f/ aiGtukefcH&w,f/ taygif;toif; rdwfaqG
awG&JU tultnDawGukdvnf; trsm;qkH; &,l&w,f/ b,frSm bmtaMumif;
'Dyk*¾KdvfeJYoufqkdifwm? qufpyfwm &Ekdifw,fqkd&if Mum;&if vufvSrf;rDorQ
vufukefEIduf&w,f/ vuf0ifcH&w,f/ owif;Mum;&mukd vkdufrSjzpf&if
vkduf&ygw,f/ tcsuftvufom &r,fqkd&if qefpif&m usnfayGUvkduf&
ygw,f/ 'grS &oifh&xkdufwm rusef&pfbJ &&SdEkdifygw,f/ NyD;awmh
'Dta&;cHyk*¾KdvfeJYtwl vkyfazmfukdifzuf? ta&;cHyk*¾KdvfeJY acwfNyKdiform;?
ta&;cHyk*¾KdvfeJY uRrf;0ifaygif; oif;cJhol? olUq&morm;eJY wynfhwyef;?
ta&;cHeJY tNyKdiftqkdif vkyfukdifcJhol pwJh vlawGeJYvnf; vlcsif;awGUvkdY&&if
awGUqkHar;jref;NyD; tJ'DvlawGqDu owif;&,l&ygw,f/
awGUqkHar;jref;wmrSmvnf; pma&;q&mwa,muf taeeJY ukd,fvkdcsifwm
&atmif ar;wJhtcg vG,fvG,feJY &wmvnf; &Sdwwf&JU? a&S;ujzpfcJhwJh
taMumif;t&mawGrkdY

ESpfMumvkdY

arhavsmhwm?

toufarG;rIajymif;NyD;

usifvnfaeykH b0jcm;vkdY arhavsmhrsKd;awG &SdwwfwmrkdY tJ'gawG jyefvnf
owd&atmif twdwfukd vdrfvdrfrmrmeJY olwkdYukd jyefqGJac:&wmrsKd;vnf;
&Sdwwfw,f/ aemufNyD; awGUqkH ar;jref;wJhtcg olwkdY ajymjycsifwmawGukd
onf;cHem;axmifae&mu ukd,fhpmtkyfeJY rqkdifayr,fh wjcm;tzkd;wefwJh
taMumif;t&mawG

owif;awG

&wwfwmvnf;

&Sd&JU/

NyD;awmhwcg

ukd,fa&;r,fh yk*¾KdvfeJYqkdif&m pmtkyfpmwef;rsm;ukdvnf; &SmazGvkdY &oavmuf
awGUoavmuf tukefzwf& rSwfom;&ygw,f/ tJ'D ta&;cHyk*¾Kdvf touf
&SifcJhwkef;u

acwfumvukdvnf;

od&Sdxm;atmif

vkyf&ygao;w,f/

tcsuftvuf &,l pkaqmif;rI jynfhpkHNyDvkdY xifwJhtcgusrS tcsuftvuf
77

wl&mwl&mukd cGJjcm; a&G;cs,f oD;oefY&w,f/ tMurf;zsif;tcef; cGJMunfh
&w,f/ NyD;awmh a&;cs&wmygyJ/ a&;wJhtcgrSmawmh 'Dyk*¾Kdvf&JU taMumif;
t&mukd ukd,fbmvkdY a&;wmvJ? MunfnKdvkdYvm;? olUynmukd av;pm;
jrwfEdk;vkdYvm;? 'Dyk*¾KdvfqDu tusifhaumif;? tBuHaumif; olvkyfaqmifoGm;
wJh vkyf&yfawG[m jynfolukd tusKd;jyKrI BuD;vGef;vkdY olUqDu erlem
aumif;awG &EkdifvkdYvm;qkdwm pdwfxJrSm wcgwnf; owfrSwfNyD;om;
&Sd&ygw,f/ NyD;&if ukd,fykHazmfcsifwJh yk*¾Kdvfukd &wJhtcsuftvufawGeJY
ykHay;atmif a&;wmygyJ/
tJ'Dvkd&SdwJhtcg 'Dyk*¾KdvfeJY oufqkdifwJh taMumif;t&mawGu ukd,ftifrwef
cJcJ,Of;,Of;

qif;qif;&J&J

aiGukefaMu;uscHNyD;

&SmazGxm;wJh

tcsuftvufawGjzpfayr,fh &SmvkdY&xm;wkdif; xnfha&;vkdYrjzpfwmawGvnf;
ygvmwwfygw,f/

tJ'gawGukdawmh

ypfy,fvkduf&ygw,f/

olwkdYukd

ESajrmaevkdYrjzpfygbl;/ bmjyKvkdYvJqkdawmh ukd,fazmfcsifwJhykHukd taxmuf
tul rjyKEkdifwJh tcsuftvuf? ao;zGJwJh tcsuftvufrsKd;awGrkdYyg/ 'grsKd;ukd
z,f&Sm;ypf&wmu pma&;olu &nfrSef;csuf jywfjywfom;om;&Sd&if odyf
tcuftcJ rawGUvSbl;/ oHa,mZOf odyfrwG,fbJeJY z,f&Sm;vTifhypfy,fvkdY
&w,f/ pma&;olukd 'ku©ay;wwfwJh udpöu tzkd;wefwJh tcsuftvufawG?
EkdYayr,fh

ukd,fa&;r,fh[mukd

tenf;tyg;yJ

taxmuftulay;Ekdifr,f?

olcsnf; oD;jcm;taeeJY awmh odoifhodxkdufwJhtaMumif;t&m A[kokw?
wdrfjrKyfaewJhudpö ponfjzifh yg&SdvmwmrsKd;eJY awGU&wJhtcgrSm tJ'grsKd;
usawmh pma&;q&mu vG,fvG,feJYvTifhrypf&ufbl;/ ukd,fvnf;cJcJ,Of;,Of;
usm;ukwfusm;cJ&Sm&if;u rxifrrSwf awGUvmwJhtaMumif;t&m? olUcsnf;
taeeJYukdu tzkd;wef taMumif;t&m/ 'gayr,fh ukd,fa&;aewJh t"du
ta&;cHyk*¾Kdvfukdawmh odyfaus;Zl;rjyKbl; qkdwmrsKd;usawmh ypf&rSm tqDeJY&J&J
78

pdwfxJrSmjzpfaeygava&m/ 'ghaMumifh pmukd ESajrmNyD; xnfhcsifvmwwfw,f/
xnfhcsif&if ukd,fu pma&;q&myJ/ qufEG,fNyD; a&;xnfhvkduf½kHaygh?
&ygw,f/ EkdYayr,fh pmwtkyftae jzpfvmwJhtcgawmh uspfvspfrIr&SdawmhbJ
pmu yGa&mif;a&mif;½kyfvkH;rsKd; ay:vmwwfw,f/
'g[m pma&;q&mukd 'ku©tay;qkH; udpöygyJ/ ESrdESajrm? csDwkHcswkH jzpfae
wwfygw,f/ ½kyf&Sifum;rsm; ½kduful;wJh tcg zvift,f'Dwmaumif;&if
aumif;oavmuf ½kyf&Sifum;aumif; xGufw,f/ olu tjzwftawmuf
aumif;ovm;? olaumif;oavmuf um;aumif;xGufvmEkdifw,f? [kwfvm;/
tJ'DvkdygyJ tw¦KyÜwåda&;&mrSmvnf; ukd,fhzmom tjzwftawmuf vkyfEkdifzkdY
vkdygw,f/ Oyrm avbmwDrjr&iftaMumif; pkaqmif;wJhtcg rjr&ifukd
uRefrwkdYu aumif;aumif; odrDwmyJ/ aemufNyD; rjr&ifu owif;BuD;wJh
rif;orD;r[kwfvm;/ tJ'Dawmh rjr&if&JU ukd,fa&;ukd,fwmukd uRefrwkdY
trsm;BuD; Mum;zl;wmaygh/ b,folu b,favmuf BuKdufaew,f/ b,fol
u ykd;aMu;yef;aMu; b,fvkday;aew,f/ b,foleJYawmh b,fawmhrSm
aygif;oif;ao;w,fpwJh owif;rsKd;awG[m uRefrpkaqmif;awmh aoao
csmcsm ckdifckdifrmrm &wmaygh/ 'gayr,fh uRefrazmfcsifwJh rjr&if&JUykHrSm
'gawGU&oavmuf tao;pdwfxnfhae&if vifrsm;wJhrjr&ifyJ jzpfvmrSmaygh/
cspfp&maumif;wJh tEkynmonf rjr&ifykH ray:vmaybl;/ tJ'grsKd;ukd
&uf&ufa&ma&m xkwfy,f&wJhtxJ ygoGm;ap&ygw,f/ tJ oleJYacwfNyKdif
awGukd azmf&wJh tuGufvnf; &Sdao;w,f/ tJ'gawGukdvnf;azmfrS olU½kyfvkH;
[m ~uGwufvmr,fr[kwfvm;/ EIdif;p&m ,SOfp&meJYrS ukd,fqkdcsifwJh pum;
[m t"dyÜm,f&Sdw,f r[kwfvm;/ 'ghaMumifh acwfNyKdifawG taMumif;ukdyg
a&;&ygw,f/ 'Dvkda&;zkdY vkdufvHpkaqmif;wJhtcgawmh olwkdYvnf; acwmawG
rS r[kwfavawmh a&;csifp&mawG trsm;BuD;&wmaygh/ 'gayr,fh ukd,fhpmtkyf
79

u olwkdYtaMumif; r[kwfbl;av/ 'Dae&mrSm ESrdESajrmeJY rcsifcsifbJ
csefcJh&wmawG trsm;BuD; jzpfukefyga&m/
'g[m tw¦KyÜwåda&;&mrSm jzpfwwfwJh obm0ygyJ/ ukd,fazmfcsifwJh ½kyfvkH;ukd
NrJNrJqkyfukdifNyD; yDyDBuD;azmfEkdifzkdY? uspfvspfrI&SdzkdY tjr§KyfxaewJh? yGa&mif;a&mif;
ay:aewJhykH? jcl;a&;NcKHygaewmrsm; wEG,fiifvkdY wpifygaewJhpmawGukd ESajrm
raebJ wnf;jzwf okwfoifz,f&Sm;Ekdif&ygr,f/ 'g[m uRefrukd,fuRefr
tNrJwrf; owday;ae? qkH;rae&wJh udpöyJ/ 'DMum;xJuyJ ESajrmp&m
pmuav;awGu

ygygvmao;vkdY

ESajrmNyD;

rjzwfvkdufrdwmawGvnf;

&Sdygw,f/ ckeu ax½kyÜwådrSm pmrsufESm 800 ausmfvkdY rNyD;qkH;ao;wJh
udpörSm uwfaMu;eJYaumf&,f? abmyifwacsmif;&,f tqifajy&if 'djyifwtkyf
a&;ao;wmaygqkdwJh

pdwful;&,f

&ifrSmykdufxm;NyD;

jzwfoifhwmjzwf?

jzKwfoifhwmjzKwf? xkwfoifhwmxkwfNyD; uspfvspfwJh½kyfvkH; yDjyifwJhykHrsKd;ukd
azmfzkdY BuKd;pm;ygvkdY tBuHay;csifwmyJ/
'Daqmif;yg;ukda&;&if; tvsOf;oifhvkdY uRefra&;cJhwJh atmifAv? zkd;pdef?
pdefuwkH; pmtkyfeJY ywfoufNyD; rif;om; OD;pdefuwkH;tay:rSm pma&;oltaeeJY
rQwrI r&SdcJhwmukdawmh zGifh[ 0efcHcsifygao;w,f/ OD;pdefuwkH;BuD;[m
wu,fqkdawmh uRefra&;cJhwmxuf ykdNyD; a&;p&mawG&Sdao;wJh tEkynmonf
BuD;yg/ olUtaMumif;ukd uRefru vufukefrEIdufEkdifcJh? tyifyef; odyfrcHcJhwJh
twGuf 'dxufykdNyD; pkHoifhyg&ufeJY rpkHvifcJhygbl;/ 'gukd pma&;olwa,muf
taeeJY atmifAvtay: wm0efausovkd zkd;pdefBuD;tay: wm0efausovkd
OD;pdefuwkH;tay: ighwm0efrauscJhbl;? 'Dyk*¾Kdvftay: w&m;rQwrI r&SdcJhbl;vkdY
ukd,fhzmom tjypfwif&if; owd&rdwkdif; pdwfraumif; jzpf&ygw,f/ aemifw
&rdygw,f/
atmifAv? zkd;pdef? pdefuwkH;pmtkyfBuD; xGufvmNyD;wJhaemuf ukdnKdjru
80

OD;pdefuwkH;BuD; aoqkH;awmh olu rkH&GmNrKdUrSm ausmif;om;tjzpfeJY &Sdaew,f/
'gaMumifh ukd,fawGUrsufjrif OD;pdefuwkH;BuD;&JU psmyetaMumif;ukd uRefr
pmtkyfay: jznfhpGufcsuf taeeJY jznfhpGufr,fqkdNyD; vkyfom;owif;pmrSm
pdefuwkH;twGuf rSwfcsufacgif;pOfeJY aqmif;yg;wyk'fa&;NyD; jznfhpGufygw,f/
q&marmifxifuvnf; raeYwaeYu OD;pdefuwkH;BuD; uwfqGJ0goemBuD;ykHeJY
ywfoufNyD; olUtbkd;eJYtwl uwfqGJMuykHukd uRefrpmtkyfay: jznfhpGufcsuf
taeeJY jznfhpGufa&;om;ygw,f/ pE´mr*¾Zif;xJrSmawmh armifat;oefYu
OD;pdefuqkH;\ psmyeaw;oDcsif;rsm;ukd pkaqmif;azmfjyygw,f/ 'DjznfhpGuf
csufawG[m tzkd;wef tcsuftvufawGyg/ 'gaMumifh rEÅav;rD;ab;BuD;
oifh&mrSm ygoGm;ukefvkdY a&mif;csp&m wtkyfrS rusef&SdawmhwJh atmifAv?
zkd;pdef? pdefuwkH;pmtkyfBuD; jyefvnf½kdufESdyfwJhtcg nKdjr? armifat;oefY eJY
armifxifwkdY&JU jznfhpGufcsufawGukd olwkdYcGifhjyKcsufrsm;eJY xnfhoGif;½kdufESdyfzkdY
pdwful;xm;ygw,f/ wu,fqkdawmh OD;pdefuwkH;ukd uRefru MunfnKd
av;pm;rI ykdygw,f/ Zmwfrif;om;ayr,fh rif;orD;awGeJY ½Iyf½Iyf,Suf,Suf
rvkyfwm/ pdwfaumif;apwemaumif;xm;wm? ynmukd av;pm;jrwfEkd;
wm[m olUvkdZmwfrif;om; tEkynmonfwa,muftzkdY MunfnKdav;pm;
p&m t&nftaoG;awGyg/
'gaMumifh olUtaMumif; pkHonfxufpkH ra&;om;vkduf&wJh uRefr&JU rQwrI
r&SdykHukd aemifw &aewJhtaMumif; pyfrdpyf&m 'Dae&mu azmfjyvkduf&ygw,f/
vlxka':trm

81

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
odem;vnf&if cspfMunfw,f/
cspfMunf&if Nidrf;csrf;w,f/
Nidrf;csrf;&if om,mpkdajy0ajymygw,f/
pmayuwqifh odem;vnfMuygpkdY/
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

pmayeJY cspfMunfa&;
(xkdif;0w¦Kwkdrsm; (1992) trSm)
EkdifiHwum&JU pmayavmurSm b0o½kyfazmf0w¦K a&;om;rI waeYwjcm;
wkd;wufaeygw,f/ tJ'Dvkd wkd;wufvmwJh ta&;tom;awGukdyJ jynfol
tcsif;csif; odem;vnfa&;? cspfMunfa&;twGuf EkdifiHwumrSm bmomjyefNyD;
zwf½Iap vsuf &Sdygw,f/
rMumvSao;cifu jrefrmEkdifiHu trsKd;orD; pma&;q&m 12 OD;&JU 0w¦Kwkd
uav;awGukd xkdif;bmomeJY jyefqkdNyD; xkdif;EkdifiHrSm xkwfa0jzefYcsdcJhygw,f/
tckvnf; t*Fvdyfvkd bmomjyefNyD;&SdwJh xkdif;0w¦KawGukd jrefrmbmomokdY
jyefNyD; pHy,fjzL r*¾Zif;? &ifckefyGifh r*¾Zif;? vkHrav;r*¾Zif;eJY om&r*¾Zif;
wkdYrSm uRefr azmfjycJhygw,f/
xkdif;eJYjrefrmu 0if;x&Homjcm;wJh tdrfeD;csif;EkdifiHyg/ 'DESpfEkdifiH&JU qufqHa&;
[m uRefrwkdYEkdifiHrSm ya'o&mZf pepf&Sdwkef;uawmh aumif;rGefwJhtcgawG
&SdcJhovkd? raumif;wJhtcgawGvnf; &SdcJhwmaygh/ EkdYayr,fh ya'o&mZfpepf
qkdwm jynfolu ukd,hfMur®mukd,fzefwD;cGifh &SdMuwmrS r[kwfbJuvm;/
82

tJ'Dawmh tkyfpkd;olawG rSm;&if rSm;ovkd? rSef&ifrSefovkd trSm;trSefawG
jzpfcJh&wmaygh/
aemuf vlU,Ofaus;rIawG wkd;wufvmwJhtcgrSmawmh jynfolvlxktcsif;csif;
cspfMunfa&;ukd wnfaqmufEkdifw,fqkdwJh tqifhukd a&muf&Sdvm&rSmaygh/
tJ'Dvkd cspfMunfa&;jzpfay:atmif wnfaqmufr,fqkd&if tcsif;csif; od
em;vnfa&;ay:rSm

tajccHrS

ckdifNrJr,fqkdwmvnf;

awGUvmygr,f/

jynfoltcsif;csif; odem;vnfa&;twGuf taumif;qkH;enf; wenf;uawmh
pmayuwqifh wnfaqmufay;rIyJ jzpfygw,f/
wEkdifiHeJYwEkdifiH a&jcm;w,f? ajrjcm;w,f? &moDOwkjcm;w,f? bmompum;?
"avhxkH;pH? ,Ofaus;rIeJY ukd;uG,f ,kHMunfrIcsif; jcm;em;rI &SdMuw,f/
'gaMumifh EkdifiHjcm;vkdY ac:a0:okH;pGJMuw,f/
jrefrmEkdifiHeJY xkdif;uawmh a&ajrjcm;wm? pum;eJYpm jcm;wmrSefayr,fh
ax&0g'Ak'¨bmomukd udk;uG,fMuwJh EkdifiHawGjzpfNyD; ,Ofaus;rIeJY ½kd;&m
"avhxkH;pHawGu awmfawmfeD;pyfNyD; wjynfhwjynf pD;0ifzvS,frIawG acwf
tqufquf upNyD; &SdcJhwmrkdY wcsKdUrsm; wlnDaevkdufMuwm b,fu
rlvblwrSef;awmif rodEkdifatmif &SdwmawG &Sdygw,f/ NyD;awmh ½kyfoGif
vu©Pmcsif;uvnf; wlnDwJh t0wftpm;ukdom 0wfxm;&if b,fol[m
jrefrm? b,fol[mxkdif;vkdY cGJjcm;odzkdYawmif cufygw,f/ aemuf olwkdY
0w¦Kav;awGukd

zwfMunfhvkdufjyefawmhvnf;

jrefrmjynfolawGtaeeJY

ususee cHpm;Ekdifwmukd awGU&ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh pmayuwqifh odem;vnf
a&;? cspfMunfa&;wnfaqmuf&&if aumif;av&JUvkdY tckvkd bmomjyefwm
jzpfygw,f/

83

odem;vnf&if cspfMunfw,f/ cspfMunf&if Nidrf;csrf;w,f/ Nidrf;csrf;&if
om,mpkdajy0ajymygw,f/
pmayuwqifh odem;vnfMuygpkdYbmomjyefol
vlxka':trm

84

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
vlqkdwm bmyJvkyfcsif vkyfcsif
raocifbJ vkyfEkdifwm
aow,fqkdwm tm;vkH; tm;vkH;
bmrqdk tqkH;urÜwf ed*kH;owfwmyJ/
tJ'Dawmh vkyfcsifwm&Sd&if
raocifvkyfxm;qkdwmukd ykdykdNyD;
oabmaygufaew,f/
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

pma&;jzpfwJh taMumif;&if;
armif0if;wifhpkay;wJh pmpkpm&if;ukdjrifawmh ]rsm;vSyg uvm;? [kwfaum
[kwf&JUvm;}vkdYawmif atmufarhrdygw,f/ 'gayr,fh jyefpOf;pm;MunfYawmh
vnf; uRefrrSm wjcm;bmrSrvkyfbJ pma&;wJhtvkyfyJ vkyfaewm ESpfawG
MumvSNyDyJ/ pma&;wm uRefrtysKdb0uwnf;uqkdawmh ESpfaygif; 50
ausmfNyDaygh/
'Davmufrsm;wJhpmawG bmvkdY a&;jzpfcJhwmvJvkdY ar;&ifawmh twkdqkH;tajzu
OD;vSeJY taMumif;ygcJhvkdYygyJvkdY ajz&rSmyg/ wu,fyg/ uRefrcifyGef;[m
OD;vSom r[kwfcJhbJ wa,mufa,mufjzpfcJh&if 'DvkdpmawG uRefrqDu
xGufvmzkdY r&Sdygbl;/
rSwfrdygao;w,f/ uRefrwkdYi,fi,fu r*¾Zif;qkdvkdY '*kefr*¾Zif;? ol&d,
r*¾Zif;? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif;eJY wkd;wufa&; r*¾Zif;wkdYyJ &Sdygw,f/ tJ'DtxJrSm
'*kefu 0w¦Kwkd-0w¦K&SnfawGukd tom;ay;ygw,f/ ol&d,u 0w¦KwkdawGeJY
85

aqmif;yg;awG

tom;ay;ygw,f/

wkd;wufa&;r*¾Zif;u

0w¦Kenf;NyD;

aqmif;yg;awG tom;ay;ygw,f/ BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif;uawmh 0w¦Kenf;enf;?
aqmif;yg;? uAsmrsm;rsm;ygNyD; olUaqmif;yg;awGu tm;upm;? EkdifiHa&;?
,Ofaus;rI tpkHygygw,f/ NyD;awmh acwfprf;orm;awG trsm;qkH; 0ifa&;
aewJh r*¾Zif;yg/
uRefru pmawGukdzwfaeNyD a&;Munfhcsifpdwfvnf; awmfawmfaygufaeNyD/
wa,mufwnf; AvmpmtkyfrSm wdwfwdwfa&;prf;MunfhwmrsKd;vnf; vkyfvm
NyD/ tJ'DtcsdefrSm BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif;xJ cspforD;trmokdY azazarmifjzL;xHrS
ay;pmqkdwJh tcef;wck pygvmygw,f/ a'gufwm*Grfavsmif ppfawGrSm
txufwef;ausmif;tkyfBuD;b0eJY aepOfu BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif;rSm 'Day;pmukd
a&;wmyg/
cspforD;trmokdYvkdY acgif;wyfwmukd uRefru azazjzL;okdY qkdNyD; jyefMum;pm
wapmif a&;Munfhygw,f/ NyD;awmh 'Dpmukd BuD;yGm;a&;xJ xnfhay;ygvkdY
r*¾Zif;t,f'DwmqD ykdYvkdufygw,f/ tJ'g 1934 ckESpfavmufuyg/ uRefr
yxrqkH;pa&;wJh aqmif;yg;ygyJ/ t,f'Dwmu rBuKdufvkdY rxnfhygbl;/
bmaMumifh rBuKdufw,fqkdwmvnf; pmrjyefygbl;/ 'DvkdeJY uRefr rEÅav;
Oypmaumvdyfu Oypmwef;atmifvkdY &efukefwuúokdvf tif;vsm;aqmif
rSmaeNyD; bDat yxrESpfukd pwuf&awmh uRefrukd taqmifpmMunfhwkdufrSL;
cefYtyfwm cH&ygw,f/ 'geJY uRefru taqmifrSm zwfzkdY owif;pmawG?
r*¾Zif;awG rSmMum;ay;&ygw,f/ rSmwJhtcgrSmawmh taqmifu pmMunfhoif;
twGufrkdY w0ufaMu;eJY ay;Ekdifu ay;yg? (3)v wBudrf bDvfeJY owif;pm?
r*¾Zif;zkd; taqmifukdvmNyD; awmif;cHygvkdY wkdufawGukd pma&;ygw,f/
olrsm;u 'Dvkda&;&w,fqkdvkdY a&;wmyg/ 'Dvkda&;wJhtcg BuD;yGm;a&;wkdufu
csufcsif; pmjyefvmygw,f/ jyefykHu - uRefawmfwkdY r*¾Zif;ukd avvGifh
86

aeaom uav;rsm;a*[mvkdae&mukd w0ufaMu;yifr,l/ tcrJhykdYay;ygw,f/
'gayr,fh

tif;vsm;aqmifvkd ae&mudkawmh avQmhaps;eJY rykdYEkdifygbl;/

r*¾Zif;zkd;u taqmifolawG ½kyf&SifMunfhwJh ½kyf&Sifzkd;avmufrS r&Sdygbl;/
r*¾Zif; wapmifu 6yJwefavawmh (3)v usoifhaiG 18 yJrkdY wHqdyfacgif;
1usyfeJY 2yJzkd; 0,fykdYvkdufyg/ r*¾Zif;ukd vmr,fhvu pykdYygr,f - wJh/
uRefrrSm ykdufqH 1usyf 2yJukd pwkdifeJY tif;vsm;a[mvmNyD; awmif;cHygvkdY
a&;rdvkdY awmif;yefpm jyefa&;wJh tcgrSmawmh – 
t,f'Dwmu rEÅav;*kEÅef0if;uaeNyD; azazjzL;okdYjyefpma&;wm uRefryJ
r[kwfygvm;? vufa&;wkdufMunfhvkdY odygw,f? r*¾Zif;rSma&;csif&if ]orD;
tif'D&mokdY axmifwGif;rS ae½l;\ ay;pmrsm;} cifv0if;trnfcHNyD; uRefawmf
bmomjyefxnfhaeygw,f/ tJ'DpmawGukd qufNyD; uRefru jyefay;ygvkdY
tvkyf pay;ygw,f/
OD;vSeJY uRefru tJ'Duwnf;u pmcsif;oduRrf;NyD; olUr*¾Zif;rSm bmomjyef
uav;? 0w¦Kwkduav; 0ifa&;wJh aqmif;yg;&Sifb0a&mufcJh&NyD; 1939
ckESpfrSm olUZeD; jzpfcJh&ygw,f/
OD;vSu b,fvkdvlvJvkdY ar;&if pma&;csifvkdY vljzpfaeolygvkdY ajzcsifyg
w,f/ olUb0rSm pma&;wmuvGJNyD; bmrS vkyfrpm;csifygbl;/ ol &efukef
jrLeDpy,f &mjzwfXmerSm &mjzwf0ifvkyfw,fqkdwmu tJ'Du&wJh vceJY
BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif;xkwfzkdY tvkyfukdatmifhtnf;vkyfaewmyg/olu BuD;yGm;a&;
r*¾Zif;ukd 1933 ckESpfuwnf;u olykdifr*¾Zif;av;tjzpf pwifxkwfa0NyD;
olvnf;a&; olrsm;awGukdvnf; ta&;ckdif;NyD; &wJhvcav; r*¾Zif;xJ
xnfhNyD; ,ufuef,ufuefeJY aevmcJholyg/
olUwoufrSm BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif;u (8)ESpf? vlxk*sme,fu (11)ESpf? vlxk
owif;pmu (21)ESpf? BuD;yGm;a&;pmtkyfwkdufu 1938 ckupNyD; aowyef
87

oufwqkH; xkwfa0vkyfukdifoGm;ol jzpfavawmh olvkyforQ pmayvkyfief;rSm
uRefru tNrJwrf; vufwGJNyD; vkyfay;cJh&ygw,f/ olu urÇmppfBuD;
jzpfaevkdYawmif 'Dpmtkyf pmayvkyfief;ukd &yfxm;wmrS r[kwfbJ/ vkyfvkdY
&oavmuf vkyfaewJhol jzpfavawmh tyfoGm;&m tyfcsnfygovkd uRefr
uvnf; olUaemufu vkyfay;ae? a&;ay;ae jzpfawmhwmaygh/ ra&;vkdYvnf;
r&bl;/ uRefr tm;aewmjrif&if ]rif;bma&;rSmvJ? a&;av? vkyfav} eJY
tNrJwrf;

wkdufwGef;aeNyD;

olvnf;

y&[dwtoif;tzGJUvkyfief;awG

ajrmufjrm;pGmukd vufcHvkyfaqmifaewJhMum;u tm;wJhtcsdefwkdif; pm;yGJrSm
xkdifNyD; pma&;zkdY BuKd;pm;ol jzpfygw,f/ ckvkd tvkyfawGwef;vef;eJY b0ed*kH;
oltqkH;owfoGm;&Sm&wJhtcg uRefru usef&pfoltaeeJY olUqDu oHa0*awG
trsm;BuD;jzpfrdygw,f/ vlqkdwm bmyJvkyfcsifvkyfcsif raocifyJvkyfEkdifwm ?
aow,fqkdwm tm;vkH;tm;vkH; bmrqkd tqkH;urÜwf ed*kH;owfwmyJ/
tJ'Dawmh vkyfcsifwm&Sd&if raocifvkyfxm;qkdwmukd ykdykdNyD; oabmayguf
aew,f/ tJ'Dawmh taMumif;tm;avsmfpGm udk,fpm;zkdYaomufzkdYuav;rsm;ukd
tdrfrSm&SdwJh orD;av;u olwwftm;orQ &SmazGauR;aeavawmh uRefru
pma&;Ekdifao;&if a&;aew,fav/ 'geJY uRefrpma&;ouf[m tckqkd&if ESpf
50ausmfvkdY 60em; eD;vmygNyDaum/
vlxka':trm
24-10-95
(t*FgaeY)

88

vlxka':trm
b0eJY pmay&ufpGJrsm;

1915 - rEÅav;NrKdU? *kEÅef&yf? tz OD;xif - trd a':pkwkdYrS Ekd0ifbm 29?
wevFmaeYrSm arG;zGm;cJh? arG;csif; 12 a,muf? pwkw¦orD;/ trnf&if; trm/
1920-23 - w½kwfwef; trsKd;orD; ae&Sife,fausmif;rSm 'kwd,wef;txd
ynmoifcJh/
1923-31 - trsKd;orD; ae&Sife,fausmif;ysufvkdY wwd,wef;rS e0rwef;
txd ABM ausmif;rSm qufvufynmoif/
1931-33 - rEÅav; A[kdtrsKd;om;ausmif;u q,fwef;atmif/
1933-35 - rEÅav; Oypmaumvdyf? "mwk? ½ly? ocsFmbmomwGJ,l/
1936 - &efukefwuúokdvf bDat atmufwef;/
tif;vsm;aqmif o[m,eJY pmzwfoif;twGif;a&;rSL;? 'kwd, ausmif;om;
oydwfBuD;wGif yg0if/
tkd;a0r*¾Zif;? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif;? bm;rm; *sme,fwkdYrSm 0w¦K? aqmif;yg;rsm;
a&;/
BuD;yGm;a&; OD;vSeJY pwif oduRrf;/ BuD;yGm;a&; r*¾Zif;rSm uavmiftrnf
]cifv0if;}? ]jrrÍÆL}awGeJY a&;cJh/
1937 - bDataemufqkH;ESpf pmar;yGJ us½IH;NyD; ausmif;xGuf/ rEÅav;rSm
jrefrmpuúLqkdifzGifh/
1938 - 

Maurice  Collis 

a&; 

Trials  In  Burma 

ppfaq;cJhaom trItcif;rsm;} trnfeJY jrefrmjyefxkwfa0/
1939 - BuD;yGm;a&;OD;vSeJY (13 Ekd0ifbm) vufxyf/
89

udk ]jrefrmjynfwGif

1940 -  Maurice  Collis  \  Sandamala  ukd ]pE´rmvm} trnfeJY ESpfwGJcGJ
jrefrmjyefxkwfa0/
1942-44

-

'kwd,urÇmppfBuD;twGif;

]uydkif&Gm}ukd

acwåajymif;a&TU

aexkdifNyD; pmtkyfxkwfa0a&;vkyfief;awG qufvufvkyfukdif/
1945 - vlxk*sme,f (Zlvkdif) xkwfa0wJhtcg vufaxmuft,f'Dwm/ 
Ashihei  Hino 

&JU  War  and  Soldier  tykdif; 4 u  Wheat  and  Soldier  ukd

]*sKHESifh ppfom;} trnf? 

Wanda  Wasilewska 

&JU 

The  Rainbow 

ukd

]oufwefYa&mif} trnfwkdYESifh jrefrmjyefxkwfa0/
1946 - vlxkowif;pm (19? {NyD) pwifxkwfa0wJhtcg t,f'DwmtzGJU0if/
]zcifatmifEkdif} uavmifcGJeJY ]EkdifiHa&;aqG;aEG;cef;} yifwkdifaqmif;yg;&Sif/
1947 - vlxkOD;vSeJYtwl vGwfvyfa&;twGuf OD;aqmifaewJh zqyv
tzGJU&JU tmabmfeJYxyfwl a&;om; wkdufyGJ0ifcJh/
1949 - vlxkowif;pmeJY BuD;yGm;a&;ykHESdyfpufrsm; wnf&Sd&mtaqmufttkHukd
'kdif;erkdif;eJY azmufcGJcH&/ 
Gunther Stein  &JU  The Challenge of Red China  ukd

]uGefjrLepf w½kwfjynf

tiftm;NyKdifyGJ} trnfay;NyD; ESpfykdif;cGJ bmomjyefxkwfa0/
1950 - ({NyD 24? 1949)u ydwfxm;cJh&wJh vlxkowif;pmukd (1? Ekd0ifbm)
rSm jyefvnfxkwfa0/
(ar? 1946) u &ufem;cJhwJh vlxk*sme,fukd (Mo*kwf 1) rSm jyefvnf
xkwfa0/
or®w[kdcsDrif; tw¦KyÜwåpmtkyf jyKpkxkwfa0/
1953 - urÇmY'Drkdu&ufwpf trsKd;orD;nDvmcH (ukdyifa[*if 7-6-53)
urÇmYNidrf;csrf;a&;nDvmcH ([efa*&D? bl'gyuf 15-6-53)

90

'kwd,tBudrf urÇmYvli,feJY ausmif;om;yGJawmf (½lar;eD;,m;? blcg&ufpf
25-7-53) ukd wufa&muf/ 
Archie  John  Stone 

&JU 

In  The  Name  of  Peace 

ukd ]Nidrf;csrf;a&;okdY}

trnfay;um bmomjyefxkwfa0/ vlxkOD;vS yk'fr 5 eJY tzrf;cH&vkdY
vlxkowif;pm acgif;BuD;awGukd wm0efcHa&;om;/
1959 - (rwf? 12) vlxkowif;pm csdwfydwfcH&/
1960 - (ar? 10) vlxkowif;om jyefxGuf/
1962 - (azazmf0g&D? 3) at½kdzvkwfavaMumif; zGifhyGJrSm owif;pmq&m
ukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpf zdwfMum;cH&vkdY armfpukdokdY oGm;a&mufcJh/
tjyefrSm

ta&SU*smrPD?

csufukdpvkdAufuD;,m;eJY

w½kwfjynfolUor®w

EkdifiHrsm;ukd vSnfhvnf/
1963

-

Oa&myc&D;pOfrsm;ukd

]qkd&S,fvpfwkdif;jynfrsm;okdY}

trnfeJY

pmtkyfjyKpkxkwfa0/ 
C.Wright Mills  &JU  Listen Yankees  ukd

&JU 

Cash  and  Violance  in  Laos 

]tkd,efuD;wkdY}?  Anna Lewis Strong 
ukd }aiGESifhvufeuf} trnfay;

a&;om;xkwfa0/
1964 - ]jynfolcspfaom tEkynmonfrsm;} jyKpkxkwfa0/
'DpmtkyfeJU 1964 ckESpf pmayAdr®mef ]tEkynmqkdif&m pmay yxrqk} &/
1966 - 

Edgar  Snow 

a&; 

The  Other  Side  of  the  River 

ukd

]b0csif;rwlonfh w½kwfjynf} trnfeJY bmomjyefNyD; ESpfwGJcGJ xkwfa0/
1967 - (Zlvkdif? 7) vlxkowif;pm &yfpJcH&/
]atmifAv? zkd;pdef? pdefuwkH;} pmtkyf a&;om;xkwfa0/
1969 - ]a&T½kd; buav;} ESpfwGJcGJ xkwfa0/ umwGef;buav;&JU ]a&Twav;
umwGef;rsm;} ukd jznfhpGuf trSma&; xkwfa0/
91

1970 - ]a&Tref;wifarmif} pmtkyf jyKpkxkwfa0/
(rwf? 3) rEÅav; uGefom,m pmwrf;zwfyGJrSm ]ArmhzefusDvkyfief;}
pmwrf;zwf/
1971 - rEÅav; "r®AdrmefrSm ]aeY Armhobif} pmwrf;zwf/
1972 - rEÅav; EkdifiHwum pmtkyfESpf pmwrf;zwfyGJrSm ]urÇmYtBuD;qkH;
pmtkyf} pmwrf;zwf/
1973 - ]tNidrfh} pmtkyf ESpfwGJcGJ xkwfa0/
urÇmYtBuD;qkH;pmtkyf xkwfa0/
1974 - ]urÇmYtBuD;qkH;pmtkyf}ukd a'gufwmoef;xGef;u 
Biggest Book trnfeJY

The  World's 

t*Fvdyfbmom jyefqkdxkwfa0/

1975 - ]a&Ta'gif;awmif aqmif;yg;rsm;} pmtkyfxkwfa0/
1976 - ]q&mBuD; ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;} pmtkyfxkwfa0/
(Mo*kwf?

19)

][Hom0wDowif;pm}

]paepmay0kdif;}

pmwef;zwfyGJrSm

]tw¦KyÜwådpmay} pmwrf;zwf/
1978 - (Mo*kwf? 21) vlxkOD;vS? om; ukdNidrf;csrf; (nDykav;) wkdYeJYtwl
txdef;odrf;cH&/ 1 ESpf? 1v? 1 &ufMum/
1979 - (Mo*kwf? 22) txdef;odrf;cHb0u jyefvGwf/ 
Chester  Ronning 

&JU 

A  Memoir  of  China  in  Revolution 

ukd

]awmfvSefwJhw½kwfjynf uRefawmfrSwfrdorQ} trnfeJY bmomjyefxkwfa0/
1982 - ESpfaygif; 43 ESpf aygif;oif;vmcJhwJh cifyGef;onf vlxkOD;vS
(Mo*kwf? 7) uG,fvGef/
1984 - (rwf? 4) rEÅav;rD;BuD;twGif; BuD;yGm;a&;pmtkyfwkduf? ykHESdyfwkduf?
puúLokdavSmif½kH? pmtkyf okdavSmif½kHawG rD;avmifqkH;½IH;/

92

1985 - (Ekd0ifbm? 29) touf 70 jynfhu pNyD; tr&yl& awmifav;vkH;
ausmif;rSm arG;aeYyGJ ESpfpOf usif;y/
]csif;wGif;rS yifv,fokdY} pmtkwf xkwfa0/
1989 - (ar? 27) ]jynfolcspfaom tEkynmonfrsm;} pmtkyf aiG&wkyGJ
tr&yl& awmifav;vkH;ausmif;rSm usif;y/
]jrefrmh r[m*Dw} pmtkyf/
]tmz&du 0w¦Kwkdrsm;} pmtkyf xkwfa0/
1990 - vlxkOD;vSeJY yl;wGJa&;om;wJh ]aq;vdyfeJYvlom;} pmtkyf xkwfa0/
1991 - "er*¾Zif;rSm a&;om;cJhwJh aqmif;yg;awGukd pkpnf;NyD; ]rEÅav;ol
rEÅav;om;rsm;} trnfeJY pmtkyfxkwfa0/
1992 - &eHYopfr*¾Zif;rSm ]ZrÁL'Dyg atmifxGef;} uavmiftrnfcGJeJY
EkdifiHwum aqmif;yg;rsm;ukd a&;cJh/
]xkdif;0w¦Kwkdrsm; (1)} xkwfa0/
1993 - r*¾Zif;awGrSm a&;om;cJhwJh rEÅav;qkdif&m aqmif;yg;awGukd
pkaygif;NyD; ]&wemykH rEÅav;? rEÅav;? uRefrwkdY rEÅav;} pmtkyf/
]xkdif;0w¦Kwkdrsm; (2)} wkdYukd xkwfa0/
1994 - ]omoemhwefaqmif q&mawmfBuD;rsm;} pmtkyfxkwfa0/
]a&Ta'gif;awmifaqmif;yg;awGukd *syefbmomeJY jyefqkdxkwfa0/ jyefqkdolu
*syeftrsKd;orD;  Yasuko  Dobashi  ? (jrefrmemrnf a':,Of,Ofjr) jzpfNyD;
xkwfa0wJh pmtkyfwkdufrSm  Shinjuku  Shobo  Co.  Ltd.  ? pmtkyfwefzkd; ,ef;
2718/
79 ESpf arG;aeYtrSwfw&tjzpf ]uRefrwkdY i,fi,fu} ukd,fa&;tw¦KyÜwåd
pmtkyfukd a&;om;xkwfa0/

93

1995 - rEÅav;NrKdU A[kdtrsKd;om;ausmif; ausmif;om;a[mif;rsm; OD;pD;
xkwfa0wJh 75 Budrfajrmuf trsKd;om;aeYpdef&wk txdrf;trSwfr*¾Zif;
]wm0efcHt,f'Dwm} tjzpfaqmif&Guf/
vlxka':trm
uavmiftrnfcGJrsm;
- cifv0if;
- ZrÁL'DygatmifxGef;
- zcifatmifEkdif
- zkd;omatmif
- jrrÍÆL
- trm
- trm (wuúokdvfoydwfarSmufausmif;ol)
- tif;vsm;ausmif;aqmifolwOD;
- vlxka':trm

94

vlxka':trm
pmpkpm&if; (1995 txd)
pkaqmif;jyKpkol
0if;wifh
rdw¦Dvmaumvdyf pmMunfhwkduf
pmpkpm&if;qkdwm
pmpkpm&if;[m pm&Smud&d,mwrsKd;ygyJ/ tptqkH; wacgufavmuf zwfzkdY
awmif vkdr,frxifygbl;/ Dictionary vkdaygh? vkdrS xkwfokH;&wm
rsKd;yg/ pmwyk'f[m b,fpmtkyf b,fv b,fESpfxkwfxJrSm ygw,f/
pmrsufESmyg twdtus ñTef;xm;vkdY ukd,f&SmwJhpm b,frSm&Sdw,fqkdwm
wxkdifwnf;eJY odoGm;Ekdifygw,f/ b,fxJrSm ygw,fqkdwm ñTef;NyD;&if pmpk
pm&if;&JUwm0efu ukefNyD/
pmrltjynfhtpkHzwfEkdifzkdYuawmh pmpkpm&if;u ñTef;wJh pmtkyfukd vkduf&Sm&
ygvdrfhr,f/ pmpkpkHNyD; pnf;pepfuswJh pmMunfhwkdufukd oGm;&rSmyJ/ pmrpkHwJh
pmMunfhwkdufqkd&ifvnf; oGm;&usKd;eyfr,f rxifbl;/ pmpkHayr,fh pnf;pepf
r&Sd&ifvnf; pmpkawGMum;rSm w0JvnfvnfeJY aemufqkH; vSnfhjyefcJh&zkdY
rsm;ygw,f/
pmpkpm&if;[m pm&Smu&d,mjzpfvkdY pmpkHNyD; pepf&SdwJh pmMunfhwkdufrsm;eJY
wGJokH;rS wu,ftzkd;wefrSef; odEkdifr,f/ pm&Smorm; wa,muftwGuf
b,fup&rSef;rod? a,mif0g;0g; jzpfaewJhtcg pmpkpm&if;awGu vrf;p
vrf;rSef azmfay;Ekdifw,f/ tJ'DtwGuf pdwfcsvufcs okH;Ekdifygw,f/
95

vlxka':trm pmpkpm&if; 1995 twGuf 1985 ckuwnf;u tcsuftvuf
uufjym;awG wifvmcJhygw,f/ tck pmpkpm&if; jyKpkwJhtcg jyefvnf
ppfaq;EkdifzkdY pmtkyfawG trsm;BuD; okH;cJh&w,f/ t"dupmtkyfawGu – 
(1) BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif;tñTef; (1933-41) ^ a':cifjr
(2) *EÅavmutñTef;
(3) vlxk*sme,ftñTef; (trSwf 1-50) ^ a':vGifrkd;ñGefY
(4) vlxk*sme,ftñTef; (trSwf 51-105) ^ OD;oef;xGef;
(5) vlxka':trmpmpkpm&if;? 1987 ^ a':&if&ifpdef
(6) vlxka':trmpmpkpm&if;? 1985 ^ jrifhBuKdif? 0if;wifh? ausmfpkd;0if;
(7) vlxkBuD;yGm;a&;pmtkyfwkduforkdif; ^ 0if;wifh (1993)
(8) vlxkowif;pm (1961-67) yg vlxka':trm aqmif;yg;tñTef; ^
0if;wifh (1992)
vlxka':trm pmpkuwfawG qufNyD; pm&if;wifaeOD;rSmyg/ a':a':u
pmawGtrsm;BuD; qufa&;aeOD;rSmyJ/
0if;wifh
21 atmufwkdbm 1995

96

vlxka':trm
pmpkpm&if; (1995)
rmwdum
1/ vkH;csif;pmtkyfrsm;
1 ? 1 / yifukd,fa&;
1 ? 2 / bmomjyef
2/ ed'gef;eJY trSma&;wJh pmtkyfrsm;
3/ acgif;BuD;rsm;
3 ? 1 / vlxk*sme,f
3 ? 2 / vlxkowif;pm
4/ aqmif;yg;rsm;
4 ? 1 / c&D;oGm;
4 ? 2 / pme,fZif;
4 ? 3 / pmaya&;&m
4 ? 4 / pD;yGm;a&;
4 ? 5 / aps;eJYyGJawmfaps;
4 ? 6 / ½kyfykHvTmrsm;
4 ? 6 ? 1 / ½kyfykHvTm-pmay
4 ? 6 ? 2 / ½kyfykHvTm-pD;yGm;a&;
4 ? 6 ? 3 / ½kyfykHvTm-yef;csD? *Dw? Zmwfobif
4 ? 6 ? 4 / ½kyfykHvTm-taxGaxG
4 ? 6 ? 5 / ½kyfykHvTm-tw¦KyÜwåd(ukd,fa&;)
97

4 ? 7 / vlrIa&;
4 ? 8 / vIyf&Sm;aewJhurÇmYa&;&m
4 ? 9 / omoem
4 ? 10 / tEkynm
4 ? 11 / taxGaxG
5/ 0w¦Kwkdrsm;
5 ? 1 / yifukd,fa&;
5 ? 2 / bmomjyef
6/ pmtrnftñTef;
6 ? 1 / pmtrnftñTef;

98

vlxka':trm
pmpkpm&if; (1995)
1/ vkH;csif;pmtkyfrsm;
1 ? 1 / yifukd,fa&;
1/ urÇmYtBuD;qkH;pmtkyf? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD pkdif;ausmfxif/ rEÅav;? vlxkBuD;yGm;a&;? atmuf 1973/ 40 pm? "mwfykHrsm;? 22 pifwD? 2 usyf/
-----? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD pkdif;ausmfxif/ 2 Budrf? rEÅav;? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;?
rwf 1975/ 40 pm? "mwfykHrsm;? 22 pifwD? tkyfa& 3000/
-----? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD pkdif;ausmfxif/ 3 Budrf? rEÅav;? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;?
ar 1985/ 22 pifwD? tkyfa& 5000/
-----? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD pkdif;ausmfxif/ 4 Budrf? rEÅav;? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;?
ZGef 1990/ 40 pm? "mwfykHrsm;? 22 pifwD/
-----? rsufESmzkH;'DZkdif; ql;iSuf/ 5 Budrf? rEÅav;? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;? rwf
1995/ 41 pm? "mwfykHrsm;? 20 pifwD/ 
The World's Biggest Book , tr. by Than Tun, Cover ill. by Sai Kyaw Htin. 
Mandalay, Ludu­Kyipwaye, Aug. 1974. 56 p. ill, 18 cm. Ks 3. 
­­­­­­­­, tr. by Than Tun, Cover ill. by Sai Kyaw Htin, 2nd ed. Mandalay, 
Ludu­Kyipwaye, 1980. 56 p. ill, 18 cm. Ks 3. 
­­­­­­­­, tr. by Than Tun, Cover ill. by Chan Aye, 3rd ed. Mandalay, 
Ludu­Kyipwaye, Aug.  1994. 46 p. ill, 18 cm. 1000 copies. 

2/ uRefrwkdYi,fi,fu ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ql;iSuf eJY csrf;at;/ rEÅav;?
vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;? Ekd0ifbm 1994/ 286 pm? ½kyfykHrsm;? 18 pifwD? tkyfa&
1000? 100 usyf/
99

rmwdum/ woufrSmwcgBuKHr,f - tazeJYtbkd; -- rEÅav;u tbkd; -rEÅav;NrKdUeJY yvdyfa&m*g - tbGm;a':qkd; -- tbGm;a':&if -tbGm;&Sdwkef;ub0 -- jrefrmhuGrf;aq;vufzufeJY {nfh0wfapmif0wf iSufaysmyifpkduf rdvkdufzyg -- tarwkdYacwfEkdifiHa&; -- rEÅav;upum; - tarhtaMumif; waphwapmif; -- om; 12 a,muftar ausmif;om;b0 - 'kwd,ausmif;om;b0 - jrefrmausmif;om;b0 uav;b0 oDv&Sif0wfcJhwkef;u - i,fi,fwkef;utjrif ausmufxkd;q&mukd aiG2day;&wJhtcsdef - ae&Sife,fausmif; -- tqkdtu
xkdESpf0 - ausmif;aezuf oli,fcsif; -- 'kwd,oli,fcsif; -- wwd,
oli,fcsif; -- ae&Sife,fausmif;u oli,fcsif;awG - Oypmaumvdyf
ausmif;olb0 - Oypmaumvdyf ausmif;olb0 (2) - Oypmaumvdyf
ausmif;olb0 (3)
3/ csif;wGif;rS yifv,fodkY ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD pdefjrifh/ rEÅav;? vlxkBuD;yGm;a&;? Ekd 1985/ 220 pm? "mwfykHrsm;? 23 pifwD/ tkyfa& 2000? 16
usyf/
rmwdum/ owif;BuD;wJh csif;wGif;c&D;--? tnmolrsm; yifv,foGm; -- /
4/ q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif; ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ay:OD;ouf/ rEÅav;?
vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;? pufwifbm 1976/ "mwfykHrsm;? 21 pifwD/ tkyfa& 2500/
25 usyf/
rmwdum/ jynfolurarhMur,fhq&mBuD; ocifukd,fawmfrIdif; -[kdwkef;urEÅav; -- q&mBuD;&JU jrawmifa&Tausmif;BuD; -a&Tausmif;BuD;ukd a&pufcsrcs jyóem - ra&r&mumv q&mBuD;&JUi,fq&m 2yg; -- q&mBuD;&JU½kyf&nfeJY pdwfoabmxm; -q&mBuD;&JUaqGrsKd;rsm; -- q&mBuD;&JUtdrfaxmifa&; -- q&mBuD;eJYOD;a,m 100

q&mBuD;aezl;wJhae&mawG - q&mBuD;eJY t*¾d&wf - q&mBuD;eJYarmfvNrKdif q&mBuD;eJY ol&d, -- q&mBuD;eJYbGKdif;aumufta&;awmfykH - pHzJta&; -q&mBuD;eJY ocifvIyf&Sm;rI - ppftwGif;umv - q&mBuD;eJY Nidrf;csrf;a&; -pwmvifNidrf;csrf;a&;qk - EkdifiHjcm;c&D; -- q&mBuD;rsufpdukd cGJukwkef;u q&mBuD;&JUusef;rma&; -- pmaye,fuq&mBuD;aus;Zl; -- q&mBuD;eJY
v,fwDy@dwOD;armifBuD; -- q&mBuD;&JUaemufqkH;pum;
5/ qkd&S,fvpfwdkif;jynfrsm;okdY ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ay:OD;oufESifh 0if;az/
rEÅav;? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;? Zef 1963/ 340 pm? ½kyfykHrsm;? 18 pifwD/ tkyfa&
3500? 2 usyf/
rmwdum/ &efukefarmfpukd wkduf½kdufavvrf;yGifhNyD - armfpukd - rkd;yGifh armfpukdwGif oGm;a&;vma&; -- t&ufBuKdufonfh vlrsKd; -y&mA'gt,f'DwmESifhawGUqkHjcif; -- yk*¾vduypönf; -- armfpukdtdrf vlrGrf;bm;wuúokdvf - vlwef;pm;cGJjcm;rIenf;wJh EkdifiH - qkd&S,fvpfpHepfESifh
vlUpm&dwå - trsKd;orD;wkdY aysmfEkdifavtm;onf - tkdb,fh qkdAD,ufbJav;
-- pma&;q&mrsm;ESifhawGUjcif; -- t,fvf*sD;&D;,m; pma&;q&m e&Dtvuf
- t*FvefolESifh Armr rdwfjzpfcJh&ykH - ta&SU*smrPD owif;pmynm
r[mXmeokdY a&mufpOfu -- *smrPDa&muf Armausmif;om;rsm; -Armausmif;om;ykdYzkdYaumif;onfh *smreftm;upm; ausmif; -uGefjrLepfEkdifiHESifh vGwfvyfpGmajyma[mcGifh - NrKdUawmfbmvif tNcdrf;acsmufcH ta&SU*smrPD - bmvifrS y&yf*fokdY csufukdpvkdAm;uD;,m;½kyfao;½kyf&Sif - csufwGifynmoifaeonfh
Armausmif;om;rsm; -- y&yf*fNrKdUrS uyGJrsm; -- owif;BuD;onfh
w½kwfjynfokdY - emrnfBuD;vSonfh jynfolUbkHtzGJU - pifusKdjynfolUbkHtzGJU
- jynfolUbkHtzGJU --wkdif;&if;om; t&if;&SifESifhw½kwfjynfolUtpkd;& -101

w½kwfjynf\ orkdif;aMumif; -- ,if;ukd&ufonfhES,f
aphpyfvSonfhpnf;½kH;a&; -- w½kwfjynfrS wckaomykHjyif - r'rf
csefau&SdwfaecJhonfhausmif; -- &SH[JtEkynmokawoeXme - oefY&Sif;a&;
pHjyNrKdUokdY a&mufcJhjcif; -- emrnfausmf &SD0rfpOfhvkyfief; -w½kwfcsufjyKwfrItwwfynm - tcsuftjyKwfoifausmif; -- awmfvSefa&;
pí arG;&m uGrf;wkH - uGrf;wkH puúLpufBuD; -- w½kwfjynf\ vlOD;a&
jyóem - b0a[mif;ukdjzifh rjyefygNyD - qifjzLawmf ynma&;r[kwfawmhNyD
-- &SH[J -- &SH[JESifhtvkyform; -- &SH[Jtvkyform;NrKdUopf qkd&S,fvpfEkdifiHESifh rsuf&nf - w½kwfjynfolUpma&;q&mvl&Tef; -wkH[Grf*leH&Haq; a&;yef;csDjyyGJ - wyfeDawmf arG;zGm;&m eefcsefNrKdU topfxGifxm;onfhMumrD;tdrfuZmwf - rukefcef;Ekdifaom vlUwDxGifrI yDuif;a&'D,kd jrefrmbmomXme - yDuif;eef;awmf - yDuif;jynfolUaeYpOf 9 ESpfwmumv\ jcm;em;csuf - a&armfukd avSmifaeonfh w½kwfrsm; -uGefrif;rS rEÅav;okdY/
6/ aq;vdyfeJYvlom; ? vlxkOD;vSeJY vlxka':trm? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD nDnDeJY
aZmfarmif/ rEÅav;? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;? Ekd 1990/ 185 pm? ½kyfykHrsm;?
22pifwD/ tkyfa& 1000? 32 usyf/
rmwdum/ aq;vdyfeJYvlom; -- aMumfjim - pGJvkdufykHrsm; -ykHBuD;csJUaeMuwmvm; -- tcsdefrD owday;rdzl;w,f - aq;vdyftEÅ&m,f tjzpfrsm;wJh tqkwfuifqm[m aq;vdyfaMumifh - uJ 'Dwcg
t[kwfjzwfvkdufMuygpkdYtjywf - uRefrukd,fawGU - aemufrusao;&if
ajymcsifw,f - aMumufp&m'DrD;ckd; -- uifqmeJYvlUavmu - teHYtouf rdef;reJYaq;vdyf - aq;vdyfeJY'½kdifbm - olrsm;EkdifiHawG&JUtajctae wm0ef&Sdolrsm; -- tEkynme,fuwm0ef/
102

7/ jynfolcspfaomtEkynmonfrsm; / rsufESmzkH;yef;csD 0if;az/ rEÅav;?
vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;? ar 1964? 470 pm? ½kyfykHrsm;? vufa&;rlrsm;?
*DwoauFwrsm;? 20 pifwD/ tkyfa& 3500? 5 usyf/
------ / rsufESmzkH;yef;csD 0if;az/ 2 Budrf/ rEÅav;? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;?
pufwifbm 1964? 560 pm? ½kyfykHrsm;? 21 pifwD/ tkyfa& 3500? 5 usyf/
------ / rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ay:OD;ouf/ 3 Budrf/ rEÅav;? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;?
Zl 1967? 572 pm? ½kyfykHrsm;? 21 pifwD/ tkyfa& 3500? 5 usyf/
------ / rsufESmzkH;yef;csD pkdif;ausmfxif/ 4 Budrf/ rEÅav;? atmuf 1974?
572 pm? ½kyfykHrsm;? 22 pifwD/ tkyfa& 3000? 12 usyf/
rmwdum / owif;BuD;onfh rif;orD;raxG;av; -- ½kyfao;rif;orD;
q&mykBuD; -- jrajcusif;raiGNrKdif -- aumvdyfpdefac: rjrvGif aersKd;AvausmfolbGJU&&Gmpm;pdefaA'g - eef;awmfa&SUq&mwif toHrif;orD; avbmwDrjr&if - NrKdUrNidrf;
8/ rEÅav;ol rEÅav;om;rsm; ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD nDnD/ rEÅav;? vlxkBuD;yGm;a&;? Ekd 1991/ 162 pm? ½kyfykHrsm;? 20 pifwD/ tkyfa& 1000? 40 usyf/
rmwdum / rEÅav;olBuD;awG - olaX;OD;ouf&SnfESifh om;OD;ausmf -&wemykHqDpufOD;odef; -- e*g; a':OD; -- rkduform; rkdufolBuD; -rEÅav;ol yGJuawmfBuD;awG - [oFjy'g;OD;ausmf - vlom"kac: ewfom"k
ac:yk*¾KdvfBuD; -- ausmufpm0efa[mif; OD;jr - usm;bndef;okdYpma~uG; -AE¨KvOD;qkdif - jrefrmhAdokumynm &Sifq&mqkdif - usufoa&&SdvSwJhvlom;
-- &Gufykef;oD;olawmfpifBuD;
9/ jrefrmhr[m*Dw ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD csrf;at;/ rEÅav;? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;?
ZGef 1989/ 171 pm? ½kyfykHrsm;? 21 pifwD/ tkyfa& 2000? 18 usyf/
rmwdum / r[m*Dw&JUa&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpf - a&SUawmfajy; armifarmifokduf
103

- apmif;ynm&JU zcifBuD; -- a'0£E´marmifarmifBuD; -- armifarmifvwf Armwl&d,mrsm; -- tqkdawmf bkef;BuD;ay - tqkdorm; OD;vlBuD; -OD;vlBuD;a&;wJhygawmfrloDcsif; -- a&SUawmfajy; rdef;rtqkdawmfrsm; -tDaemif ukdpHwkwf - r,if;awmf - ukdomajym - OD;ausmfa'G; 00
r[m*Dwrdcifa':apmjrat;Munf - a':apmjrat;Munf&JU q&mawG rkd;a'0g&JUatmifyGJ - wy,fcifO? wy,fcifopf - tqkdawmf OD;vlBuD; -r,if;awmf - raxG;av; -- a':apmjrat;MunfwJY apmif; -- OD;zl;acgif apmif;q&m armifarmifcefY - a'0£E´marmifarmifBuD; -apmif;q&mq&mNidrf; -- pdefaA'g - a':apmjrat;Munf&JUqE´ -- a':a':eJY
rEÅav;/
10/ &wemykHrEÅav;? rEÅav;? uRefrwkdYrEÅav; / rsufESmzkH;yef;csD csrf;at;?
rEÅav;? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;? Ekd0ifbm 1994? 161 pm? 17 pifwD/ tkyfa&
1000? 65 usyf/
rmwdum/ yvkyfwkwf-wkwfwkwf-'l-csrf-csrf - rEÅav;"mwf&xm; -tdrfawmf&mxD; -- rEÅav;u rvGefaps; -- av;pm;tyfwJh
rvGefrif;om;BuD; -- aps;aumuf vlarsmuf - rEÅav;u aps;csKdawmf vGrf;p&mhaps;csKd - rEÅav;aps;csKdawmfa&Tqkdifwef; -- rESif;qD
rD;&xm;uav; -- qkdif;NyKdifwD;&mrSm q&mpdef aA'g r½IrvS½IH;wJhyGJ tdrfawmf&mbk&m;eJY qifBuD;vSLwJhwHwm; -- bkef;BuD;ysHeJY{,ifusL; -tbpdefaA'g&JU aemufqkH;yGJrsm; -- ausmif;BuD;a&Ttifyif rEÅav;tdrfawmf&mrdacsmif;wHwm;
11/ a&Ta'gif;awmif aqmif;yg;rsm; ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ukdukdav;? rEÅav;?
vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;? Zl 1975/ 305 pm? ½kyfykHrsm;? 18 pifwD/ tkyfa& 3500? 7
usyf/
104

rmwdum/ urÇmYtBuD;qkH;ausmufqif;wkawmf - qifyGJ -- *sif - aps; -trsKd;om;obifawG&JU uaeYtajc - ArmhzefusDvkyfief; -- ykd;vkHcsnf q&mBuD;a&TOa'gif;wkdY&Gm rusnf;wkH - owif;a[mif; -- r*¾Zdefav;wapmif
12/ a&Tref;wifarmif ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ay:OD;ouf/ rEÅav;? vlxkBuD;yGm;a&;? Ekd 1970/ 400 pm? ½kyfykHrsm;? 22 pifwD/ 6 usyf/
rmwdum / 'Dpmtkyfa&;wJhtaMumif;u - a&Tref;wifarmif BuKd;pm;ykH ukdwifarmifh tu - ukdwifarmifh toH - tajymrif;om; ukdwifarmif ukdwifarmifwGJoGm;wJhqkdif;awG - wGJuoGm;wJh rif;orD; awG - rif;om;BuD;
-- vl&Tifawmf - tysKdawmf - Zmwfpma&;q&mrsm; -- Zmwform;qkdwm t,lonf;rI uav;awG - ukdwifarmif&JU pnf;½kH;a&; -- n0ufpepf
obifopf - "mwfjym; -- olUb0 - ukdwifarmifeJY ½kyf&Sif AkdvfqHawmufjzwfwJh ukdwifarmif - olUusef;rma&;/
13/ a&T½kd; buav; ? yxrwGJ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ay:OD;ouf/ rEÅav;?
vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;? az 1969? 265 pm/ ½kyfykHrsm;? 22 pifwD? 5 usyf/
rmwdum / a&T½kd; buav; -- OD;buav;eJYol&d, -OD;buav;eJYq&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif; -- OD;buav;eJY v,form; -cGJa&;wGJa&; -- EkdifiHa&; -- 'kdiftmcDed*kH; -14/ ----? 'kwd,wGJ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ay:OD;ouf? rEÅav;? vlxkBuD;yGm;a&;? rwf 1969/ 273-617 pm? ½kyfykHrsm;? 22 pifwD? 5 usyf/
rmwdum / vlrIa&;pD;yGm;a&;umwGef;rsm; -- owif;pmumwGef; -OD;buav;eJY½kyf&Sif - awmNrKdif pGef;u vGrf;atmifzef - rIdif;a0a0 wckdifvkH;a&T - awmom;av;a&T½kd; -- a&Trif;0H - a&Twav; -- MuifpOD; - a0vGifvGif -- ½kyfajymif;½kyfvTJ -- ½kyf&SifumwGef; -- OD;buav;eJY
½kyf&Siftay:tjrif - OD;buav;eJY tawG;tac: -- OD;buav;eJY uAsm 105

OD;buav;eJY tbkd;BuD; -- tapmqkH;umwGef; -- olUtaygif;toif; -olUb0 - OD;buav;vnf; t&ufeJY ysufpD;wmyJ/
15/ omoemhwefaqmifq&mawmfBuD;rsm; ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ukdñGefYa0
(yef;ork'´&m) / rEÅav;? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;? azazmf0g&D 1994/ 142 pm? 20
pifwD/ tkyfa& 1000? 65 usyf/
rmwdum / a&Tusifomoem ESpf100 - omoemjyK'ora&Tusifomoemykdif
ajrmif;jrq&mawmf - ajrmif;jrq&mawmfbk&m;BuD;&mjynfhylaZmfyGJ BuKHawmifhBuKHcJ ylaZmfyGJ - 11 Budrfajrmuf omoemykdifq&mawmf
aMu;jrifq&mawmfbk&m; -- a&T[oFm oufawmf&SnfylaZmfyGJ a&T[oFmq&mawmfbk&m;&JU½kyfyGm; -- o*FZm q&mawmfbk&m;BuD;eJY
0ZD&m&mrq&mawmf - rkdif;aomufNrKdU ausmufeDawm&q&mawmfbk&m; -t&d,r*¾if acsmif q&mawmfbk&m;BuD; -- yXmef;odyÜHq&mawmfBuD; -usrf;jyKq&mawmf b'´EÅ auvmo - a&OD;NrKdUu omoemha&mif0g wyfukef;NrKdUu ylaZmfyGJ /
16/ or®w[kdcsDrif; ? rEÅav;? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;? puf 1950/ 200 pm?
"mwfykHrsm;? 16 pifwD/ 1 usyf 8 yJ/
rmwdum / or®w[kdcsDrif; -- jyifopfjynfokdY - e,fwumvSnfhjcif; -yxr urÇmppfESifh [kdcsDrif; -- ppfNyD;azmufjyefa&;orm;BuD;rsm; -pma&;q&m[kdcsDrif; -- aiGa&;aMu;a&; -- armfpukdokdY - w½kwfjynf wGif AD,uferfokdY - ulrifwef awmfvSefa&; -- ppftwGif; AD,ufrif; -jynfolUawmfvSefa&; -- r[mrdwfwkdY vSnfhpm;ykH/
17/ tNidrfh ? yxrwGJ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD 0if;armif/ rEÅav;? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;?
Zlvkdif 1973/ 305 pm? ½kyfykHrsm;? 24 pifwD/ 6 usyf/
rmwdum / tNidrfh - OD;cspfzG,f? a':pdefokH - tNidrfhrif;orD; rpdefar 106

qDausmfpdefwif - rpdefwifBuD; -- rpdefvkH - rtkH;pdef - rodef;~uG,f Mobmaomif; -- raiGNrKdif - Ouúvmrat;Munf -- ,k0wDjraomif; cif OMor,fwif - vSuav;pdef - '*kefcifvSMunf - bkef;BuDysH{,ifusL; -tNidrfhñGefYaygif; -- uav; ESpfyg;oGm; -- tNidrfhwl&d,m - tNidrfh'kd; -ywåvm; -- pnf;wD; -- tNidrfhyaveJYESJ - aMu;aemif - pE´,m; tNidrfhBuD;
-- Zmwfwkduf - pE´,m;rrBuD;/
18/ tNidrfh ? 'kwd,wGJ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ukdukdav;/ rEÅav;? vlxkBuD;yGm;a&;? atmuf 1973/ 302 pm? ½kyfykHrsm;? 24 pifwD/ 6 usyf/
rmwdum ? tNidrfhoDcsif; -- tNidrfhvljyuf - tNidrfhjyufvkH; -tNidrfhrif;om; -- tNidrfhvljyufBuD;awG - jrefrmñGefYtNidrfh - tNidrfhobif
tvm;tvm
19/ atmifAv? zkd;pdef? pdefuwkH; ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ay:OD;ouf/ rEÅav;?
vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&;? 'D 1967/ 638 pm? ½kyfykHrsm;? 22 pifwD/ 7 usyf/
rmwdum / a,musfm;rif;orD;atmifAv - zkd;pdef - pdefuwkH;/
1? 2 / bmomjyef
20/ aumvpf ? arm&pf / pE´rmvm ? yxrwGJ ? bmomjyefol rtrm ?
rsufESmzkH;yef;csD bvkH / rEÅav; ? vlxk+BuD;yGm;a&; / Mo 1940 / 228 pm ?
18 pifwD / ++ (BuD;yGm;a&;vufa&G;pifpmtkyfeHygwf 15) tkyfa& 3500 ? 12
yJ/
21/ +++++++ / ++++++ ? 'kwd,wGJ ? bmomjyefol rtrm ?
rsufESmzkH;yef;csD bvkH / rEÅav; ? vlxk+BuD;yGm;a&; / puf 1940 / 203 pm
? 18 pifwD / ++ (BuD;yGm;a&;vufa&G;pifpmtkyfeHygwf 16) tkyfa& 3500 ?
12 yJ/
107

+++++++ / ++++++ ? bmomjyefol a':trm ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD busif /
2 Budrf / rEÅav; ? vlxk+BuD;yGm;a&; / 1960 / 370 pm ? 18 pifwD /
22/ aumvpf ? arm&pf / jrefrmjynfwGifppfaq;cJhaom trItcif;rsm; ?
yxrwGJ ? bmomjyefol rtrm ? oydwfarSmuf ausmif;ol ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD
armifarmifjr / &efukef ? BuD;yGm;a&; ? Ekd0ifbm 1938 / 271 pm ? 17 pifwD
/ ++ (BuD;yGm;a&;vufa&G;pif pmtkyfeHygwf 2) ? tkyfa& 3000 ? 12 yJ /
23/ +++++ / +++++++ ? 'kwd,wGJ ? bmomjyefol rtrm ? oydwfarSmuf
ausmif;ol ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD armifarmifjr / &efukef ? BuD;yGm;a&; ? Ekd 1938
/ 176 pm ? 17 pifwD / ++ (BuD;yGm;a&;vufa&G;pif pmtkyfeHygwf 4) ?
tkyfa& 3000 ? 12 yJ /
+++++ / ++++++ ? 'kwd,wGJ ? bmomjyefol rtrm ? 2 Budrf / &efukef ?
BuD;yGm;a&; ? 1938 / 176 pm ? 17 pifwD / tkyfa& 2000 ? 12 yJ /
+++++ / ++++++ ? 3 Budrf / rEÅav; ? vlxk+BuD;yGm;a&; ? 1960 / 345
pm ? 18 pifwD / 2usyf /
]]aumvpfBuKHcJh&wJh Armjynf}} vkdY emrnfajymif;xkwfa0/
24/ pxa&mif; ? tifemvl0D / aiGESifhvufeuf ? bmomjyefol vlxka':trm
? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ay:OD;ouf / rEÅav; ? vlxk+BuD;yGm;a&; ? ½kyfykHrsm;? 17
pifwD ? tkyfa& 3500 ? 2 usyf /
25/ pwkef; ? tmcsD*Ref / Nidrf;csrf;a&;okdY ? bmomjyefol vlxka':trm ?
rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ay:OD;ouf / rEÅav; ? vlxK+BuD;yGm;a&; ? 1953 / 271 pm
? 17 pifwD / 3 usyf /
26/ pEkd; ? t*¾g / b0csif;rwlonfh w½kwfjynf ? yxrwGJ ? bmomjyefol
vlxka':trm ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD zkd;oHacsmif; / rEÅav; ? vlxk+BuD;yGm;a&; ?
Zef 1966 / 505 pm ? 22 pifwD / 5 usyf /
108

+++++ / +++++ ? 'kwd,wGJ ? bmomjyefol vlxka':trm ?
rsufESmzkH;yef;csD zkd;oHacsmif; / rEÅav; ? vlxk+BuD;yGm;a&; ? rwf 1966 /
509 pm ? 22 pifwD / 5 usyf /
27/ pwdef ? *efom / uGefjrLepfw½kwfjynftiftm;NyKdifyGJ ? bmomjyefol
vlxka':trm ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD busif / rEÅav; ? vlxk+BuD;yGm;a&; ?
1946 ? 119 pm ? ½kyfykHrsm; ? 35_20 pifwD /
+++++ / +++++ ? yxrwGJ ? bmomjyefol vlxka':trm ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD
busif / 2 Budrf / rEÅav; ? vlxk+BuD;yGm;a&; ? 1949 ? 324 pm ? 18
pifwD ? 2 usyf /
+++++ / +++++ ? 'kwd,wGJ ? bmomjyefol vlxka':trm ?
rsufESmzkH;yef;csD busif / 2 Budrf / rEÅav; ? vlxk+BuD;yGm;a&; ? 1949 ?
344 pm ? 18 pifwD ? 2 usyf /
29/ xkdif;0w¦Kwkdrsm; ? yxrwGJ ? bmomjyefol vlxka':trm ?
rsufESmzkH;yef;csD pkd;0if;Nidrf; / rEÅav; ? vlxk+BuD;yGm;a&; ? 'D 1992 / 257
pm ? 18 pifwD / tkyfa& 1000 ? 50 usyf ?
rmwdum ? yif + yÍÆif;avmif;vufu Mumyef; + awmausmif;q&m&JUokc +
rDcsD*efpmar;yGJwJhAsm; + b,foltokH;vkdovJ + txufvTmur*FvmyGJ +
wrvGefyGJpm;rsm; + wvSnfhwywf + um;wkdufrI + pufqkyf emMunf;rI +
&Gmawmf&Sif + tazray:wJhuav; + yef;a&mifaq;jym;av; ESpfjym; +
uRJacs;wykH + acsmif;½kd;xJ va&mifxkd;awmh
30/ xkdif;0w¦Kwkdrsm; (2) ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD csrf;at; ? rEÅav; ? vlxkBuD;yGm;a&; ? ZGef 1993 ? 138 pm ? 16 pifwD ? tkyfa& 1000 ? 35 usyf /
rmwdum ? rD;eJYESvkH;om; + 'Da& 'Dajr + Adawm + pmcsKyf + rsKd; +
cGJpdwfukorI + a&ewforD;
109

31/ ar;vf ? pD½kduf / tkd,ef;uD;wkdY ? bmomjyefol a':trm ?
rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ay:OD;ouf / rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? az 2963 / 296
pm ? ½kyfykHrsm; ? 18 pifwD / tkyfa& 3500 ? 2 usyf /
32/ &Gefeif ? csufpwm / awmfvSefwJhw½kwfjynf uRefawmfrSwfrdorQ ?
bmomjyefol vlxka':trm ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ay:OD;ouf / rEÅav; ?
vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? 'D 1979 / 334 pm ? ½kyfykHrsm; ? 22 pifwD / tkyfa&
3000 ? 25 usyf /
33/ 0gpDvkpfum; ? 0rf'g / oufwefYa&mif ? yxrwGJ ? bmomjyefol rtrm
? rEÅav; ? BuD;yGm;a&; ? atmuf 1945 / 148 pm ? 17 pifwD / 3 usyf /
34/ ----- / oufwefYa&mif ? 'kwd,wGJ ? bmomjyefol rtrm ? rEÅav; ?
BuD;yGm;a&; ? atmuf 1945 / 232 pm ? 17 pifwD / 4 usyf /
35/ t&SDa[; [D;Ekd; / *sKHESifhppfom; ? yxrykdif; ? bmomjyefol a':trm ?
rsufESmzkH;yef;csD tkef;vGif / uykdif(rEÅav;) ? BuD;yGm;a&; ? 1945 / 70 pm ?
17 pifwD / tkyfa& 3000 ? 1 usyf 25 qifh /
36/ tmz&du0w¦Kwkdrsm; ? bmomjyefol vlxka':trm ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD
csrf;at; / rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? atmuf 1989 / 284 pm ?
a&mifpkH"mwfykH ? 18 pifwD / tkyfa& 1500 ? 30 usyf /
2/ ed'gef;eJYtrSma&;wJh pmtkyfrsm;
37/ uajconfESihftjcm;uAsmrsm; ? a&;ol bkwvifcspfav; ? trSma&;ol
vlxka':trm / rEÅav; ? wufaevif;pmay ? (1964) ?
38/ u,m;ykHjyif / a&;ol vlxkOD;vS ? trSma&;ol vlxka':trm ?
rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ñGefYa0opf / rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? 'D 1991 / 169
110

pm ? ½kyfykHrsm; ? 18 pifwD / (jynfaxmifpkwkdif;&if;om; vlrsKd;pk ykHjyifrsm;
trSwfpOf 44) tkyfa& 1000 ? 27 usyf /
39/ aumufoif; ? a&;ol rif;EG,f ? trSma&;ol vlxka':trm / &efukef ?
0if;o*Ðpmay ? 1980 /
40/ uRefawmfhpmwrf;?uRefawmht[rf;rsm; ? a&;ol vlxkOD;vS ? trSma&;ol
vlxka':trm ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ñGefYa0opf eJY rkwfokH / rEÅav; ? vlxkBuD;yGm;a&; ? 'D 1983 / 248 pm ? 18 pifwD / tkyfa& 3000 ? 12 usyf /
41/ uRefawmfqm;csuform; ? a&;ol vlxkOD;vS ? trSma&;ol vlxka':trm
? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ay:OD;ouf / rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? Mo 1986 /
326 pm ? ½kyfykHrsm; ? 18 pifwD / tkyfa& 3000 ? 18 usyf /
41/ (u) ? q,fhESpfBuKd; 0w¦Kwkdrsm; ? a&;ol ae0if;jrifh ? trSma&;ol
vlxka':trm ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD jrifharmifausmf ? tm;rmefopfpmay ? 1992 /
42/ w½kwfjynfay:rS Mu,feD ? a&;ol t*¾gpEkd; ? bmomjyefol wifaxG; /
trSma&;ol vlxka':trm ? &efukef ? yifra&pD; ? 1964 /
43/ a'gif;#Dumopf ? a&;ol rpöwmarmifrIdif; ? trSma&;ol vlxka':trm ?
rsufESmzkH;yef;csD tkef;vGif / 3 Budrf / rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? ar 1968
/ 325 pm ? 18 pifwD / 2 usyf 50 jym; /
44/ ylwau ? pydef ? tDwmvsHoGm;rSwfwrf; ? a&;ol OD;Ncdrfh ? trSma&;ol
vlxka':trm ? a&Tukdif;om; ? odyÜHarmif0 ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD atmifcspf /
rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? 1959 / 269 pm ? ½kyfykHrsm; ? 18 pifwD / 2
usyf 50 jym; /
45/ ArmhpD;yGm;a&;ppfwrf; ? a&;ol armifpl;prf; ? trSma&;ol vlxka':trm /
rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? Mo 1954 / 304 pm ? 22 pifwD / tkyfa&
2000 ? 4 usyf ?
111

46/ bGdKif;aumuf#DumBuD; ? a&;olrpöwmarmifrIdif; ? trSma&;ol
vlxka':trm ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ay:OD;ouf / 2 Budrf / rEÅav; ? vlxkBuD;yGm;a&; ? Ekd 1960 ? 365 pm ? 18 pifwD ? 2 usyf 50 jym; /
47/ rkd;a'0grvSa&T?olUb0ESifholU*Dw ? a&;ol cifoef;jrifh ? trSma&;ol
vlxka':trm ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD csrf;at; / rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? 'D
1988 / 332 pm ? ½kyfykHrsm; ? 21 pifwD / tkyfa& 2000 ? 40 usyf /
48/ armif&ifarmif rr,fr ? a&;ol *sdrf;pfvSausmf ? trSma&;ol
vlxka':trm / 2 Budrf / rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? 1959 /
49/ rEÅav;eef;wGif;ykHjyifrsm; ? a&;ol zD;vf'ifa[m ? bmomjyefol
cifoef;jrifh ? trSma&;ol vlxka':trm ? rsufESmzkH; yef;csD atmifcspf /
rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? 268 pm ? ½kyfykHrsm; ? 18 pifwD / 2 usyf /
49/ (u) ? rSefxJuopömESifh tjcm;uAsmrsm; ? a&;ol rsKd;jrifhaqG ?
trSma&;ol vlxka':trm ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD rsKd;jrifhaqG ? rkd;rif;pmay ? az
1995 ? 186 pm ? 18 pifwD ? tkyfa& 1000 ? 70 usyf /
50/ &J&Jawmuf jrefrmvkyfief;&SifBuD;rsm; ? a&;ol ukda*s ? trSma&;ol
vlxka':trm / &efukef ? ppfonfawmfpmay ? rwf 1993 /
51/ a&Twav;umwGef; =  Shwetalay Cartoon  ? a&;ol b*av; ?
wnf;jzwfolESifh trSma&;ol awmom;eJY vlxka':trm / rsufESmzkH;yef;csD
b*av; / 2 Budrf / rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? rwf 1969 / 110 pm ?
½kyfykHrsm; ? 23_28 pifwD / 5 usyf /
52/ vrif;w&muAsmrsm; ? a&;olMunfatmif ? trSma&;ol vlxka':trmeJY
wifrkd; ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD 0if;az / rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; / Ekd 1963 /
198 pm ? 18 pifwD ? tkyfa& 200 ? 2 usyf /
52/ u ? vlxkOD;vS&JU wkdif;&if;om;ykHjyifrsm; ?  Folktales of Ludu U Hla  ?
112

a&;ol vlxkOD;vS ? bmomjyefol  K, Than Tun & Kathleen Forbes  ?
trSma&;ol vlxka':trm ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ukdrmvm (jrefrmh½kd;&myef;csD) ?
vlxkBuD;yGm;a&;pmtkyfwkduf ? ZGef 1994 ? 150 pm ? 17 pifwD ? tkyfa&
1000 ? wefzkd; 45 usyf /
53/ olUxufuJ a&Tjynfpkd; nDykav;0w¦Kwkdrsm; ? a&;ol nDykav; ?
trSma&;ol vlxka':trm ? OD;okc ? cifaqGOD; ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD nDykav; /
rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? rwf 1989 / 300 pm ? ½kyfykHrsm; ? 18 pifwD /
tkyfa& 1000 ? 25 usyf /
54/ aoG;csif;om;csif;ykHjyifrsm; ? jyKpkol vlxkOD;vS ? trSma&;ol
vlxka':trm ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ay:OD;ouf / rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ?
Mo 1992 / 108 pm ? ½kyfykHrsm; ? 20 pifwD / (jynfaxmifpkwkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkykHjyifrsm; trSwfpOf 45) tkyfa& 1000 ? 35
usyf /
54/ u ? tem;rnDBwd*H0w¦Kwkdrsm; ? a&;ol 0if;0if;jrifh (eef;awmfa&SU) ?
trSma&;ol vlxka':trm ? ZGef 1995 ? 312 pm / 18 pifwD ? tkyfa& 500 ?
80 usyf /
3/ acgif;BuD;rsm;
3 ? 1 / vlxk*sme,facgif;BuD;rsm;
vlxk*sme,feJY vlxkowif;pm wNyKdifwnf; xkwfa0aeckdufrSm vlxkOD;vSu
yk'fr 5eJY axmifxJa&mufae (27 atmufwkdbm 1953 - 14 Zefe0g&D
1957)wJhtcg vlxk*sme,facgif;BuD;awGukd vlxk a':trm a&;ygw,f/
55/ urÇmYuav;oli,frsm;aeY ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 50 (1 ZGef 1954) pm 1
113

56/ urÇmYa&;&mESifh uif;uGmí rjzpfaom Armha&;&m ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf
75 ( 1 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 1
57/ uREkfyfwkdY\ vkHNcKHa&;ESifhNidrf;csrf;a&; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 51 ( 1 Zlvkdif
1954) pm 1
58/ ckdifNrJaomcspfMunfa&;ESifh Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGufvrf;p ? vlxk*sme,f ?
rSwf 58 ( 1 azazmf0g&D 1955) pm 55
59/ wBudrfxyfí wdkufwGef;OD;pkdY ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 80 ( 'DZifbm 1956)
pm 1
60/ w½kwf Arm ESpfjynfaxmifcspfMunfa&; wnfNrJygap ? vlxk*sme,f ?
rSwf 56 ( 1 'DZifbm 1954) pm 1
61/ wkd;ízdESdyfcsKyfcs,fvmrIrsm; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 53 ( 1 pufwifbm
1953) pm 1
62/ wefzkd;jzwfrjzpfonfh tawGUtBuKH ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 60 ( 27 rwf
1955) pm 1
63/ awGUqkHaqG;aEG;jcif;jzifhajyNidrf;onf ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 52 ( 1
Mo*kwf 1954) pm 1
64/ 20 &mpkESpf\ 'kwd,ykdif; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 59 ( 1 rwf 1955) pm
1
65/ ay:vmonfhjyóemw&yf ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 79 ( Ekd0ifbm 1956)
pm 1
66/ ykdrkdíodem;vnfa&;rS cspfMunfa&;okdY ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 66 (
atmufwkdbm 1955) pm 1
67/ jynfolUckH½kH;0ifvQif jynfolUtqkH;tjzwfudk vufcHyg ? vlxk*sme,f ?
rSwf 55 ( 1 Ekd0ifbm 1954) pm 1
114

68/ jynfolUpmqkd ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 44 ( 'DZifbm 1953) pm 1
69/ jynfolUnDñGwfa&;ESifhtrsKd;om;vGwfvyfa&; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 48 (
27 rwf 1954) pm 1
70/ jynfolwkdYu jyif;jypGm awmif;qkdMupkdY ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 77 (
pufwifbm 1956) pm 1
71/ jynfolwkdYawmifhwonfh BuD; 4 BuD;awGUqkHa&; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 63
(Zlvkdif 1955) pm 1
72/ jynfolwkdYt"dXmefjyK&OD;rnf ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 72 ( rwf 1956) pm
1
73/ jyefvnfn§dEIdif;Ekdifygap ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 78 ( atmufwkdbm
1956) pm 1
74/ ArmhNidrf;csrf;a&;BuKd;yrf;rIukd urÇmu todtrSwfjyKNyD ? vlxk*sme,f ?
rSwf 57 ( 1 Zefe0g&D 1955) pm 1
75/ ArmwjynfaxmifvkH;rS vli,fxkokdY ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 68 ( 'DZifbm
1955) pm 1
76/ Armvkyfom;xkESifhara'; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 73 ( 1 ar 1956) pm 1
77/ Armtcsif;csif; rsufESmcsif; qkHMuyg ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 64 ( Mo*kwf
1955) pm 1
78/ rdcifESifhuav;oli,frsm;aeY ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 62 ( ZGef 1955) pm
1
79/ rD;ab;ESifhjynfol ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 57 ( rwf 1954) pm 1
80/ ara'; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 61 ( 1 ar 1955) pm 1
81/ ,aeYuREkfyfwkdYbmvkyfMurnfenf; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 65 (
pufwifbm 1955) pm 1
115

82/ vlUorkdif;wGifarmfuGef;wifaeY ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 49 ( 1 ar 1954)
pm 1
83/ vlxkuawmif;qkdonfhjynfwGif;Nidrf;csrf;a&; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 71 (
rwf 1956) pm 1
84/ vrf;cGwGif &yfaeí rjzpfNyD ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 54 ( 1 atmufwkdbm
1954) pm 1
85/ vGyfvyfpGm a&;om;ykHESdyfxkwfa0cGifh ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 74 ( ZGef
1956) pm 1
86/ vGyfvyfa&;ukd;ESpfjynfhppfwrf; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 81 ( Zefe0g&D
1957) pm 1
87/ odem;vnfa&;nDñGwfa&; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 43 ( Ekd0ifbm 1953)
pm 1
88/ oDwif;uRwfavNyD ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 67 ( Ekd0ifbm 1955) pm 1
89/ oHCmtm; bk&m;aomfrS rqefom ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 71 (
azazmf0g&D 1956) pm 1
90/ temwjcm; aq;wjcm; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 76 ( Mo*kwf 1956) pm 1
91/ trsKd;om;vGwfvyfa&;Ncdrf;ajcmufrIBuD; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 45 (
Zefe0g&D 1954) pm 1
92/ trsKd;om;taygif;okdY jynfolUarwåm&yfcHcsuf ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 69 (
Zefe0g&D 1956) pm 1 ? 22
93/ t½IH;r&Sd tjrwfBuD;jzpfap&rnf ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 46 ( azazmf0g&D
1954) pm 1

116

3 ? 2 / vlxkowif;pmacgif;BuD;rsm;
vlxkowif;pm t,f'DwmcsKyf a&TOa'gif;eJY vlxkOD;vSwkdYu
yDuif;rSmusif;ywJh tm&SeJY ypdzdwfEkdifiHrsm;qkdif&m urÇmYNidrfcsrf;a&; uGefz&ifh
(pufwifbm 1952 - Ekd0ifbm 1952)ukd wufa&mufaepOfrSm
vlxkowif;pmacgif;BuD;rsm;ukd vlxka':trm a&;ygw,f/
vlxkowif;pmrSm ]]jyLapmxD;}} acgif;BuD;twGuf yk'fr 124 ^ u eJY
q&mBuD;a&TOa'gif; xdef;odrf;cHae&wJhumv (10 ar 1956 - 30
pufwifbm 1956)rsm;rSmvnf; vlxkowif;pm acgif;BuD;ukd vlxka':trm
a&;ygw,f/
94/ um;pD;0Hhp&mr&Sdawmh ? (14 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
95/ urÇmESifh Arm ? (16 ar 1956) pm 3
96/ urÇmYtv,fü t&SufuGJaeNyD ? (8 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
97/ ausmufrD;aoG;wGif; tvkyform;rsm;ta&; ? (30 ar 1956) pm 3
98/ ausmif;okH;pmtkyfrsm; ? (14 ZGef 1956) pm 3
99/ BuD;us,fvSonfh vkyfaqmifatmifjrifcsuf ? (17 ar 1956) pm 3
100/ ArmwrsKd;om;vkH; pnf;vkH;nDñGwfzkdYvkdonf ? (10 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
101/ acgif;wbuf ? yef;wbuf ? (26 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
102/ acgif;jzwfjyjcif;rsm;ukd tjrefqkH; wm;qD;yg ? (3 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
103/ csmvDcsufyvif ? (27 pufwifbm 1952) pm 3
104/ cspfMunfa&;tysufrcHEkdif ? (6 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
105/ ivsif'ku©onfrsm;\ wrf;wcsuf ? (26 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
106/ Nidrf;csrf;pGmtwlwuGaeMuygpkdY ? (29 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
107/ Nidrf;csrf;aomESpfopfjzpfygap ? (1 Zefe0g&D 1953) pm 3
117

108/ pum;rkdYqkd ? (30 pufwifbm 1955) pm 3
109/ pmoifausmif;awG zGifhMuNyD ? (19 ar 1956) pm 3
110/ pm;yGJay:wGifaoewfwifí raqG;aEG;ESifh ? (8 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
111/ pl;tufwl;ajrmif;ta&; ? (30 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
112/ apmifhMunfhaeonf ? (24 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
113/ ppf~uGif;ukd &Sif;ypfa&; ? (19 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
114/ ppfjyifqifa&;orm;awG tvkdr&Sd ? (15 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
115/ ppfyGJtaMumif; ppfom;todqkH; ? (27 ZGef 1956) pm 3
116/ pdwf0ifpm;bG,frdefYcGef; ? (25 ZGef 1956) pm 3
117/ qkdAD,uf*syefNidrf;csrf;a&;pmcsKyf ? (16 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
118/ qkdAD,uftm&yfqufqHa&; ? (26 ZGef 1956) pm 3
119/ qefpufykdifrsm;\ oydwfBuD; ? (2 ar 1956) pm 3
120/ nLuvD,mvufeufrsm;prf;oyfrI&yfyg ? (29 ZGef 1956) pm 3
121/ wu,fwef;ajz&Sif;MupkdY ? (21 ar 1956) pm 3
122/ wBudrfowday;vkduf&jyefonf ? (3 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
123/ wckwnf;aomxGufayguf ? (18 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
124/ w&m;oavm ? (31 ar 1956) pm 3
125/ w½kwfjynfESifhtwlwnfaea&; ? (9 ZGef 1956) pm 3
126/ w½kwfjynfESifhtm&yfEkdifiHrsm; ? (29 ar 1956) pm 3
127/ w½kwfArmcspfMunfa&; ? (2 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
128/ wuúokdvfwm0efcHrsm;okdY ? (24 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
129/ 11 ESpfjynfh [D½kd&SD;rm;aeY ? (6 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
130/ xDukdomykdírJvmvdrfhOD;rnf ? (20 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
131/ 'Da&tvm;wufaeykH ? (23 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
118

132/ "eo[m,yl;wGJjyefwrf; ? (9 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
133/ aeYaphaeNyDjzpfonfh ukdvkdeDpepfqkd; ? (21 ZGef 1956) pm 3
134/ eef&SefuRef;ta&; ? (22 ZGef 1956) pm 3
135/ aESmifBuKd; ygryg wcgxyfí jrif&jyefNyD ? (27 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
136/ yrnwnDvmcHokdY ? (28 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
137/ ygupöweftpkd;&opf ? (14 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
138/ yDyDjrnfjrnfaxmufcHyg ? (15 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
139/ ay;um;ay;\ r&yg ? (20 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
140/ ykdíqkd;vmaom em*ta&; ? (28 ZGef 1956) pm 3
141/ ayguf½IH;jzpf&NyD ? (6 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
142/ yifv,ful;oabFmvkyfief; ? (8 ZGef 1956) pm 3
143/ jyif;jyaomwrf;wcsuf ? (13 ZGef 1956) pm 3
144/ jyif;xefaomajrivsif ? (18 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
145/ jynfwGif;Nidrf;csrf;a&;vrf;pOf 2 &yf ? (25 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
146/ jynfolUvTwfawmfwGif;rS arwåmw&m; ? (7 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
147/ Armhvufa0SYESifh vmrnfhtkdvHypf ? (21 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
148/ AkdvfcsKyfwkdYusqkH;onfhaeY ? (19 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
149/ b0ukd t½IH;ay;olrsm;okdY ykdí axmufyHhpkdY ? (11 pufwifbm 1956)
pm 3
150/ bmwmpepfESifhArmhvGwfvyfa&; ? (7 ZGef 1956) pm 3
151/ bmvkyfMurvJ ? (12 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
152/ b,folawGu Ncdrf;ajcmufovJ ? (25 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
153/ rMunfvifaomtem*wf ? (2 ZGef 1956) pm 3
154/ rl 2 rlESifh tcsKyftjcmtmPm ? (23 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
119

155/ rJvbkef; tkdvHypf ? (28 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
156/ rufx&pfatmifpm&if;awG xGufawmhrnf ? (4 ZGef 1956) pm 3
157/ rifZDrpf&Sif ? (29 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
158/ rpöwmae½l;ESifh vef'efuGefz&ifh ? (10 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
159/ rnfolrQ rprf;oyfpwrf;[k aMunmyg ? (12 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
160/ rEÅav;ESifh jrLeDpy,f ? (4 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
161/ ref;jrL trIxrf;rsm;ta&; ? (17 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
162/ rdef;rwkdYtcGifhta&; ? (26 pufwifbm 1952) pm 3
163/ rEÅav;NrKdUwGif;vrf;rsm; ? (17 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
164/ ,ckESpf 0gqkdvjynfh ? (21 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
165/ ,aeY*syefjynf ? (25 pufwifbm 1952) pm 3
166/ ,aeYjynfolUaq;½kHrsm; ? (20 ZGef 1956) pm 3
167/ ,aeYtar&duef ? (22 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
168/ ,lbDatat ? (3 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
169/ a&ab;ukd txl;owdxm;Mu&ef ? (5 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
170/ &JESifh 0efxrf;pdwf ? (5 ZGef 1956) pm 3
171/ &efpG,f&efokwfukdEIwfypfEkdifrSat;rnf ? (27 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
172/ &,fp&mjzpfatmif rvkyfoifh ? (14 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
173/ vlemrsm;rcHcsNyD ? (28 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
174/ vlESifht*FgN*Kdvf ? (4 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
175/ vlrsKd;pka&G;aumufyGJ ? (21 ar 1956) pm 3
176/ vlowf0g'pGefYvTwfMu ? (30 ZGef 1956) pm 3
177/ vlUorkdif;\BuKH&cJaom tkH~uGrIBuD;w&yf ? (18 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
178/ vlUtajrmufqHrsm; ? (24 pufwifbm 1952) pm 3
120

179/ avaMumif;twwf ? (1 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
180/ avwyfrawmfaeYzdwfMum;csuf ? (30 ar 1956) pm 3
181/ av,mOfc&D pdwfcs&a&; ? (13 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
182/ avmjynfolokdY ? (11 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
183/ vufeufavQmhaygha&; ,aeYtajctae ? (1 ZGef 1956) pm 3
184/ vGwfvyfa&;ay;&rnf ? (6 ZGef 1956) pm 3
185/ owdBuD;pGm&SdbkdYvkdNyD ? (9 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
186/ orwtkdufqifa[mif0g ? (13 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
187/ omoem 2500 ESifh Arm ? (23 ar 1956) pm 3
188/ oD[kdVf - owd ? (18 ZGef 1956) pm 3
189/ olvQkKdawGukdowdxm; ? (30 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
190/ ao'Pftjypf ? (12 ZGef 1956) pm 3
191/ oufomacsmifcsda&;jzpfrnfavm ? (16 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
192/ okH;buftjrif ? (12 ar 1956) pm 3
193/ tcsKyfusw&m;cHrsm; ? (19 ZGef 1956) pm 3
194/ tajccHjrefrmbmom ? (11 ZGef 1956) pm 3
195/ tpkd;&opf###BOT_TEXT###g' ? (15 ZGef 1956) pm 3
196/ tar&duef\ wynfhcHrI ? (10 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
197/ trSwfrxifa~uG&Smonfh Mu,fwyGifh (jrajcusif; raiGNrKdif) ? (26
pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
198/ t&m&SdBuD;rsm;odatmif rnfokdYjyKMurnfenf; ? (7 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
199/ t½kyfqkd;aomtzrf;tqD; ? (5 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
200/ ta&SUawmiftm&SEkdifiHrsm; ? (31 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
201/ touf 120 ausmf &Snfapa&; ? (1 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
121

202/ toQifOD;0dpm&okdY ? (22 pufwifbm 1956) pm 3
203/ tm&Stmz&duausmif;om;nDvmcH ? (14 ar 1956) pm 3
204/ tm;rusbJaernfr[kwfay ? (7 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
205/ tD*spfuomatmifyGJcHvdrfhrnf ? (31 Zlvkdif 1956) pm 3
206/ tD'iftpkd;&\ rvdr®mrIrsm; ? (15 ar 1956) pm 3
207/ at;csrf;pGmajyvnfrnfhtvm;tvm ? (20 Mo*kwf 1956) pm 3
208/ tkd;eif;cGufeif;tar&duef ? (16 ZGef 1956) pm 3
209/ t,f*sD;&D;,m;ta&; ? (26 ar 1956) pm 3
210/ t,f'DwmcsKyfa&TOa'gif;zrf;onfhudpö ? (11 ar 1956) pm 3
4/ aqmif;yg;rsm;
4 ? 1 / c&D;oGm;
211/ urmau;u a&vkyfom; ? ½Iaxmifh ? trSwf 49 ( 1 {NyD 1971) pm
9-10 ?
212/ uRefrjrifawGUcJh&aom uav;rsm;tzkdY pmtkyfxkwfa0&mXme ?
vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 43 (Ekd0ifbm 1953) pm 30-35
213/ w½kwfjynfwGif rD;&xm;ESifh c&D;oGm;cJhpOfu ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 96
('D 1954) pm 10-11 ? 22 ? 28 /
214/ w½kwfjynf rD;&xm;ay:0,f ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 83 (puf 1957) pm
5-6 ?
w½kwfbkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;rsm;okdY a&mufcJhpOfu ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 49
(ar 1954) pm 11? 32
215/ awmifom ? pE´mr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 149 (ar 1985) pm 12-16 ? 46
122

216/ xef;awmifol ? vkHrav;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 trSwf 3 ? (rwf 1989) pm
104 - 106
217/ a':BuD;pkd;wkdY&GmokdY ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? (Zefe0g&D 1986) pm 53 - 56
218/ ----- ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? (azaz:0g&D 1986) pm 105 - 109
219/ ----- ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? (rwf 1986) pm 43 - 47
220/ ebwfBuD;&Gmu vlxkausmif; ? ½Iaxmifh*sme,f ? rSwf 51 (ar 1971)
pm 6 - 8 ? 10 /
221/ ewfa&uef ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 26 (azaz:0g&D 1987) pm 126 129
222/ -----(2) ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 27 (rwf 1987) pm 68 - 71
223/ -----(3) ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 28 ({NyD 1987) pm 61 - 64
224/ -----(4) ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 29 (ar 1987) pm 74 - 76
225/ ycef;ewfyGJokdY ? pE´m ? rSwf 184 (Zlvkdif 1984) pm 36 - 40
226/ ----- ? pE´m ? rSwf 185 (Mo*kwf 1984) pm 20 - 24
227/ ----- ? pE´m ? rSwf 186 (pufwifbm 1984) pm 14 - 15
228/ yxrqkH;tBudrfvkyfwJhyGJ ? yef½kyfpkHr*¾Zif; ? (azaz:0g&D 1988) pm 77
- 80 /
229/ yGJawmfukdoGm;Mur,fvkdY ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 42 ? (atmufwkdbm
1953) pm 3 ? 37 - 39 /
230/ rnDrQaom wkd;wufjcif; ? uarÇmZr*¾Zif; ? 1987 - 88 ? pm 25 28
231/ armfpukdwd&pämef½kHrS acG;jcaoFhESifhusm; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 44
('DZifbm 1953) pm 12 - 14 /
232/ a&&Sm;vSwJh uHNrJZ*srf; ? ½Ir0 ? wGJ 26 ? rSwf 301 ? ({NyD 1973) pm
123

33 - 40 ? 172 - 183
233/ vufayGUtdwfaysmufwJhyGJ ? vlxk*Sme,f ? rSwf 45 ? (Zef 1953) pm 28
- 30 /
234/ vIyf&Sm;EkdifawmhNyDjzpfaom&JwkdufBuD; ?
csufjynfwGif;&Sdcsm;&fbmPDwm;rif; &JwkdufBuD;twGif;rS ya'o&mZfacwf
jrifuGif;rsm; / vlxk*sme,f ? (rwf 1950) pm 14 - 16 ? 25 /
235/ ----- ? aoG;aomufr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 425 ? (ar 1980)
236/ ----- ? aoG;aomufr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 426 ? (ZGef 1980)
237/ ----- ? aoG;aomufr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 427 ? (Zlvkdif 1980)
238/ ----- ? aoG;aomufr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 428 ? (Mo*kwf 1980) pm 175 180
239/ ----- ? aoG;aomufr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 429 ? (pufwifbm 1980) pm 59
- 61
240/ owif;BuD;onfh csif;wGif;c&D; ? aoG;aomuf ? rSwf 430
(atmufwkdbm 1980) pm 43 - 48
241/ tnmolrsm;yifv,foGm; ? pE´m ? rSwf 177 ('DZifbm 1983) pm 27 30
242/ ----- ? pE´m ? rSwf 178 (Zefe0g&D 1984) pm 8 - 15
243/ ----- ? pE´m ? rSwf 179 (azazmf0g&D 1984) pm 29 - 34
244/ ----- ? pE´m ? rSwf 180 (rwf 1984) pm 18 - 21
245/ ----- ? pE´m ? rSwf 181 ({NyD 1984) pm 181 - 190
246/ ----- ? pE´m ? rSwf 182 (ar 1984) pm 26 - 32
247/ ----- ? pE´m ? rSwf 169 ({NyD 1983) pm 25 - 38
248/ ----- ? pE´m ? rSwf 170 (ar 1983) pm 9 - 15
124

249/ ----- ? pE´m ? rSwf 171 (ZGef 1983) pm 19 - 22
250/ ----- ? pE´m ? rSwf 172 (Zlvkdif 1983) pm 26 - 30
251/ ----- ? pE´m ? rSwf 173 (Mo*kwf 1983) pm 22 - 26
252/ ----- ? pE´m ? rSwf 174 (pufwifbm 1983) pm 40 - 43
253/ ----- ? pE´m ? rSwf 175 (atmufwkdbm 1983) pm 38 - 43
254/ ----- ? pE´m ? rSwf 176 (Ekd0ifbm 1983) pm 31 - 36
255/ tr,frifhbefaumufNrKdUawmf ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 40 ? (Mo*kwf
1953) pm 16 -18 /
256/ ta&SU*smreDowif;pmynm r[mXmea&mufcJhpOfu ?
ukd,fawGUowif;pmynm ? &efukef ? yif;,pmay ? 1962 ? pm 413 - 438
4 ? 2 / pme,fZif;
257/ yxr[Hom0wD ? [Hom0wDowif;pm (tcsyfykd) ? (1 atmufwkdbm
1969) ? pm C ? "mwfykH
----- / a&Tr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 1 ? (ZGef 1995) pm 70 - 71
258/ r*¾Zdefav;wapmif ? ½Ir0 ? wGJ 24 ? rSwf 274 (ZGef 1970) pm 70 104 ?
----- ? a&Ta'gif;awmifaqmif;yg;rsm; ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ukdukdav; /
rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? Zlvkdif 1975 / 315 pm ? ½kyfykHrsm; ? 18 pifwD
/
259/ NrKdUe,fr*¾Zif;&JUwefzkd; ? armfvkdufr*¾Zif; / 'DZifbm 1989 /
260/ vGrf;rdygw,f ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 2 ? (azazmf0g&D 1985) pm 75
261/ owif;pm ? vlxk*sme,f ? wGJ 1 ? rSwf 3 (1 pufwifbm 1950) ? pm
20 - 24
125

262/ owif;pma[mif; ? *sme,fa[mif; ? jynfolwkdY\pum;jyef ? rEÅav; ?
[Hom0wDowif;pmwkduf / 1970 ? pm 46 - 52
263/ owif;axmufAdrmef ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 12 (Zef 1993) pm
105 - 108 /
264/ owif;a[mif; ? rEÅav;q&mtwwfoifodyÜHESpfvnfpmapmif ? 1965
? pm 148 - 154 /
----- ? a&Ta'gif;awmifaqmif;yg;rsm; ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ukdukdav; /
rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? Zlvkdif 1975 / 315 pm ? ½kyfykHrsm; ? 18 pifwD
/
4 ? 3 / pmaya&;&m
265/ uav;rsm;tzkdY pmaywJh ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 31 (Ekd0ifbm 1952) pm
8-9/
266/ urÇmYtBuD;qkH;pmtkyf ? vlUrdwfaqGpmtkyf ? rEÅav; ? vlxk BuD;yGm;a&; ? ar 1973 ? "mwfykHrsm; / 416 pm / 21 pifwD ?
267/ *EÅ0ifrSm &Sm;r,fhpmtkyf ? awmf0if*sme,f ? wGJ 1 ? rSwf 3 (rwf
1994) pm 94 - 97 ?
268/ pmrSefatmifa&;MupkdY ? pmay*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 1 ? (pufwifbm
1994) pm 29 - 31 ?
269/ pma&;Muw,fqkdwm ? pmay*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 2 (atmufwkdbm
1994) pm 57 - 59 /
270/ pmtkyfqkdifu vl0ifvlxGuf (1) ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 75 ? (Zefe0g&D
1992) pm 100 - 103 /
271/ -----(2) ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 76 ? (azazmf0g&D 1992) pm 120 126

121 /
272/ -----(3) ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 77 (rwf 1992) pm 125 - 130
273/ -----(4) ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 80 (ZGef+Zlvkdif 1992) pm 40 - 43
274/ -----(5) ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 82 (pufwifbm 1992) pm 97 100
275/ -----(6) ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 83 (atmufwkdbm 1992)
276/ -----(7) ? ukd,fykdifpmtkyfpiform; ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 84
(Ekd0ifbm 1992) pm 90 - 93
277/ -----(8) ? pmMunfhwkdufwckxDaygufjcif; ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 85 ?
('DZifbm 1992) pm 8 - 11
278/ -----(9) ? *sme,fawGvlzwfrsm;vSw,f ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 86
(Zefe0g&D 1993) pm 106 - 107
279/ -----(10) wrf;waeMuwJh pmtkyfa[mif;rsm; ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf
88 ? (rwf 1993)
280/ -----(11) ckrSxGufvmwJh pmtkyf 2 tkyf ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 89
({NyD 1993) pm 17 - 20
281/ -----(12) acwfay:pmtkyfrsm; ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 90 (ar 1993)
pm 14 - 16
282/ -----(13) owif;pmrsm;tñTef; 2 tkyf ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 91
(ZGef 1993) pm 13 - 16
283/ -----(14) ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 92 ? (Zlvkdif 1993)
284/ -----(15) t&yfom;vnf;zwfoifhwJhpmtkyf ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf
94 (pufwifbm 1993) pm 17 - 19
285/ -----(16) ta&mif;&qkH; pm 2 tkyf ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 95
127

(atmufwkdbm 1993) pm 94 - 96
286/ -----(17) jrefrm-t*Fvdyftbd"mef ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 96
(Ekd0ifbm 1993) pm 20 - 22
287/ -----(18) ynmoifMum;a&; tulpmtkyfrsm; ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf
101 ? (ZGef 1994)
288/ -----(19) umwGef;aygif;csKyfpmtkyfrsm; ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 102 ?
(Zlvkdif 1994) pm 29 - 31
289/ -----(20) aq;vdyfeJYpme,fZif; ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 103 ?
(Mo*kwf 1994) pm 17 - 19
290/ -----(21) jrawmifomoem ESpf 100 jynfhorkdif; ? tawG;tjrif ?
rSwf 104 (pufwifbm + atmufwkdbm 1995) pm 69 - 72
291/ -----(22) vGrf;olwkdYpm ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 105 (Ekd0ifbm 1994)
pm 38 - 41
292/ -----(23) pmtkyfaumif;av; wtkyf ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 106
(azazmf0g&D 1995) pm 17 - 19
293/ -----(24) Aef;armfwifatmif&JUvuf&mwtkyf ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf
111 (ar 1995) pm 22 - 23
294/ -----(25) &Gufykef;oD;av;vkyfaevkdYrjzpfawmhwJhudpö? tawG;tjrif ?
rSwf 112 ? (ZGef 1995) pm 96 - 98
295/ -----(26) acwfpma&;q&mrsm;taMumif; waphwapmif; ?
tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 114 (Mo + puf 1995) pm 96 - 98 /
296/ rBuKdufwJhpum;vkH; tokH;tEIH;rsm; ? pmay*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 6 ?
(azazmf0g&D 1995) pm 39 - 40
297/ jrefrmpum; ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 31 (Zlvkdif 1987) 41 - 43
128

298/ a&;p&mawGaygvkdufygbd ? ½Iaxmifh*sme,f rSwf 59 ? (pufwifbm
1970) pm 8 - 9 ? 18 /
299/ &Srf;ajrvwfu wkdif;&if;om;uAsm ? [Hom0wDowif;pm ? 6 'DZifbm
1971 ? pm 2
300/ [kdcsDrif;\ tusOf;axmifu ykavGoH uAsmrsm; ? vlxkowif;pm ?
(12 {NyD 1966)
301/ tEkynmpmtkyfawGukd bm&nf&G,fcsufeJYa&;ovJ ? pmay*sme,f ?
trSwf 5 (ZGef 1989) pm 121 - 125 /
302/ tw¦KyÜwådpmay ? paepmay0kdif; ? rEÅav; ? [Hom0wDowif;pmwkduf ?
1976 ? pm 57 - 66
303/ tw¦KyÜwåda&;r,fqkd&if ? pmay*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 5 (Zefe0g&D
1995) pm 43 - 46
304/ tw¦KyÜwådta&;aumif; ? ½Ir0 ? (ar 1987) ? 71 - 72
4 ? 4 / pD;yGm;a&;
305/ jrefrmhuRef;om; ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 5 (atmufwkdbm 1993)
pm 38 - 41
306/ jrefrmhqifzrf;enf;rsm; ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 7 ('DZifbm ?
Zefe0g&D - 1993-94) pm 100 - 103
307/ jrefrmhopfawm&JUtBuD;qkH;&wemqif ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 6
(Ekd0ifbm 1993) pm 112 - 115
308/ jrefrmhopfawm&wem ? tckacwfqifzrf;enf; ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 4 ?
rSwf 8 ? (azazmf0g&D 1994) pm 114 - 117
----- ? &Sm;&Sm;yg;yg; qiftrsKd;tpm;rsm; ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 9
129

(rwf 1994) pm 20 - 23
309/ jrefrmhom;a&zdeyf ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 11 (ar 1994) pm 90 94
310/ vufzufajcmufvkyfief; ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 2 (Zefe0g&D 1992) pm 128
- 135
311/ vufzufajcmufvkyfief; ? vufzufcl;orm; ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf
9 (azazmf0g&D 1992) pm 62 - 67
312/ vufzufvkyfief; ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 6 (atmufwkdbm 1991)
pm 152 - 154
313/ oeyfzufvkyfief; (2) ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 5 (pufwifbm
1991) pm 154 - 158
4 ? 5 / aps;eJYyGJawmfaps;
314/ aps; ? rEÅav;wuúokdvfESpfvnfpmapmif ? (1969 - 70) pm 202 237 /
----- ? pE´mr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 25 ({NyD 1971) pm 153 - 158 /
----- ? a&Ta'gif;awmifaqmif;yg;rsm; ? rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ?
1975 ? pm 100 - 115 /
315/ aps;bk&m;yGJac:wJh ajrmifbk&m;yGJBuD; ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 1 (ZGef
1993) pm 136 - 139
316/ 12 yGJ aps;onf ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 8 (Zefe0g&D 1993) pm 96
- 98
317/ yckuúLoD[kdVf&Sifbk&m;yGJawmf ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 10 (rwf
1993) pm 96 - 98
130

318/ rvGefaps;u aps;aumuf ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 2 (Zlvkdif 1992)
pm 80 - 84
319/ rvIdifyef;tkdifa&TrkaXmbk&m;yGJ ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 9 (azazmf0g&D
1993) pm 134 - 137
320/ rEÅav;u rvGefaps; ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 1 ? (ZGef 1992) pm 36
- 40
321/ rEÅav;aps;csKdawmf ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 1 ? rSwf 4 (puf 1992) pm 162
- 163
322/ rEÅav;aps;csKdawmf a&Tqkdifwef; ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 12 (ar
1993) pm 52 - 55
323/ a&Tpm&H ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 62 (Zefe0g&D 1991) pm 92 - 97
324/ a&TbkdNrKdUaxmifhapwDyGJ ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 2 (Zlvkdif 1993) pm
29 - 31
325/ a&Tav;bk&m; &mjynfhyGJ ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 1 ? (azazmf0g&D
1994) pm 118 - 120
326/ vGrf;p&mhaps;csKd ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 6 ? (Ekd0ifbm 1992) pm 73 
– 76
4 ? 6 / ½kyfykHvTmrsm;
4 ? 6 ? 1 / ½kyfykHvTm-pmay
(ykyÜg;OD;ausmf&if)
327/ ykyÜg;OD;ausmf&ifESifh odyÜHarmif0\ b0c&D;Murf; ? tkd;a0*sme,f ? rSwf
82 (Zefe0g&D 1972) pm 7 - 8
131

(Z0e)
328/ ol&Sdprf;apcsifonf (Z0e) ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 3 ? (rwf 1985)
pm 17 - 20
(aZ,s)
329/ yg&rDjznfhzuf (aZ,s) ? jr&nfeE´mrdw¦Dvmr*¾Zif; ? (azazmf0g&D 1984)
pm 35 - 38
(aZmf*sD)
330/ trsKd;om;pmqkd aZmf*sD ? ra[oDr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 73 (Ekd0ifbm 1991) pm
104 - 106
----- ? q&maZmf*sDtrSwfw&pmpkrsm; ? &efukef ? tm;rmefopf ? Zlvkdif
1994 / pm 11 - 14
(ndKjr)
331/ ukdnKdjr ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 10 (Ekd0ifbm 1985) pm 137 - 150
332/ aMumfjim (nKdjr) ? a&;oljrrÍÆL ? taemufoGm;nKdjr EIwfqufpmwrf; ?
rsufESmzkH;yef;csD OD;nDnD ? &efukef ? BuD;yGm;a&; ? Zlvkdif 1939 /
333/ touf 80 jynfhwJhnKdjr ? ra[oDr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 116 (ZGef 1994) pm
146 - 148 /
(eDarmif)
334/ tapmBuD;cGJoGm;wJheDarmif ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 11 ('DZifbm
1994) ? pm 113 - 114 /
(yDrkd;eif;)
335/ ynmtvif;u ykdufqHBuD; ? yDrkd;eif;\b0ESifhpmay ? &efukef ?
yDrkd;eif;txdrf;trSwfjzpfajrmufa&;aumfrwD ? 1973 / pm 207 - 240 /
(pavOD;ykn)
132

336/ pavOD;ykn ? vlxkowif;pm (16 rwf 1963)
(ay:OD;ouf)
336/ (u) ? armifay:OD;a& ? ay:OD;ouf ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ay:OD;ouf ?
pmayavmupmtkyfwkduf (Zef 1994) /
(a':rmvm)
337/ i,foli,fcsif;pma&;q&mr rmvm ? ra[oDr*¾Zif; ? (atmufwkdbm
1991) pm 110 - 115
338/ ESajrmp&m a':rmvm ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 10 (Edk0ifbm 1992)
pm 125 - 127
(rkd;rkd;(tif;vsm;))
339/ orD;av;rrkd;a& ? ayzl;vTm ? rSwf 103 ({NyD 1990) pm 24 - 25
340/ rkd;rkd;tif;vsm;twGuf tarhvufaqmif ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif;? rSwf 53 (ar
1990) pm 44 /
(OD;jr)
341/ ausmufpm0efa[mif;OD;jr ? vlUrdwfaqGpmtkyf ? rEÅav; ? vlxkBuD;yGm;a&;? 1973 ? pm 410 - 416 /
----- ? av;rsufESmr*¾Zif; ? 1987 ? pm 64 - 67 /
342/ pmayynm&Sif bBuD;jr ? pE´m½kyfpkHr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 49 ({NyD 1973) pm
41 - 48
----- ? [Hom0wDowif;pm ? (24 Zefe0g&D 1974) pm 84
(jrrsKd;vGif)
343/ q&mBuD; jrrsKd;vGif ? a&T0wf&nfr*¾Zif; ? trSwf 1 (Zefe0g&D 1990)
pm 28 - 35 ? 47 /
344/ q&mjrrsKd;vGif&JUb0ed*kH; ? tkd;a0*sme,f ? rSwf 52 (atmufwkdbm
133

1970) pm 20 - 21 /
(q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;)
345/ q&mBuD;ajymjywJha&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpfrsm; ? ½Ia'gifh*sme,f ? rSwf 9
(31 Zlvkdif 1969) pm 20 - 22 ? 38 /
----- ? ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;&mjynfhr*¾Zif; ? atmufwkdbm 1976 ? pm 34
- 38 /
346/ q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;&JUpmaya0zefa&; ? pmaytiftm;
?txufArmEkdifiHpma&;q&mtoif; ? rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? 1971 /
pm 141 - 183 /
----- ? pE´mr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 83 ({NyD 1978) pm 142 - 153
----- ? pE´mr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 84 (ar 1978) pm 84 - 95 /
347/ q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;&JU rkHa&G;aMu;rkH /
rkH&GmNrKdU&mjynfharmfuGef;r*¾Zif; ? rwf 1990 / pm 80 - 85 /
348/ q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif; okdYr[kwf Nidrf;csrf;a&;AkdvfcsKyfBuD; ?
vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 48 (27 rwf 1953) pm 21 - 22 ? 36 /
349/ q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;\BuKd;yrf;rI ? vlxkowif;pm ? (27 Zlvkdif
1964) pm 3 /
350/ q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;\tdyfruf ? vlxkowif;pm (23 rwf
1963)
351/ xl;jcm;wJh jrawmifausmif;om;BuD; ? jrawmifomoemESpfw&m ?
(Zefe0g&D 1983) pm 26 - 28 /
352/ rdzk&m;acgifBuD;eJYq&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif; ? rkd;a0r*¾Zif; ? ({NyD
1980)

134

(a&TjynfOD;bwif)
353/ a&Tjynfq&mBuD;OD;bwif ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 2 ? (pufwifbm
1994) pm 26 - 29 /
354/ uRefrwkdYq&m q&ma&Tjynf ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 3 ?
(atmufwkdbm 1994) pm 56 - 59
355/ q&mBuD; a&TjynfOD;bwif (1894-1964) ? olUb0waphwapmif; ?
"er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 4 (Ekd0ifbm 1994) pm 106 - 110 /
356/ a&Tjynfq&mBuD; OD;bwif (4) ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 5 ('DZifbm
1994) pm 40 - 43 /
(a&Tukdif;om;)
357/ uRefrwkdYodwJh OD;aombdw ? &wemrGefr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 14 ? rSwf 9
(pufwifbm 1987) pm 13 - 16 ? 18 - 20/
358/ ----- ? &wemrGefr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 14 ? rSwf 10 (atmufwkdbm 1987)
pm 25 - 28 /
359/ ----- ? &wemrGefr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 14 ? rSwf 11 (Ekd0ifbm 1987) pm
40 - 45 ? 48 /
360/ ----- ? &wemrGefr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 14 ? rSwf 12 ('DZifbm 1987) pm 16
- 20 /
361/ uRefrwkdYodwJh a&Tukdif;om; OD;aombdw ? cs,f&Dr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 85 ?
(Ekd0ifbm 1993) ? pm 122 - 127 /
362/ ----- ? ? cs,f&Dr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 86 ? ('DZifbm 1993) ? pm 90 - 93
/
363/ uRefrodwJh OD;aombdw (a&Tukdif;om;) ouFef;qD;oGm;awmh ?
awmf0if*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 4 ({NyD 1995) pm 65 - 67 /
135

364/ ----- ? a&Tukdif;om;&JUuavmif ? awmf0if*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 6
(ZGef 1995) pm 68 - 70 /
365/ ----- ? a&Tukdif;om;eJUAdokumynm ? awmf0if*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf
7 (Mo*kwf 1995) pm 43 - 46 /
366/ BuKd;yrf;íatmifjrifcJhol ? yef;csDq&m ? "mwfykHq&mESifh pma&;q&m
a&Tukdif;om; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 30 (atmufwkdbm 1952) pm 17 ? 20 /
367/ a&Tukdif;om;q&mawmf ? ½Ir0r*¾Zif; ? rSwf 484 ? (pufwifbm 1987)
pm 91 - 94 /
(a&TOa'gif;)
368/ q&mBuD;a&TOa'gif;&mjynfhyGJ ? pmay*sme,f ? trSwf 4 ? (rwf 1989)
pm 14 - 17
369/ q&mBuD;a&TOa'gif;&JU&Gmrefusnf;wkH ? a&Ta'gif;awmifaqmif;yg;rsm; ?
rEÅav;? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? 1975 ? pm 281 - 299 /
(vlxkOD;vS)
370/ pma&;q&m owif;pmq&m vlxkOD;vS ? &eHYopf ? rSwf 3
(atmufwkdbm 1992) pm 142 - 144 /
----- ? vlxktrSwfw& vlxkOD;vS ? rsufESmzkH; 'DZkdif; ql;iSuf / rEÅav;?
vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? Mo*kwf 1994 / 162 pm ? 18 pifwD ? tkyfa& 1000 ?
45 usyf /
371/ arG;aeYvufaqmif ? vlxkcspforQ vlxkOD;vS ? rEÅav; ? vlxkBuD;yGm;a&; ? Mo*kwf 1984 ? pm 11 - 21 /
372/ vlxkOD;vS&JU r*Fvmpum; ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 93 (Ekd0ifbm 1992)
pm 18 - 20 /

136

(okc)
373/ q&mBuD; OD;okcarG;aeY ? ra[oDr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 101 (rwf 1991) pm
124 - 128 /
374/ q&mokc OD;aygif;usm;ESifh jrif;usm;&Sif ? ayzl;vTm ? rSwf 110
('DZifbm 1990) ? pm 78 - 81 /
(odyÜHarmif0)
375/ odyÜHarmif0 trSwfw& ESpf 50 yGJ ? ra[oDr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 94 (Mo*kwf
1992) pm 108 - 111 /
(0if;OD;)
375/ u/ ukd0if;OD; ? pE´mr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 234 ? ({NyD 1989) pm 10 /
(tjcm;pma&;q&mrsm;)
376/ urÇmausmf axmifrif;om;BuD; ae½l; ? a&;ol cifv0if; ?
BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 9 (ZGef 1936) pm 6 /
377/ urÇmausmf tDwmvsHpma&;q&m tDwmvkdumvfADEkd ? pE´mr*¾Zif; ? rSwf
20 ? ('DZifbm 1985) pm 163 - 164 /
378/ pma&;q&mBuD;rsm;&JUZeD;ESpfa,muf ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 1 ? rSwf 12 ?
(Zefe0g&D 1992) pm 85 - 88 /
379/ pma&;q&mr {nfhonf ? pmayvkyfom; ? rSwf 3 (Zlvkdif 1980)
380/ q&mBuD;bmx&ef&yfqJ ?[Hom0wDowif;pm ? (5 azazmf0g&D 1970)
pm 2
381/ q&mBuD;bmx&ef&yfqJ\ rtkdaq;azmfenf;um; ? a&;ol
bmx&ef&yfqJ ? bmomjyefol a':trm ? tkd;a0 *sme,f ? rSwf 37 (19
azazmf0g&D 1970) pm 20 - 21 ? 22 /
382/ q&mBuD;bmx&ef&yfqJeJY urÇmYjynfol ? ½Iaxmifh*sme,f ? rSwf 23
137

(28 azazmf0g&D 1970) pm 13 -15 /
383/ w½kwfpma&;q&m vif,lweftay: oabmxm;ykH ? a&;ol vl&Tef; ?
bmomjyefol a':trm ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 27 (Zlvkdif 1952) pm 7 /
384/ rEÅav;ol&d,OD;xGef;&if ? rEÅav;ol&d,OD;xGef;&if ESpf (100) jynfh
txdrf;trSwf ? &efukef ? apwempmay ? (rkd;Munfpmay) ? 1992 ? pm 5 10 /
385/ &SmrS&Sm; owif;pmq&m (t*¾gpEkd;)? ½Ir0½kyfpkHr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 26 ? rSwf
305 (atmufwkdbm 1952) pm 123 - 130/

('Dae&mrSm trSwfpOf 386 uae 388 aysmufoGm;w,f)
4 ? 6 ? 2 ½kyfykHvTm - pD;yGm;a&;
389/ qef OD;bkd; ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 11 ({NyD 1992) pm 25 - 27 /
390/ rkduform; rkdufolBuD; ? ra[oDr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 49 (Mo*kwf 1988) pm
97 - 100 /
391/ rEÅav;u opfpufykdifOD;omaX; ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 10 ({NyD
1994) pm 68 - 70 /
392/ rEÅav;NrKdUrsufESmzkH; pD;yGm;a&;orm;BuD;rsm; ?
olaX;OD;ouf&SnfeJYom;OD;ausmf ? "er*¾Zif; ? rSwf 6 (atmufwkdbm 1990)
pm 138 - 142 /
393/ ----- ? &wemykHqDpufOD;odef; ? "er*¾Zif; ? rSwf 8 ('DZifbm 1990)
pm 46 - 49 /
394/ ----- ? [oFjy'g;ausmf ? "er*¾Zif; ? rSwf 9 (Zefe0g&D 1991) pm
116 - 119 /
138

395/ ----- ? AE¨KvOD;qkdif ? "er*¾Zif; ? rSwf 1 (ar 1991) pm 93 - 96
/
396/ rEÅav;ol yGJuawmfBuD;awG ? "er*¾Zif; ? rSwf 5 (pufwifbm 1990)
pm 104 - 107 /
397/ rEÅav;olBuD;awG ? yef;uefonf a':jr ? "er*¾Zif; ? rSwf 3 (Zlvkdif
1990) pm 134 - 136 /
398/ ----- ? e*g;a':OD; ? "er*¾Zif; ? rSwf 4 ? (Mo*kwf 1990) pm 100
- 101 /
4 ? 6 ? 3 ½kyfykHvTm - yef;csD ? *Dw ? Zmwfobif
398/ u/ ukd0if;OD; ? pE´mr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 234 ({NyD 1989) pm 10/
399/ urÇmYtEkynmonfBuD; csmvDcsufyvif ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 32
('DZifbm 1952) pm 8 - 9 ? 18 /
400/ uG,fvGef&Smol aumvdyfpdef a':jrvGif ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 92 ?
('DZifbm 1957) pm 4 ? 6 /
401/ uG,fvGefol OD;b*srf;\ rarhEkdifaomvuf&mrsm; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf
36 (27 rwf 1953) pm 14 - 16 /
402/ csmvDcsufyvifBuD; qkH;&SmNyD ? [Hom0wDowif;pm (30 'DZifbm
1977) pm 2 /
403/ pma&;q&m a&Tref;wifarmif ? aoG;aomufr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 400
(azazmf0g&D 1980) pm 199 - 200 ? 127 - 128/
404/ ----- ? aoG;aomufr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 411 (rwf 1980) pm 54 - 56 /
405/ ----- ? aoG;aomufr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 412 ({NyD 1980) pm 107 - 108
139

/
406/ ----- ? aoG;aomufr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 413 (ar 1980) pm 94 - 96 /
407/ ----- ? aoG;aomufr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 414 (ZGef 1980) pm
408/ ----- ? aoG;aomufr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 415 (Zlvkdif 1980) pm 25 - 28
/
(409 uae 415 aysmufoGm;jyefNyD)
416/ pdefaA'g&JUESpfpOftvSL ? obifr*¾Zif; /
417/ pdefaA'gBuD;&JU&mjynfhyGJ ? ½Ir0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 36 ? rSwf 431 (rwf 1983)
pm 157 - 162 /
418/ qkdif;NyKdifwD;&mrSm q&mpdefaA'gr½IrvS½IH;wJhyGJ ? obifr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 3
(Zefe0g&D 1984) pm 75 - 77 /
419/ Zmwfq&mOD;zkd;pdefeJYobiftvkyform;wkdufyGJ ? ½Ir0 ? wGJ 23 ? rSwf
270 ('DZifbm 1969) pm 107 - 129 /
420/ ZmwfqefvSwJhrif;orD;pdefvSMunf ? aMu;rkHowif;pm ? (4
atmufwkdbm 1977) pm 3 /
421/ ewfaeukdif;ygrcsefaom OD;b*srf;\vuf&mrsm; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf
37 (ar 1953) pm 24 -25 ? 36 /
422/ eef;awmfa&SUq&mwif ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 100 ? ({NyD + ar 1994)
pm 108 - 116 /
423/ yef;csDq&mBuD; OD;cifarmif ? yefr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 1 (azazmf0g&D
1984) pm
424/ yef;csDq&mBuD; OD;bouf ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 12 (ZGef 1994)
pm 28 - 32 /
425/ ----- ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 1 (Mo*kwf 1994) pm 72 - 77 /
140

426/ raoaom OD;b*srf; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 35 (rwf 1953) pm 32 35 /
427/ rif;om;ukdzkd;uGef; ? rEÅav;wuúokdvfESpfvnfr*¾Zif; ? 1960 - 61 ?
pm 9 - 10 /
428/ jracsusif; raiGNrKdif ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 8 ('DZifbm 1950) pm 31 32 /
429/ a,musfm;rif;orD; arhvefzef; ? obifr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 20 (ZGef 1985)
pm 41 - 44 /
430/ ----- ? obifr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 21 (Zlvkdif 1985) pm 37 - 40 /
431/ ----- ? obifr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 22 (Mo*kwf 1985) pm 41 - 44 /
432/ ----- ? obifr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 23 (pufwifbm 1985)
433/ ----- ? obifr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 24 (atmufwkdbm 1985)
434/ &Gmpm;BuD; OD;barmifokdY ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 9 (atmuf 1992)
118 - 120 /
435/ a&Tref;wifarmif&JU Zmwdjyóem ? ½Ir0½kyfpkHr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 24 ? rSwf
286 (rwf 1971) pm 98 - 104 /
436/ a&Tref;wifarmifb0ed*kH;qkH;wJhtcg ? aoG;aomufr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 280
(Zefe0g&D 1970) pm 137 - 141 ? 176 /
437/ vlxka':trma&;wJh a&Tref;wifarmifa0zefa&; ? ½Iaxmifh*sme,f ? rSwf
57 (1 Mo*kwf 1971) pm 29 - 30 /
438/ vl&TifawmfBuD;OD;tkH;oD; ? ra[oDr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 106 (Mo*kwf 1993) ?
pm 122 - 125 /
439/ owif;BuD;onfhrif;orD; ? ref;&mjynfhr*¾Zif; ? 1959 ? pm 41 - 48 ?
155 - 157 /
141

owif;BuD;onfhrif;orD;raxG;av; ? yif&if;pum;ajyvufa&G;pif ? &efukef ?
ausmif;okH;pmtkyfaumfrwD ? 1967 ? pm 145 - 149 /
440/ obiftEkynm&SifBuD; jracsusif;raiGNrKdif\ b0Zmwfodrf; ?
vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 78 (atmufwkdbm 1956) pm 20 - 21 ? 37 /
441/ obifhOaoQmifBuD;okH;OD;&JU&mjynfhyGJ ? pmayvkyfom; ? rSwf 17
(pufwifbm 1985) pm 352 - 365 /
442/ olUpsmyeukd - ukdwifarmifjrifapcsifprf;vSbdygawmhw,f ?
tkd;a0*sme,f ? rSwf 33 ? ('DZifbm 1969) pm 21 - 22 /
443/ tEkynmonfBuD; OD;b*srf;\EkdifiHa&;tjrif ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 38
(ZGef 1953) pm 26 - 27 ? 34 /
444/ t&if;&SifpepfatmufrSm tEkynmonf? okdYr[kwf NrKdUrNidrf; ?
vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 66 (atmufwkdbm 1955) pm 33 - 34 ? 45 /
445/ ----- ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 67 (Ekd0ifbm 1955) pm 11 - 12 ? 38
/
446/ ----- ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 68 ('DZifbm 1955) pm 15 - 16 ? 36
/
447/ ----- ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 69 (Zefe0g&D 1956) pm 20 - 22 /
448/ tbpdefaA'g&JUaemufqkH;yGJrsm; ? obifr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 4 ? (azazmf0g&D
1984) pm 26 - 28 /
449/ at0rf; q&mn§m ? ra[oDr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 100 (azazmf0g&D 1993) pm
142 - 145 /
450/ atmifAv&mjynfhyGJtwGuf&SmykHawmf ? pmayvkyfom; ?

142

4 ? 6 ? 4 ½kyfykHvTm-taxGaxG
451/ urÇmYNidrf;csrf;a&;aumifpD OuúX uG,fvGef&Smol vDeifqk&Sif
ygarmu©BuD; *sKd;a,mhusL&D ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 101 (pufwifbm 1958)
pm 22 - 23 /
452/ usm;bNidrf;okdYpma~uG; ? ayzl;vTmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 50 (Zlvkdif 1985) pm
52 - 57 ? 170 - 172/
453/ uRefrwkdYq&mBuD;eJYvufa0SYtm;upm; ?
olUwynfhrsm;uajymjywJhq&mBuD;OD;&mZwf / &efukef ? rEÅav;toif; ? puf
1995 ? pm 7 - 15 /
454/ aeukd&yfí urÇmukdvnfapol ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 41 (pufwifbm
1953) pm 27 - 28 /
455/ bk&m;trBuD; a':vS0kdif; ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 10 (rwf 1992)
pm 74 - 77 /
456/ rEÅav;jrawmifausmif;wkduf r[m&wembkrfpHausmif;wkduf
trBuD;&JUb0ed*kH; ? jrawmifomoemESpfw&m (Zefe0g&D 1983) pm 38 - 57
/
457/ rEÅav;NrKdU rsufESmzkH; (4) «vlom"kac: ewfom"kac:yk*¾KdvfBuD; OD;aiG» ?
"er*¾Zif; ? rSwf 10 (azazmf0g&D 1991) pm 121 - 124 /
458/ rEÅav;NrKdYrsufESmzkH; (5) ? «usufoa&&SdvSwJhvlom; a':OD;ZGef;» ?
"er*¾Zif; ? rSwf 11 (rwf 1991) pm 98 (1) - 98 (4) /
459/ rEÅav;NrKdYrsufESmzkH; (6) ? «&GufykH;oD;olawmfpifBuD; OD;ausmfvS» ?
"er*¾Zif; ? rSwf 12 ({NyD 1991) pm 91 - 95/
460/ rEÅav;NrKdYrsufESmzkH; (8) ? «jrefrmAdokumynm&Sif q&mqdkif» ?
143

"er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 3 (Zlvkdif 1991) pm 71 - 75 /
461/ jrawmifausmif;om;a[mif;wOD; ? jrawmifomoemESpfw&m ?
(Zefe0g&D 1983) pm 37 - 38 /
462/ av;pm;tyfwJh rvGefrif;om;BuD; ? "er*¾Ziif; ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 3
(Mo*kwf 1992) pm 9 - 13 /
4 ? 6 ? 5 ½kyfykHvTm-ukd,fa&;tw¦KyÜwåd
(pE´mr*¾Zif;rSm wqufwnf;a&;cJhwJh aqmif;yg;rsm;)
463/ tarhZmwd&yf&Gm ? rSwf 204 (rwf 1986) pm 132 - 134 /
464/ woufrSmwcgBuKHr,f ? rSwf 206 (ar 1986) pm 103 - 105 /
465/ tazeJYtbkd; ? (Zlvkdif 1986) pm 108 - 115 /
466/ rEÅav;utbkd; ? (Mo*kwf 1986) pm 148 - 150 /
467/ rEÅav;eJYyvdyfa&m*g ? (pufwifbm 1986) pm 22 - 26 /
468/ tbGm;a':qkd; ? (atmufwkdbm 1986) pm 92 - 94 /
469/ tbGm;a':&if ? (Ekd0ifbm 1986) pm 99 - 102 /
470/ tbGm;&Sdwkef;ub0 ? ('DZifbm 1986) pm 96 - 99 ? 103 /
471/ jrefrmhuGrf;aq;vufzufeJY {nfh0wfapmif0wf ? (azazmf0g&D 1987) pm
93 - 97 /
472/ iSufaysmyifpkduf rdvkdufzyg ? (rwf 1987) pm 96 - 97 /
473/ tarwkdYacwfEkdifiHa&; ? ({NyD 1987) pm 160 - 164 /
474/ rEÅav;upum; ? (ar 1987) pm 144 - 147 /
475/ tarhtaMumif;waphwapmif; ? (ZGef 1987) pm 129 - 131 /
476/ om; 12 a,muftar ? (Zlvkdif 1987) pm 117 - 120 /
144

477/ ausmif;om;b0 ? (pufwifbm 1987) pm 41 - 43 /
478/ 'kwd,ausmif;om;b0 ? (atmufwkdbm 1987) pm 103 - 107 /
479/ jrefrmausmif;om;b0 ? (Ekd0ifbm 1987) pm 27 - 30 /
480/ uav;b0 oDv&Sif0wfcJhwkef;u ? ('DZifbm 1987) pm 97 - 102 /
481/ i,fi,fwkef;utjrif ? ( azazmf0g&D 1988) pm 45 - 47 ? 70 /
482/ ausmufxkd;q&mukd aiG 2d ay;&wJhacwf ? (rwf 1988) pm 114 - 118
/
483/ ae&Sife,fausmif;om; ? ({NyD 1988) pm 124 - 127 /
484/ tqkdtu xkdESpf0 ? (ZGef 1988) pm 48 - 54 /
485/ ausmif;aezufoli,fcsif; ? (Zlvkdif 1988)
486/ 'kwd,oli,fcsif; ? (pufwifbm 1989) pm 53 - 56 /
487/ wwd,oli,fcsif; ? (atmufwkdbm 1989) pm 133 - 136 /
488/ ae&Sife,fausmif;uoli,fcsif;awG ? (Ekd0ifbm 1989) pm 113 - 116
? 126 /
489/ aumvdyfausmif;olb0 ? (azazmf0g&D 1990) pm 35 - 38 /
490/ Oypmaumvdyfausmif;olb0 (2) ? (rwf 1990) pm 107 - 110 /
491/ aumvdyfausmif;olb0 (3) ? (ar 1990) pm 30 - 33 /

uRefrwkdYi,fi,fu ? rsufESmzkH;yef;csD ql;iSuf eJY csrf;at; / vlxkBuD;yGm;a&; ? Ekd0ifbm 1994 / pm 286 ? ½kyfykHrsm; ? 18 pifwD / tkyfa&
1000 ? 100 usyf /
pE´mr*¾Zif;rSmygcJhwJhaqmif;yg;awGukd pkpnf;xkwfa0wJhpmtkyf/
492/ uRefrqkHcJhonfh 36ck ta&;awmfykH ? tkd;a0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 1 ? rSwf 10
(1959-60) pm 45 - 48 /
145

493/ uRefrwkdYu rif;orD;av ? obifr*¾Zif; ? (ZGef 1984) pm 57 - 62 /
494/ pmayc&D;tp uRefrb0 ? vkHrav;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 2
(azaz,f0g&D 1989) pm 133 - 136 /
495/ pmrlctvSL ? ukrkj'mr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 1 (Mo*kwf 1988) pm 41 - 42 /
496/ jyefvnfqkHpnf;Muawmh ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 1 (Zefe0g&D
1994) pm 30 - 31 /
497/ rSwfrSwfom;om; trSwfw&av;rsm; ? ra[oDr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 62
('DZifbm 1989) pm 86 - 89 /
498/ a&mufwwf&m&m a&;rdwmav;rsm; ? pmay*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 7
(rwf 1995) pm 95 - 98 /
499/ ----- (2) ? pmay*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 8 ({NyD 1995)
500/ ----- (3) ? pmay*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 9 (ar 1995)
501/ ----- (4) ? pmay*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 10 (ZGef 1995)
502/ ----- (5) ? pmay*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 11 (Zlvkdif 1995)
503/ ----- (6) ? pmay*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 12 (Mo*kwf 1995)
504/ ----- (7) ? pmay*sme,f ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 1 (pufwifbm 1995)
505/ ----- (8) ? pmay*sme,f ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 2 (atmufwkdbm 1995)
506/ vrf;avQmufazmfwOD; ? cs,f&Dr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 48 (Zlvkdif 1988) pm 57
- 59 /
507/ oli,fcsif;ESpfa,muf ? awmf0if*sme,f ? wGJ 1 ? rSwf 12 ? ('DZifbm
1994) pm 135 - 137 /
508/ oGm;avoltwGuf &nfñTef;vsuf ? ra[oDr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 64
(azazmf0g&D 1990) pm 80 - 84 /

146

4 ? 7 / vlrIa&;
509/ uav;i,feJYvlUavmu ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 43 (Zlvkdif 1988) pm
58 - 59 /
510/ aumvif;rD;avmifajru b0wkdufyGJ ? [Hom0wDowif;pm (10 ar
1970)
511/ aus;vufvli,frsm; awGUqkHESD;aESmyGJobif ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 56
('DZifbm 1954) pm 23 - 25 /
512/ Mumayr,fh rarhEkdifMuyg ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 8 (puf 1992) pm
94 - 96 /
513/ acgif;quftNrD;qufESpfyGJ ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 10 (Ekd 1993) pm
103 - 104 /
514/ csJxD csKdif;xD? &Srf;xD ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 23 (Ekd0ifbm 1986) pm
67 - 69 /
515/ q&mwkdYb0 tmp&d,*kaPmteaEÅm ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 48 (27
rwf 1950) pm 15 - 18 /
516/ qkd&S,fvpfa&;eJY ao&nfao&uf ? [Hom0wDowif;pm ? (25 ZGef
1972) pm 2 /
517/ awmtvSLeJY NrKdUtvSL ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 5 (ZGef 1994) pm
121 - 123 /
518/ xD xD - xD ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 22 (atmufwkdbm ? 1986) pm
53 - 55 /
519/ axmifqkdonfrSm ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 54 (atmufwkdbm 1954) pm
33 - 45 ? 48 /
147

520/ em;eJYrem z0g;eJYemyg wmhwm ? wmhwm ? aomif;ajymif;axGvmr*¾Zif;
? wGJ 18 ? rSwf 8 ({NyD 1983) pm 9 /
521/ ----- a&Trif;orD;av;a&m*g ? aomif;ajymif;axGvmr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 18
? rSwf 9 (ar 1983) pm 9 /
522/ ----- ? acwfyJvkdY'Dtwkdif;xkdifMunfhaeMurvm; ?
aomif;ajymif;axGvmr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 19 ? rSwf 1 (pufwifbm 1983)
523/ ya'o&mZfykHpHtvSL ? jreE´mr*¾Zif; ? (atmufwkdbm 1976) pm 41 42 ? 47 /
524/ ArmtrsKd;orD; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 70 (azazmf0g&D 1956) pm 21 22 /
525/ ArmhtvSLuav;wck ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 1 (az 1993) tcsyfykd
c - 8i,f /
526/ abmif;bDESifhtysKd ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 96 ({NyD 1958) pm 4 /
527/ r&P&Sifaorif;ESifh jynfolwkdY ppfcif;Ekdifa&; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 59
(Zlvkdif 1958) pm 20 - 22 /
528/ rdef;reJYa,musfm; ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 1 (Zefe0g&D 1985) pm 25 27 /
529/ ,aeYArmrdcifwkdYESifhuRefrwkdY\om;a&TOrsuf½IaMu;rk Hrsm; ?
vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 62 (ZGef 1955) pm 24 - 25 /
530/ vlvm; ? wd&pämefvm; cGJjcm;r&olrsm; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 64
(Mo*kwf 1955) pm 24 - 31 /
531/ vifr,m;qkdwm ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 45 ? ZGef 1988) pm 77 - 78
/
----- ? wkdif;&if;aq;ynmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 8 ? 1995 ? pm 31 - 33 /
148

532/ owdeJYvSLwJhtvSL ? bkd;bGm;&dyfompmapmif ? rSwf 24 ({NyD 1972) pm
6-8/
533/ odomwJhwkd;wufrIawG awGU&atmif ? awmf0if*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 1
(Zefe0g&D 1995) pm 52 - 55 /
534/ 36 aumifxDukd owd&p&m ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 24 ('DZifbm
1986) pm 61 - 63 /
535/ tuRwftvGwfyGJ ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 12 (Zefe0g&D 1994) pm
98 - 100 /
536/ tarhowd&wJh yGJawmifNyKH; ? ra[oD ? rSwf 110 ('DZifbm 1993) pm
170 - 178 /
537/ tkdw,fqkdwm ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 2 (rwf 1992) pm 87 - 88
/
4 ? 8 / vIyf&Sm;aewJh urÇmYa&;&m
538/ uav;taz&SmykHawmf ? awmf0if*sme,f ? wGJ 1 ? rSwf 1 (Zefe0g&D
1994) pm 104 - 105 /
539/ uuf&SfrD;ukd rD;wif½IdUí tvpfokwfMurnfholrsm; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf
11 (rwf 1950) ? pm 18 - 20 /
540/ urÇmppf? a'oppf? jynfwGif;ppf tm;vkH;ukd &yfpJapa&;onf
vlom;wkdY\ wm0efjzpfonf ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 103 (Ekd0ifbm 1958) pm
22 - 23 ? 43 /
541/ urÇmYNidrf;csrf;a&;ü blrdeufoef ae&mrSef Apfpwlvmjrpf0Srf;u
Nidrf;csrf;a&;zefonf ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 46 (azazmf0g&D 1954) pm 11 149

14 ? 32 /
542/ urÇmESifh vufcsif;qufí a&SUwvSrf;wufygwJh rdef;rwkdYta&; ?
vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 31 (pufwifbm 1953) pm 14 - 15 ? 25 - 26 /
543/ urÇmYuav;oli,frsm;ukd umuG,fMuyg ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 26 (ZGef
1952) pm 1 - 5 ? 20 /
544/ urÇmYvli,f? ausmif;om;yGJawmfBuD;ESifh Armvli,f vkHri,frsm; ?
vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 63 (Zlvkdif 1958) ? pm 20 - 26 /
545/ urÇmYtvkyform;tzGJUcsKyf ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 43 (Ekd0ifbm 1953)
pm 1 - 2 /
546/ urÇmYtvkyform;tzGJUcsKyfnDvmcHrSatmifjrifcsufrsm; ? vlxk*sme,f ?
rSwf 44 ('DZifbm 1953) pm 31 - 32 ? 34 /
547/ ausmufonf urÇmemavm? uRefemavm ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 71
(rwf 1956) pm 9 - 10 ? 14 /
548/ uREkfyfwkdYtm&S ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 88 (atmufwkdbm 1955) pm 28
/
549/ 7 ESpfMum tD&ef tD&wfppfyGJ ? owif;xl; ? rSwf 1 (Zefe0g&D 1988)
pm 3 - 4 /
550/ csufukdpvkdaA;uD;,m;jynf opömazmufrIBuD; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 34
(azazmf0g&D 1953) pm 12 - 13 ? 32 /
551/ *syefwkdY&JUaqmifMumNrKdifowif; ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 4 (ar
1993) pm 133 - 134 /
552/ Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf urf;vSrf;csufukd y,fcsí&rnfavm ? vlxk*sme,f
? rSwf 104 ('DZifbm 1958) pm 22 - 23 /
553/ ppfqkdwm ? touf&Snf&SnfaevkdaomfESifh bufpkH / &efukef ? rSwf 2 ?
150

15 azazmf0g&D 1988 / pm 3 /
554/ n§yfyl;n§yfydwfrdaeol ESpfOD; ? tawG;tjrif ? (Zefe0g&D 1987) pm 59
- 63 /
555/ w½kwfpD;u&uf ? bufpkH ? rSwf 1 ? (1 azazmf0g&D 1988) pm 2 - 3 /
556/ wavSxJpD; wc&D;xJoGm;rsm;[k odvmMuaom Nidrf;csrf;a&;qE´jy
urÇmYvlxk ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 37 (ar 1958) pm 24 - 25 ? 40 /
557/ jynfolwkdY\Nidrf;csrf;a&; vufwGJawmif;qkdrIBuD; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf
57 (Zefe0g&D 1955) pm 24 - 25 /
558/ zdvpfykdifppftajcpkdufrsm;ta&; ? bufpkH ? rSwf 10 (15 ZGef 1988) pm
13 - 14 /
559/ ArmhNidrf;csrf;a&;tiftm; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 60 (rwf 1955) pm 6
- 25 /
560/ AD,uferfrS vGwfvyfa&;ta&;awmfykH ? vlxk*sme,f ? wGJ 1 ? rSwf 3
(1 pufwifbm 1950) pm 10 - 12 ? 37 - 38 /
561/ bmvif BuD; 4 BuD; EkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD;rsm; uGefz&ifh ? vlxk*sme,f ?
rSwf 47 (rwf 1954) pm 20 - 22 /
562/ arQmykdufBuD;awG&JU tpGrf; ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 55 (ar 1990) pm 99
- 102 /
563/ ajrmuftmz&durS rsKd;cspfrsm; bmukdvkdí taocHaeMuoenf; ?
vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 65 (pufwifbm 1955) pm 24 - 25 /
564/ vmawmhr,fhN*Kdvfwkacwf ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 11 ('D 1993) pm
98 - 100 /
565/ vljzL vlrnf;jyóem ? a&;ol ZrÁL'DygatmifxGef; ? &eHYopfr*¾Zif; ?
rSwf 14 (atmufwkdbm 1993) pm 116 - 117 /
151

566/ vufawGUtm;jzifh ppfa&;iifNyD; vufeufavQmhaygha&;ukd
a&Smif&Sm;aeaom emwkd; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 92 ('DZifbm 1957) pm 20 25 /
567/ vufeufjyí tnHhcHapa&;onf Nidrf;csrf;a&;ukd rwnfaqmufEkdif ?
vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 95 (rwf 1958) pm 24 - 25 /
568/ vrf;ab;wJ&Sifrsm;ta&; ? tkd;ajctdrfajcrwnfArm*spfypD ?
vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 58 (Zlvkdif 1954) pm 10 - 13/
569/ vGefcJhaomESpfrsm;ESifhrwl toGifajymif;vmNyDjzpfaom urÇmYukvor*¾ ?
vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 89 (pufwifbm 1957) pm 20 - 21 ? 35 /
570/ 00pm;Mu&zkdY ? arG;aeYrsm; aysmufqkH;rIESifh bufpkH / rSwf 3 / rwf
1988 / pm 5 - 7 /
571/ owif;-owif;-owif; qkdwm ? tawG;tjrif / rwf 1986 / pm 50
- 55 /
572/ om;arG;vGef;onfhjyóem ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 92 ('DZifbm 1957)
pm 28 - 29 /
573/ a[m0k'f ,Ofaus;rItarG ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 28 (Mo*kwf 1952) pm
25 - 26 / 34 /
----- ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 29 (pufwifbm 1952) pm 11 -25 /
574/ [kdta&; onfta&; awG;rd&m&m? tdE´d,bmoma&;eJY EkdifiHa&;
a&maxG;rIjyóem ? a&;ol ZrÁL'DygatmifxGef; / &eHYopfr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 8
(rwf 1993) pm 123 - 124 /
575/ ----- ? *smreDeJYemZDvufopfjyóem ? a&;ol ZrÁL'DygatmifxGef; /
&eHUopfr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 9 ({NyD 1993) pm 119 - 120 /
576/ ----- ? ouú&mZf 2000 tkdvHypfyGJawmf ? a&;ol ZrÁL'DygatmifxGef;
152

/ &eHYopfr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 10 (ar 1993) pm 124 -125 /
577/ ----- ? urÇmYukvor*¾eJY Nidrf;csrf;a&; ? a&;olZrÁL'DygatmifxGef; /
&eHYopfr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 11 (ZGef 1993) pm 120 - 121 /
578/ taemuftkyfpkrS ppf½l;rsm; rcsifhr&Jjzpf&NyD ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 59
(rwf 1955) pm 24 - 26 /
579/ ta&SUawmiftm&Sü taemufe,fcsJUwkdY\ pGufzufvmrIukd
wkdufzsufMupkdY ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 96 ({NyD 1958) pm 24 - 25 /
580/ tvHawmfaygif;pkHatmufrSNidrf;csrf;vkdaomqE¾ ? a&;ol
tD&mtm&ifbwf ? bmomjyefol a':trm ? vlxk *sme,f ? rSwf 45
(Zefe0g&D 1954) pm 20 - 22 ? 36 - 37 /
581/ tm&SESifh tmz&du awGUqkHaoG;pnf;&m befa'gif; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf
60 (ar 1955) ? pm 24 - 26 /
582/ tm&Staemufykdif; rNidrf;csrf;atmif b,folawGu vkyfBuHaeoenf; ?
vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 90 (atmufwkdbm 1957) pm 20 - 21 ? 36 /
583/ tm;upm;eJY aq;0g; ? bufpkH / rSwf 2 ? 15 azazmf0g&D 1988 ? pm 4
/
584/ atmufwkdbmawmfvSefa&; tESpf 40 jynfhESifh qkd&S,fvpfN*Kdvfwk ?
vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 91 (Ekd0ifbm 1957) pm 20 - 22 /

rSwfcsuf/ /]]vIyf&Sm;aeaom urÇmYa&;&mrsm;}}ukd vlxkowif;pmrsm; (1 ar
1961)u pNyD; owif;pm &yfvkduf&wJh (7 Zlvkdif 1967)txd
&ufpOfa&;cJhw,f/ 'g  Personal editorial  ygyJ/ vlxkowif;pm (19611967)rS vlxka':trm aqmif;yg;tñTef;ukd 1992 ckESpfu vufESdyfpuf
pmrleJY jyKpkcJhw,f/ pkpkaygif; aqmif;yg;yk'fa& 2791 &Sdygw,f/ odyfrsm;aevkdY
153

tckpmpkpm&if;rSm vlxkowif;pmrSmygwJh vIyf&Sm;aewJh urÇmYa&;&mrsm;ukd
csefxm;cJhygw,f/
4 ? 9 / omoem
585/ aus;Zl;rsm;vSwJhtvSL ? okH;ESpf&moD cgawmfrDpmapmif
(ppfukdif;awmif½kd; 0g;csufaus;&Gm ZD0dw'ge oHCmhaq;½kH) (Ekd0ifbm 1987)
pm 27 - 31 /
586/ BuKHawmifhBuKHcJ ylaZmfyGJ ? &wemrGefr*¾Zif; ? (rwf 1986) pm 29 - 31
/
587/ acwfumv&JUawmif;qkdcsuf ? y&d,wådwuúokdvfrsm; ?
&wemrGefr*¾Zif; ? (a tmufwkdbm 1986) pm 7 - 10 /
588/ pkd&mrSpdrf; ? oDw*la&vSLarmfuGef; ? (3 ESpfajrmuf) 1984 /
589/ pdef&wkobif usif;yrnfh rvGefqefvSLtoif;BuD; ? tkd;a0*sme,f ?
rSwf 74 (pufwifbm 1971) pm 23 - 24 /
590/ q&mawmfOD;uvsmP\ ,kHMunfcsuf ? vlxkowif;pm ? (9 Mo*kwf
1962) pm 7 /
591/ w½kwfjynfa&muf Ak'¨omoem ? &wemrGefr*¾Zif; ? (ZGef 1986) pm 41
- 43 /
592/ w½kwfjynfa&muf Ak'¨omoem ? &wemrGefr*¾Zif; ? (ar 1987) pm 17
- 21 /
593/ wdyd#u"&omoemhrdcifBuD; ? rif;uGef;wdyd#uedum,omoemjyKtzGJU
yxrokH;ESpfc&D; ? (Mo*kwf 1982) pm 352 - 365 /
----- ÓPfvif;"r®pmya'om ? (Ekd0ifbm 1984) pm 54 - 75 /
154

594/ wuúokdvf"r®m½kHBuD;wGif ausmif;olrsm; 0wfwufMurnf ? a&;ol
tif;vsm;ausmif;aqmifolwOD; ? bm;rm; *sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 27 (10
'DZifbm 1937) pm 27 /
595/ awmifxdyfMumayguf ? oDw*la&vSLarmfuGef; ? (2 ESpfajrmuf) ?
(azazmf0g&D 1983) pm 29 - 30 /
596/ wyfukef;NrKdUu ylaZmfyGJ ? &wemrGefr*¾Zif; ? (pufwifbm 1986) pm
16 - 19 /
597/ xGufayguf ? wyfukef;NrKdU y&d,wådpmoifwkdufa&T&wk ? Ekd0ifbm
1987 ? pm 140 - 143 /
----- ? wkdif;&if;aq;ynm r*¾Zif; ? 1995 /
598/ EkdifiHjcm;rSm omoem ? &wemrGefr*¾Zif; ? (azazmf0g&D 1987) pm 9 12 ? 59 /
599/ yDeHeJYr[mpnfomoem ? &wemrGefr*¾Zif; ? (pufwifbm 1985)
600/ yk*¾Kdvfxl; t&d,r*¾ifacsmifq&mawmfbk&m;BuD; ? &wemrGefr*¾Zif; ?
(atmufwkdbm 1985)
601/ rkdif;aomufNrKdU ausmufeDawm& q&mawmfbk&m; ? &wemrGefr*¾Zif; ?
(rwf 1988) pm 9 - 11 ? 60 /
602/ rEÅav;qefvSLtoif;BuD; ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 21 (pufwifbm
1986) pm 54 - 58 /
603/ jrawmifq&mawmfBuD; ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 9 (atmufwkdbm
1993) pm 101 - 104 /
604/ jrawmif&mjynfhyGJawmf ? &wemrGefr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 9 ? rSwf 9
(pufwifbm 1982) pm 45 - 48 /
605/ jrawmifa&T&wk ? [Hom0wDowif;pm ? (12 Zlvkdif 1976) pm 2
155

606/ ajrmif;jrq&mawmfbk&m;BuD; &mjynfhylaZmfyGJ ? qm;vif;BuD;r*¾Zif; ?
1988 ? pm 58 - 59 /
607/ &wembkHjrifhausmif;wkduf ESpfw&mjynfhtxdrf;trSwf ?
&wemrGefr*¾Zif; ({NyD 1987) pm 19 - 22 /
608/ &wembkHjrifhausmif;wkduf ESpfw&mjynfhtxdrf;trSwf ?
&wemrGefr*¾Zif; (ar 1987) /
609/ &[ef;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;uawmif av;pm;&wJh q&mBuD; a':"r®pm&D ?
[Hom0wDowif;pm ? (10 Mo*kwf 1971) pm 5 /
610/ &[ef;ysKdorkdif; ? [Hom0wDowif;pm ? (6 ZGef 1977) pm 2 /
611/ a&cHaumif; - ajrcHaumif; ? rEÅav; ? awmifpvif;wkdufopf
r[matmifajr "r®Adrmefa&pufcs tEkarm'em pmwrf; ? (r 1348)
612/ owif;pmrsm;uajymwJh q&mawmfOD;0dZ, ? a&TrsufrSefOD;0dZ, ?
rEÅav; ? vlxkBuD;yGm;a&;ykHESdyfwkduf ? 1986 /
613/ owd&SdwJh yk*¾Kdvfrsm; ? ig;ESpf&moDcgawmfrD r*¾Zif; ? (ppfukdif;awmif½kd;
0g;csufaus;&Gm ZD0dw'ge oHCmhaq;½kH) {NyD 1990 ? pm 83 - 87 /
614/ omoeme,fu yk*¾KdvfwOD; ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 11 (ZGef 1995)
pm 130 - 134 /
615/ ----- ? q&mBuD;OD;odef;atmif ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 12 (Zlvkdif
1995) pm 112 - 114 /
616/ ----- ? q&mBuD;OD;odef;atmif ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 6 ? rSwf 1 (Mo*kwf
1995) pm 134 - 137 /
617/ ----- ? q&mBuD;OD;aX;atmif ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 6 ? rSwf 2
(pufwifbm 1995) pm 132 - 137 /
618/ omoemjyK'ora&Tusifomoemykdif ? jrwfqkrGefbmoma&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ
156

1 ? rSwf 8 (ar 1989) pm 26 - 29 /
619/ omoemjyK'ora&Tusifomoemykdif (ajrmif;jrq&mawmfbk&m;BuD;) ?
jrwfqkrGefr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 1 ? rSwf 9 (ZGef 1989) pm 12 - 15 ? 22 /
620/ omoem&JUajrcHa&cHaumif; ? &wemrGefr*¾Zif; ? (Mo*kwf 1987) pm ¿
? "mwfykHrsm; /
621/ oDvwefckd; tusKd;ay;ayxifh ? jrwfqkrGefr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 10 ?
(ar 1990) pm 12 - 14/
622/ oufawmf&SnfylaZmfyGJ ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 1 (azazmf0g&D 1992)
pm 73 - 74 /
4 ? 10 / tEkynm
623/ BuKduf&wJhoDcsif;ESpfyk'f ? ra[oDr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 58 (Mo*kwf 1989) pm
81 - 84 /
624/ apwemay:atmif ? bufpkH ? rSwf 9 (1 ZGef 1988) pm 5 - 6 /
625/ Zmwfobif&JUa&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpf ? ½Ir0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 32 ? rSwf 376
(pufwifbm 1988)
626/ wdrfjrKyfaysmufuG,fawmhrnfhcspfpzG,f jrefrmh,Ofaus;rIuav;rsm; ?
vlxk*sme,f ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 37 (ar 1953) pm 8 - 10 /
627/ ygwdwfyef;csD ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 106 ('DZifbm 1994) pm 23 25 /
628/ ay:OD;oufyef;csDjyyGJ ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 99 ? (az+rwf 1994) pm
98 - 100 /
629/ ArmoHawGaysmufukefNyD ? pmayvkyfom;tiftm;opf ? rEÅav; ? vlxk157

BuD;yGm;a&; ? 1971 ? pm 133 - 149 /
630/ ArmhzefusDvkyfief; ? pE´mr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 20 (Ekd0ifbm 1970) pm 25 31 /
(631 eJY 632 aysmufoGm;jyefNyD)
633/ bk&m;BuD;u e&nf;oH ? [Hom0wDowif;pm ? 5 Ekd0ifbm 1975 ? pm
2/
634/ bkef;BuD;ysHeJY {,ifusL; ? obifr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 10 (Mo*kwf 1984) pm
77 - 80 /
635/ ----- ? obifr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 11 (pufwifbm 1984) pm 49 - 56 /
636/ ----- ? obifr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 12 (atmufwkdbm 1984) pm 93 - 96
/
637/ r[m*Dw&JUa&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpf ? ½Ir0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 35 ? rSwf 400
(Zlvkdif 1980) pm 57 - 64 /
638/ ----- | ½Ir0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 35 ? rSwf 401 (Mo*kwf 1980) pm 90 96 /
639/ ----- | ½Ir0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 35 ? rSwf 402 (pufwifbm 1980) pm
37 - 41 /
640/ ----- | ½Ir0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 35 ? rSwf 403 (atmufwkdbm 1980) pm
53 - 60 /
641/ ----- | ½Ir0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 35 ? rSwf 404 (Ekd0ifbm 1980) pm 53 60 /
642/ ----- | ½Ir0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 35 ? rSwf 405 ('DZifbm 1980) pm 79 84 /
643/ ----- | ½Ir0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 36 ? rSwf 424 (pufwifbm 1982) pm ¿
158

/
644/ ----- | ½Ir0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 36 ? rSwf 425 (atmufwkdbm 1982) pm
76 - 83 /
645/ ----- | ½Ir0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 36 ? rSwf 426 (Ekd0ifbm 1982) pm 126
- 130 /
646/ ----- | ½Ir0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 36 ? rSwf 427 ('DZifbm 1982) pm 141
- 146 /
647/ ----- | ½Ir0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 37 ? rSwf 429 (azazmf0g&D 1983) pm 76
- 83 /
648/ rEÅav;aAsm ? [Hom0wDowif;pm ? 14 'DZifbm 1976 ? pm 2 /
649/ rEÅav;tNidrfh ? rEÅav;aqmif;OD;yef;r*¾Zif; ? (Mo*kwf 1983) pm 37
- 41 /
650/ jrefrmhaq;a&;yef;csD&JU acwfOD; ? ½Ir0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 37 ? rSwf 441 ?
(azazmf0g&D 1984) pm 160 - 164 /
651/ ----- | ½Ir0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 37 ? rSwf 442 ? (rwf 1984) pm 68 73 /
652/ jrefrmhyef;ykaps;uGuf ? yefr*¾Zif; /
653/ jrefrmh½kyfpkHobifhaemifa&; ? obifr*¾Zif; ? ({NyD 1980) /
654/ jrefrmhobifa&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpf ? ½Ir0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 33 ? rSwf 353
(azazmf0g&D 1980)
655/ ----- | ½Ir0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 33 ? rSwf 395 ({NyD 1980)
656/ ,aeYArmhoDcsif;rsm; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 38 (ZGef 1953) pm 5 - 6
/
657/ a&Twav;umwGef;rsm;u orkdif;ukd ajymaeMuonf ? tkd;a0*sme,f ?
159

rSwf 18 ({NyD 1969) pm 20 - 22 ? 35 /
658/ a&T&wkusif;yr,fhNrKdUr ? [Hom0wDowif;pm ? 9 Ekd0ifbm 1975 ? pm
2/
659/ vltkdayr,fh ? ½kyf&SifrsufrSef / (azazmf0g&d 1986) pm 59 - 62 /
660/ vGrf;&wJhe&nf;oH ? [Hom0wDowif;pm ? 19 atmufwkdbm 1975 ?
pm 2 /
661/ oHpkHwD;0kdif;BuD; ? vkyfom;jynfolUowif;pm ? 23 Zefe0g&D 1978 ? pm
4/
662/ tapmqkH;umwGef; ? yefr*¾Zif; ? (Mo*kwf 1986) pm 41 - 44 /
663/ txrf;½kyfao; ? obifr*¾Zif; ? (Zefe0g&D 1985) pm 61 -64 /
664/ tESpf 100 MumwJhtcg ? obifr*¾Zif; ? (Ekd0ifbm 1983) pm 61 64 /
665/ trsKd;om;obifawG&JU uaeYtajc ? a&Ta'gif;awmifaqmif;yg;rsm; ?
rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? 1975 ? pm 116 - 147 /4 ? 11 / taxGaxG
667/ urÇmausmf[efa*&DabmhvkH;toif; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 52 (Mo*kwf
1954) pm 15 - 18 ? 36 /
668/ urÇmYtBuD;qkH;ausmufqif;wkawmf ? a&Ta'gif;awmifaqmif;yg;rsm; ?
rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ? 1975 ? pm 9 - 38 /
669/ ausmif;BuD;a&Ttifyif ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 7 ('DZifbm 1992)
pm 86 - 91 /
670/ uGrf; ? yef½kyfpkHr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 6 ? rSwf 1 (Mo*kwf 1988) pm 89 - 92 ?
121 /
671/ uRefb0 ? a&;ol jrwfxGef;atmif ? olwkdYacwfESifholwkdYtajym
160

olwkdYtawG;tac: ? &efukef ? wkdif;uif;pmay ? 19 - ¿ ? pm 71 /
672/ acwfESifhtajctae ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 9 (atmufwkdbm 1994)
pm 100 - 102 /
673/ cspfp&mhapwem ? &GufEka0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 1 ? Mo*kwf 1995 ?
pm 66 - 68 /
674/ csrf;oavref;ajru ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 2 (rwf 1993) pm 121
- 122 /
675/ *sif ? a&Ta'gif;awmifaqmif;yg;rsm; ? rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ?
1975 ? pm 71 - 108 /
676/ Nidrf;csrf;a&; ? a&;olarm&pfaumvpf ? bmomjyefol rtrm ?
BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 7 ? rSwf 3 (rwf 1939) pm 30 - 32 /
677/ pmqkduH ? a&;ol jrrÍÆL ? pmqkdawmfr*¾Zif; ? 1297 /
678/ qifBuD;awG-qifBuD;awG ? tawG;tjrif ? rSwf 52 (azazmf0g&D 1990
jynfh) pm 120 - 123 /
679/ qifyGJ ? a&Ta'gif;awmifaqmif;yg;rsm; ? rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ?
1975 ? pm 39 - 70 /
680/ qifjzL&Sifr ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 19 (Ekd0ifbm 1951) pm 24 - 26 /
681/ aqmif;t0if ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 1 ? (azazmf0g&D 1995) pm
162 - 163 /
682/ ZGefyef;&moD ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 20 (Mo*kwf 1986) pm 57 -59
/
683/ u/ xkd;uGif;rSifaMumif ? t&mawmfNrKdUe,fr*¾Zif; ? (azazmf0g&D 1993)
pm 24 - 26 /
684/ e*g; ? yefr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 6 ? rSwf 6 (ZGef 1988) pm 89 - 92 /
161

685/ ae½l;\axmifwGif;rS orD;xHay;pmrsm; ? pmeHygwf 1 / a&;ol ae½l; ?
bmomjyefol cifv0if; ? BuD;yGm;a&; r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 9 (ZGef 1936)
pm 7 /
686/ ----- ? pmeHygwf (2) / a&;ol ae½l; ? bmomjyefol cifv0if; ?
BuD;yGm;a&; r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 10 (Zlvkdif 1936) pm 20 - 21 /
687/ ----- ? pmeHygwf (3) / a&;ol ae½l; ? bmomjyefol cifv0if; ?
BuD;yGm;a&; r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 11 (pufwifbm 1936) pm 35 - 36 /
688/ ----- ? pmeHygwf (4 ? 5) / a&;ol ae½l; ? bmomjyefol cifv0if; ?
BuD;yGm;a&; r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 12 (atmufwkdbm 1936) pm 27 - 28 /
689/ ----- ? pmeHygwf (6) / a&;ol ae½l; ? bmomjyefol cifv0if; ?
BuD;yGm;a&; r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 1 (Ekd0ifbm 1936) pm 15 /
690/ ----- ? pmeHygwf (7+8+9+10) / a&;ol ae½l; ? bmomjyefol
cifv0if; ? BuD;yGm;a&; r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 3 (Zefe0g&D 1937) pm 24 25 /
691/ ----- ? pmeHygwf (11?12?13) / a&;ol ae½l; ? bmomjyefol
cifv0if; ? BuD;yGm;a&; r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf (ar 1937) pm 25 - 26 /
692/ ----- ? pmeHygwf 14 ? 15 / a&;ol ae½l; ? bmomjyefol cifv0if; ?
BuD;yGm;a&; r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 8 (Zlvkdif 1937) pm 14 - 15 /
693/ ----- ? pmeHygwf 16 / a&;ol ae½l; ? bmomjyefol cifv0if; ?
BuD;yGm;a&; r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 10 (pufwifbm 1937) pm 17 - 20 /
694/ ----- ? pmeHygwf 17 / a&;ol ae½l; ? bmomjyefol cifv0if; ?
BuD;yGm;a&; r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 11 (atmufwkdbm 1937) pm 20 - 23 /
695/ ----- ? pmeHygwf 18 / a&;ol ae½l; ? bmomjyefol cifv0if; ?
BuD;yGm;a&; r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 12 (Ekd0ifbm 1937) pm 10 - 12 /
162

696/ ----- ? pmeHygwf 19 / a&;ol ae½l; ? bmomjyefol cifv0if; ?
BuD;yGm;a&; r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 6 ? rSwf 4 (rwf 1938) pm 14 - 15 /
697/ ----- ? pmeHygwf 20 / a&;ol ae½l; ? bmomjyefol cifv0if; ?
BuD;yGm;a&; r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 6 ? rSwf 5 ({NyD 1938) pm 21 - 22 /
698/ ----- ? pmeHygwf 21 / a&;ol ae½l; ? bmomjyefol cifv0if; ?
BuD;yGm;a&; r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 6 ? rSwf 9 (ar 1938) pm 9 /
699/ ESpfw&myGJ ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 11 ('DZifbm 1992) pm 115 116 /
700/ 'DxufESajrmp&m r&Sdawmhyg ? [Hom0wDowif;pm (13 Zlvkdif 1975)
pm 2 /
701/ 'DESpfoBuFef ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 5 ? (ZGef 1993) pm 121 - 123
/
702/ EkdifiHjcm;u pm ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 37 ? (Zefe0g&D 1987) pm 39 40 /
703/ yxrtBudrfvkyfwJhyGJ ? yefr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 6 ? rSwf 2 (azazmf0g&D 1988)
704/ ygawmfrl ? vkyfom;jynfolUaeYpOf ? 21 atmufwkdbm 1977 ? pm 4 /
705/ ykd;vkHcsnf ? rEÅav; ? 0dZÆmESifhodyÜHwuúokdvf ESpfvnfr*¾Zif; ? (196869) pm 357 - 370 /
706/ ----- ? pE´mr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 8 (Ekd0ifbm 1969) pm 39 - 46 /
----- ? a&Ta'gif;awmifaqmif;yg;rsm; ? rEÅav; ? vlxk-BuD;yGm;a&; ?
1975 /
707/ azazjzL;xH ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 10 (Zlvkdif 1936) pm
17 /
708/ AD,uferfrSjrifuGif;wck ? e,fcsJUomoemjyKrif; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf
163

34 (Zefe0g&D 1953) pm 5 - 6 ? 10 /
709/ aA'g ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 1 ? rSwf 6 (Zlvkdif 1991) pm 50 - 53 /
710/ ab;eD;wm ta&;BuD;ygNyD ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 10 (Ekd0ifbm
1995) pm 89 - 90 /
711/ raumif;&ify,f aumif;&ifwG,f ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 2 (rwf
1994) pm 103 - 104 /
712/ rESif;qDrD;&xm;uav; ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 18 (ZGef 1986) pm 54
- 56 /
713/ rav;rSjrifuGif;wck (1) ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 19 (Mo*kwf 1950) pm
54 - 56 /
714/ ----- (2) ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 20 (1950)
715/ ----- (3) ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 29 (ar 1952)
716/ ----- (4) ? aMu;pm; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 28 (Mo*kwf 1952) pm 5
? 31 - 32 /
717/ ----- (5) ? olykef ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 29 ? (pufwifbm 1952)
718/ ----- (6) ? e,fcsJU'Pf ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 30 (atmufwkdbm
1952)
719/ rD;qkd&if &ifav;rd ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 6 (Zl 1993) pm 137 138 /
720/ rkd;*sme,f&JUtvSL ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 4 (ar 1994) pm 97 98 /
721/ rEÅav;utdrfawmf&mxD; ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 47 (atmufwkdbm
1989) pm 88 - 93 /
722/ rEÅav;"mwf&xm; ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 19 (Zlvkdif 1986) pm 45
164

- 47 /
723/ rEÅav;0gqkdjrifuGif; ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 8 (puf 1993) pm
161 - 162 /
724/ rEÅav;tdrfawmf&mrdausmif;wHwm; ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 49 ?
('DZifbm 1989) pm 46 - 49 /
725/ NrKdUcspfwJhom;ayrkdY ? cs,f&Dr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 45 ({NyD 1988) pm 113 115 /
726/ jrefrmpum; ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? trSwf 31 (Zlvkdif 1987) pm 41 - 43
/
727/ jrefrmhtm;upm; (vufa0SYukdcspftkef;) ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 7
(azazmf0g&D 1995) pm 30 - 33 /
728/ ----- ? (vufa0SYukdcspftkef;) ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 8 (rwf
1995) pm 88 - 91 /
729/ ----- ? (vufa0SYukdcspftkef;) ? "er*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 9 ({NyD
1995) pm 94 - 98 /
730/ &efukefeJYrEÅav; ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 3 ({NyD 1993) pm 147 149 /
731/ ½kyfxkzGifhyGJwkef;u ajymMum;wJhpum; ? pmay*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 3
(Ekd0ifbm 1994) pm 41 - 44 /
732/ a&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpf ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 3 ({NyD 1992) pm 78
- 79 /
733/ 0g0ifawmhr,f ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 7 (Mo*kwf 1993) pm 137 138 /
734/ vlBuD;awGu0kdif;NyD; xdef;MuygOD;pkdY ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 10
165

(Ekd0ifbm 1994) pm 138 - 140 /
735/ vlESifh vlUtokduftNrKH ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 2 (rwfv 1995) pm
99 - 101 /
736/ vdyfjymoefY&JUvm; ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 6 (Zlvkdif 1994) pm 137
- 138 /
737/ ordkif;&SdwJha&OD; ? a&OD;r*¾Zif; ? ar 1992 ? pm 28 - 29 /
738/ om;wkdY½kyf&nf ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 53 (pufwifbm 1954) pm 20 21 ? 29 - 30 /
739/ odcsifpdwf ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 3 ({NyD 1994) pm 113 - 115 /
740/ tcsdef&Sdao;orQ ? rkd;*sme,f ? wGJ 4 ? rSwf 7 (Mo*kwf 1994) pm 145
- 147 /
741/ tapmfum;cHae&onfh ynm&yf ? vlxkowif;pm ? (29 pufwifbm
1952) pm 3
742/ tESpf 5000 cefYu ausmufoabFm ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 51 (Zlvkdif
1954) pm 33 - 34 /
743/ taraeaumif;&JUvm; ? pmay*sme,f ? wGJ 3 ? rSwf 3 (Ekd0ifbm 1995)
pm 22 -24 /
744/ tarha&S;pum; (aumf&if*sD) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 108 (azazmf0g&D
1994) pm 21 - 22 /
745/ tarha&S;pum; (0HomEkacwf) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 109 (rwf 1994)
pm 39 - 41 /
746/ tarha&S;pum; (qif;&Jom;eJYavmif;upm;) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 110
({NyD 1994) pm 27 - 28 /
747/ tarha&S;pum; (rEÅav;o&uf) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 111 (ar
166

1994) pm 28 - 31 /
748/ tarha&S;pum; (rrav;wkdYxbD) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 112 (ZGef
1994) pm 27 - 28 /
749/ tarha&S;pum; (aps;oGm;ig;0,fudpö) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 113 (Zl
1994) pm 27 - 28 /
750/ tarha&S;pum; (rEÅav;ig;ydcsuf) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 114 (Mo
1994) pm 29 - 30 /
751/ tarha&S;pum; (jrefrmeJYabmvkH;yGJ) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 115 (puf
1994) pm 27 - 29 /
752/ tarha&S;pum; (qif;&Jom;eJYyJjyKwf) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 116
(atmufwkdbm 1994) pm 25 - 26 /
753/ tarha&S;pum; (yxrqkH;pmtkyf) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 117 (Ekd
1994) pm 33 - 35 /
754/ tarha&S;pum; (pef;xaewJharmifausmufvkH;&JUjcaoFhBuD; 2pD;) ?
uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 118 ('D 1994) pm 29 - 31 /
755/ tarha&S;pum; (tarhacwfpum;) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 119 (Zef
1995) pm 34 - 35 /
756/ tarha&S;pum; (oDcsif;-oDcsif;-oDcsif;) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 120
(az 1995) pm 27 - 28 /
757/ tarha&S;pum; (rdef;rwkdY£a`E´) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 121 (rwf
1995) pm 26 - 28 /
758/ tarha&S;pum; ('kdifcGufacwfomqkd&ftcuf) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf
122 ({NyD 1995) pm 23 - 24 /
759/ tarha&S;pum; (½kyf&Sifpdef&wk) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 123 (ar 1995)
167

pm 33 - 34 /
760/ tarha&S;pum; rEÅav;oBuFef (1) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 124 (ZGef
1995)
761/ ----- ? rEÅav;oBuFef (2) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 125 (Zlvkdif
1995) pm 23 - 26 /
762/ ----- ? rEÅav;oBuFef (3) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 126 (Mo*kwf
1995)
763/ tarha&S;pum; (orD;rdef;uav;tzkdYtvkyf) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 127
(pufwifbm 1995) pm 29 - 30 /
764/ tarha&S;pum; ? tarwkdYvlUtaqmufttkH (1) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf
128 (atmufwkdbm 1995)
765/ ----- ? tarwkdYvlUtaqmufttkH (2) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 129
(Ekd0ifbm 1995) pm 24 - 25 /
767/ u/ ta0;a&mufom;orD;rsm; ? ½kd;r&dyf ? jzL;NrKdUe,fr*¾Zif; ? 1994 ?
pm 22 - 23 /
768/ t*Fvdyftpnf;t½kH; ? a&;ol arm&pfaumvpf ? bmomjyefol rtrm ?
BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 6 ? rSwf 11 (atmufwkdbm 1938) pm 9 - 10 /
769/ tdrfawmf&mbk&m;eJYqifBuD;vSLoGm;wJhwHwm; ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf
48 (Ekd0ifbm 1989) pm 17 - 20 ? 102 /

168

5/ 0w¦Kwkd
5 ? 1 / yifukd,fa&;
770/ aus;Zl;&Sif ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 34 (azazmf0g&D 1953) pm 29 -31 ?
34 /
771/ cspfrdwfaqG ? a&;ol trm ? rEÅav;OypmaumvdyfESpfvnfpmapmif ?
wGJ 9 ? rSwf 1 (1936-37) pm 57 - 58 /
772/ cspfolukd,fhrdef;r ? a&;oljrrÍÆL ? tkd;a0ESpfvnfpmapmif ? wGJ 6 ? rSwf
1 (1940) pm 52 - 53 /
773/ pmqkduH ? a&;oljrrÍÆL ? pmqkdawmf ? twGJ 1 ? rSwf 2 ? (Zefe0g&D
1936) pm 80 - 83 /
774/ apwem ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 6 ? rSwf 5 ({NyD 1938) pm 7 - 9 /
775/ q&mrykHjyifOykofonf ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 7 ? rSwf 7 (Zlvkdif
1939) pm 63 - 66 /
776/ w&m;½kH;awmf ? a&;oljrrÍÆL ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 7 ? rSwf 6 (ZGef
1939) pm 27 - 28 /
777/ wkdYarmifr,f ? a&;ol jrrÍÆL ? wuúokdvfausmif;wkdufESpfvnfr*¾Zif; ?
wGJ 28 ? rSwf 1 (rwf 1937) pm 57 - 58 /
778/ xm0& ? a&;ol jrrÍÆL ? *EÅavmu ? wGJ 23 ? rSwf 140 ?
(pufwifbm 1936)
----- ? aMu;rkHr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 1 ? rSwf 3 (Ekd0ifbm 1951) pm 192 - 201 /
----- ? aiGwm&Dr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 19 (pufwifbm 1960) pm 33 - 39 /
779/ a'go ? a&;oljrrÍÆL ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 10
169

(atmufwkdbm 1937) pm 9 - 12 /
780/ ykwD;ESpfoG,f ? a&;ol jrrÍÆL ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 8 ? rSwf 7
(Zlvkdif 1940) pm 32 - 36 /
781/ ajymufMum;wyfom; ? a&;ol jrrÍÆL ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 12 ({NyD
1950) pm 37 - 42 /
782/ rxGufao;aomtajz ? a&;ol jrrÍÆL ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 10
(azazmf0g&D 1951) pm 17 - 18 /
783/ ----- (2) ? a&;ol jrrÍÆL ? rSwf 22 (rwf 1951) pm 20 - 22 /
784/ arwåm ? a&;ol jrrÍÆL ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 8 ? rSwf 6 (ZGef
1940) pm 39 - 42 /
785/ &ifNidrf;ppf ? a&;ol jrrÍÆL ? tkd;a0r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 9 ? rSwf 3 (Zlvkdif
1950) pm 22 /
786/ &ifaoG; ? a&;ol jrrÍÆL ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 6 ? rSwf 11
(pufwifbm 1937) pm 24 - 27 /
787/ &efNiKd; ? a&;ol jrrÍÆL ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 6 ? rSwf 8 (Zlvkdif
1938) pm 13 - 17 /
788/ vufzufajcmuf ? a&;ol jrrÍÆL ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 7 ? rSwf 4
({NyD 1935) pm 27 - 28 /
789/ olUypönf; ? a&;ol jrrÍÆL ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 9 ? rSwf 2 (rwf
1941) pm 50 - 52 /
790/ orD;oHa,mZOf ? a&;ol jrrÍÆL ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 5 ? rSwf 10
(pufwifbm 1935) pm 13 - 14 /
791/ oHawGcJ ? a&;ol jrrÍÆL ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 7 ? rSwf 2
(azazmf0g&D 1939) pm 21 - 24 /
170

792/ t&Sifvwfvwf aoG;pkyfcH&jcif; ? a&;ol jrrÍÆL ? pmtjrKaw ? rEÅav;
? 1963 ? pm 65 - 70 /
793/ tavmif;tpm; ? a&;ol jrrÍÆL ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 6 ? rSwf 12
(Ekd0ifbm 1938) pm 15 - 17 /
794/ atmifoG,fykqkd; ? a&;ol jrrÍÆL ?
wuúokdvfausmif;wkdufESpfvnfr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 26 ? rSwf 2 (rwf 1935) pm 93
/
----- ? *EÅavmu ? wGJ 22 ? rSwf 138 (Zlvkdif 1936) pm 102 - 103 /
5 ? 2 / bmomjyef
«w½kwf0w¦Kwkd»
795/ pyg;ESHESpfcuf ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 8 (Mo*kwf 1985) pm 137 141 /
796/ pyful;rwful; ? bmomjyefol a':trm ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 32 ({NyD
1950) pm 15 - 16 /
797/ xrf;ykd; ? rdw¦DvmaumvdyfESpfvnfr*¾Zif; ? 1983-84 /
798/ wbl;½kd;if; ? bmomjyefol a':trm ? vlxk*sme,f ? wGJ 1 ? rSwf 3
(pufwifbm 1950) pm 19 - 20 ? 29 - 32 /
799/ w½kwfjynf\ om;aumif;orD;aumif;rsm; ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 21
(Zefe0g&D 1952) pm 5 - 6 ? 30 /
800/ 'ku©dwtkd; wm½kd; ? rdw¦DvmaumvdyfESpfvnfr*¾Zif; ? 1981 - 82 /
801/ ESrtaxG;pl ? bmomjyefol a':trm ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? ({NyD
1940) pm 45 - 50 /
171

----- | ½Ir0 ? wGJ 13 ? rSwf 150 (rwf 1960) /
802/ EIwfrqufcsif ? bmomjyefol a':trm ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 19
(azazmf0g&D 1951) /
803/ abmif;bDeD ? bmomjyefol a':trm ? vlxk*sme,f ? wGJ 1 ? rSwf 2
(3 Mo*kwf 1950) pm 11 - 14 ? 16 /
804/ rkqkd;r ? bmomjyefol jrrÍÆL ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 8 ? rSwf 3 ?
(pufwifbm 1940)
805/ &xm;vkduft&m&Sd ? bmomjyefol vlxka':trm ? rEÅav;
rD;&xm;pmMunfhtoif; ? tjrifopfr*¾Zif; ? (Zefe0g&D 1995) pm 48 - 55
/
806/ vlESifha~uG; ? bmomjyefol a':trm ? vlxk*sme,f ? wGJ 1 ? rSwf 1
(Mo*kwf 1950) pm 15 -16 ? 33 ? 36 /
807/ vlxkppf ? bmomjyefol a':trm ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 13 (ar
1951) pm 20 - 22 /
808/ avwcsufa0SU&ifjzifh ? bmomjyefol a':trm ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf
10 (ZGef 1951) pm 22 - 24 /
809/ OD;av;ESifhEGm;r ? bmomjyefol a':trm ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 8
('DZifbm 1950) pm 8 - 9 ? 37 - 38 /
810/ tdyf&m0ifykHjyif ? obifr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 25 (Ekd0ifbm 1985) pm ¿ /
811/ tdrfurdef;r ? a&eHacsmif;aumvdyfESpfvnfr*¾Zif; ? 1983-84 /
«xkdif;0w¦Kwkd»
812/ uRJacs;wykH ? om&r*¾Zif; ? rSwf 10 ('DZifbm 1988) pm 68 - 72 /
813/ acsmif;½kd;xJ va&mifxkd;awmh ? &ifckefyGifhr*¾Zif; ? trSwf 12
172

(pufwifbm 1987) pm 16 - 21 /
814/ pmcsKyf ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 60 (Ekd0ifbm 1990) pm 112 - 117 /
815/ pufqkyfemMunf;rI ? om&r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 2 ({NyD 1989) ? pm
58 - 61 /
816/ wrvGefyGJpm;rsm; ? om&r*¾Zif; ? (Ekd0ifbm 1988) pm 42 - 48 /
817/ awmausmif;q&m&JU okc ? om&r*¾Zif; ? (Zefe0g&D 1988) pm 43 48 /
818/ wvSnfhwywf ? om&r*¾Zif; ? rSwf 3 (rwf 1988) pm 5 - 10 /
819/ yif ? vkHrav;r*¾Zif; ? rSwf 10 (atmufwkdbm 1985) pm 129 133 /
820/ yÍÆavmif;vufu Mumyef; ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 6 (ZGef 1985) pm
132 - 136 /
821/ yef;a&mifaq;jym;uav; 2 jym; ? om&r*¾Zif; (ZGef 1988) pm 132 136 /
822/ b,foltokH;vkdovJ ? om&r*¾Zif; ? rSwf 4 ({NyD 1988) pm 87 90 /
823/ rdawm ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 57 (Mo*kwf 1990) pm 138 - 150 /
824/ rDcsD*efpmar;yGJwJhAsm; ? om&r*¾Zif; ? (ar 1988) pm 18 - 24 /
825/ rD;eJYESvkH;om; ? om&r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 3 (ar 1989) pm 31 - 34
/
826/ rsKd; ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 68 (Mo*kwf 1991) pm 92 - 95 /
827/ ,mOfwkdufrI ? om&r*¾Zif; ? (Mo*kwf 1988) pm 77 - 79 /
828/ a&ewforD;yGJ? axmifuJBuD;eJYacG;waumif ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? ({NyD
1992) pm 112 - 118 /
173

829/ &Gmawmf&Sif ? om&r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 1 (Zef 1989) pm 133 - 136
/
830/ txufvTmu r*FvmyGJ ? om&r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 2 ? rSwf 4 (Zlvkdif 1989)
pm 74 - 81 /
831/ tazray:wJhuav; ? om&r*¾Zif; ? (Zlvkdif 1988) pm 18 - 28 /
832/ atmif ? om&r*¾Zif; ? rSwf 2 (azazmf0g&D 1988) pm 61 - 65 /
«b*FgvD0w¦Kwkd»
833/ pma&;q&mBuD; &rfwm&rf*sufwm&D (b*FgvD) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf
65 (Zlvkdif 1990) pm 28 - 36 /
834/ bk&ifrif;w&m; ? csnfrQifESifhtxnfpuf½kH ppfukdif; ?
oufomacsmifcsda&;tzGJU 10 ESpfajrmuf txdrf;trSwf r*¾Zif; ? 1983 /
«½k&S0w¦Kwkd»
835/ e,fjcm;apmifhwyfom; ? bmomjyefol a':trm ? vlxk*sme,f ? wGJ 1
? rSwf 4 ( 3 pufwifbm 1950) pm 19 - 20 ? 30 ? 43 - 44 /
e,fjcm;apmifhwyfom; ? vlxk*sme,f ? wGJ 1 ? rSwf 5 ( 1 atmufwkdbm
1950) pm 15 ? 33 - 36 ? 41 - 42 /
836/ vufaumufBuD; ? a&T0wfrIHr*¾Zif; ? (azazmf0g&D 1992) 102 - 105 /
----- (2) ? a&T0wfrIHr*¾Zif; ? (rwf 1992) pm 19 - 21 /
----- (3) ? a&T0wfrIHr*¾Zif; ? ({NyD 1992) pm 19 - 21 /
837/ 0wå&m; ? bmomjyefol a':trm ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 7 ? rSwf 5
(ar 1939) pm 19 /

174

«avm0w¦Kwkd»
838/ uRefaemfhpmwapmif ? bmomjyefol zkd;omatmif ?½Ia'gifh*sme,f ? rSwf
51 (4 ar 1971) pm 33 /
----- ? bmomjyefol zkd;omatmif ?½Ia'gifh*sme,f ? rSwf 51 (15 ar
1971) /
839/ *vJhpm; ? bmomjyefol a':trm ? &eHYopfr*¾Zif; ? trSwf 6 ? 1989 ?
pm 50 - 53 /
840/ aiGom;'*Fg;jym; 100 wJhAsm; ? bmomjyefol zkd;omatmif ?
½Iaxmifh*sme,f ? rSwf 56 (15 Zlvkdif 1971) pm 33 - 34 /
----- ? bmomjyefol zkd;omatmif ?½Ia'gifh*sme,f ? rSwf 57 (1 Mo*kwf
1971) pm 32 - 35 /
841/ rkd;awGu&Gm ? bmomjyefol zkd;omatmif ?½Ia'gifh*sme,f ? rSwf 49
({NyD 1971) pm 16 - 17 /
----- ? bmomjyefol zkd;omatmif ?½Ia'gifh*sme,f ? rSwf 50 (15 {NyD
1971) pm 36 - 42 /
842/ rdef;uav;\atmifyGJ ? bmomjyefol zkd;omatmif ?½Ia'gifh*sme,f ?
rSwf 58 (15 Mo*kwf 1971) pm 25 /
----- ? bmomjyefol zkd;omatmif ?½Ia'gifh*sme,f ? rSwf 59 (1 puf
1971) pm 30 - 34 /
843/ om;tza0pk ? bmomjyefol zkd;omatmif ?½Ia'gifh*sme,f ? rSwf 55 (1
Zlvkdif 1971) pm 30 - 32 /
844/ aoewfvG,fwJhausmif;q&m ? bmomjyefol zkd;omatmif
?½Ia'gifh*sme,f ? rSwf 53 (1 ZGef 1971) pm 30 - 34/
175

----- ? bmomjyefol zkd;omatmif ?½Ia'gifh*sme,f ? rSwf 54 (15 ZGef
1971) pm 29 - 34 /
«[if'D0w¦Kwkd»
845/ qkawmif;jynfh ? jr0ef;{&mr*¾Zif; ? (ZGef 1987) pm 126 - 131 /
846/ blwmpBuFefay:rSm ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 76 (ZGef 1991) pm 64 68 /
847/ abmhpf~uGvmwJhxrif;pm;yGJ ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 54 (Mo*kwf 1989)
pm 56 - 61 /
848/ jrif;&xm;orm;rkd[mruf ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? (Mo*kwf 191) ? pm 77 81 /
849/ toGifrwl ? uif;wm;r*¾Zif; ? 1984 ? pm 150 - 156 ? 160 - 162
/
«tjcm;bmomjyef0w¦Kwkd»
851/ urÇmopfqDokdY ? a&;ol *sD&Da0gvwm ? bmomjyefol a':trm ?
vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 27 ? (Zlvkdif 1952) pm 17 - 20 ? 32 - 34 /
852/ usKyfwkdYpydef (pydef0w¦K) bmomjyefol a':trm ? vlxk*sme,f ?
(Zefe0g&D 1959) pm 23 - 30 ? 36 /
853/ uRefawmfum;armif;vkdifpif,lcJhpOfu bmomjyefol a':trm ?
vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 52 (Mo*kwf 1954) pm 27 - 34 /
854/ ig;&HUESpfaumif ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 4 ({NyD 1985) pm 32 - 36 ?
91 - 92 /
176

855/ qmwDukef; ? awmifwGif;a&Tjynfr*¾Zif; ? 1984 ? pm 44 -47 /
856/ aemifw ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 62 ({NyD 1990) pm 40 - 44 /
857/ awmolr (csuf0w¦K) bmomjyefol a':trm ? vlxk*sme,f ? rSwf 22
(azazmf0g&D 1952) pm 23 - 24 ? 30 - 31 /
858/ yuf&S0gNrKdUpm;uav; ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 72 (azazmf0g&D 1991)
pm 88 - 92 /
859/ jyefvnfqkHawGUMu&m0,f (rav;&Sm;0w¦K) ? ra[oDr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 102
? ({NyD 1993) pm 154 - 159 /
861/ rrNrKdUol ? pHy,fjzLr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 2 (azazmf0g&D 1985) pm 75 - 81 /
862/ a`rGeJYavSum; ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 60 (azazmf0g&D 1990) pm 86 90 /
863/ arG;aeYvufaqmif (a[mfvef) bmomjyefol jrrÍÆL ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif;
? wGJ 7 ? rSwf 1 (Zefe0g&D 1939) pm 20 - 24 /
864/ &efolawmf ? bmomjyefol jrrÍÆL ? BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif; ? wGJ 8 ? rSwf
10 (atmufwkdbm 1940) ? pm 70 - 76 /
865/ a&TusnfqH ? bmomjyefol a':trm ? ya'om½kyfpkHr*¾Zif; ? wGJ 1 ?
rSwf 9 (atmufwkdbm 1948) pm 14 -18 /
866/ vleJYig; (tmoH) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 83 (Zefe0g&D 1992) pm 48 /
867/ vlom;pm; ? bmomjyefol a':trm ?
rEÅav;wuúokdvfESpfvnfr*¾Zif; ? 'DZifbm 1956 ? pm 14 - 16 /
868/ vif;,kefwkdYwkdif;jynf ? a&T0wfrIefr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 12 (azazmf0g&D 1991)
? pm 49 - 52 /
869/ olUtu (b*Fvm;'uf&Sf) ? uvsmr*¾Zif;? rSwf 89 (Zefe0g&D 1993)
177

pm 100 - 106 /
870/ tacGcH&ol uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 93 ({NyD 1993) pm 82 - 88 /
871/ tjrifopf ? bmomjyefol vlxka':trm ? a&Trif;*Hr*¾Zif;
(ykodrfBuD;NrKdUe,f pmayESifh pme,fZif;) ? (Ekd0ifbm 1994) pm 138 - 148 /
872/ tolw&macsmuf (awv*l) ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? (atmufwkdbm 1989)
pm 95 - 98 /
873/ tonf;ESvkH;xJu ajymwJhpum; (*l*sm&wD 0w¦K) ? a&T0wf&nfr*¾Zif; ?
(Mo*kwf 1991) pm 52 - 54 /
874/ tdrfrSmr*Fvmaqmifvkyfwkef;u ? uvsmr*¾Zif; ? rSwf 57 (Ekd0ifbm
1989) pm 81 - 87 /
6/ pmtrnftñTef;

pmtrnfeJY ,SOfwGJazmfjyxm;wJh *Pef;awG[m pmpkpm&if; trSwfpOfukd
ñTef;ygw,f/
(u)
uav;i,feJYvlUavmu 509
uav;b0 oDv&Sif0wfcJhwkef;u 488
uav;rsm;tzkdY pmaywJh 265
uav;taz&SmykHawmf 538
urmau;u a&vkyfom; 211
aumvif;rD;avmifajru b0wkdufyGJ 510
aumvdyfausmif;olb0 489
178

aumvdyfausmif;olb0 491
ukdnKdjr 331
ukd0if;OD; 398 (u)
uuf&SfrD;ukd rD;wif½IdUí tvpfokwfMurnfholrsm; 539
uifr&Gef;ppfwyfrS ppfAkdvfuav; 666
urÇmausmf axmifrif;om;BuD; ae½l; 376
urÇmausmf[efa*&DabmhvkH;toif; 667
urÇmausmf tDwmvsHpma&;q&m tDwmvkdumvfADEkd 377
urÇmppf? a'oppf? jynfwGif;ppf 540
urÇmESifh vufcsif;qufí 542
urÇmopfqDokdY 851
urÇmYuav;oli,frsm;ukd umuG,fMuyg 543
urÇmYNidrf;csrf;a&; 541
urÇmYNidrf;csrf;a&;aumifpD OuúX - usL&D 451
urÇmYvli,f - Armvli,f 544
urÇmYtBuD;qkH;ausmufqif;wkawmf 668
urÇmYtBuD;qkH;pmtkyf 1
urÇmYtBuD;qkH;pmtkyf 266
urÇmYtEkynmonfBuD; csmvDcsufyvif 399
urÇmYtvkyform;tzGJUcsKyf 545 - 546
usaemfhpmwapmif 838
usm;bNidrf;okdYpma~uG; 452
aus;Zl;rsm;vSwJhtvSL 585
aus;Zl;&Sif 770
179

aus;vufvli,frsm; awGUqkHESD;aESmyGJobif 511
ausmufpm0efa[mif;OD;jr 341
ausmufxkd;q&mukd aiG 2d ay;&wJhacwf 482
ausmufonf urÇmemavm? uRefemavm 547
ausmif;BuD;a&Ttifyif 669
ausmif;aezufoli,fcsif; 485
ausmif;om;b0 477
usKyfwkdYpydef 852
Mumayr,fh rarhEkdifMuyg 512
aMumfjim 332
BuKduf&wJhoDcsif;ESpfyk'f 623
BuKHawmifhBuKHcJ ylaZmfyGJ 586
uGefjrLepfw½kwfjynftiftm;NyKdifyGJ 27 - 28
uGrf; 670
uG,fvGef&Smol aumvdyfpdef a':jrvGif 400
uRJacs;wykH 812
uRefawmfum;armif;vkdifpif,lcJhpOfu 853
uREkfyfwkdYtm&S 548
uRefb0 671
uRefrqkHcJhonfh 36ck ta&;awmfykH 492
uRefrwkdYu rif;orD;av 493
uRefrwkdYi,fi,fu 2
uRefrwkdYq&mBuD;eJYvufa0SYtm;upm; 453
uRefrwkdYq&m q&ma&Tjynf 354
180

uRefrwkdYodwJh OD;aombdw 357 - 367
uRefrjrifawGUcJh&aom uav;rsm;tzkdY pmtkyfxkwfa0&mXme 212
(c)
acgif;quftNrD;qufESpfyGJ 513
acwfumv&JUawmif;qkdcsuf 587
acwfESifhtajctae 672
csmvDcsufyvifBuD; qkH;&SmNyD 402
csJxD csKdif;xD? &Srf;xD 514
csufrS opömazmufrIBuD; 550
csif;wGif;rS yifv,fodkY 3
acsmif;½kd;xJ va&mifxkd;awmh 813
cspfp&mhapwem 673
cspfrdwfaqG 771
cspfolukd,fhrdef;r 772
csrf;oavref;ajru 674
7 ESpfMum tD&ef tD&wfppfyGJ 549
(8)
*vJhpm; 839
*EÅ0ifrSm &Sm;r,fhpmtkyf 267
*syefwkdY&JUaqmifMumNrKdifowif; 551
*sif 675
*sKHESifhppfom; 35
181

(i)
ig;&HUESpfaumif 854
i,fi,fwkef;utjrif 481
i,foli,fcsif;pma&;q&mr rmvm 337
Nidrf;csrf;a&; 676
Nidrf;csrf;a&;okdY 25
Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf urf;vSrf;csuf 552
aiGESifhvufeuf 24
aiGom;'*Fg;jym; 100 wJhAsm; 840
iSufaysmyifpkduf rdvkdufzyg 472
(p)
pyg;ESHESpfcuf 795
pavOD;ykn 336
pmcsKyf 814
pmqkduH 677
pmqkduH 773
pmayc&D;tp uRefrb0 494
pmayynm&Sif bBuD;jr 342
pmrlctvSL 495
pmrSefatmifa&;MupkdY 268
pma&;Muw,fqkdwm 269
pma&;q&mBuD;rsm;&JUZeD;ESpfa,muf 378
182

pma&;q&mBuD; &rfwm&rf*sufwm&D 833
pma&;q&mr {nfhonf 379
pma&;q&m a&Tref;wifarmif 403 - 415
pma&;q&m owif;pmq&m vlxkOD;vS 370
pmtkyfqkdifu vl0ifvlxGuf 270 - 295
apwem 774
apwemay:atmif 624
pkd&mrSpdrf; 588
pufqkyfemMunf;rI 815
ppfqkdwm 553
pE´rmvm 20 - 21
pdefaA'gBuD;&JU&mjynfhyGJ 417
pdefaA'g&JUESpfpOftvSL 416
pdef&wkobif usif;yrnfh rvGefqefvSLtoif;BuD; 589
pyful;rwful; 796
(q)
q&mBuD;ajymjywJha&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpfrsm; 345
q&mBuD;bmx&ef&yfqJ 380 - 382
q&mBuD; jrrsKd;vGif 343
q&mBuD;a&TOa'gif;&mjynfhyGJ 368
q&mBuD;a&TOa'gif;&JU&Gmrefusnf;wkH 369
q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif; 4
q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;&JUpmaya0zefa&; 346
183

q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;&JU rkHa&G;aMu;rkH 347
q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif; okdYr[kwf Nidrf;csrf;a&;AkdvfcsKyfBuD; 348
q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;\BuKd;yrf;rI 349
q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;\tdyfruf 350
q&mBuD; OD;okcarG;aeY 373
q&mawmfOD;uvsmP\ ,kHMunfcsuf 590
q&mwkdYb0 - 515
q&mrykHjyif 775
q&mjrrsKd;vGif&JUb0ed*kH; 344
q&mokc OD;aygif;usm;ESifh jrif;usm;&Sif 374
qmwDukef; 855
qkawmif;jynfh 845
aq;vdyfeJYvlom; 6
qkd&S,fvpfwdkif;jynfrsm;okdY 5
qkd&S,fvpfa&;eJY ao&nfao&uf 516
qifBuD;awG-qifBuD;awG 678
qifyGJ 679
qifjzL&Sif 680
aqmif;t0if 681
qkdif;NyKdifwD;&mrSm q&mpdefaA'gr½IrvS½IH;wJhyGJ 418
qef OD;bkd; 389
q,fhESpfBuKd; 0w¦Kwkdrsm; 41 (u)
12 yGJ aps;onf 316

184

(Z)
Zmwfq&mOD;zkd;pdefeJYobiftvkyform;wkdufyGJ 419
ZmwfqefvSwJhrif;orD;pdefvSMunf 420
Zmwfobif&JUa&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpf 625
ZGefyef;&moD 682
(ps)
aps; 314
aps;bk&m;yGJac:wJh ajrmifbk&m;yGJBuD; 315
(n)
n§yfyl;n§yfydwfrdaeol ESpfOD; 554
(w)
wwd,oli,fcsif; 487
wrvGefyGJpm;rsm; 816
w&m;½kH;awmf 776
w½kwfpma&;q&m vif,lweftay: oabmxm;ykH 383
w½kwfpD;u&uf 555
w½kwfjynfwGif rD;&xm;ESifh c&D;oGm;cJhpOfu 213
w½kwfjynf rD;&xm;ay:0,f 214
w½kwfjynfa&muf Ak'¨omoem 591 - 592
w½kwfjynf\ om;aumif;orD;aumif;rsm; 799
wdyd#u"&omoemhrdcifBuD; 593
185

awmausmif;q&m&JU okc 817
awmolr 857
awmtvSLeJY NrKdUtvSL 517
awmfvSefwJhw½kwfjynf uRefawmfrSwfrdorQ 32
wkdYarmifr,f 777
wuúokdvf"r®m½kHBuD;wGif ausmif;olrsm; 0wfwufMurnf 594
awmifxdyfMumayguf 595
awmifom 215
124 (u) tpkd;&ukd tMunfnKdysufaprI 683
wvSnfhwywf 818
woufrSmwcgBuKHr,f 464
wyfukef;NrKdUu ylaZmfyGJ 596
wdrfjrKyfaysmufuG,fawmhrnfhcspfpzG,f jrefrmh,Ofaus;rI 626
(x)
xm0& 778
xD xD - xD 518
xl;jcm;wJh jrawmifausmif;om;BuD; 351
xkd;uGif;rSifaMumif 683 (u)
axmifqkdonfrSm 519
xkdif;0w¦Kwkdrsm; 29 - 30
xef;awmifol 216
xrf;ykd; 797
xGufayguf 597
186

(')
'DxufESajrmp&m r&Sdawmhyg 700
'DESpfoBuFef 701
'kwd,ausmif;om;b0 478
'kwd,oli,fcsif; 486
a'go 779
a':BuD;pkd;wkdY&GmokdY 217-218-219
'ku©dwtkd; wm½kd; 800
(e)
e*g; 684
ebwfBuD;&Gmu vlxkausmif; 220
em;eJYrem z0g;eJYemyg 520-522
aeukd&yfí urÇmukdvnfapol 454
ae½l;\axmifwGif;rS orD;xHay;pmrsm; 685 - 698
ae&Sife,fausmif;uoli,fcsif;awG 488
ae&Sife,fausmif;om; 483
aemifw 856
EkdifiHjcm;u pm 702
EkdifiHjcm;rSm omoem 598
ESpfw&myGJ 699
ewfaeukdif;ygrcsefaom OD;b*srf;\vuf&mrsm; 421
ewfa&uef 221 - 224
187

eef;awmfa&SUq&mwif 422
e,fjcm;apmifhwyfom; 835
ESrtaxG;pl 801
ESajrmp&m a':rmvm 338
EIwfrqufcsif 802
(y)
yckuúLoD[kdVf&Sifbk&m;yGJawmf 317
ycef;ewfyGJokdY 225-226-227
ynmtvif;u ykdufqHBuD; 335
yxrqkH;tBudrfvkyfwJhyGJ 228
yxr[Hom0wD 257
yxrtBudrfvkyfwJhyGJ 703
ya'o&mZfykHpHtvSL 523
ygawmfrl 704
ygwdwfyef;csD 627
yg&rDjznfhzuf 329
yDeHeJYr[mpnfomoem 599
ykwD;ESpfoG,f 780
ay:OD;oufyef;csDjyyGJ 628
ykd;vkHcsnf 705-706
yuf&S0gNrKdUpm;uav; 858
yk*¾Kdvfxl; t&d,r*¾ifacsmifq&mawmf 600
yif 819
188

yÍÆavmif;vufu Mumyef; 820
yef;csDq&mBuD; OD;cifarmif 423
yef;csDq&mBuD; OD;bouf 424-425
yef;a&mifaq;jym;uav; 2 jym; 821
ykyÜg;OD;ausmf&ifESifh odyÜHarmif0\ b0c&D;Murf; 327
ajymufMum;wyfom; 781
jynfolcspfaomtEkynmonfrsm; 7
jynfolwkdY\Nidrf;csrf;a&; 557
jyefvnfqkHpnf;Muawmh 496
jyefvnfqkHawGUMu&m0,f 859
yGJawmfukdoGm;Mur,fvkdY 229
(z)
zdvpfykdifppftajcpkdufrsm;ta&; 558
azazjzL;xH 707
(A)
ArmoHawGaysmufukefNyD 629
ArmtrsKd;orD; 524
ArmhtvSLuav;wck 525
ArmhNidrf;csrf;a&;tiftm; 559
ArmhzefusDvkyfief; 630-632
AD,uferfrSjrifuGif;wck 708
AD,uferfrS vGwfvyfa&;ta&;awmfykH 560
189

aA'g 709
(b)
b0csif;rwlonfh w½kwfjynf 26
bmvif BuD; 4 BuD; EkdifiHjcm;a&;0efBuD; 561
bk&m;BuD;u e&nf;oH 633
bk&m;trBuD; a':vS0kdif; 455
bk&ifrif;w&m; 834
blwmpBuFefay:rSm 846
ab;eD;wm ta&;BuD;ygNyD 710
abmhpf~uGvmwJhxrif;pm;yGJ 847
abmif;bDeD 803
abmif;bDESifhtysKd 526
bkef;BuD;ysHeJY {,ifusL; 634-636
b,foltokH;vkdovJ 822
(r)
raumif;&ify,f aumif;&ifwG,f 711
rBuKdufwJhpum;vkH; tokH;tEIH;rsm; 296
rnDrQaom wkd;wufjcif; 230
rxGufao;aomtajz 782-783
rESif;qDrD;&xm;uav; 712
rrNrKdUol 861
r&P&Sifaorif;ESifh - 527
190

rav;rSjrifuGif;wck 713-718
rvGefaps;u aps;aumuf 318
rvIdifyef;tkdifa&TrkaXmbk&m;yGJawmf 319
raoaom OD;b*srf; 426
r[m*Dw&JUa&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpf 637-647
rdawm 823
rdzk&m;acgifBuD;eJYq&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif; 352
rDcsD*efpmar;yGJwJhAsm; 824
rD;qkd&if &ifav;rd 719
rD;eJYESvkH;om; 825
rkqkd;r 804
armfpukdwd&pämef½kHrS acG;jcaoFhESifhusm; 231
rkd;*sme,f&JUtvSL 720
rkd;awGu&Gm 841
rkd;rkd;tif;vsm;twGuf tarhvufaqmif 340
rkduform; rkdufolBuD; 390
r*¾Zdefav;wapmif 258
rif;om;ukdzkd;uGef; 427
rkdif;aomufNrKdU ausmufeDawm& q&mawmf 601
arwåm 784
rEÅav;upum; 474
rEÅav;u aAsm 648
rEÅav;u rvGefaps; 320
rEÅav;u opfpufykdifOD;omaX; 391
191

rEÅav;utbkd; 466
rEÅav;utdrfawmf&mxD; 721
rEÅav;qefvSLtoif;BuD; 602
rEÅav;aps;csKdawmf 321
rEÅav;aps;csKdawmf a&Tqkdifwef; 322
rEÅav;"mwf&xm; 722
rEÅav;eJYyvdyfa&m*g 467
rEÅav;jrawmifausmif;trBuD;&JUb0ed*kH; 456
rEÅav;NrKdUrsufESmzkH; pD;yGm;a&;orm;BuD;rsm; 392-395
rEÅav;NrKdYrsufESmzkH; (a':OD;ZGef;) 458
rEÅav;NrKdYrsufESmzkH; (Adokum q&mqkdif) 460
rEÅav;NrKdYrsufESmzkH; (OD;ausmfvS) 459
rEÅav;NrKdYrsufESmzkH; (OD;aiG) 457
rEÅav;0gqkdjrifuGif; 723
rEÅav;olBuD;awG 397-398
rEÅav;ol yGJuawmfBuD;awG 396
rEÅav;ol rEÅav;om;rsm; 8
rEÅav;ol&d,OD;xGef;&if 384
rEÅav;tNidrfh 649
rEÅav;tdrfawmf&mrdausmif;wHwm; 724
rdef;uav;\atmifyGJ 842
rdef;reJYa,musfm; 528
rsKd; 826
jracsusif; raiGNrKdif 428
192

jrawmifausmif;om;a[mif;wOD; 461
jrawmifq&mawmfBuD; 603
ajrmif;jrq&mawmfbk&m;BuD; &mjynfhylaZmfyGJ 606
jrawmif&mjynfhyGJawmf 604
jrawmifa&T&wk 605
NrKdUcspfwJhom;ayrkdY 725
NrKdUr*¾Zif;&JUwefzkd; 259
ajrmuftmz&durS rsKd;cspfrsm; bmukdvkdí taocHaeMuoenf; 563
jrif;&xm;orm;rkd[mruf 848
jrefrmausmif;om;b0 479
jrefrmpum; 297
jrefrmpum; 726
jrefrmjynfwGifppfaq;cJhaom trItcif;rsm; 22-23
jrefrmhuGrf;aq;vufzufeJY {nfh0wfapmif0wf 471
jrefrmhuRef;om; 305
jrefrmhaq;a&;yef;csD&JU acwfOD; 650-651
jrefrmhqifzrf;enf;rsm; 306
jrefrmhyef;ykaps;uGuf 652
jrefrmhr[m*Dw 9
jrefrmh½kyfpkHobifhaemifa&; 653
jrefrmhobifa&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpf 654-655
jrefrmhom;a&zdeyf 309
jrefrmhopfawm&JUtBuD;qkH;&wemqif 307
jrefrmhopfawm&wem ? tckacwfqifzrf;enf; 308
193

jrefrmhtm;upm; 727-729
arG;aeYvufaqmif 371
arG;aeYvufaqmif 863
rSwfrSwfom;om; trSwfw&av;rsm; 497
rSefxJuopöm 49 (u)
a`rGeJYavSum; 862
arQmykdufBuD;awG&JU tpGrf; 562
(,)
,aeYArmhoDcsif;rsm; 656
a,musfm;rif;orD; arhvefzef 429-433
,mOfwkdufrI 827
(&)
&wemykHrEÅav;? rEÅav;? uRefrwkdYrEÅav; 10
&wembkHjrifhausmif;wkduf ESpfw&mjynfh 607
&xm;vkduft&m&Sd 805
&[ef;yk*¾Kdvfrsm;uawmif av;pm;&wJh q&mBuD; a':"r®pm&D 609
&[ef;ysKdorkdif; 610
a&cH - ajrcHaumif; 611
a&ewforD; 828
a&&Sm;vSwJh uHNrJZ*srf; 232
a&;p&mawGaygvkdufygbd 298
a&mufwwf&m&m a&;rdwmrsm; 498-505
194

&ifaoG; 786
&efukefeJYrEÅav; 730
&efNiKd; 787
&efolawmf 864
½kyfxkzGifhyGJwkef;u - 731
&ifNidrf;ppf 785
&Gmpm;BuD; OD;barmifokdY 434
&Gmawmf&Sif 829
&SmrS&Sm; owif;pmq&m 385
a&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpf 732
&Srf;ajrvwfu wkdif;&if;om;uAsm 299
a&TbkdNrKdUaxmifhapwDyGJ 324
a&TusnfqH 865
a&Tpm&H 323
a&Twav;umwGef;rsm;u orkdif;ukd ajymaeMuonf 657
a&Ta'gif;awmif aqmif;yg;rsm; 11
a&Tjynfq&mBuD;OD;bwif 353
a&Tjynfq&mBuD;OD;bwif 355
a&Tjynfq&mBuD;OD;bwif (4) 356
a&Tref;wifarmif 12
a&Tref;wifarmifb0ed*kH;qkH;wJhtcg 436
a&Tref;wifarmif&JU Zmwdjyóem 435
a&T&wkusif;yr,fhNrKdUr 658
a&T½kd; buav; 13
195

a&Tav;bk&m; &mjynfhyGJ 325
(v)
vmawmhr,fhN*Kdvfwkacwf 564
vlBuD;awGu0kdif;NyD; xdef;MuygOD;pkdY 734
vlxk*sme,facgif;BuD;rsm; 55-93
vlxkppf 807
vlxka':trma&;wJh a&Tref;wifarmifa0zefa&; 437
vlxkOD;vS&JU wkdif;&if;om;ykHjyifrsm; 52 (u)
vlxkOD;vS&JU r*Fvmpum; 372
vleJYig; 866
vlESifha~uG; 806
vlESifh vlUtokduftNrKH 735
vljzL vlrnf;jyóem 565
vlvm; ? wd&pämefvm; cGJjcm;r&olrsm; 530
vl&TifawmfBuD;OD;tkH;oD; 438
vlom;pm; 867
vltkdayr,fh 659
avwcsufa0SU&ifjzifh 808
av;pm;tyfwJh rvGefrif;om;BuD; 462
vufaumufBuD; 836
vufeufjyí tnHhcHapa&;onf Nidrf;csrf;a&;ukd rwnfaqmufEkdif 567
vufayGUtdwfaysmufwJhyGJ 233
vufzufajcmuf 788
196

vufzufajcmufvkyfief; 310
vufzufajcmufvkyfief; 311
vufzufvkyfief; 312
vifr,m;qkdwm 531
vif;,kefwkdYwkdif;jynf 868
vdyfjymoefY&JUvm; 736
vrf;avQmufazmfwOD; 506
vGrf;p&mhaps;csKd 326
vGrf;rdygw,f 260
vGrf;&wJhe&nf;oH 660
vIyf&Sm;EkdifawmhNyDjzpfaom&JwkdufBuD; ? csufjynfwGif;&Sdcsm;&fbmPDwm;rif;
&JwkdufBuD;twGif;rS ya'o&mZfacwf jrifuGif;rsm; 234
(0)
00pm;Mu&zkdY 570
0g0ifawmhr,f 733
0wå&m; 837
(o)
owdeJYvSLwJhtvSL 532
owd&SdwJh yk*¾Kdvfrsm; 613
owif;BuD;onfh csif;wGif;c&D; 235-240
owif;BuD;onfhrif;orD; 439
owif;pm 261
197

owif;pma[mif; 262
owif;pmrsm;uajymwJh q&mawmfOD;0dZ, 612
owif;axmufAdrmef 263
owif;-owif;-owif; qkdwm 571
owif;a[mif; 264
oeyfzufvkyfief; 313
obiftEkynm&SifBuD; jracsusif;raiGNrKdif\ b0Zmwfodrf; 440
obifhOaoQmifBuD;okH;OD;&JU&mjynfhyGJ 441
orD;av;rrkd;a& 339
orD;oHa,mZOf 790
ordkif;&SdwJha&OD; 737
omoeme,fu yk*¾KdvfwOD; (OD;aX;atmif) 617
omoeme,fu yk*¾KdvfwOD; (OD;odef;atmif) 614-616
omoemjyK'ora&Tusifomoemykdif 618-619
omoem&JUajrcHa&cHaumif; 620
omoemhwefaqmifq&mawmfBuD;rsm; 15
om; 12 a,muftar 476
om;wkdY½kyf&nf 738
om;tza0pk 843
odcsifpdwf 739
oDvwefckd; tusKd;ayxifh 621
odomwJhwkd;wufrIawG awGU&atmif 533
oli,fcsif;ESpfa,muf 507
ol&Sdprf;apcsifonf 328
198

olUpsmyeukd - ukdwifarmifjrifapcsifprf;vSbdygawmhw,f 442
olUypönf; 789
olUtu 869
aoewfvG,fwJhausmif;q&m 844
oHpkHwD;0kdif;BuD; 661
oHawGcJ 791
oufawmf&SnfylaZmfyGJ 622
oufwefYa&mif 33-34
odyÜHarmif0 trSwfw& ESpf 50 yGJ 375
or®w[kdcsDrif; 16
36 aumifxD - 534
oGm;avoltwGuf &nfñTef;vsuf 508
([)
[kdcsDrif;\ tusOf;axmifu ykavGoH uAsmrsm; 300
[kdta&; onfta&; awG;rd&m&m 574
(t)
tuRwftvGwfyGJ 535
tcsdef&Sdao;orQ 740
tacGcH&ol 870
tNidrfh 17-18
tapmBuD;cGJoGm;wJheDarmif 334
tapmqkH;umwGef; 662
199

tapmfum;cHae&onfh ynm&yf 741
tqkdtu xkdESpf0 484
tnmolrsm;yifv,foGm; 241-254
txufvTmu r*FvmyGJ 830
txrf;½kyfao; 663
tem;rnDBwd*H0w¦Kwkdrsm; 54 (u)
tEkynmpmtkyfawGukd bm&nf&G,fcsufeJYa&;ovJ 301
tEkynmonfBuD; OD;b*srf;\EkdifiHa&;tjrif 443
tESpf 5000 cefYu ausmufoabFm 742
tESpf 100 MumwJhtcg 664
tazeJYtbkd; 465
tazray:wJhuav; 831
tbpdefaA'g&JUaemufqkH;yGJrsm; 448
tbGm;a':qkd; 468
tbGm;a':&if 469
tbGm;&Sdwkef;ub0 470
tarwkdYacwfEkdifiHa&; 473
taraeaumif;&JUvm; 743
tarhowd&wJh yGJawmifNyKH; 536
tarhZmwd&yf&Gm 463
tarha&S;pum; 744-765
tarhtaMumif;waphwapmif; 475
tr,frifhbefaumufNrKdUawmf 255
trsKd;om;pmqkd aZmf*sD 330
200

trsKd;om;obifawG&JU uaeYtajc 665
tjrifopf 871
t&if;&SifpepfatmufrSm tEkynmonf? okdYr[kwf NrKdUrNidrf; 444-447
ta&SU*smreDowif;pmynm r[mXmea&mufcJhpOfu 256
t&Sifvwfvwf aoG;pkyfcH&jcif; 792
tavmif;tpm; 793
ta0;a&mufom;orD;rsm; 767 (u)
tolw&macsmuf 872
touf 80 jynfhwJhnKdjr 333
tonf;ESvkH;xJu ajymwJhpum; 873
toGifrwl 849
tmz&du0w¦Kwkdrsm; 36
Oypmaumvdyfausmif;olb0 490
OD;av;ESifhEGm;r 809
at0rf; q&mn§m 449
tkdw,fqkdwm 537
tkdb,fhwuúokdvf 767
tkd,ef;uD;wkdY 31
t*Fvdyftpnf;t½kH; 768
atmif 832
atmifAv? zkd;pdef? pdefuwkH; 19
atmifAv&mjynfhyGJtwGuf &SmykHawmf 450
atmifoG,fykqkd; 794
tw¦KyÜwådpmay 302
201

tw¦KyÜwåda&;r,fqkd&if 303
tw¦KyÜwådta&;aumif; 604
tdrfawmf&mbk&m;eJYqifBuD;vSLoGm;wJhwHwm; 769
tdyf&m0ifykHjyif 810
tdrfurdef;r 811
tdrfrSmr*Fvmaqmifwkef;u 874

202

tcef; ( 3 )

pmay*sme,f rsufESmzkH; pmqkd

vlxktar 1995? Ekd0ifbmvrSm xkwfcJhwJh pmay*sme,f twGJ 3? trSwf3?
rSm touf (80) jynfh *kPfjyKtpDtpOftaeeJY rsufESmzkH;pmqkd qkdNyD;
a0a0qmqm azmfjyay;cJhwmukd jyefvnf wifjyxm;jcif; jzpfyg w,f/

203

rsufESmzkH; pmqkd

vlxka':trm
touf 80 jynfh
(29?Ekd0ifbm?1995)

okdY
pmay*sme,f
rS
trSwfw& 80

1
a':trm[laom trnfESifhvkdufatmif touf&mausmf&Snfum rmygap
aMumif; qkawmif;arwåm ykdYovkdufygonf/
rif;ok0Pf
(25?Mo*kwf?95)
2
a':trmonf ouf&Snfusef;rmcsrf;omí trsm;tusKd;ukd aumif;pGm aqmif
&GufEkdifygap/
wufwkd;
(21?pufwifbm?95)

204

3
r*¾Zif; tapmifapmifrSm pum;ajymovkd pma&;NyD; pma&;í pum;ajymaeaom
vlxk a':trm/ toufw&mtxd temr&Sd pum;rsm;rsm; qufajymEkdifygap/
okc
(2?pufwifbm?95)
4
vlxka':trm\ touf&Spfq,fjynfharG;aeYwGif touf&mausmf &Snfap
aMumif; arwåmykdYtyfygonf/
xGef;at;
(e*g;eD)
(5?pufwifbm?95)
5
tw¦KyÜwåd ta&;aumif;vSqkd b,folb,f0g usefygao;w,f rckdif;aveJY
cspfjrwfEkd;zG,f rawGU&ifra&;/
a'gufwmoef;xGef;
(18?pufwifbm?95)
6
vlxka':trm touf&Spfq,f jynfhaomaeYtwGuf a'gufwmoef;xGef;u
txdrf;trSwfwckjyK&ef aqmfMocJhygonf/ ,ckwzef pmay*sme,fuvnf;
vlxka':trmtay:

rk'dwmyGm;rsm;ap&ef

ajymygonf/
205

rSwfcsufwckck

a&;ay;yg[k

vlxka':trm\pmayrsm;ukd uRefawmfwkdY i,fpOfumvuyifvQif zwf&I
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tjcm;r[kwf/ a':trm\ ta&;tom;wkdYonf uRefawmfwkdYcspfaom trd
jrefrmEkdifiH\orkdif;ukd xkwfaz:a&;om;aom tzkd;wef trSwftom;rsm;
jzpfonf[k awGU&Sd&jcif; jzpfygonf/ orkdif;trSwftom;[k ajymaomtcg
a&S;jzpfa&S;a[mif; taMumif;t&mrsm;ukd ajymqkd&jcif;jzpfaomaMumifh jiD;aiGU
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tjzpftysuf taMumif;t&mwkdYukd tekynmajrmufatmif pDukH;a&;om;wwf
aom yk*¾KdvfjzpfaomaMumifh jrefrmhorkdif;twGuf tvGefta&;yg t&ma&muf
aom yk*¾Kdvfjzpfonfukd aESmif;vlwkdY *&kwpkduf rSwfom;xkdufygonf/
aemifESpfaygif; 50 Mumaomtcg rEÅav;NrKdUrSm bmjzpfcJhonfukd odvkdaom
vli,fonf a':trm\pmaywkdYukd vkdufvH&SmazGí avhvmayvdrfhrnf/
armifxif
(5?pufwifbm?95)
7
vlxka':trm\ pmrsm;onf rvGwfwrf; zwfoifhzwfxkdufaom pmrsm;
jzpfonf/
vlxka':trmonf ,cifu pmukd pmta&;tom;rsKd;ESifh a&;onf/ xkdYaemuf
pum;ajymta&;ESifha&;onf/ okdY&mwGif vlxka':trm\pmrsm;onf pmzwf
oltm; qGJaqmif ac:iifoGm;onfjzpfí pm\qGJaqmif&mokdY ygoGm;aom
pmzwfolonf pmukd pum;ajymESifha&;aeovm;? pma&;ovkd a&;aeovm;
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tvS&Sdaom rdef;rysKdonf oeyfcg;a&usJvdrf;vdrf; EIwfcrf;eDqkd;qkd; vSNrJ
206

vSaernf/
vlxka':trm\ pmwGif yifukd,ftvS&Sdonf/
yg&*l
(12?pufwifbm?95)
8
tpfrrm&JUtaMumif;

a&;&r,fqkd&if

pmwrf;&SnfBuD;

wapmifjzpfatmif

i,folawG rodao;wJh b0jzpfpOfawGukd uRefr jynfhjynfhpkHpkH a&;Ekdifygw,f/
tpfrrmu uRefrxuf wESpfeJYig;vBuD;aomfvnf; oluausmif;ol? uRefru
orD;ESpfa,mufeJY cifyGef;onf&JUwm0efukd xrf;aqmifae&NyD; tpfrrm&JU
ZGJowådeJY &ifhusufwJh pdwfaepdwfxm;rsKd; olU&JUajcrIefrQ uRefrrSmr&Sdyg/
wuúokdvfoydwfBuD; ay:vmawmh a&Twd*kHawmifzufapmif;wef;rSm npOf
nwkdif; a[majymrIawG &SdcJhygw,f/ tJ'DrSm ]trm}qkdwJh wuúokdvfausmif;ol
rdef;rvSuav;u owåd&J&ifh ZGJrmefw0ifh0ifheJY a[majymoGm;vkdufwm wu,fh
tmZmenf ol&Jaumif;rav;vkdyJ qkdNyD; aeYpOfxkwf owif;pmawGxJrSm
pmvkH;rnf;BuD;awGeJY csD;usL; az:jycJhwmaygh/ aemuf tpfr tdrfaxmifusNyD;
om;orD;awG a`cGa`cG&H&HeJY wu,fhom,mcsrf;ajrUwJh tdrfaxmifpkBuD;ukd
xlaxmif xdef;odrf;? xufjrufxl;cRefwJh &ifaoG;wkdY&JUrdcif? owif;pm
q&mr? pma&;q&mrqkdwJh b0awGeJY avmu"HBuD;ukd BuHUBuHUcHjzwfoef;?
aomu 'ku©rsKd;pkH BuKHawGU&ayr,fh wpufuav;rS tavsmhray; t&IH;ray;
'l;raxmuf vufrajr§mufwJh tpfrpdwf"mwfrsKd;ukd b,folurS ,SOfNyKdif
Ekdif&JrSm r[kwfygbl;/ uaeY tpfrrm touf 80 jynfhNyD/ pmaumif;
pmrGefawGa&;wkef;? wzufrSmvnf; pmay,Ofaus;rI ta&;udpö? &yfa&;&Gma&;
udpö? bmom omoema&;udpöawGukd wwfEkdiforQ tm;BuKd;rmefwuf
207

aqmif&Gufaewkef;yJqkdwm Mum;odae&awmh tpfrrmukd uRefr raocif
jrif&ygvkd\vkdY qkawmif;rdygw,f/
a':r[maqG
(pma&;q&mBuD; r[maqG\ZeD;)
(18?pufwifbm?95)
9
vlxka':trm&JU pmayaumif;rI tpkpkukd om"kac:qkdí arG;aeY&Spfq,fjynfh
ausmfvGefí ESpfw&mwkdif a&mufygapaomf0f/
Ek,Of
(12?pufwifbm?95)
10
rtrmvkd jrefrmyDowJh trsKd;orD;wOD;[m uRefrwkdY pmayavmu&JU "l0HMu,f
jzpfaewmukdu usufoa&r*Fvm wyg;ygyJ/ 'D"l0HMu,f[m Nidrf;csrf;a&;ukd
a&SUaqmifvrf;jyEkdifygap/
cifESif;,k
(12?pufwifbm?95)
11
uavmifuvJ pmyGJpm;&JUvufxJu uavmifr[kwf? acwfwkdif; acwfwkdif;
rSm tzdcHESdrfcHaoG;tpkwfcH urÇmYvlom;rsm;bufu tNrJ&yfwJh "m;vkdxufNyD;
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208

twGuf vlom;wa,muf&JU wm0efukd ausausyGefyGefBuD; xrf;&GufoGm;cJhwJh
]OD;av;} &JU ukd,fyGm; ]r[mvlom;}/
vlxkpdef0if;
(28?pufwifbm?95)
12
ausmufaoG;ynm&Sif
ausmuform;onf ausmufukdjrif&kHrQESifh ausmuf&kdif;vm;? tom;ausmuf
vm;? t&nfausmufvm;[k odMuonfu rsm;ygonf/ owif;pmavmu
üvnf; t,f'DwmwkdYonf owif;axmuf\ owif;ay;ykHukdjrifonfESifh
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vm;? jynfolwkdY wu,ftm;ukd;Ekdifrnfh t&nfausmufvkd yk*¾KdvfrsKd;vm;[k
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avmuüvnf; owif;axmufrsm;ukd jynfolwkdY tm;ukd;Ekdifrnhf t&nftcsif;
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vlxka':trmonf touf&Sfq,f jynfhcJhayNyD/vlxkowif;pmwGif t,f'Dwm
vkyfpOfumvtwGif;u a':trm aoG;ay;cJhaom owif;axmufrsm;? uAsm
q&mrsm;? umwGef;q&mrsm;? aqmif;yg;&Sifrsm;? a0zefa&;q&mrsm; rnfí
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(15?pufwifbm?95)

209

13
ck tcsdefxd a':trm pmrSefrSefa&;Ekdifwm ukd,fhtwGufa&m olrsm;twGufyg
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(26?pufwifbm?95)
14
a':a':rmh pmrsm;zwf&wm txl;pdwf0ifpm;p&m? MunfEl;p&m? jrwfEkd;p&m
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aomfaumif;
(wuúokdvfrsm; A[kd pmMunfhwkduf)
(24?Mo*kwf?95)
15
a':a':rm[m

tvGefwm0efauswJh

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(wuúokdvfrsm; A[kd pmMunfhwkduf)
(25?pufwifbm?95)

210

16
a':a':u pmawG trsm;tjym; qufvufa&;om;aewmrkdY 1978 ckESpfu
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(wuúokdvfrsm; A[kd pmMunfhwkduf)
(25?pufwifbm?95)
17
a':a':hpmawGzwfNyD;wkdif; paepmay0kdif;rSm a':a':zwfcJhwJh pmwykd'fukd tNrJ
owd&& aewwfw,f/ ]wm0efay;wkdif;vnf; a&;ay;zkdYrvG,fbl;/ jyKrl
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r[kwf rcHr&yfEkdifavmufatmif rkef;wD;wm? emMunf;wm pwJh cHpm;rIawG&SdrS
pma&;vkdY &r,f} vkdY ajymzl;w,f/
'gaMumifhvnf; a':a':h ,kHMunfcsuf tawG;tjrifukdom &Ekdifwmr[kwfbJ
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0if;wifh
(rdw¦Dvmaumvdyf pmMunfhwkduf)
(20?pufwifbm?95)
18
uRefawmfh touf 70 jynfhNyDqkdwm a':trmu ]r,kHbl;} wJh/ wu,fwef;
ajym&r,fqkd&if vlxka':trm touf 80 jynfhw,fqkdwm vkH;0 r,kHwmu
211

uRefawmfyg/
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vlxka':trm xm0pOf EkysKd vef;qef;ygap/
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(10?pufwifbm?95)
19
tkdrif;vmwmeJYtrQ

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uRefawmfvJ tJ'Dvkd aeEkdifatmif BuKd;pm;aeygw,f/
jroef;wifh
(12?pufwifbm?95)
20
a':a':&JU 80 jynfhqkdawmh txl;yJ 0rf;om&ygw,f/ bmjzpfvkdYvJqdkawmh
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uawmh a':a':h&JU cH,lcsufeJY pmzwfolrsm; tay:rSmxm;wJh apwem arwåm
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212

*kPf,l&ygw,f/
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(8?pufwifbm?95)
21
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aeí pmzwfolwkdYu aus;Zl;wifMu& ygvdrfhrnf/
armifpl;prf;
(19?pufwifbm?95)
22
]jrefrmjynfwGif ppfaq;aom trItcif;rsm;} ]pE´rmvm} [laom bmomjyef
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atmifoif;
(7?pufwifbm?95)
23
tar (vlxka':trm)onf owif;pmq&m? r*¾Zif;t,f'Dwm? yifukd,fa&;
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213

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(13?pufwifbm?95)
24
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cifaqGOD;
(15?pufwifbm?95)
25
touf 120 &Snfapaomf/
armifom&
(1?pufwifbm?95)

214

26
vlxka':trm[m bmomjyefolwOD;taeeJY pmayavmuxJ 0ifa&mufvmwm
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cspfwJh tEkynmonf} wOD; jzpfvmcJh&wmjzpfw,f/
armifomEkd;
(11?pufwifbm?95)
27
uRefawmfwkdY[m OD;av;eJYa':a':&JU ysKd;axmifrIukd cH,lcJhMu&olrsm;jzpfw,f/
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(7?pufwifbm?95)

215

28
a':a':rm[m xufjrufpl;&SwJhtjrifeJY pma&;q&mrwa,muf/ tvkyfrSm
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BuD;) twGuf txGef;vif;qkH; vrf;jy rD;tdrf/
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(9?pufwifbm?95)
29
vlxkowif;pmrSm uRefawmfwkdYwawG aqmif;yg;? uAsmrsKd;pkH a&;cJhMuw,f/
a':a':u t&ifzwfw,f/ wcgrSry,fcJh?rjzwfcJhzl;bl;/ q&mBuD; a&TOa'gif;
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tHhMordyg&JU? aus;Zl;wif&w,f/
armifpGrf;&nf
(9?pufwifbm?95)

216

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a':a':touf 80 jynfhrSm trSwfw&a&;ay;zkdY awmif;vmygw,f/ a':a':h
taMumif;? a':a':hpmawGu trSwfw& ay;aezkdYrS rvkdawmhbJ/ vlom;awG
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armifrkd;ol
(17?pufwifbm?95)
31
t*¾gpEdk; uG,fvGefcsdefrSm vlxka':trmu &SmrS&Sm;wJh owif;pmq&m qkdwJh
acgif;pOfeJY &Ir0r*¾Zif;rSm aqmif;yg;&SnfBuD;a&;NyD; t*¾gpEdk;&JU b0ESifhtvkyf
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cJhw,f/ ,ck a':a': touf 80 jynfh txdrf;trSwfumvrSm uRefawmfwkdY
u a':a':eJYywfoufNyD; rSwfcsufay;zkdY pOf;pm;awmh &SmrS&Sm;wJh owif;pm
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w,f? b,folawGzufu &yfwnfcJhw,f? bmawG awG;NyD; bmawGa&;cJhw,f
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wkdY ,lwwf&if&rSmygyJ/ ,lwwfMuzkdYyJ vkdygw,f/ touf&Spfq,f qkdwm
217

{&mr rSwfwkdifBuD; wckyg/ 'Dtouf 'Dt&G,fxd razgufrjyef wnfMunf
rSefuefpGm wkdif;jynftusKd; vlom;tusKd; o,fykd;aqmif&GufaewJh vlxk
a':trm [m ]aumif;uifarar wyg;tjzpf} ESpfumv&Snfvsm;pGm wnfae
r,fvkdY uRefawmf ,kHw,f/
armif0Ho
(tawG;tjrif)
(12?pufwifbm?95)
32
wcsdefu tjyifxGufNyD; pD;yGm;&Smr,fBuHawmh ZeD;r,m;u wm;w,f/ tJ'D
aemuf &nfrSef;csufodyfBuD;wJh om;BuD;u jynfyrSmynmquf&Smr,f BuKd;pm;
jyefawmh om;BuD;ratu oabmrwljyefbl;wJh/ 'DvkdeJY rdom;pk b0vufwH
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jzpfapygowJh/ tdrfolqkdwm ukd,fhvifukd,fhom; tem;rSmrsm;&Sdae&if ylp&m
yifp&m rvkdaygifvkdY oabmxm;MuwJh rdef;rom;awG r[kwfvm;/ aMomf
tar&,f? topfjzpfapawmh? owd&apawmh r&nf&G,fygbl;/ tck tar
touf 80 jynfhNyD/ vlYb0wck 70 wef; 80wef;eJY NyD;qkH;aeMu&wJh
tcsdefawGrSm

tarhtouf

80

rxif&avmufatmif

usef;usef;rmrm

&Sifoefaewm? tarhtouf&JU okH;ykHESpfykHrSm tazmfrJh? taz;trrJh tjzpfeJY
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om;wkdYtareJY om;wkdYukd ajymajymjy ae&w,f/
cifarmifjrifh
(ra[oDr*¾Zif;)
(9?pufwifbm?95)
218

33
vlrSef;odwwfpuwnf;u uRefawmfh arG;ozcif&JU EIwfzsm;xGufvmwJh
emrnfwcku

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tpcsDNyD; ajymwwfavawmh uav;t&G,f uRefawmfhtzdkY OD;vS a':trm
qkdwm {&mr pmayol&Jaumif;BuD;awG jzpfvmcJhygw,f/ uRefawmfh tazu
bbeJYtarhukd oHa,mZOfBuD;w,fqdkwm olYaemufqkH;tcsdefjzpfwJY ta&SUykdif;
aq;&kHay:rS pmawGu oufaocHaeygw,f/ tJ'Dwkef;u taru ta0;
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pmawGa&;cJhw,f/ bbeJY ukdnKduvnf; tm;ay;pmawG rjywf a&;cJhMu
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qkdawmh tarh ]jynfolcspfaom tEkynmonfrsm;} pmtkyf[m uRefawmf
vkyfr,fh pma&;q&m tifwmAsL;twGuf ausmif;ocFef;pm jyXmef;pmtkyf
wtkyfvkd jzpfvmjyefwJhtwGuf tar[m uRefawmhfpmayaus;Zl;&Sif wa,muf
tjzpf &ifxJrSm rSwfwrf;wifxm;cJhygw,f/ rdom;pkcsif; &if;ESD;qufoG,frI?
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touf 80 jynfhawmhr,f/ 'gayr,fh tar[m uRefawmfwkdYukd 'DaeYxufxd
t&dyftm0go ay;aeNrJrkdY aemufxyf ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm usef;rm aeygapOD;vkdY
uRefawmfqkawmif;aew,f/ uRefawmfhenf;wl tarh pmayom;orD;awG
uvnf; qkawmif;aeMuOD;rSmrkdY uRefawmfeJY awGUwkdif; tarajymwwfwJh ]ig

219

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rsm;EkdiforQ rsm;rsm; taumiftxnf azmfay;ygOD;tar/
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(10?pufwifbm?95)
34
yk*¾Kdvfa&; qnf;uyfukd;uG,frI  (Personal  Cult)  ukd uRefawmf rkef;ygw,f/
av;pm;oifh av;pm;xkduf &kdaooifh &kdaoxkdufolukd pdwfoefYoefYeJYyJ &kdao
av;pm;ygw,f/
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ay:aygufcJh&ygw,f/
jrefrmjynfrSm usefae&pfMuao;wJh oufBuD;&G,ftkd pmayynm&SifawGxJrSm
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jyKvsuf&Sdygw,f/
cspf0if;armif
(&eHYopfr*¾Zif;)
(4?pufwifbm?95)
220

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vlxkxJu

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pma&;q&m okdYr[kwf vlxka':trm &,fvkdY uRefawmfwkdY av;pm;cJhwmyg/
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(18?pufwifbm?95)
36
rEÅav;NrKdUu ]vlxka':trm}ukd rjrifzl;cifuwnf;u av;pm; MunfnKd
aecJhrdygw,f/ uRefr&JUr*¾Zif; xkwfcGifh&csdefupNyD; a':a':eJY cifrif&if;ESD;cGifh
&&kHrua':a':&JU arwåmapwemrsm;ukdyg cHpm;cGifh&&SdvmcJhygw,f/ 'gaMumifh
uRefr tvGefYtvGef MunfnKdav;pm; cspfcif&ygaom ]a':a': a':trm}&JU
touf 80 jynfhcsdefrSpNyD; ukd,fa&mpdwfyg usef;rmygap/ a':a':&JU
qE´wkdif; jynfhpkHEkdifygap/ touf&mausmf&SnfygapvkdY vIdufvSJpGm qkawmif;
&if; &kdaopGm uefawmhvkdufygw,f/
uvsm (0dZÆm?odyÜH)
(uvsm r*¾Zif;)
(15?pufwifbm?95)
37
jrefrmjynfrSm wu,fawmfwJh? wwfwJh? cRefwJh trsKd;orD; pmayynm&SifawG
&Sdygw,fvkdY uRefrwkdYtwGuf *kPf,l 0Hh~uGm;Ekdifp&m? vufn§Kd;ñTefjyp&mawG
221

&Sdygw,f/
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b,fvkdjrifovJvkdYuRefrukdrar;ygeJY/ b,fvkdjrifovJqkdwmxuf olYaus;Zl;
awGukd b,fvkdqyfrvJ qkdwmukdyJ awG;rdygw,f/ pmayaus;Zl;awG/
uRefr[m a':a':hvuf&m ]b0csif;rwlonfh w&kyfjynf} bmomjyefpmtkyfeJY
yxrqkH; &if;ESD;cJh&w,f/ NyD;awmh ]jynfolcspfaom tEkynmonfrsm;}?
NyD;awmh }r[m*Dw}? NyD;awmh }a&Tref;wifarmif tw¦KyÜwåd}? NyD;awmh ]tmz&du
0w¦Kwkd}? bmomjyefawG? c&D;oGm;aqmif;yg;awG/ a':a':[m b,fpmukd
b,fvkda&;a&; zwfolukd odapcsif? wwfapcsif? em;vnfapcsifwJh apwem
a&SUxm;wmrkdY? olYpmawG[m zwfol&ifxJ? tvkdvkd avsmueJ 0ifa&mufoGm;
&wmcsnf;yJ/ uRefr[m a':a':ay;wJh tarG? a':a':auR;wJh tpm tm[m&
awGukd ckxd EkdYoufcH pkdYae&wkef;yJ/ tJ'DrSm bmpOf;pm;rdovJ qkdawmh? aMomf
ouf&G,fBuD;&ifhonfxd olY&JUpGrf;tm;ay:rSm ukd,furSDckdae&wkef;ygvm;qkdwJh
olY&JU *kPfaus;Zl;ukdvnf; atmufarh&if; ukd,fhajcaxmufay: ukd,f&yfEkdif
NyDvm;/ bmawGrsm; odrf;qnf; okdrSD; &SmazGxm;EkdifNyDvJ/ olrsm;ukd bmawG
ay;EkdifNyDvJ qkdwJh ukd,fhukd,fukd todw&m&apwJh jypfwifa0zefwJh ar;cGef;
awGeJYom tzefzef xkd;ESufaerdyg&JU/
wifwifOD;
(&kyf&Sifaw;uAsm r*¾Zif;)
(9?pufwifbm?95)

222

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ESpfq,fhwpf&mpkukd BuKdaeaom &ifckefoH jzpfayvdrfhrnf/
atmifZifrif;
(pwkdifopf r*¾Zif;)
(21?pufwifbm?95)
39
a':a': touf 80 jynfhNyDvkdY Mum;&awmh ]&Spfq,f tawG;awG}taMumif;
pdwf0ifpm;vkdufrdygw,f/
a':a':eJY vlcsif; awGUzl;&kHom&SdNyD; ig;rdepfMumatmif pum;rajymzl;ayr,fh
a':a':&JU [moeJY tm;rmeftaiGU toufawGukd cHpm;&ygw,f/ uRefawmf
wkdYrsm; uHukokdvfaumif;vkdY touf 80 xd ae&r,fqkd&if uRefawmfh&JU
]&Spfq,ftawG;}[m b,fvdkrsm;jzpfrSmygvdrfh/ a':a':vkd [moawG?tm;rmef
awGeJY BuHhBuHhrS cHEkdifyghrvm;/
armifopfqif;
(oifhb0 atmifjrifa&; r*¾Zif;)
(8?pufwifbm?95)

223

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tarrm&JU ]touf 80jynfh} arG;aerSm wefzkd;&SdwJh vlwkdif;&cJwJh jynfolY
arwåm &&SdwmrkdY tarhtwGuf *kPf,l 0rf;ajrmufrdygw,f/ tar usef;rmpGm
touf&SnfygapaMumif; vIdufvSJpGm qkawmif; vkdufygw,f/
rkd;csKdoif;
(oifhb0 atmifjrifa&; r*¾Zif;)
(9?pufwifbm?95)
41
pum;ajy a&;[efawGeJY ywfoufvkdY vlxka':trm&JU ]pum;ajya&;[ef} [m
&Sif;vif;yDo uspfvspfNyD; &o*kPf eJY jynfhpkHvkdY ]pH}jyKrdygw,f/
aemuf q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;eJYywfoufNyD; q&mBuD;[m
(1) a&;oifha&;xkdufwJh a&;uGif; a&;uGufukd vufraES;/
(2) csD;ajr§mufoifholukd csD;ajr§muf? &Iwfcsoifholukd uJh&JU &Iwfcs/
(3) rSwfwrf;rSwf&m jzpfxkdufwJh t&mawGukd rSwfwrf;wifwwfwJh owif;pm
q&maumif;wkdY&JU t&nftcsif;awG eJY jynfhpkHoljzpfaMumif; ]a&Ta'gif;awmif}
pmtkyftrSmrSm

wifjyxm;ygw,f/

uRefawmfwkdYudk

owdjzpfapygw,f/

'gaMumifh vlxka':trm[m uRefawmfwkdY &ifxJtNrJ wnf&Sdaeygw,f/
MunfEkdif
(w&m;&dyfNrKdif r*¾Zif;)
(12?pufwifbm?95)

224

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om;rsm;&JU rdcif
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(ydawmufyGifhopf r*¾Zif;)
(13?pufwifbm?95)
43
uRefawmfu vlawGtaMumif;ukd pdwf0ifpm;w,f/ vlawGqkdwJh txJurS
wu,fhvlawG taMumif;aygh/ wu,fhvlawG taMumif;ukd zwfcsifwmeJY
pmwyk'f pmwtkyfrusef vSefcJh arTcJhawmh ]oydwfarSmufausmif;ol}ukd
awGUw,f/ oydwfarSmufausmif;ol[m uRefawmf pmtkyfpifrSm uRefawmfh
OD;aESmufxJrSm? uRefawmfh ]pH} xJrSm ,ckxd ]rtrm} b0uae? ]a':trm}
b0uae? ]bGm;trm}xd? &SdaeqJ? zwfaeqJ? rSwfaeNrJygyJ/
ukda*s
(a&T&kyfpkH r*¾Zif;)
(13?pufwifbm?95)

225

44
ukd,fwkdif ]pum;ajym} pum;ajy a&;enf;ukd tom;us a&;jzpfvmawmh
'Da&;enf;rSm y&d,m,f~uG,f0 uRrf;usifvSwJh q&mrBuD; a':trm&JU t&nf
tcsif;ukd ykdrkdav;pm; tHhMo&ygw,f cifAsm;/
jrwfpk
(awmf0if *sme,f)
(8?pufwifbm?95)
45
t&G,fokH;yg;vkH; ESpfNcKdufonfh pmaumif;ayrGefrsm;? ,ckxuf ajrmufrsm;pGm
qufvufa&;om;Ekdifygap/
azjrifh
('DvIdif;r*¾Zif;)
(18? pufwifbm?95)
46
q&mrBuD;a&;wJh ]uRefrwkdY i,fi,fwkef;u} ukdzwfNyD; uRefawmfwkdY ckb0rSm
&ifarmvkduf&wm/
armifarmuf
('DvIdif;r*¾Zif;)
(18?pufwifbm?95)

226

47
vlxktwGuf vlxkpmayrsm;pGm a&;om;jyKpkol vlxka':trm oufawmf
&mausmf &Snfygap/
armifacwfxGef;
(&wemyef;cif; r*¾Zif;)
(7?pufwifbm?95)
48
taumif;qkH;pmawG ]tMumqkH;} tcsdefxd a&;EkdifpGrf;u tHhrcef;ygbJ/
rsKd;ñGefY
(pmayavmupmtkyfwkduf)
(18?pufwifbm?95)
49
pmzwfolb0uae xkwfa0olb0 a&mufvmawmh ]tarh} pmtkyfawGukd odyf
xkwfa0csifygw,f/ *kPf,lcsifvkdY jzpfygw,f/ vlxkBuD;yGm;a&; wkduf&Sdae
awmh uRefawmf xkwfcGifhr&Ekdifyg/ 'gayr,fh zwfcGifh&aewJhtwGuf auseyf
rdygw,f/
jrifhOD;
(qkpmaywkduf)
(19?pufwifbm?95)

227

50
vlxka':trm
jynfolu av;pm;aom tEkynm&Sifrsm;\ *kPfukd? tEkynmajrmufpGm
az:xkwfa&;zGJUEkdifaom? tEkynmonfBuD;tjzpf av;pm; MunfnKdrdygonf/
armifcifrif("EkjzL)
(8?pufwifbm?95)
51
touf &mausmf &Snfygap/
pmay bkef;wefckd; BuD;ygap/
yef;csDpHwkd;
(9?pufwifbm?95)
52
pmayynm&Sif? todynm&Sif? twwfynm&Sif? tEkynm&Sifrsm;? touf
&Snf&Snf tvkyfvkyfEkdifjcif;[m? vlom;awGtwGuf aumif;arGyg/ ykcufvTJ
aomvufonf urÇmukdukdifvIyfEkdifw,fqkdwJh tarrsm;&JU tqkdtrdefYukd
,kHMunfvsuf/
yef;csD,Ofrif;ykduf
(10?pufwifbm?95)
53
a':a':eJY awGUwJhtcgwkdif; ]pmaumif;av;awG a&;Ekdifatmif BuKd;pm;uG,fh/
pdwf"mwfrusprf;ygeJYuG,f} qkdwJh qkH;rMo0g' ay;wwfw,f/ a':a':&JU
228

]pdwf"mwfrusprf;ygeJYuG,f}

qkdwJh

tm;ay;pum;[m

uRefawmfhtwGuf

vwfqwfwJhtiftm; tNrJjzpfxGef;apygw,f/
ukdav;jrwf
(11?pufwifbm?95)
54
acwftqufquf? a&SUwufavQmufvSrf;
b0Burf;c&D;? rnnf;nLcJh
orkdif;&JU wm0ef? pmay wm0ef
ausyGef ESpfq,fh wpf&mpk vGefapaomf/
pkd;jrifhvwf
(17?pufwifbm?95)
55
,aeY jrefrmpmay\ a'0Dav;yg;wGif wyg;tygt0ifjzpfaom 

'journalist' 

a'0D a':a': vlxka':trm&JU aqmif;yg;tcsKdUukd zwf&NyD;aemuf pmwvkH;
bk&m;wqlqkdaom

qkd&kd;pum;rSm

]aemifjyifEkdif

cufonfhtrsKd;}

ukd

&nfñTef;jcif;om[k uRefawmf ,lqxm;jcif;rSm ykdí ckdifrmvmygawmhonf/
ausmfapmrif;
(11?pufwifbm?95)

229

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jynfolU bufu
tNrJ &yfwJh?
jynfolU tusKd;
pOf onfykd; wJh?
jynfolU twGuf
uavmif oGufwJh?
jynfol trsm;
av;pm; MuwJh?
tm;vkH; ol ig
MunfnKd ygwJh?
jynfol cspfwJh
jynfolU pmqkd a':a':rm/
ukdukdBuD;
(rkd; *sme,f)
(25?pufwifbm?95)

230

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touf 80 jynfhonfh tcsdefxd rdrd avQmufvSrf;aeaom pmayvkyfief;ESifh
pmaywm0efukd rqkwfrepf ausmufwkdifyrm ckdifckdifrmrm &yfwnfEkdifcJhonfh
q&mrBuD;\ pdwf"gwftiftm;ukd csD;usL; *kPfjyK vkdufygonf/
pkd;rif;OD;
(13?pufwifbm?95)
58
a':a':\ pmaytEkynm aus;Zl;rsm;ukd uRefawmfwkdY tNrJwap wo
tm;usae&ygonf/
[def;vwf
(13?pufwifbm?95)
59
]....olUtouf 84 ESpf&SdNyD/ usef;rma&; odyfraumif;awmhbl; qkdwmukd
oGm;owd&NyD; oem;aew,f/ olUavmuf toufBuD;wJhtxd ukd,ftvkyf
vkyfEkdifrvm;/ olUvkd tzkd;wefwJhpmawG a&;EkdifrwJhvm;/ olUvkd toufBuD;
wJhtxd ukd,f tvkyf vkyfEkdifygapvkdY t&ifu qkawmif;cJh&wm tarm....}
(vlxka':trm \ a&mufwwf&m&m a&;rdwmrsm;? pmay*sme,f? twGJ2?
trSwf7?1995?rwf)
'kdif,m&D a&;avh r&Sd[kqkdaom a':a':onf vlxkowif;pm &yfpJcJhonfrSm 2
ESpfausmfaeNyDjzpfí ukd,fcHpm;cJh &onfrsm;ukd azmfjyp&mr&Sd jzpfaeojzifh
aeYpOfrSwfwrf;oabmrsKd; csa&;rdonf[k qkdygonf/ txufyg aumufEIwf
csuf uav;rSm (29?10?70) aeYpGJjzifh a':a':a&;cJhaom rSwfwrf;rS jzpf\/
231

rSwfwrf;a&;jzpfjcif;

taMumif;rSm

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pxa&mif;} \ pmwkdufrSvmaom pmukd zwfNyD; tifemvl0Dpxa&mif;\
pmxJwGif olUtouf 84ESpf &SdNyDjzpfaMumif;? usef;rma&;vnf; raumif;?
a&;vufp pmtkyfvnf; rNyD;ao;í 

'Letters  from  China' 

pmrsm;ukd

qufra&;awmh[k qkdxm;&m a':a':h&ifxJ xdckdufoGm;cJhavonf/ tifemvl0D
pxa&mif;\ uavmif &yfem;oGm;rnfukd ESajrmvGef;vSí a':a':rSwfwrf;
uav; aumufa&;cJhonf/ xkdrSwfwrf;a&;pOfu 1970 ckESpf/ tifemvl0D
pxa&mif; 84 ESpf/ a':a': 55 ESpf/ ,ck a':a': 80jynfhNyD/ (olUavmuf
toufBuD;wJhtxd ukd,f tvkyfvkyfEkdifrvm;/ olUvkd tzkd;wefwJhpmawG
a&;EkdifrwJhvm;/ olUvkd toufBuD;wJhtxd ukd,ftvkyfvkyfEkdifyg&apvkdY
qkawmif;cJh&wm tarm)[k a':a':qkdcJh\/ a':a':hqkawmif; jynfhygonf/
avmutusdK;twGuf touf&Sifaom tEkynm&Sifrsm;\ qkawmif;onf
rjynfhbJ raeyg/ taMumif;rl xkdqkawmif;pum; aemufcHü oDvtm;?
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vl0Dpxa&mif;tm; &nfñTef;vsuf a':a':a&;jzpfcJhaom xkd (29?10?70) aeYpGJ
rSwfwrf;tqkH;wGif a':a': þokdY a&;xm;ygonf/ ]jynfolawG&JU vIyf&Sm;
&kef;uefrIawGu &yfem;w,fr&Sdbl;/ tEkdifEkdifiHrSm? taeae&mrSm waeYwjcm;
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okH;oyfjyr,fhvlawG vkdwmawmh trSefyJ tefwD þpmykd'fyg ]tefwD} ae&m
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&Sdapvsuf a':a':\ 80jynfh arG;aeYukd &Sdckd;ylaZmftyfygaMumif;/
cspfOD;nKd
(14?pufwifbm?95)
232

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rdef;rom; wa,muf&JU xl;jcm;wJh *kPfusufoa&ukd &kdao av;pm;&wm
uRefawmfhtwGuf jrefrmtrsKd;om; vli,frsm;xJrSm *kPf&Sdw,fvkdY ,lq
ygw,f/
aqmif;0if;vwf
(14?pufwifbm?95)
61
tarhukd cspfjrwfEkd;av;pm; MunfnKdNyD;rS rEÅav;ukd av;pm; jrwfEkd;&rSef;
odvmwmyg/
ae0if;jrifh
(14?pufwifbm?95)
62
rEÅav;NrKdU&JU a&TwHqdyfwck jzpfwJh tarvlxka':trm&JU 79ESpfajrmuf
arG;aeYyGJwufa&mufcJhwm

b,fvkdvkyfarhEkdifrvJ/

jyefcgeD;rSm

tarhukd

uefawmhcJhw,f/ rEÅav;vkdY Mum;vkdufwmeJY tpDt&D jrifa,mifowd&rd?
vGrf;rIdifrdwJh &kyfykHawGxJ tarhykH tNrJygw,f/ vSywJh rEÅav;[m ÓPfynm
vnf; BuD;rm;vSw,f/ 0D&d,vJ aumif;w,f/ &kd;om; azmfa&GrIvJ &Sdw,f/
MunfvifoefY&Sif;wJh pdwfoabmxm;vJ &Sdw,f/ rEÅav;ukd 'Dvkd vu©Pm
awG jynfhpkHoGm;atmif xif[yfay;wJh tBuD;rm;qkH; yk*¾KdvfawGxJu wa,muf
uawmh tar vlxka':trmygyJ/ uRefawmfxifwm ajym&r,fqkd&if ol[m
ouf&Sdyk*¾KdvfawGxJrSm ,aeYrEÅav;&JU txif&Sm;qkH; yk*¾KdvfygyJ/ pum;0kdif;
awGxJrSm Mum;zl;aewmu rEÅav;taMumif; wm0eftausqkH; ajymjyolwJh/
233

jrefrmpmayorkdif; bPfwkdufBuD;rSm tar aexkdif&r,fh tcef;u om;om;
em;em; awmufawmufyy &SdaerSmyg qkdwmuawmh uRefawmfh oabmxm;yg/
armifnKdjym
(15?pufwifbm?95)
63
rdcifvkd Muifemwwf? aEG;axG;wwf? pkd;&drfBuD;wwf? arwåmxm;wwf?
Nidrf;at;rIay;wwfwJh a':a':vlxk a':trmvkd pmayrdcifrsKd; uRefawmfwkdY
pmayorm;awG&wm uHaumif;ygw,f/ rdcifpdwf&SdwJh trsKd;orD;rsm; jrefrm
jynfrSm trsm;tjym; &SdaewmvJ uRefawmfwkdY vlrsKd;awG uHaumif;ygw,f/
armifwifqifh
(15?pufwifbm?95)
64
orkdif; wacwfukd jzwfoef;&kef;uef aeMuwJh tcsdefrSm oDv? orm"d? odu©m?
ÓPfynmeJY ESvkH;&nf jynfh0wJh vlxk&JUtarukd tm;usMunfnKd *kPf,lí
rqkH;yg/
tarhqE´ rSeforQ jynfh0ygapvkdY orD;qkawmif;vkdufygw,f/
oef;jrifhatmif
(15?pufwifbm?95)

234

65
ta':ht&G,ftxd uRefawmfvnf; pma&;csifygw,f/
pdefrsKd;jrifh
(17?pufwifbm?95)
66
vlxktar
vlxkeJY aysmfygap cifAsm;/
jrwfckdif
(17?pufwifbm?95)
67
tar touf 80 wif;wif;jynfhcsdefrSm tpGJtvef;uif;uif;eJY &ifxJrSm
cHpm;&wJhtwkdif; &Sif;&Sif;a&;&&if e,fcsJU qefYusifa&;? trsKd;om;vGwfvyfa&;
pmayorkdif;&JU zcifBuD;tjzpf q&mBuD; ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;ukdyJ ckdif;EIdif; pHwk
*g&0jyKcJhMu&w,f/
'DaeY acwfNyKdifpmayorkdif;rSmvJ tarvlxka':trmukdyJ trsKd;om;pmay
rdcifBuD;tjzpf ckdif;EIdif;pHwk *g&0jyKoifhw,fvkdY jrifrdygw,f/
oef;pkd;Ekdif
(18?pufwifbm?95)

235

68
a':a': touf 80 jynfhrSm r*Fvm trsKd;rsKd;jzifh jynfhpkHcsrf;omygap/
aemif ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm qufvufNyD; pmaumif;ayrGefrsm;jzifh tvif;jzefYa0
Ekdifygap vkdY qkawmif;ygw,f/
ñGefYat; (tif;0)
(18?pufwifbm?95)
69
qD;ESif; jrLwdrf ol&defrD;ckd;awG Mum;rSm?
wdrfqif wdrfusm; wdrf*VKefawG Mum;rSm?
tvStjrif cufygbd? nyÍövuf&JU Mum;rSm?
aomuAsmyg'awGukd cGmcs? r[l&m rkd;aumif;uifBuD;ukd azgufxGif;?
0if;yaom tvif;wef;BuD; wckjzpfay:?
'g[m vlxkcspforQ vlxka':a':&JU
*kPfjyKylaZmfzG,f&m b0 Zmwfxkwf/
okdYr[kwf
uREkfyfwkdY&JU vrif;a&Tpif rD;tdrf&Sif
a[m'D urÇmajrjrif&JU rdcif
tMuifem aA'&JU oauFw wck

236

vlxk cspforQ vlxktar

]r[mrmwm} oufawmf &mausmf &Snfapaomf0f/
armifckdifrm
(19?pufwifbm?95)
70
uRefawmfh tar[m ]a':pk} yg/
a':a':hpmawG zwfNyD; ]uAsmq&m} jzpfvmolyg/ uRefawmhf ]pmaytar} [m
]a':a':}yg/
ocGyfeD
(21?pufwifbm?95)
71
taru olU&ifaoG; om;awGukd &if;NyD; wjynfvkH;u uRefawmfwkdYvkd
om;awGukd arG;xm;w,f/ uRefawmfuawmh taraysmuf pdwåZ jzpfjzpf&,f/
tareJY pum;ajymwkdif; ]tar? tar? vlxk tar}vkdY &ifxJrSm xpfcsKef;
jrnf[nf; aeNrJ/
'Dwkdif;jynfBuD;xJrSm tareJY uRefawmfwkdY uHMur®mcsif; wlMuw,f/ tar
N*Kdvfwkdif N*Kdvfouf tpkH? tukef? touf 120 txd ]a&Ta'gif;awmif}
ukdifEkdifa&;Ekdif ygapaom0f/
armifatmifyGifh
(21?pufwifbm?95)

237

72
vlxk a':trm qdkwm
wkdif;jynfBuD; wjynfygyJ/
q&mrBuD;ukd uRefawmf awGUqkH*g&0jyKzl;jcif; r&Sdao;yg/okdYaomf q&mrBuD;
pmayrsm;xJu xufjrufwJh tawG;tjrif yg;yg;vTmvTm xdxd&S&S cyfaxhaxh
ta&;tom;rsm;ukd (trsm;pk) BuKdufygw,f/
pkd;jrifhodef;
(22?pufwifbm?95)
73
trsKd;om;a&;0g'
rsKd;cspf0g' pwJh 
Passive  tjrifrsm;xuf

ykdíwkd;wufaom ]rEÅav; ckcHrI}/

okdYr[kwf
]&mZ0ifrsm;&JU owkdYorD;
igwkdY&JU rdcif
{&m0wD} qkdwJh xl;tdrfoif oDcsif;eJY vlxk&JU a':trm/
atmifa0;
(22?pufwifbm?95)

238

74
]vl] &JU ESvkH;om;xJrSm pGrf;tifBuD;rm;wJh ]xk} wck&Sdw,f/ tJ'D xk&JU
twGif;rSm euf&Idif; cufcJ El;nHh okd0SufwJh yef;uav;wyGifh yGifhaeygw,f/
yef;yGifhawGukd b,fvkd rsKd;aphcs &SifoefvmzkdY? tm;rmeftjynfheJY zGHUxGm;
ysHYyGm;apzkdY tarGaumif;ukd ESpfaygif;&mausmf jyñTefjy&if; vufqifhurf;
aeOD;r,fh tar/
cif0if;opf
(22?pufwifbm?95)
75
NyD;cJhwJh 'DZifbmvwkef;u ukdcsKdxGef;eJYtwl armif;axmif&Gmu ocif
ukd,fawmfrIdif;aumif;rI &Sifyifom'Gef;OD;apwDukd zl;NyD;tjyef rEÅav;rSm ocif
ukd,fawmfrIdif;tw¦KyÜwådukda&;wJh q&mrBuD; vlxka':trmukd uefawmhcJh
Muw,f/
q&mrBuD;[m olUpmawGvkdyJ &kd;om;yGifhvif;NyD; cifrifMuifemrIawG tjynfh
&Sdwmukd awGU&vkdY 'Dwcg tnmbufukd c&D;xGufwm odyfwefoGm;NyDvkdY
&ifxJu rSwfcsufcsvkdufrdyg&JU/
&JjrvGif
(22?pufwifbm?95)
76
vlxka':trm[m yg&rD&Sif pma&;q&m? owif;pm q&mrBuD;yg/ywf0ef;usif
vlUavmu vlUb0&JU uG,f0SufwJh trlt&mawGukd jrifwwfwJh tpGrf;&SdNyD;
apwemrSefvkdYygyJ/
239

vlcyfodrf; aumif;usKd;twGuf ajymifajrmufwJh pmay tEkynmeJY qufvuf
o,fykd; Ekdifygap/
csKdxGef;
(22?pufwifbm?95)
77
Z&m&JU ppfonf? ppfarmif;oH oJhoJhukd tHwk? b0&JU tESpfom&ukd xkqpfjy?
tusnf;wefrIukdvnf; ykdif;ppf a0zef? pl;epfaewJh aus;Zl;awmfteEÅukd
&kyfvkH; azmfrjyEkdifwm cGifhvTwfyg a':a':/
prf;prf;wif
(22?pufwifbm?95)
78
vkyfoifhwm rvkyfrdrSm pkd;vGef;vkdY &SmazGNyD;uGufvyfawG jznfhae&wmeJY
tarhrSm tcsdefukefvkdYukefrSef; odrSmr[kwfbl;/ tpm; rxkd;EkdifrSef; odavav
ysufpD;qkH;&IH;oGm;rSm aMumufavavyg tar/
aus;Zl;awG rsm;vGef;vkdY teEÅig;yg;0if tartjzpf &kdaopGm uefawmh
vkdufygw,f/
armifcifom
(23?pufwifbm?95)

240

79 
To mother Africa, so long in fetters:­ 
To all who love her and strive to set her free. 

a':a':[m ESpfq,f&mpkrSm xGef;ajymifwJh rdcifwOD;jzpfovkd ESpfq,fhw&mpk
rSmvnf; vlom;tm;vkH;&JU rdcifwOD; jzpfaerSmygvkdY/
cifarmifat;
(w&m;&kH;csKyfa&SUae? pmay0goem&Sif)
(18?pufwifbm?95)
80
vuf&maumif;awG zefwD;EkdifwJh tEkynm&SifawG[m wcsKdU toufwkdMu
w,f/ wcsKdU touf&Snfayr,fh tEkynm rzefwD;EkdifawmhwmrsKd; &SdaeMu
w,f/ wcsKdU tEkynm zefwD;Ekdifao;ayr,fh vuf&maumif;awG xGufrvm
Muawmh/
vlxka':trm[m ck touft&G,fxd usef;usef;rmrmeJY vuf&maumif;awG
zefwD;aeEkdifwm awGU&vkdY uRefawmfwkdY 0rf;om&ygw,f/ ouf&mausmfwkdif
cktwkdif; quvufwnf&Sdaer,fvkdY arQmfvifh qkawmif;aeMuygw,f/
oef;Ekdif? nKdopf? rQm;eD? oef;tkef;
(22?pufwifbm?95)

241

]trSwfw& 80}okdY
0kdif;0ef;ulnD urÁnf;xkd;ay;Muukefaom
q&m? q&mrrsm;tm; txl;aus;Zl; wif&SdygaMumif;/

armifaoG;opf? cGef*smrIdif;
(25?pufwifbm?95)

242

jrrÍÆL &kyfykH

'*kefwm&m
uRefawmf olrukd jrrÍÆLtjzpf pwifod&Sdjcif; r[kwf/ oydwfarSmufausmif;ol
rtrm tjzpfom pwifjrifzl;cJh& jcif;jzpfonf/ 1936 ausmif;om;oydwfwGif
e,frS uRefawmfwkdY yxrqkH; EkdifiHvkH;qkdif&m nDvmcHokdY wufa&mufpOfu
olrukd pwifjrifzl;onf/ *sLbvDa[mwGif usif;yonfY ,if;nDvmcHBuD;rS
yxrOD;qkH;aom jrefrmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&m ausmif;om;or*¾ukd arG;zGm;ay;vkduf
onf/ ,if;nDvmcHwGif tqkdwifoGif;aom tif;vsm;aqmifol rtrmukd
awGU&onf/ pum;ajymaumif;onf[k cHpm;vkdufonf/ xkdYaemuf uRefawmf
&efukefwuúokdvfokdY a&muf&SdoGm;pOf ]a'go} [laom 0w¦Kwkduav;ukd
wuúokdvfausmif;wkdufr*¾Zif;wGifvm;rod zwfvkdufrdonf/ a&;olu jrrÍÆL/
*smref0w¦K? 0w¦Ka&;q&m [mrd\  Fury  0w¦Kukd bmomjyefxm;aom 0w¦K?
uRefawmf ]a'go}ukd BuKdufoGm;onf/ okdYaomf jrrÍÆL 0w¦Krsm;ukd rzwfrd/
uRefawmfyJ rzwfrdovm;? jrrÍÆLyJ qufra&;ovm; rodawmh/ xkdYaemuf
ppfrjzpfrDumvu BuD;yGm;a&;pmtkyfwkdufrS ]arm&pfaumvpf}\ ]trItcif;
rsm;} pmtkyfbmomjyefukd zwf&onf/ xkdYaemuf ppfNyD;pwGif ]0gqDvkpum;}
\ ]oufwefYa&mif} 0w¦K bmomjyefukd zwf&onf/ ,if; oufwefYa&mif
0w¦K

trSma&;olu

]ocifoef;xGef;}/

oluvnf;

pmta&;aumif;?

tzGJUtEGJUaumif;/
1950 'DZifbmvu rEÅav;okdY a&mufoGm;onf/ pma&;q&m rdwfqufyGJ
jzpfonf/ 0efBuD;csKyf ocifEku txufjrefrmjynf pma&;q&mESifh atmuf
243

jrefrmjynf pma&;q&m rdwfqufyGJvkyfay;onf/ xkdtcgu a':trmukd
awGU& onf/ uRefawmfu touf 30 &G,f? a':trmu uRefawmfxuf 4
ESpfcefY BuD;onf/ rdwfqufyGJ jzpfojzifh [kd{nfhcHyGJ oGm;&? onf{nfhcHyGJ
oGm;&jzifh a':trmESifh aumif;pGmyif pum;rajymjzpf/ 1939 uRefawmf
rEÅav;a&mufpOf ukdb[def;u a':trmqDac:roGm;/ rawGUvkduf/ a&Tjynf
OD;bwifxHokdY

ukdb[def;u

ac:oGm;onf/

a&TjynfOD;bwifESifhtwl

OD;xifukd awGU&onf/ aemufrS OD;xifonf a':trm\ zcifrSef; od&onf/
a&TjynfOD;bwifu uRefawmfwkdY &Srf;jynfe,f oGm;rnfqkdí &Srf;jynfe,fwGif
a&ukd txl;*&kpkdufaomuf&ef rSmMum;aeonf/ OD;bwifrSm ,ck &o
'g&kdufwm ukd0if;az\ zcifjzpfaMumif; aemufrSod&onf/ aemufawmh
rEÅav;a&mufvQif OD;vStdrfrSm wnf;ckdonf/ owif;pmzufwGif a&mufaeNyD/
xkdtcg a':trmonf vlxka':trm jzpfaeygNyD/
(c)
pmayb0 qkdonfu ajym&tcufom;/ tuJjzwf&cufonf/ rdrdwkdY\
yk*¾vdub0ESifh qufpyfaeonf/ ukdvSESifh taMumif;ygaomtcg owif;pm
q&mr jzpfoGm;[efwlonf/ ukdvSESifhuRefawmfwkdYu cifMuonf/ausmif;om;
b0uwnf;u

oduRrf;onf/

uRefawmhfxuf

tawmfvnf;BuD;onf/

ppfjzpfcgeD;u ukdvS wm0ef,lxkwfaeaom BuD;yGm;a&; r*¾Zif;wkdufokdY
0w¦Kwkduav;wyk'f a&;ay;cJhonf/ xkdtcgu uRefawmf usKdufvwfokdY
a&mufaeonf/
0w¦Ka&;q&m armfygqGef;\ ]rGef;vkduf} trnf&Sd 0w¦Kwkdav;ukd rSD;um
a&;vkdufonf/ ]tvS*kPf}[k trnfwyf vkdufonf/ BuD;yGm;a&;r*¾Zif;rSm
xkd0w¦Kygvmonf/ ukdvSu uRefawmfzwf&ef pmtkyfrsm;pGm ykdYvkdufonf/
1946u uRefawmf wm&mr*¾Zif; xkwfa0aomtcg a':trmxHu pm
244

a&mufvmonf/ uRefawmf\ wm&mr*¾Zif;twGuf ukd,fpm;vS,fvkyf&ef
jzpfonf/ okdYaomf uRefawmfu vlxkwkduftwGuf ukd,fpm;vS,f ray;jzpfbJ
tjcm;wkdufokdYay;jzpfoGm;onf/ uRefawmf tm;emaeonf/ uRefawmfu
vkyfief;aumif;pGm rvkyfwwfí t&ifvmíajymolukd ay;vkduf[efwlonf/
uRefawmfu rEÅav; ta&mufenf;onf/ xkdYaMumifh a':trmESifh txdtawGU
enf;onf/ rEÅav; a&mufvQifvnf;? vlxkwkdufwGif ukdvSESifhom pum;
ajymjzpfonf/ ukdvSESifh pum;aumif;aepOf a':trmu 0ifajymwwfonf/
a':trma&;aom

ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;?

jynfolcspfaom

tEkynmonf

pmtkyfrsm;xGufvQif uRefawmfhxH ykdYwwfonf/ uRefawmf zwf&onf/
a':trmu tpktaqmif;aumif;/ rEÅav;rS tEkynm&Sif Zmwfq&mrsm;
taMumif;

aphaphiSiS

a&;onfukd

Zmwfobif0goemygojzifh

zwfMunfhjzpfonf/

zwfjzpfonf/

uRefawmfonf

a':trmonf

Zmwfobif

avmu? *DwavmuESifh tuRrf;0if em;vnfonf/ ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;
pmtkyfqkdvQif txlBuD;/ ususeeavhvmum tw¦KyÜwådukd a&;onf/
uRefawmfu &opmay ukd a':trmxHrS arQmfvifhonf/ jrrÍÆL\ pmay
ta&;tom; tzGJUtEGJUukd odaeojzifh jrrÍÆLuJhokdY 0w¦Krsm; bmomjyefap
csifonf/

okdYaomf

jyefonfukd

rawGU&/

jrrÍÆLu

jyefvnf&Sifoef

xajrmufjcif;r&Sd/ vlxka':trm[laom owif;pm q&m? tw¦KyÜwåda&;q&m
oabmrsKd;om awGUae&onf/ pdwfxJu odyfrauseyf/
(*)
owif;pmq&mESifh pma&;q&m (0g) &opma&;q&muawmh odyfrwl/
owif;pmq&mqkdonfuawmh owif;ukd tajcjyKí a&;zGJU&onf/ owif;
qkdonfuawmh wu,fjzpfysufaeonfh t&mwkdYukd rSwfwrf;wif&onf/
&opma&;q&muawmh

wu,fhtjzpftysufukd
245

tajcjyKum

Zmwfvrf;

ZmwfuGufwkdYjzifh jc,fo&onf/ uRefawmfu jrrÍÆL jzpfapvkdonf/ olr\
tawGUtBuKHESifhqkdvQif olrjzwfoef;cJhaom? olrjzwfoef;aeaom orkdif;
tawGUtBuKHESifhqkdvQif? jrrÍÆLtzGJtEGJUrsKd;ESifhqkdvQif 0w¦K&Snf a&;zGJUEkdifrnf[k
xifxm;cJhonf/ okdYaomf owif;pmq&mtcef;uvnf; olUtcef;ESifhol
&Sdonfukd uRefawmfem;vnfonf/ ,ckvnf; r*¾Zif;rsm;wGif olr\ tawGU
tBuKHukd tajccHum a0zeftuJjzwfaompmrsm;ukdvnf; zwfae&í jrrÍÆLukd
rawGU&aomfvnf; vlxka':trmtjzpf awGUae&í wrsKd; auseyfae&onf/
rESpfu tr&yl& *E¨m&kHausmif;wkdufteD; awmifav;vkH;ausmif;wkduftoGm;
rEÅav;blwm&kHrSqif;vQif a':trmh tdrfokdY 0ifoGm;&onf/ q&mBuD;
ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;\ qDaq;um;csyfBuD;a&SUwGif uRefawmfwkdYukd{nfhcHonf/
cPwjzKwfawmh pum;ajymonf/ rEÅav;u uAsmq&mESifh pma&;q&m
rsm;vnf; ac:xm;í pkHpkHvifvif/ jrrÍÆLtaMumif; ajym&if; jrrÍÆLemrnfESifh
a&;aom0w¦Krsm; pkxkwfrnf[k Mum;&í 0rf;omrdonf/ pum;ajymMu&if;
wm&memrnfESifh pyfxm;aom tqkdawmf pma&;q&mtaMumif; a&mufoGm;
onf/

]rdef;uav;vm;?

a,musfm;av;vm;

rodbl;}[k

uRefawmfu

ajymvkduf&m a':trmu NyKH;í ]&Sifu rdef;uav; jzpfapcsifwmvm;}[k
uRefawmfhukd pvkdufonf/

(C)
jrrÍÆL\ 0w¦K? bmomjyefpaom pmrsm;ukd rzwf&aomfvnf; ,aeYxGuf
aeaom r*¾Zif;rsm;wGif a':trm\aqmif;yg;rsm;ukd zwfae&onf/ yxr
rsKd;quf?

'kwd,rsKd;qufrsm;ukd

jzwfoef;oGm;NyD;

wwd,rsKd;qufukd

jzwfoef;qJ/ ,aeYacwfay:tajctaeukd olrcHpm;onfhtwkdif; a&;om;xm;
onf/ ppfrjzpfrDacwfESifh ,aeYacwfukd EIdif;,SOfí azmfjyxm;ojzifh tod
246

wkd;&onf/ todqkdonfrSm EIdif;,SOfcsufrsm;jzifhom rSefuefaomtodukd
awGUEkdifonf/
csKdonf[k t&omcHvQif omrefxuf rcsKdaom &o cHpm;csufrsm;om
jzpfonf/ omrefxufcsKdvQif ,cktcsKdonf ayghoGm;ayrnf/ olr\ t,l
tqrsm;? olr\ cHpm;csufrsm;ukd ,aeY wwd,rsKd;qufrsm; ykdízwfoifh
onf/ okdYrSomvQif olwkdY\tjrif? olwkdY\vIyf&Sm;rI rnfonfhae&m a&muf&Sd
aeNyDukd ykdí odEkdifaomaMumifhjzpfonf/
uRefawmfuawmh trsKd;om;aeY rsKd;qufcsif;jzpfí olr\ t,ltq? olr\
cHpm;csufwkdYukd zwfcsifaerdonf/ 1936 ausmif;om;oydwfrS pwifxdawGUcJh
&aom oydwfarSmufausmif;ol rtrmukd ,aeYaps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepf[k
ac:aom acwfwacwfwGifvnf; pl;&SxufjrufpGm &Tifvef;pGm a0zefpGm
jzwfoef;aeonfukd awGUjrif&ayonf/
'*kefwm&m
2?10?95

247

oufwefUa&mif rdwfquf
þpmtkyfrSm ,ck ta&;awmfykHBuD;twGif;wGif &k&Sm;jynfrS qkdAD,ufvlxk
onf emZDzufqpfwkdY&efukd wuJhZGJjzifh ckcHwGef;vSefonfh taMumif;t&m
rsm;ukd armfuGef;xkd;í xm;aom pmtkyfjzpfygonf/ pma&;q&mrBuD;onf
,lu&def;e,f&Sd &Gmuav;w&Gmukd aemufum;cHí 0w¦KZmwfvrf;qifum
xm;jcif;jzpf&m? Zmwfvrf;yg ZmwfvkdufwkdYrSm rnfrQ ta&;ra&mufaom
tcPf;wGif yg0ifonf jzpfapumrl o&kyfygvSojzifh zufqpf'Pfukd
vufawGUcHpm;vkduf&aom Armwkdif;yif wuJhtjzpftysufrsm; rSef&rnf[k
,kHMunfum rdrdwkdYukd,fawGUrsm;jzifh ,SOfíMunfhEkdifMuayvdrfhrnf/qif;&Jom;
vlxktm; zufqpfwkdYñSif;yef;ESdyfpufykHuav;rsm;ygrusef ¤if;wkdYtm; &GH&Sm
rkef;wD;ojzifh awmfvSefvkdykH? rsKd;cspfajymufMum;rsm; zGJUpnf;í oJoJrJrJ
wkdufckdufykH? &SyfeDwyfrawmfBuD;u vma&mufí w&GmNyD;w&Gm u,fq,f
ykHwkdYrSm

pmukdbwf&onfESihfrwl?

&kyf&Sifum;ukd

Munfh&bdouJhokdY

tuGif;om; tuGif;om;ay:vmatmif uavmifukd Ekdifeif;pGm a&;om;í
xm;avonf/ 0rfef'g0gpDvkpfum;\ xl;jcm;csufrSm &Gmuav;w&Gm\
&ufaygif;tenf;i,ftwGif; jzpfysufonfh tjcif;t&mrsm;ukd vufrSrcs
Ekdifrnfh pmwapmif aywzGJUjzpfatmif zefwnf;Ekdifjcif;yif jzpfavonf/
0rfef'g0gpDvkpfum;rSm

trsKd;tEG,ftm;jzifh ykdvefolwa,mufjzpfí rdrd

ukd,fwkdif yg0ifaqmif&GufcJhonfh rsKd;cspfvkyfief;rsm;ukd pmaywGifxnfhoGif;
a&;om;jcif;jzifh emrnfausmfMum;aom pma&;q&mrBuD;wa,muf jzpfvm
avonf/

wkdif;jynfESifhvlrsKd;\

vGwfvyfcsrf;omrIukd

wu,fvkdvm;

cspfcifojzifh olUwoufwmvkH;wGif þudpörsm;ukdom aqmif&Gufí ,ck
248

tcsdefwGifvnf; ykdvefjynf rsKd;cspf ,leD,ef cs,f,mrif &mxl;ukd ay;tyfjcif;
cH&avonf/ ]oufwefYa&mif}ac: þ0w¦Kukd wuJhta&;awmfykH tcgBuD;
jzpfaom 1942-ckESpfwGif a&;om;í ¤if;ESpfxGufpmtkyfrsm;wGif yXrwef;
0w¦Kjzpfonf[k a&G;cs,fowfrSwfí 1943-ck pwmvifqkjzifh csD;jr§ifhjcif;
cH&avonf/
pwmvifqkrsm;ukd wESpfwESpfwGif xl;cRefaom avmu"gwfynm? pufrI
vufrIynm?
ay;jcif;jzpf\/

tEkynmESifh
1939

pmaywkdYukd

ckESpfwGif

qkdAD,uftpkd;&u

acgif;aqmifBuD;

a&G;cs,fí

*sKd;Zufpwmvif\

toufajcmufq,fjynfh txdrf;trSwfupí csD;jr§ifhcJhavonf/
rSwfcsuf
rEÅav;BuD;yGm;a&;ykHESdyfwkdufESifh vlxk*sme,fwkdufrS 1945? atmufwkdbmv
wGif ykHESdyfxkwfa0 jzefYcsdcJhaom vlxka':trm bmomjyefonfh ]oufwefY
a&mif} 

The  Rainbow 

pmtkyfrS ocifoef;xGef; (awmwGif;usqkH;)\

rdwfquf trSmpmjzpfygonf/
t,f'Dwm

249

tcef; ( 4 )

tarYarG;aeY*kPfjyKuAsmrsm;

250

Mum edrdwfykHopf
tJNidrf;om
toufuav;&,f wJh
&Snfapvkd
jreE´m a&ndKoef;w,f
ref; awmif&dyfckd wJh
tJ'D *E¦0ifukd vGrf;&if;
wrf;csif; a&;zGJU
ylaZmfvkdufyg&JU tar/
atmifyifv,f awmajcr,f
tarmajzr,f wJh
acsmareJY avmar
umv a'o aiGpawG ae&majymif;
rEÅav;a[mif;&Jh *Dw
vSywJh pmom;
tckawmh b0awG cg;
edrdwf zwfMum; cJhavovm;
'gayr,fh tara&
tNrdwfp wzGm;zGm;eJY
pdwf"gwf "g;awGuawmh xuf&Saewkef;yg/

251

tusKd;rsm;ap
waqmif wa,mifeJY
trsKd;om;pmay&Jh acgif;aqmif
taMumif; ay:vm&if
ra&Smifwwf jrifhjrwf
om;wkdY&JU yckH;awmifyH txyfxyfrSm
tareJY q&m wm&m
pmayeJY uAsm
tawG;tac: topf
tEkynmay: opömxm;vkdY cspf
jynfolawGMum; OD;acgif; epf
ESvkH;om;eJY arT;xkH&pf
a'gif;waumifvnf; jzpf
"g; wacsmif;vnf; jzpf
tJ'g tm;aumif;wJh topf
om;wkdY acwfNydKifxJ
cspfNrJ &kdusKd;
tm;ukd; arQmfvifh
tar[m MumwyGifh jzpfcJhNyDyJ/
trsKd;om; pmay vIdif;xJu
r[mrIdif;&JU orD; tvdr®m
vlxkcspfwJh vlxka':trm
apwem arwåm
252

rk'dwm tvif;w&m;eJY taersm;
olU &SdwmawG
tcsif; rrsm;&atmif ajzMum;
rem;rae xkqpf
tcspftpkdiftcJ ru uspfukdufwm
aMomf acwfNyKdifxJu cspfwJh Mum/
tar&,f
Mum qdkwm
rdpämawG&JU rzG,fr&meJY
t0dZÆmawG&JU tv,frSm
&THU pe,f vGifjyifMurf;
cufcJ yifyef;
0rf;a&; twGuf vSrf;&ayr,fh
tMurf;cH wkd;xGuf
rsKd;quf wnfaqmuf
vIdif;atmuf avatmuf
ol[mav a&waygufrS twif rcH
trsKd;rmef rcs
tzkd;wef b0eJY
t&kd;cH tvSyg tar/
tar[m
0yfpif; EIH;acGaewJh
253

ñGwfuGif; usKH;a&aoxJu
Mum r[kwf
uAsmtvkyf pmtvkyfeJY
Z&m&kyfukd awmfvSef
arSmfqefwJh tawG;
tar ra&;
ESvkH;aoG;pufwJh
tNyKH;av; wcsuf
tarhrsufvkH;rSm vufceJ ay:
aeaysmf aoaysmf uRefawmfwkdY
tar tar vkdY
ac:yg&ap aemf/
zufqGwf v&dyf
n rtdyfbJ
tvGrf;pdwfeJY tarhukd rSef;
tvif;EGrf;wJh v wjcrf;
yifyef; acR;NyKduf
0kd;0g; rkdufqJ b0xJrSm
tar[m ]Mum} topf
t&kPfawGeJY yGifhvkdY vSpf
tcspfqkdif tcspfcJ olU &kyfvTm
acwfNyKdifxJu ]ukrkj'm}/

254

touf &Spfq,fjynfh
tarh arG;aeY
ta0;u taiGUom vIHcJh&
&wemykH a&T rEÅav;
atmifyifv,f&JU aw;
'kd;ajy;oH rkd;,H [def;
Mum&kd; vufqpf Nidrf;csrf;a&;/
(tar vlxk a':trm touf 80 jynfh arG;aeYokdY)

255

vlxka':a':
armifaoG;opf

(tydkif; u)

armifaoG;opf a&;cJhzl;w,f
]jrefrmjynf tv,fykdif;[m
orkdif;aMumif; t&
ta&;BuD;w,f}/
[kwfw,f
jrefrmjynf tv,fykdif;
ref;wkdif; ref;NrKdU[m
&mZ0ifa&; t&
bmoma&; t&
ppfa&; t&
pD;yGm;a&; t&
,Ofaus;rIa&; t&
orkdif;aMumif; tpOftvm t&
csufus
puf0kdif;xJu teDy/
256

&wemykHukd
a[mh'D ref;NrKdU rif;aejynfawmfukd
ya'o&mZf qkdolawGuvJ oabmus
Oa&my jyifopfawGuvJ oabmus
NAdwdoQ t*FvdyfawGuvJ oabmus
tm&S *syefawGuvJ oabmus
olUuRef rcHvkdolawGuvJ oabmus
EkdifiHa&; orm;awGuvJ oabmus
pD;yGm;a&; orm;awGuvJ oabmus
tJ'Dvkd oabmus olawGxJrSm
BuD;yGm;a&; ygw,f
vlxk*sme,f ygw,f
vlxkowif;pm ygw,f
vlxk OD;vS ygw,f
vlxk a':trm ygw,f/
vlawmh vlyJ
vlcsif; wlpGayr,fh
vlcsif; wlvSayr,fh
EkdifiH vSzkdY
ukd,fusKd; pGefYjyrS?
jynfol vSzkdY
tepfem (wu,f) cHjyrS?
257

vGwfvyfa&; twGuf
trsKd;om;a&; twGuf
aoG;pufeJY vJjyrS
tm* owåd &SdrS
ajzmifhrwf &kd;om;rS
w&m; rQwrS
tJ'grsKd; usjyefawmh
vlxkOD;vS ygjyefa&m
vlxka':trm ygjyefa&m/
BuD;yGm;a&;eJY vlxk[m
ajymifajrmufwJh tpOftvm &Sdw,f
owåd b,favmuf &Sdw,f qdkwm
jynfhtusKd; b,favmuf ykd;Muw,fqkdwm
vufwif tar&du u odw,f
tmz&du u odw,f
Oa&my u odw,f
tm&S u odw,f
EkdifiHwum em; rsufpdxJrSm
jrefrmjynfrSm vlxk &SdrSef;
a[m'D jrefrmjynfrSm ]vlxk OD;vS} &SdrSef;
a[m'D rEÅav;rSm ]vlxka':trm} &SdrSef;
urÇmw0Srf;u odMujyefa&m/

258

'DvkdeJY
vlxkeJY OD;vS
vlxkeJY a':trm
vlxkOD;vS
vlxka':trm
vlxk*sme,f
vlxkowif;pm
BuD;yGm;a&;pmtkyfwkduf
jynfolawG cspf BuKdufcJh
wwkdif; wjynfvkH; ESpfjcKdufcJh
jynfolcspfwJh pmay tEkynmonf ESpfOD; jzpfcJh
jrefrmjynf&JU pmay ol&Jaumif; ESpfOD; jzpfcJh
NyD;awmh uRefawmfwkdY cspfwJh OD;av;vS jzpfcJh
NyD;awmh uRefawmf av;pm;wJh a':trm jzpfcJh
tJ'Davmufukd crf;em; xnf0gcJh/
(tykdif; c)
1982
cifyGef; jzpfol
vlxk OD;vS uG,fvGef
om; okH;a,mufwkdY&JU rdcif
rkqkd;ryif qkdjim;
&Spfq,fem; eD;NyD qkdjim;
259

(uaeY 79 ESpf wif;wif;jynfh tcrf;tem;)
tm;EGJUr,fvkdY xifovm; armif/
a[m'D rdcifBuD;rSm
a&m*g r&Sdbl;
tem &Sdw,f
'Pf&m &Sdw,f
tJ'D a0'emawGuawmh
jrefrmjynfeJY ywfoufvkdY/
a[m'D rdcifBuD;rSm
Oayu©m 0g'ukd ykdif;uefY
awmifukef;eJY ajrjyefYukd cspfw,f
jrpf0uRef;ay:eJY urf;&kd;wef;ukd cspfw,f
r[m ajrxkukd cspfw,f
jrpdrf;a&mif awmtkyfukd cspfw,f
tESpf csKyfvkdufawmh
jrefrmjynfBuD; arSmifwkduf udk;yg;xJ epfrSm
vlrsKd;jcm; pD;yGm; e,fcsJU AdkvfusrSm
o&kyfysuf ,Ofaus;rI ukdvkdeD jyKrSm
&kd;&m ajcmufaoGUNyD;
trsKd; omoem aysmufarhrSm
'gawGukd pkd;&drf&SmvGef;vkdY
'gawGukd ylyef&SmvGef;vkdY
'gawGukd qwfqwfcg
260

emusifwwf&rSef; odvkdY
r[mrked &Sifawmfjrwf xHyg;
pdwfoGm; ukd,foGm; qkawmif;cJh
trsKd;aumif; jrefrmawG
wynfhawmfrwkdY wkdif;&if;om;awG
a&ukdvJ ykdifqJ ykdif&ygvkd\
ajrukdvJ ykdifqJ ykdif&ygvkd\
avukdvJ ykdifqJ ykdif&ygvkd\
o,HZmwawGukdvJ ykdifNrJ ykdif&ygvkd\
tEkynm
r[m ,Ofaus;rI
trsKd;om; tarG tpkpkukdvJ
NrJpGm xdef;odrf; jyKpkxm;&ygvkd\
tkd raumif;rI
ab;Oyg'f tEÅ&m,f [l[lorQwkdYukd z,f&Sm;
e*g;awG z,f
oefYpif z,f&Sm;ay;awmfrlyg bk&m;
'g *VKefYe,f
*VKefY {&d,myg bk&m;/
(tykdif; *)
rSwfrdao;oy
1936 umv
261

'kwd, ausmif;om;oydwfBuD;u tkH~uG
wuúokdvf ausmif;awmfolBuD; b0
t&G,fuvJ i,fao;vS
touf ESpfq,fhwESpf ysKdrspfpG
vSzkdY yzkdY ab;z,fcs
trsKd;om;a&; t"du
e,fcsJU vufatmufu vGwfajrmufrS
oydwf arSmufMu qE´jy
tv,fypö,H wcJeufy
q&maZmf*sD trSwfw&

«jy'g;&Sif
ay;csifiJh ck ta&;
aZmf*sDarmif ig rppfvkdY
pdwfnpfw,fav;»
aZmf*sD
9?3?36
q&m rif;ok0Pf trSwfw&

«trmonf
taysmh r[kwf
tjzLonf trnf; r[kwf
tajzmifhonf taumuf r[kwf
trmukd raysmhapESifh
tjzLukd rrnf;apESifh
262

tajzmifhukd raumufapESifh»
rif;ok0Pf
9?3?36
(tydkif; C)
oufwef; &Spfq,f eD;NyD
tkdBuD; &G,fus jzpfNyD
pdwfoGm;wkdif; ukd,fryg jzpf&NyD
'Dvkd qkdayr,fh
vlUtouf &Spfq,f qkdayr,fh
t,ltq rtkd
tawG;tac: rtkd
qkH;jzwfcsuf rtkd
&yfwnfcsuf rtkd
EkdifiHa&; rtkd
tpOftvm xdef;odrf;jcif;rSmvnf; rtkd
Ekopf ysKdqJ
wuf~uGqJ
ukd,fa&; tw¦KyÜwåd vSyqJ/
uJ
nDtpfukd armifESrrsm; cifAsm;
ta&mifwl tqif;vSwJh
263

wu,fh pmay tEkynmorm; taygif;wkdY cifAsm;
tm;vkH;
a[m'D a&;abmfawG tm;vkH;
a[m'D tEkynmorm;awG tm;vkH;
]wkH;armif; acgufMuprf;
wkH;armif; acgufMuprf;
wkH;armif; acgufMuprf;
emem acgufvkdufMuprf;}
uaeY tcrf;tem;rSm
pmayorkdif; tdrfOD;cef;rSm
tpOftvm *kPf rsufESmyef; yGifhvef;aewJh
awmifa0S;rygbJ vrf; qufavQmufaewJh
vlxka':a': usef;rmapzkdY
vlxka':a': usef;rmapzkdY
vlxka':a': usef;rmapzkdY
uREkfyfwkdY tm;vkH; uefawmhMupkdY/
armifaoG;opf
25?9?94

(vlxk a':trm 79 ESpfjynfh? 29? Ekd0ifbm? 94 arG;aeYwGif ukd,fwkdif
a&;om; &GwfqkdcJhaom uAsm)

264

tarYuefawmYyef;
wifrdk;
aoEdkifyg&dk;vm;wdkYtar
wdkYwdkif;jynfudkapmifYa&Smufae
rmapomaparwåmydkY
tarYrsuf&nfpdkY?
igwdkY'ku©jrifwJYcg
tarrcsrf;om
u&kPmeJY arwåmzsef;
zl;yGifYvmwJYyef;?
vGrf;ygao;&JYtara&
oufawmf&mausmf&Snfygap
tar&dSutm;udk;&
wdkYjynfcGeftm;y/ /
( tarvlxka':trm arG;aeYtMudKuefawmYyef; )
wifrdk;
23?10?2006
tar&du

265

(92)jynfh arG;rdcifodkY ay;pmwapmif
zdk;oH (vlxk)

tJ'Dnuav ... tar .../
rdk;av;awGu wzGJzGJusvdkY
roJvSayr,fh tonf;uawmh usifaew,f
rcGJcsifwmawmh trSefyg
t&ifqHk;jzwfwmu wHcGefwdkif
aemuf ... t&mawmf
awmifjrifh
arSmifeJYrnf;rnf;xJrSm
wae&mNyD; wae&m usef&pfcJhw,f
pm;csifpdwfvnf; r½Sd
tdyfcsifpdwfvnf; r½Sd
pOf;pm;csifwmyJ &Sdayr,fh
bmrSpOf;pm;vdkYvnf; ray:
aMomf ... jrpfi,fawmif ausmfoGm;ygayghvm; .../
tazeJY tarudk
uefawmhcJhygw,f
nDeJY tr ESr
266

ighudk cGifhvTwfMuaemf
wudk,faumif;qefwm r[kwf
ol&Jaumif; jzpfcsifwmvnf; r[kwf
tajctaeu wGef;ydkYawmh
'dkYrSm a½G;p&m r&SdvdkYom
em;vnfMuyguGm
tazeJY tarudk
*½kpdkufMuyguGm ... vdkY/
tJ'Daemufawmh tar&,f
awmifawG ... awmawG
acsmif;awG ... tif;awG
vTm;ueJ vTm;ueJ ... woGm;xJoGm;
e,fpGefe,fzsm;xd
uAsmwyk'fawmif a&;rdao;w,f
tarrSwfrdr,f xifygw,f .... 
“taemufudk wcsufiJhMunhfvdkY
ta&SUudkwJh xGufcJhw,f” qdkwmav
jyu©'def pmrsufESmawG
ouf½GufajcmufawGvdk
wa0a0 vGifhus
eDolawGjzL ... jzLolawGeD
b0awG ... cspfcif&if;ESD;olawG
aoGuGJa&m ... &SifuGJa&m
267

cGJcGmukefMu
topfawGeJYvnf;
wif;wif;MuyfMuyfyJ
vufqGJEIwfqufMu
bmompum;awmif
tawmfpHkatmif wwfcJh
ESpfaygif;oHk;q,fqdkwm
enf;ordkYvm; tar&,f .../
tyg;rSm tazvnf;r½Sd
usaemfwdkYvnf; r½Sd
tarcsnhf wa,mufwnf;
r[kwfbl; avScGufcsnf; r[kwfbl;
jynfolawGeJY vufwGJvdkY
om;ajr;opfawGeJY vufwGJvdkY tr,ftdkY ajcvSrf;rdkY
olwdkYavmuf roGufvnf;
1936wkef;uvdkyJ
csDqJ wufqJ
tckvnf; vufwGef;vSnf;eJY
&J&JBuD; csDwufaewJh
tarh&JUom;rSm 1300&wD
tarqdkwJh pdefem;uyfaMumifh
yg;tajymifBuD; ajymifcJh&ygw,f .../

268

tarvnf; vSrf;
usaemfvnf; vSrf;
'Dvrf;BuD; wavSsmufrSm
armw,f wcGef;rajymygbl;
90 ausmfBuD; EIwfu
wcGef;yJ xGuf&Smw,f
bmt"dyÜm,fvJ
uAsmzwfol awG;Munhfyg 
“ighom; usef;rmatmifae
tarvnf; usef;rmatmifaew,f” wJh/
zdk;oH (vlxk)
1300&wD = 1300jynfh rsdK;qufudk ñTef;wmyg/

269

92 ESpfjynfh vlxktarodkY tvGrf;pm
a'gufwmvGPf;aqG
‘tar aeaumif;vm; vdkY
c&D;a&mufrqdkuf usaemfwdkY ajy;awGUawmh
cyfaEG;aEG; &ifaiGUu
usaemfwdkYqD jyefajy;vm
‘ighom;wdkY b,f&xm;eJY vmMuvJuGJU
xdkifMu ... xdkifMu wJh
aEG;axG;wJh tarh EIwfqufoH
MunfarGUwJh tarh tjyHK;
usaemfwdkYudk zHk;vTrf;
c&D;yef;orSs
usaemfwdkY vef;qef;cJh&ygw,f tar .../
‘tar ... 'DrSm q&majrZm
'DrSm q&m0okef
[dkbufcHkrSm udkatmifa0;
'Dab;u udkomcsKd
[dkbufu udkcspf0if;armif vdkY
cyf½dkU½dkU usaemf rdwfqufawmh ...
taru
‘jrifwmaygh ighom;
270

tarhom;awG tm;vHk;udk
tar tukefvHk; jrifwmaygh qdkNyD;
jyHK;jyHK;BuD; MunhfaewJh
tarh&JUyHk&dyf
&ifxJudk ,dkzdwfpD;qif;
at;jrwJh jrpfwpif;jzpfcJh&ygw,f tar .../
‘ighom;awG t&uf odyfraomufMueJYaemf
‘tarwdkYbufuvlawG touf&SnfwmudkyJ tarjrifcsifw,f
‘udkcspf0if;armifwdkY? udkvGPf;aqGwdkY
r*¾Zif;awG tajctae aumif;Mu&JUvm;
tarhpmrlawG tcsdefrD&Mu&JUvm;
tarvnf; a&;jzpfwmqdkvdkY
udk0if;Nidrf;? uvsmeYJqdk 'Dav;tkyfyJ &Sdwm
ighom;wdkY tqifrajy&if
tarhudk pmrlc ray;eJYaemf vdkY
wdk;vsvs toHeJY
pdk;&drfylyefwJh pum;
tarajymMum;avawmh
usaemfhpdwfxJ
yDwdawGeJY tm;jzpfcJh&ygw,f tar .../
OD;ydefwHwm;ay: vrf;avSsmuf&if;
avnif;u ajy;0ifaqmifhawmh
271

usaemfhpdwfawG cyfajrmufajrmufjzpfoGm;
tJ'D taMumif;w&m;xJrSm
usaemfvdk t,f'Dwm icGßwfiwm;av;udk
taru pmrlawG csD;jr§ifhNyD;
todtrSwfjyKcJhwm[m
t"du taMumif;w&m;yg tar .../
ESif;jrLawG a0aewJh
awmiforef eHeufcif;rSm
tarharwåmawGu
ESif;jrLawGeJYtwl ½Gmus
t,ltqwl
,HkMunfcsufwl
&nfrSef;csufwl
&ifbwfcsif;wlMuwJh
tarhom; tarhorD;awGtm;vHk;
tjyHK;udk,fpD ,Sufoef;
tvGrf;udk,fpD ayGUaxG;
tem*wfa&;twGuf wdkifyif
awmiforef wcGifvHk;
Nidrf;csrf;wJh &oawG jynfhzHk;
aysmfvdkYrqHk; jyHK;vdkYr0 jzpfcJhMuygw,f tar .../

272

tckawmh
tarhom; tarhorD;awGvnf;
ppftmPm&SifawG&JU tMurf;zufrIatmufrSm
wrvGef a&mufola&muf
b0wuúodkvf a&mufola&muf
vGwfajrmufe,fajr a&mufola&muf
wwd,EdkifiH a&mufola&muf
uarmufur
upOfhuvsm;eJY
ajy;vTm;½kef;uefaeMu&ayr,fh
tarh arwåmxD;&dyfu
usaemfhwdkYtay:
xm0& tkyfrdk;ay;xm;vdkY
pdwf"mwfcGeftm; razmufrjyefeJY
ajzmifhrSefwJh vrf;ay:rSm
usaemfwdkY qufavSsmufaeEdkifwmyg tar .../
tcktcgrSm
vGwfajrmufe,fajra&muf
tarhom; wa,muftaeeJY
‘tar aeaumif;vm; vdkY
ajy;awGU EIwfqufcGifhr&wm
oHk;ESpfoHk;vD MumcJhayr,fh
tar[m usaemfeJY ra0;
273

usaemfh&JU tawG;? usaemfh&JUab;rSm
jrifhjrwfwJh tbd"r®m
jrifhjrwfwJh arwåmw&m;
jrifhjrwfwJh pdwf"mwfcGeftm;awGeJY
xm0& teD;uyf
rwfrwf&yfaeqJvdkY
,HkjrJ,HkMunfvsufyg tar .../ /
a'gufwmvGPf;aqG

274

tareJY om; (odkY)  “o”0*fuxm
(tarvlxka':trm 92ESpfjynfh arG;aeYodkY )
(1)
tar usaemfhudk rwm;eJY
usaemf a':atmifqef;pkMunftdrf oGm;rS jzpfr,f/
tar ... tarhudkawmh usaemf wm;yg&ap
tar wrvGef c&D;udk roGm;ygeJYOD;
usaemfwkdY 'Drdku&ufwpfEdkifiHawmfqD oGm;&OD;r,f tar .../
(2)
tar usaemfhudk rwm;eJY
usaemf aejynfawmfudk odrf;rS jzpfr,f/
tar ... tarhudkawmh usaemf wm;yg&ap
tar ... vlYb0udk rodrf;ygeJYOD;
usaemfwdkY aoG;pGef;aewJh ouFef;awG
aoG;pGef;aewJh a'gif;tvHawG
aoG;pGef;aewJh rsuf&nfawG odrf;&OD;r,f tar .../

275

(3)
tar usaemfhudk rwm;eJY
usaemf ppftmPm&SifrSeforSs owfrSjzpfr,f/
tar ... tarhudkawmh usaemf wm;yg&ap
tar y&da'0rD;awG rowfygeJYOD;
usaemfwdkY tpdk;&tMurf;zuf0g'udk owf&OD;r,f tar
usaemfwdkY
.................. tpdk;& tMurf;zuf0g'udk
...................................... owf&OD;r,f tar .../ /
tarhom;-atmifa0;
(23-10-2007)
(acwå ykef;cdkusif; wae&m)

276

tcef; ( 5 )

awmifav;vkH;rSewfuRef;txd trSwfw& rSmpum;

vlxka':trm

277

awmifav;vkH;rSewfuRef;txd trSwfw& rSmpum;
vlxka':trm

vlxka':trm (82)ESpfjynfh arG;aeY txdrf;trSwftjzpf xkwfa0w,f
yxrtBudrf
1997 ck? Ekd0ifbmv

trSm
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jzpfygw,f/ uRefrrSm b,fawmhrSvnf; wkd;wufatmif rBuKd;pm;bJaewJh
tnHhzsif;qkH; t&nftcsif;wck&Sdygw,f/ tJ'gu vlxJpum;ajymwJh twwf
yg/ EkdYayr,fh taMumif;udpöu &SdvmwJhtcgawmh uRefrukd pum;ajymzkdY
wm0efay;Muw,f?

ay;wJhtcgwkdif;

pdwfnpfnpfeJY

vkyfay;vkduf&wm

csnf;yg/ vkyfay;vkdufayr,fh tJ'gawG[m NyD;NyD;aysmufaysmufyJvkdY uRefru
xifcJhw,fav/
ckawmh q&mawmfukdynm? ausmf&ifjrifh? ql;iSuf polawGu uRefr pum;ajym
pOftcg toHzrf;,lxm;wJh wdyfacGuav;awGxJu jyefxkwf,l? pmeJYul;NyD;
uRefrorD;ukday;MuvkdY

ckvkd

pmtkyfuav;wtkyf

jzpfvm&ygw,f/

r&nf \rSwfbJ jzpfvmwJh 'Dpmtkyfuav;ukd (82)ESpfjynfh uRefrarG;aeYrSm
pmayrdwfaqGawGukd ay;a0&wmyg/ tm;vkH;ukd aus;Zl;wif&ygw,f/
vlxka':trm
278

rmwdum
1/ OD;nKdjr (2) ESpf vnfwJhaeY
2/ trsKd;om;pmayqk&Sifrsm;ukd *kPfjyKwJhyGJ
3/ q&mBuD;a&TOa'gif; ESpfw&mjynfY
4/ touf (74) ESpf jynfhwJhaeY
5/ touf (77) ESpf jynfhwJhaeY
6/ OD;nKdjr txdrf;trSwf opfyifpkduf ausmufpmuyfwJhaeY
7/ wuúokdvf armifapmvGif trSwfw& opfyifpkdufwJhaeY
8/ a':ar&Sifukd *syefjynfu *kPfjyKwJhaeY
9/ rsKd;jrifhaqG (yef;csD OD;jraomif;) ig;ESpfvnf txdrf;trSwf
10/ vif;,kefarmifarmif arG;aeYyGJ
11/ OD;nKdjr (10) ESpf vnfwJhaeY
12/ touf (80) jynfhwJhaeY
13/ ay:OD;ouf trSwfw& yef;csDjyyGJ
14/ rsKd;jrifhaqG tEkynmbPfwkdufzGifhyGJ
15/ yef;csDq&mBuD; OD;atmifcifESpfywfvnf
279

OD;nKdjr (2) ESpf vnfwJhaeY

tr&yl&awmifav;vkH;ausmif;
(29.9.87)
ukdnKdjrukdvGrf;vkdY

txdrf;trSwfuav;vkyfwm

'DESpf

'kwd,tBudrfyg/

'ghaMumifh q&mawmfukdynmukd awGUwJh tcgusawmh a':a':u ar;csifw,f/
q&mawmfukdynm&JU ]ukdnKdjru ckxufxd ryl;ao;bl;vm;vkdY}/ bmjyKvkdY
wkef;qkdawmh olu ewfjzpfw,fqkdwmukd odyfoabmuswm? oljzpfEkdif&if
olukd,fwkdif 'DrSm pma&;q&mewfjzpfNyD;awmh aecsifrSmtrSefyJ/ ukdnKdjru
awmiforeftif;apmif;rSm

a0grSL;BuD;ewfukd

ewfuGef;aqmufay;csifw,f

qkdwmvnf; aqmufcsifwmaygh/ olukd,fwkdifvnf; 'Dem;ewfjzpfcsifaerSmyJvkdY
wynfhawmf xifw,f/
AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;ukd olu b,fhES,fajymwkef;qkdawmh

Akdvfatmifqef;

ewfqkdwm jzpf&r,f &Sd&r,fwJh/ rvkyfygeJY ukdnKdjr&,f tvum;ae&if;rS
ewfawGu ½IyfvGef;vkdY&Sd&wJhtxJvkdY uRefruajymawmh? tJ'g Armhenf;?
Armh[efyJ ArmhykHpHwJh/ aovkdY&Sd&if ewfjzpfw,f/ ArmawGu cspfw,f/
olUukdtNrJwrf; trSwf&w,f wifw,f ow,fwJh/ 'g ArmcspfwJh ykHpHyJwJh/
tJ'Dawmh Akdvfatmifqef;ewfvnf; &Sd&rSmayghwJh/ olu tJ'Dvkd uRefrukd
ajymoGm;wmyg/
tJ'Dawmh

ukdnKdjruvnf;

olvnf;

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pma&;q&mewf

qkdNyD;awmh/ 'ghaMumifh OD;Zif;&,f ryl;ao;bl;vm;vkdY uRefru ar;csifwm/
wu,fvkdYrsm; yl;w,fqkd&if ]]ukd,fhukd ukdynmu trSwf&vkdY 'Dvkd
280

tcrf;tem;uav; vkyfaewm ESpfcg&SdNyD/ 'gayr,fhvkdY ukd,fBuKdufwJh[mav;
awGuawmh rygao;bl;}} qkdNyD; EIwfcrf;BuD;aphNyD;awmh ajymrSm wynfhawmfu
Mum;a,mifaew,f/ bmawG &SifBuKdufwmwkef;vkdY wu,fvkdYrsm; wynfh
awmfuqpfar;vkduf &if ]],rumwkdY aq;ayghvdyfwkdY NrD;&SnfwkdYaygh}}vkdY olu
ajymrSmbk&m;/
awmiforefrSm a&awGu abmifbifcwfaewmaemf/ ol'Dem;vmNyD;awmh
ESpfwkdif; tNrJwrf;&ufawGtMumBuD;aeaewm/waeYu q&mawmfa&Tukdif;om;
psmyeusif;yawmhvnf; olUukd owd&vkdufwm/ ol&Sd&ifawmhvmrSm/ ewfyGJ
wGif;uvnf; odyfa0;awmhwm r[kwfbl;/ q&mhawmfhpsmyeuvnf; 0gqkd
vjynfhausmf (8) &ufqkdawmh cgwkdif;xuf enf;enf; apmoGm;vkduf&if
NyD;wmyJqkdNyD;awmh

ola&mufvmrSmqkdNyD;

wynfhawmfrsufpdxJ

olUukd

jrifa,mifvkdY aew,f/
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a&;cJhwJh uAsmav;awG ul;NyD;awmh pmul;pufuav;eJY vSnfhNyD; a0jyef
awmhvnf; wynfhawmfwkdY ausmif;wkef;u twlwl aecJhxkdifcJhwmav;awG
jyefNyD;awmh owd&aew,f/ 'DuAsmav;xJu yxrqkH;uAsmav; a'pDokdY
qkdwmu wu,fyg? ausmif;olrav;wOD; a'pD0Idufqkdwm &Sdygw,f/ uRefr
wkdYeJY wwef;wnf;yg/ olu armfvNrKdifu ausmif;olav;yg/ olUtukdawG
uvnf; wuúokdvfrSm &SdwmyJ/ [m&SifAKdifqkdwm olUtukdwa,mufyg/
olwkdYu rGwfpvifawGyg/ a'pD0Idufu vSw,f/ cspfp&mav;/ NyD;awmh olu
pE´,m;wD; aumif;w,f/ bif*sKdwD; aumif;w,f/ twD;trIwfrSm awmfawmf
av; uRrf;uRrf;usifusif&Sdw,f/
tJ'g uRefrwkdYNrKdUrausmif;uyGJrSm wuúokdvfu wD;0kdif;eJY wyifwkdiftu
tcef;wckxnfhwJhtcgusawmh

a'pDu
281

bif*sKdwD;ygw,f/

tJ'Da'pDukd

ukdnKdjru ykd;ygw,f/ ykd;NyD;vkdY olUtqkdt&ayghav? oydwfarSmufawmh oleJY
a'pDeJY uGJMuw,fvkdYajymw,f/ aemufawmh a'pDu taumufcGefrif;BuD;
uawmf jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ aemufawmh Ak'¨bmom jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ a,musfm;
u Ak'¨bmomukd;/ odyfrMumvScifurS aooGm;&Smw,f/ ol 'DtaMumif;awG
a&;awmh i,fi,fwkef;u uRefrwkdY twlwlaecJhxkdifcJhwmawG jyefNyD;awmh
owd&w,f/ a'pDu oabmaumif;w,f r[kwfvm;/ cspfp&mav;/ rsufvkH;
av; odyfvSwJh ukvm;rav;/ tJ'gukd ukdnKdjr ykd;wmu ajymifykd;wmyg/
&wm r&wmtyxm; b,folUukd olykd;w,f b,f0gholykd;w,f/ tJ'D ykd;wJh
taMumif; armif;wD;aewmyJ/ 'golU0goem/
aemuf 'DxJu ygwJh iydaMumfqkdwJh uAsmxJuvnf; jcif;Mum;wkdY? ykyka'G;wkdY?
rdykwkdY qkdwmawGu oleJY armifESr w0rf;uGJawGyg/ [kd0efaxmuf OD;a'G;&JU
orD;awG/ jcif;Mum;qkdwm trtBuD;qkH; NyD;awmh ykyka'G;qkdwmu tykukd
ac:wmyg/ tyku uRefrwkdYygarmu© q&mOD;rsKd;rif;uawmfyg/ausmif;emrnf
uawmh tykvkdYyJ ac:Muw,f/NyD;awmh OD;0efuawmf a':MunfMunf? 'DolwkdY
nDtrokH;a,mufu t&if;yg/ ukdnKdjreJYarmifESr w0rf;uGJ awmfwmawGav/
tJ'Dawmh olu tif;vsm;vmvkdY&Sd&if ESr0rf;uGJawG? tpfr0rf;uGJawGukd
cvkwfwkduf ajcaxmufeJYcwfoGm;? NyD;awmh ykdufqHawmif;w,f/ acs;w,f
wJh/ jyefray;bl;/ olu'Dkvd vkyfaeusyg/ rdyk igbmr&Sdbl;? nmr&Sdbl;?
bmay;OD;? nmay;OD;/ [kdu ausmif;ydwfvkdY jyefvm&ifvnf; tJ'DiydaMumfwkdY
bmwkkdYu olu wcgwnf;cGJ,loGm;wmyg/ tJ'gukd olu &nf&G,fNyD;awmh
uAsmpyfxm;wmyg/
uRefrwkdYeJY oleJY twlwlaecJhwJhwacwfrSm ukdnKdjr b,fausmif;oleJYrS
rpGHygbl;/ olykd;wmawGuawmh a&wufvkdY rukefygbl;/ tif;vsm;uvnf;
trsm;BuD;yJ/ EkdYayr,fhvkdY olu t*Fvdyfpmawmfwmu vGJvkdY trsKd;orD;awG
282

pkHrufavmufp&m olUrSm bmrS r&Sdygbl;/ olu npfywfw,f/ pkwfyJhw,f/
ypövu©wfaew,f/

olUMunfhvkduf&if

b,fawmhrqkd

oefYoefY&Sif;&Sif;

aMumhaMumha&mha&mh rdef;uav;awG pdwf0ifpm;zkdY&m taetxkdif trlt&m
bmrSr&Sdbl;/ aq;ayghvdyfBuD; wzGm;zGm;eJY jymawGeJY bmeJY tJ'Dvkd ½IyfwD;
½IyfyGawG 'Dvkdaewm/ tJ'Dawmh uRefrwkdY&SdwJh acwfwkef;u ausmif;ol
b,folurS olUukd jyefNyD;awmhrBuKdufbl;/ olu ykd;wmawGuawmh cka'pDwkdY
vkd[mawGuawmh trsm;BuD;/ olu 'dwfqkdwJh[mawG tukefykd;wmyJ/
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awmhvnf; r,fwuúokdvf &w,fqkdNyD; uRefrwkdYqDukd ~uGm;NyD;taMumif;Mum;
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ukdnKdjru tJ'Dvkdyg/ ukdnKdjr i,fi,fwkef;u 'Dvkd[mawG BuKdufcJhayr,fhvkdY
ukdnKdjrowif;pm ynmawmfoifuae jyefvmNyD;awmh ArmjynfrSm tvkyfcGif
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awGaemuf olrvkduf&Smygbl;/ tcuftcJawGeJY &ifqkdifw,f/ a&eufxJukd
qif;avQmufw,f/ olUowif;pmq&mb0[m

rajzmifhjzL;rom,mygbl;/

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olBuKdufovkd olUtwGuf olUukd,fa&;ukd,fwmtwGuf olUowif;pmtwGuf
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ukdnKdjr[m olaX;wa,mufvnf;jzpfcsifjzpfaerSmyg/ enf;trsKd;rsKd;eJY apmifr
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Ekdifygw,f/ 'Dvkd r[kwf&ifvnf; pD;yGm;a&;t& tbufbufu ajyvnf
atmif ulnDEkdifygw,f/ EkdYayr,fh ukdnKdjru 'Dvkdvrf;rsKd; rvkduf ygbl;/
ol,kHMunfwm olrSefw,fxifwmukdyJ b,ftcgrqkd ajymqkda&;om;NyD;awmh
283

aygufqdefyGJusawmhvnf; olUwkdufua&SUu cHcJh&wmyg/ tJ. . . tmrcH
wifOD;[,f? bmOD;[,fqkdawmhvnf; olUcrsm tjcm;twkduftcH owif;pm
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wJhvrf;ukd b,fawmhrSra&G;ygbl;/ trSefw&m;vkdY ol,kHMunfwJhbufu
wavQmufvkH; oGm;ygw,f/
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qkdawmhvnf; 0rf;omw,f/ wjcm; b,frSmrS 'DvkdyGJ r&Sdygbl;/ ukdnKdjryGJ
'DrEÅav;rSm 'Dae&mrSmyJ &Sdygw,f/
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p&maumif;w,f/

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wpm; wjrwfwEkd; &Sdw,fqkdwmukd azmfxkwfEkdifwJhtwGuf 0rf;om*kPf,l
ygw,f/
q&mawmf ukdynmukdvnf; 'DtwGuf wynfhawmfwkdYu xl;xl;vnfvnf
aus;Zl;wifygw,fbk&m;/ wwfEkdifoavmuf t&Sifbk&m; 'Dc&D;ukd qufoGm;
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'gyg yJbk&m;/

284

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wifrrckdif(ref;wuúokdvf)
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bkef;jrifh(rEÅav;)
trsKd;om;pmayqk&Sifrsm;ukd *kPfjyKwJhyGJ
(tr&yl&awmifav;vkH;ausmif;)
(4.1.89)
'DyGJuav;u atmifatmifjrifjrif ckvkdjzpfoGm;wm 0rf;omygw,f/ a':a':u
trsd;om;pmayqkxGufw,fvkdY

aMunmuwnf;u

wkdYa&mif;&if;awGxJu

okH;a,mufawmif 'DESpfwNyKdifwnf; qkawG&Muw,f/ tJ'Dawmh rEÅav;uae
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rnDñGwfbl;/ a':a':uauR;csifwJh MumqHomauR;vkduf&wm tzwfwif
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285

tck om;wkdYorD;wkdY qk&Muw,fqkdawmh a':a':u odyf0rf;omw,f/
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xm;&r,f/ tJ'grS pmaumif;xGufr,f/ tck ukd½kd;uGefYqkd&if olUapwemu
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r&Sdbl;/ 'ghaMumifhrkdYvkdY olUtaeeJY a&;wwf oavmuf olrSwfwrf;wifr,f
[kwfvm;/

wHigtaMumif;ukd

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a&;w,f/

qiftaMumif;ukd

zkd;ausmhu a&;w,f/ tJ'DvkdrsKd; olwkdYpdefvGefwl;wJh tvkyfukd a&;r,fhvl
r&Sdbl;/ ola&;r,fqkdNyD;awmh b0wlawGtay:ukd BuD;rm;wJh apwemxm;
NyD;awmh olvkyfwm/ 'ghaMumifh apwemtusKd;ay;wm/ bmomjyeform;
qkdwmuawmh/ wbmomrSm&SdwJh taMumif;t&mukd t*Fvdyfpm rzwfwwf
wJhvlawG zwf&ygapawmhqkdwJh apwemtBuD;BuD;xm;NyD;awmh bmomjyef
wm/
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vlawG zwf&ygap? olwkdYem;vnfygap/ wkdYodwJhtaMumif;t&mrsKd; olwkdY

286

odygapqkdNyD;awmh jyefwmyJ/ tJ'Dawmh bmomjyeform; apwem[m
tvGefBuD;yg w,f/
tJ'DvkdyJ wifrrckdifvkyfwJh okawoevkyfief;uvnf; awmfawmfukd BuD;BuD;
rm;rm;/ olUcrsmrSm aiGukefvlyef;cHNyD; awmh vkyfwm/ 'g[m olrsm;ckdif;wJh 
Assignment  wm0efay;csuf

r[kwfbl;/ olUapwemeJY olvkyfwm/ bmjzpfvkdY

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vkyfwmaygh/
tJ'Dawmh olwkdYapwemawG okH;a,mufpvkH; tusKd;ay;w,fvkdY a':a':
,kHMunfw,f/ tJ'gukd a':a':wkdYu twlwl a&;om;aeMuwJh a&mif;&if;awG
&JabmfawGu b,fhES,f 'Dvkdqk&w,fqkdawmh 0rf;romyJ&SdyghrvJ/ 0rf;omwm
aygh/
0rf;omw,fqkdwmuav;ukd ½kd;½kd;r[kwfbJeJY 'DvkdyGJuav;wck? *kPfjyKyGJ
uav;wck vkyfcsifw,f/ vkyfcsifaywJh ckajymovkdyJ tajctaet&ayghav/
tvkduftxkduf Al;oD;~uGufukdufaygh/ BuD;BuD;us,fus,f crf;crf;em;em;
r[kwfayr,fhvkdY

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txdrf;trSwfuav;

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uav;/
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a&T0wf&nfu vmNyD;awmh olwkdYvnf; yg0ifcsifw,fqkdawmh a':a':u
0rf;omvkdufwm? [m yg&rSmayghuG,f? rif;wkdY 'DvkdvkyfrSmqkd aumif;wmaygh/
'kdYu BuKdqkdygw,f/ vmyg/ aemufwcg arNrKdU (jyifOD;vGif)uaemf? ukd&JEkdif
a&mufvmw,f/ a':a': rzdwfrdygbl;/ rzdwfrdayr,fh tck a':a':wkdYqD ol
ukd½kd;uGefYeJY qufNyD;awmh a&mufvmw,fqkdawmh 0rf;omvkdufwm/ ykdNyD;awmh
us,fjyefYoGm;w,f [kwfvm;/ pmayorm;awG ykdNyD;awmh pkpnf;vmw,f/
287

tJ'Dvkda':a':wkdY vkyfcsifwJh[muav;ukd wckaom ao;i,faom twkdif;
twmtxd atmifjrifw,f/ aemufukd vnf; pmayorm;awG qufNyD;awmh
BuKd;pm;Ekdifatmif? apwemaumif; xm;Ekdifatmif? a&;Ekdifom;Ekdifatmif?
a':a':wkdY 'Dvkd[mav;awG vkyfwmyJ/ a':a':wkdY pma&;wJh acwfwkef;u
'Davmuf rrsm;bl;/ rdef;uav;vnf; rdef;uav;rkdY a,musfm;av;vnf;
a,musfm;av;rkdY wufopfpuavmifawG 'Davmufrrsm;bl;/ tck trsm;BuD;
ay:aygufvmw,f/ tJ'gukdu tifrwef tm;&p&m 0rf;omp&maumif;wJh
tajctaeyg/
'DtajctaerSm apwemrSefrSef/ apwemrSefrSefqkdwm pmzwfwJhvltay:ukd
BuD;rm;wJhapwemxm;wm ajymcsifwmyg/ NyD;awmh ukd,fukdifpGJwJhtjrif/
,kHMunfcsufrSefrSef/ NyD;awmh BuKd;BuKd;pm;pm;eJY vkHYv0D&d,eJY qufNyD;awmh
a&;Mu/ 'Davmuf a&;vkdY&&if 'Davmuf a&;&rSmyJ/ [kdavmufa&;vkdY&&if
[kdavmufa&;&rSmyJ/ 'Davmufqkd&if 'DavmufyJ/ tJ'D txJrSm jzpfatmifa&;/
BuKd;pm;a&;/ b,fawmhrS ukd,fhbufu ravQmheJY/ ukd,fhBuKd;pm;rI ravQmhygeJY/
tJ'gqkd&if pmaumif; xGufvmrSmygaemf/
a':a': tck vli,fawGjrifwkdif; jrifwkdif;av pdwfxJrSm b,fvkdcHpm;&rSef;
rodbl;/ wuf~uGwm? tm;&wmaemf/ b,favmuf ola&;vkdYjzpfvnf; 'g
olUt&nftaoG;yJ/ ukd,fjzpfvnf; ukd,hft&nftaoG;yJ qkdovkdyJ/ yef;aygif;
w&m yGifhw,fqkdwm rSefw,f/ vlwkdif; vlwkdif;rSm vlawG&JU wDxGifrIpGrf;tm;
[m wkdif;wmvkdY r&ygbl;/ &Sdaewm/ tJ'g[m vkdtyfwJh aygif;oifay;rI/
xkdufoifhwJhtm;ay;csD;ajr§mufrI/

NyD;awmh

&Sdoifh&SdxkdufwJh

tcGifhtvrf;

uav;/ tJ'guav;awG&Sd&if ay:vmwm/ aygufvmwm/ a':a':wkdYu
ajrawmifajr§mufcsifwm/ 'grS trsm;BuD; yef;aygif;w&myGifhr,f/ yef;aygif;
waxmifyGifhr,f/ yGifhvmavorQ[m aumif;wmcsnf;yJ/ vSwmcsnf;yJ/
288

arT;wmcsnf;yJ/
olUtqif;eJY ol/ olU&eHYeJYol? olUtaetxm;eJYol/ 'Dvkdjzpfvmatmifaemf/
tck 'DrSm&SdwJh BuKH&wJhvli,fuav; awGukd a':a':u ajymcsifwm/
BuKd;pm;Mu/

bmyJjzpfjzpf

zwfp&m&Sd&ifzwf/

pmrzwf&if

pma&;q&m

rjzpfbl;/ aemufNyD;awmh Mum;emp&m&Sd&if Mum;em/ awG;p&m&Sd&ifawG;? pma&;
q&m[m awG;&w,faemf/ awG;&w,fqkdwm ukd,fzwfwm? awGUwm?
Mum;wm[m obm0,kwåd &Sdovm;/ 'g b,ftusKd;oufa&mufovJ/
b,fvkd jzpfwmvJqkdwm pOf;pm;&w,f/ awG;&w,f/ tJ'DtawG;tac:rSef&if
odyfaumif;wm/ ukd,fhtzkdY odyftaxmuftuljzpfwm/ tJ'Dawmh zwfp&m
&Sd&ifvnf;zwf/

awG;p&m&Sd&ifvnf;

a&;wmuvnf;av
pdwfwkdif;rus&if

cPcP
vufrvTwfeJY/

awG;/

a&;av

a&;p&m&Sd&ifvnf;

ykdykdaumif;avyJ/

rBuKdufao;&ifvnf;

a&;/

pmwyk'f[m
vufrvTwfeJY/

jyefa&;/ jyifa&;/ tBudrfBudrfa&;/ a&;&if aumif;vmwmyJ/ tJ'Dawmh a&;yg/
BuKd;pm;Muyg/ tukeftm;xkwfMuyg/ 'Dvkd qk&wmawG cPcP a':a':wkdY
yGJvkyfEkdifyg&ap/ [kwfvm;/ EkdYNyD;awmh tm;vkH; tm;vkH; wpdwfw0rf;wnf;
armifvkd ESrvkd nDnDñGwfñGwf cspfcspfcifcifeJY vufwGJoGm;& atmifvkdU
ajymNyD; a':a':ed*kH;csKyfygr,f/

289

q&mBuD;a&TOa'gif; ESpfw&mjynfh
tr&yl&awmifav;vkH;ausmif;
(24.10.89)
q&mBuD; a&TOa'gif; 1989 ckESpfrSm toufw&mjynfhvdrfhr,fqkdwm q&mBuD;
pmayukd xdef;odrf;MuwJh uRefrwkdYtzGJUu 'D&ufrwkdifcif vGefcJhwJh ESpfESpf
avmufuwnf;u owd&ygw,f/ tJ'DtzGJUu b,folawGygwkef;qkdawmh
OD;vS r&SdwJhaemuf uRefr&,f? q&mokc&,f? ukd0if;wif&,f? q&m aomfwm
aqG&,f av;a,mufygygw,f/ tJ'DtzGJUu q&mBuD; toufw&mjynfh
vkdY&Sd&if *kPfjyKyGJav; usif;yr,f/ aemufNyD;awmh q&mBuD;pmrlcav;awG
&xm;wm pkNyD;awmh pmayqk ay;r,fqkdwJh vsmxm;csuf &Sdygw,f/ &Sdawmh
usif;yjzpf&if b,fvkdvkyfr,f bmr,fqkdwmukd tao;pdwf r[kwfayr,fh
tMurf;zsif; wkdifyifygw,f/ wkdifyifwJhtcgusawmh wjznf;jznf;eJY eD;eD;
vmawmh q&mukd0if;wifu bmajymovJqkdawmh a':a':&,fwJh q&mBuD;
&mjynfhyGJukd uRefawmfuawmh rEÅav;rSmyJ usif;yapcsifw,fwJh/ bmjyKvkdY
wkef;qkdawmh tajctaet& uRefawmfwkdY &efukefrSm odyfNyD;awmh pnfpnf
um;um;vkyfvkdY jzpfcsifrS jzpfr,fwJh/ rEÅav;rSm pnfpnfum;um; vkyf&
atmif/ uRefawmfwkdYvnf; vmrSmaygh a':a':wJh/ b,fvkdpnfum;csifwm
wkef;qkdawmh olu NrKdUv,facgifu "r®omvmrSm vlpkvla0;eJY tpnf;ta0;
BuD;vkyfNyD; q&mBuD;&JU &mjynfhyGJrSm olUpmawGtaMumif; a[majymyGJBuD;
vkyfwmrsKd;jzpfatmif uRefawmfwkdY BuKd;pm;Mu&atmif qkdawmh uRefruvnf;
oabmwlw,f/ uRefrwkdY rEÅav;rSm a&S;u "r®AdrmefrSm pmqkdawmfyGJawG
ESpfwkdif; ESpfwkdif; vkyfcJh wm pmay0gormygolawG b,foljzpfjzpfwufMu?
&[ef;oHCmawGa&m ausmif;om;awGa&m aps;olaps;om;awGa&m onfhjyif
290

vlrsKd;pkHwufwJh pmayyGJawG vkyfaeMuqkdawmh tJ'Dvkd[mrsKd; vkyfcsifw,fwJh/
q&mBuD;yGJukdav/
q&mBuD; a&TOa'gif;&JUpmayu wEkdifiHvkH;eJY oufqkdifwJhpmay/ tJ'gaMumifh
aumif;om;yJ ukd0if;wifvkdY tJ'Dvkd ajymxm;w,f/ EkdYayr,fhvkdY usif;yzkdY
eD;eD;vmwJhtcgusawmh/ q&mokcu *syefjynfudk xGufoGm;w,f/ olu
--------- ac:vkdYqkdNyD;awmh oGm;wmyg/ tJ'g [kdwavmwkef;u olUqDu
pm&w,f/ atmufwkdbmvus jyefvmr,fwJhvkdY/ 'geJY uRefru pmjyefa&;
w,f/ 24 &ufaeY atmufwkdbmvrSm uRefrwkdY q&mBuD;yGJvkyfr,f/ tJ'DyGJ
trD q&m jyefcJhygaemf? uRefrwkdY rEÅav;ukdvnf; q&mvmjzpfatmifvmyg?
rEÅav;rSm vkyfr,fq&mqkdNyD; pma&;ygw,f/ olUqDu pmjyefvnf; rvm
bl;/ 'DaeYxdvnf; uRefr owif;r&bl;/ q&m b,fa&mufaeNyDvdkY owif;
ra&muf vmygbl;/
aemufwcg ukd0if;wif/ ukd0if;wifuvnf; taMumif;rnDñGwfawmhygbl;/
'DyGJuav; rwkdifcifuyg/ aemufwcg q&maomfwmawG/ ola&;om;aeaom
aqmif;yg;awGukd zwf&jcif;tm;jzifh olUrdef;ru aeraumif;vkduf? olu
aeraumif;vkdufeJY olwkdYrSm usef;rma&; tifrwef u,duxawG rsm;ae&Sm
w,f/ EkdYayr,fh uRefru olUvnf;wkdifyifOD;rS qkdNyD;awmh oleJY w,fvDzkef;
qufzkdY

tBudrfBudrfBuKd;pm;ygw,f/

olUukdawGUzkdY

aomif;ajymif;axGvm

qufvkdYvnf; r&? b,fvkdvkyfvkdYrS r&bl;/ 'Dawmh olUukd zdwfpm pmwkdufu
vSrf;ykdYwmuvGJvkdY wjcm;bmrS uRefr tquftoG,fr&bl;/ tJ'Dawmh
'DyGJtwGuf uRefrwa,mufwnf; usefaewmyg/ usefaeNyD;awmh yGJvkyfr,fh
&uf eD;vmav eD;vmav/ jzpfcsifwJh "r®omvmrSm vkyfvkdYjzpfyghrvm;?
jzpfyghrvm;qkdwJh awG;p&mawGu jzpfvmav/ aemufydwfqkH;usawmh bmqkH;
jzwf&rSef;rodbl;/ b,foleJY wkdifyif&rSef;rodbl;/ armifapmvGifukd owd&
291

vkdufwm/ 'Dvkdudpö 'DvkdyGJawG&Sd&if armifapmvGifu uRefr vufuokH;
awmifa0S;/

ck

olvnf;r&Sdbl;/

armifukdav;eJY

armifMunfatmifwkdY

ESpfa,mufu armifapmvGifqkH;wkef;uav armifapmvGif r&Sdayr,fh a':a':
tm;ri,feJY uRefawmfwkdY &Sdw,fwJh/ a[m-yGJvkyfawmh [kd raiGNrKdifqkdwJh
oDcsif;vkd b,mwkyfauG;aMumifh av;v avmuf.....qkdNyD;awmh ay:rvmbl;/
zsm;aewmwJh/ [kdwa,mufvnf; ray:vmbl;/ uRefrrSmav b,fae&m
vkyf&rvJ 'DyGJ/ vlb,fESpfa,muf zdwf&rSmwkef; b,fykHpHeJY vkyfvkdY jzpfrSm
wkef;/ [m wa,mufwnf; pdwfqif;&Jvkdufwm/ uav;awGukd ac:NyD; uJ
'Dvkd 'Dvkd jzpfaew,f/ b,fvkd vkyfrwkef;? uav;awGeJY wkdifyifNyD; olwkdYeJY
jzpfovkd pDpOf&ygw,f/
tJ'Dawmh 'geJYywfoufNyD;awmh zdwfpmr&bl;/ rsufESmvkdufw,f xifwmwkdY?
rauseyfwJhvlawG &Sd&if&Sdr,f/ &Sd&if vnf; tjypfwifcsifwifr,f/ wifvnf;
uRefrwkdYu tjypfwifcH½kHyJ/ bmrS rwwfEkdifbl;/ uRefrwkdYrSm 'Dvkd tcuftcJ
awG Mum;xJu 'DyGJav;ukd aemufqkH;usawmh q&mawmfhqDukdvm acgif;eJYacGU
NyD;awmh cgwkdif;vkyfaeus pmayyGJuav;rsKd;yJ vkyfMuygpkdY q&mawmf qkdNyD;
awmh 'Dawmifav;vkH;ukd ajy;vmwmyg/ awmifav;vkH;ajy;vmawmhvnf;
awmifav;vkH; qkdwmu xrif;yGJawGeJY vkyfwwfwJhyGJ/ tJ'Dawmh 'umrBuD;
0ufom;wydóm&Spfq,faps;eJY jzpfyghrvm;wJh/ tJ'Dvkd[mawG ayghav/
uRefrwkdYu ukdif;-jzpfatmifvkyfwmayghbk&m; qkdNyD;awmh ukef;½kef;NyD; tjzpf
vkyfMuwJhyGJyg/ owd&vkdufwmuawmh tukefvkH;ukdygyJ/ rkd;olwkdYukdvnf;
vmapcsifvkdufwm/ olu yg;pyfNyJBuD;eJY a':a': uRefawmfvmrSm uRefawmf
'DyGJvmrSm/ uRefawmf bmvkyfrSm nmvkyfrSm/ 'DjyifvlawGvnf; tukefvkH;
owd&w,f/ rzdwf&wJhvla&m? zdwf&wJhvla&m/ EkdYayr,fh tJ'gawG[m
owd&wmawGyJ &Sdw,f/ pum;tjzpf ajym&wmyJ&Sdw,f/ taumiftxnf
292

azmfvkdY rvG,fygbl;/ 'ghaMumifh uRefrwkdYukd rauseyfvkdY tjypfwifcsifvnf;
wifygaemf/
'DtajctaerSm uRefrwkdY 'gyJwwfEkdifvkdY 'DavmufyJ vkyf&ygw,fvkdY uRefr
ajymcsifygw,f/ tJ'g yGJtaMumif;eJYywfoufvkdYyg/ aemufwcku q&mBuD;eJY
ywfoufNyD;awmh q&mBuD;[m pma&;q&mBuD;/ pmtkyfaygif; ajrmufrsm;pGm
a&;cJhw,f/ ola&;cJhwJhpmtkyfawG pmawG[m *EÅ0ifxJrSm raowmawG
trsm;BuD;/
ckeu vif;,kefukdarmifarmifu ajymoGm;w,f/ q&mBuD;a&;wJh pkHaxmufBuD;
armifpH&Sm;eJY jroef;wifhbmomjyef wJh ukdeif'GKdif;&JU &Sm;avmh[krf;eJY rwlwJh
taMumif; olu ajymygw,f/ uRefru olUukdjznfhcsifao;w,f/ rwl½kHwif
rubl;. ukdeif;'GKdif;a&;wJh &Sm;avmh[krf;ukd uRefrvnf; zwfygw,f/
t*Fvdyfpm txkduftavsmuf em;vnfygw,f/ zwfygw,f/ 'gayr,fh
armifpH&Sm;vkd rBuKdufygbl;/
&Sm;avmh[krf;xuf a&TOa'gif;a&;wJh armifpH&Sm;u aumif;ygw,f/ aemufNyD;
uRefrwkdY jrefrmhtonf;ESvkH;rSm jrefrmhOD;aESmufrSm a&TOa'gif;&JU armifpH&Sm;
[m b,foleJYrSm rzvS,fEkdifygbl; . . . . / vJvS,fvkdY r&awmhygbl;/
tJoavmuf q&mBuD; uavmifu aumif;ygw,f/ aemufNyD;awmh rSD;wmeJY
ywfoufvkdY q&mBuD;u olUzmom olxGifNyD;awmha&;wm/ a&omckdwm
r[kwfygbl;/ oloufomcHwm r[kwfbl;/ olUukd ol&d, OD;bazwkdYu
ckdif;wmyg/ olu &efBuD;atmif a&;NyD;awmh &efukefqif;w,f/ qif;wJhtcg
OD;bazu olUukd jrefrmrIjyKay;ygqkdNyD;awmh t*Fvdyfvkd pmtkyfwtkyf
xkd;tyfygw,f/ olwkdYu uRefrtxifajym&&if OD;bazwkdYuvnf; *sdrf;pf
vSausmf&JU armif&ifarmif rr,frukd awGUwmeJY rSD;wmukd OD;bazwkdYu
pdwful;&wmeJY wlw,f/ 'gaMumifhrkdYvnf; rSD;a&;zkdY pmtkyfxkd;ay;w,f
293

xifygw,f/
olwkdYckdif;vkdY &wemykHukda&;wm/ 'Daemufwcg &Sm;avmh[krf;ukd xkd;ay;wm/
xkd;ay;awmh 'gvnf; jrefrmrIjyKOD;qkdawmh olu &Sm;qkdwJh[mukd trdt&
,lNyD;awmh armifpH&Sm; emrnfrSnfhwmyg/ q&mBuD; vkyfvkdufykHu tJ'Dvkd/
&Sm;wvkH;wnf;eJY ArmarmifpH&Sm;jzpfatmif vkyfvkdufykH[m uRefrwkdY jrefrmh
tonf;ESvkH;ukd b,favmuf ckdufapovJqkdwm tifrwef twkckd;p&m
aumif;ygw,f/ uRefrwkdYuawmh t[kwfukd armifpH&Sm;qkdwm wu,fh
t"dyÜg,ftm;jzifhvnf; wlolr&SdwJhvl/ pkHaxmufemrnfuvnf; aumif;vkduf
wm/ armifpH&Sm;wJh/ armifpH&Sm;[m pkHaxmufemrnfygyJ/ aps;onfemrnf
r[kwfbl;/ &xm;orm;emrnf r[kwfbl;/ pkHaxmuf armifpH&Sm;/ tJ'Dvkd
jzpfatmif q&mBuD;u aoaocsmcsm vkyfay;vkdufwmyg/ tJ'Dawmh q&mBuD;
&JU tawG;tac: q&mBuD;&JU 

Choice 

u odyfNyD;awmh oabmusp&m

aumif;wmyg/ q&mBuD;&JU pmawGeJY ywfoufvkdU ajymMuqkdMuwJhtcgr,f
q&mBuD; owif;pmq&mvkyfwmeJY ywfoufvkdY ajymwJh a&;wJhvl enf;yg
w,f/ 'gaMumifh owif;pmq&mBuD; a&TOa'gif;qkdNyD;awmh olUowif;pm
tvkyfeJY ywfoufNyD;awmh enf;enf; ajymcsifvkdYyg/ t&SnfBuD;rajymygbl;/
uRefr wkdwkdvkyfxm;yg w,f/
pma&;q&m owif;pmq&mBuD; a&TOa'gif;
(1889-1973)
ESpfw&mjynfh 1889-1989
q&mBuD;a&TOa'gif;ukd vTwf½kH;pma&; OD;{&meJY pmawmfzwf we*FoD&Gmpm;
a':a&TwkdYu 1889 atmufwdkbm (24) &ufaeY (urÇmYukvor*¾aeY)rSm
rEÅav;NrKdU {csKdifh&yfrSm arG;zGm;cJhygw,f/ emrnf&if;u armifazodef;yg/
294

touf (4) ESpf t&G,fuwnf;u r,foDv&Sifausmif;eJY bkef;BuD;ausmif;rSm
pmpoifw,f/ olpmoifwJh bkef;BuD;ausmif;u tdrfawmf&mbk&m;awmifbuf
'u©dPm0efwkdufu Nrdwfbkef;BuD; OD;eE´&JUausmif;/ 'Dbkef;BuD;u tawG;tac:
tajrmftjrif tvGefacwfrDwkd;wufrI &SdwmaMumifh ausmif;olausmif;om;awG
[kdacwfuxkH;pH aem{u aemqkdwJh ukd;aMumif;wGufrsKd;ukd roifapbJ ocFsmeJY
t*Fvdyfpmyg oifay;ygw,f/ Nrdwfq&mawmf OD;eE´ausmif;u (4)wef;
atmifwJhtcg 'Dausmif;om;awG ausmif;qufaezkdY q&mawmfu rEÅav;
NrKdUay:rSm Ak'¨bmomt*Fvdyf pmoifausmif;wausmif; ay:aygufatmif
'umrawGukd vkHYvxkwfckdif;NyD; Ak'¨omoemhEk*¾[ausmif;? twkdaumuf  BTN 
bDwDtifausmif;qkdwmukd pwifwnfaxmif zGifhvSpfapcJhygw,f/ c&pf,mef
omoemjyKrsm;u rEÅav;rSm bk&ifygawmfrl tNyD; (2)ESpfyJ Mumao;w,f/
tar&duefESpfjcif;

omoemjyKausmif;

t*Fvdyfvkdtwkdaumuf 

ABM 

(atbDtrf) ausmif;ukd q&m,k'óefwkdY*kdPf;u OD;pD;NyD; zGifhvSpfaeygNyD/
q&mBuD;a&TOa'gif;u  BTN  ausmif;rSm (5) wef;wufNyD; (5) wef;atmif
awmh bDwDtifu (6) wef;rzGifhEkdifao;wmeJY atbDtrfausmif;ukd ajymif;NyD;
pmqufoifw,f/ atbDtrfausmif;uyJ (9)wef; pmar;yGJ 1908 ckESpfrSm
atmifygw,f/ tJ'Dwkef;u (9) wef;atmifNyD; ol[m wuúokdvfwkdY aumvdyf
wkdYudk ausmif;wufvkdY &NyD/ (10) wef;qkdwm r&Sdao;bl;/ 'ghaMumifh (9)
wef;pmar;yGJukd tifx&ifhpmar;yGJ (wuúokdvf0ifpmar;yGJ) vkdY ac:w,f/
NyD;awmh

'Djrefrmjynfu

tifx&ifhpmar;yGJawGukd

BuD;Muyfppfaq;wJh

wuúokdvfu umvuwåm;u wuúokdvf/ 'gaMumifh tifx&ifh pmar;yGJukd
b*Fvm;pmar;yGJvkdYvnf; ac:w,f/ q&mBuD; a&TOa'gif;[m b*Fvm;pmar;yGJ
atmifolaygh/
pmar;yGJatmifNyD; aumvdyfqufraeEkdifbl;/ 'gaMumifh tvkyf xGufvkyfw,f/
295

q&mBuD; woufrSm tvkyfaygif; (20) ausmf vkyfzl;w,f/ b,ftvkyfrSmrS
q&mBuD;u Mum&Snfav;jrifhvkyfwm r[kwfbJuvm;/ ol b,ftvkyfrSmrS
(3) ESpfxuf ykdMumatmif rvkyfzl;bl;wYJ/ pma&;q&mjzpfzkdYtwGuf tawGU
tBuKHawGayghav/ ausmif;uxGufxGufcsif; bDwDtifausmif;rSmausmif;q&m?
aemuf 

ABM 

ausmif;rSm ausmif;q&m? aemuf a&Tbkdta&;ykdif½kH;rSm

tulpma&;? aemuf a&Tbkdopfawm½kH;rSm pma&;rsm; vkyfcJhw,f/ 1 ESpfausmf
twGif; tvkyf (4)ck ajymif;wmyg/ 1909 ckESpfa&mufawmh v,f,m
pkdufysKd;jcif;eJY or0g,rtoif; rif;BuD;½kH;rSm awmvkdufpma&; (3) ESpfvkyfNyD;
jrefrmjynfweHwvsm;ukd rif;BuD;eJYtwl vkdufoGm;,if; vSnfhvnfcJh&w,f/
aemuf 'DtvkyfukdNiD;aiGUvkdY tvkyfxGufNyD; rdbqDuyfpm;aew,f/ okHlp&m
pGJp&mr&Sdawmh pma&;prf;MunfhzkdY pdwful;&vmw,f/ ukdvkdeDacwfrSm t*Fvdyf
pm[m ½kH;okH;bmompum;yg/ 'gaMumifh ausmif;aewJh ausmif;om;u
t*FvdyfpmaawmfzkdY

vkH;yef;Muw,f/

'grSvnf;

rsufESmyGifh

tvkyf&

vG,fw,f/ q&mBuD;uvnf; t*FvdyfpmawmfcsifvkdY t*FvdyfpmtkyfawG
odyfzwfcJhygw,f/
b,ftxdzwfovJqkd&if taysmfzwf yoDykHjyif waxmifhwn 
Nights 

Arabian 

vkd pmtkyfrsKd;upNyD; taysmfzwf a&;Ekd;&JU 0w¦KawG? 'daemuf

wqifhwufNyD; t*Fvdyf*E¦0if0w¦KawGukd tukefavmufeD;yg; zwfcJhw,f/
NyD;rSwcg pmta&;tom; aumif;vSw,fvkdY (t*Fvdyf*E¦0ifrSm) emrnfBuD;vS
wJh rauúmav;&JU 

Essays 

awGukd zwfjyefw,f/ zwfwJhtcg 'Dq&mBuD;

rauúmav;&JU ta&;tom;awGu aumif;vGef;vkdY OD;av;odef;u BuKdufvGef;
vkdY tm½kHpl;pkdufNyD; pmaygif;rsm;pGmukd zwfvmawmh olUta&;tom;awG[m
OD;av;odef;txJ

pdrfh0ifaew,f/

NyD;awmh

OD;av;odef;u

waeYawmh

t*Fvdyfvkd a&;wwfwJh pma&;q&mjzpfcsifwmwJh/ (q&mBuD;u uRefrtareJY
296

OD;pGef;zkwft&G,f uwnf;u upm;zuf? tazeJYuawmh ausmif;aebuf
oli,fcsif;? tazhxuf 42 &uf i,fwmrkdY uRefrwkdYu OD;av;odef; vkdY
woufvkH;ac:wmyg/ 'gaMumifh uRefrpum;xJ q&mBuD;a&m OD;av;odef;
a&m

a&maxG;aewmukd

rxifrSwfao;cif

cGifhjyKMuyg/)

tvkyfr&SdbJeJY

EkdYayr,fh

tJ'Dtqifha&mufNyDvkdY

okH;pGJp&musyfwnf;

jywfvyfvmawmh

jrefrmvkd0w¦Kwyk'f a&;prf;Munfhw,f/ t*Fvdyfvkda&;wJh 0w¦Kaygif; ra&
wGufEkdifatmif zwfcJhbl;wJhig jrefrmvkd a&;prf;&if jzpfEkdifaumif;&JUqkdNyD;
yxrqkH;tBudrf tazhZmwd refusnf;wkH&GmrSm ]]&efBuD;atmif}} 0w¦Kukd
pa&;Munfhw,f/
OD;av;odef;

pmpa&;wm

uRefrrarG;cif

21

&ufrSm

a&;wmyg/

tJ'DyxrqkH;a&;wJh0w¦K &efBuD;atmif0w¦Kukd 2 veJY 13 &uf a&;&w,f/
pm;yGJukvm;xkdifeJY a&;Ekdifwm r[kwfbl;/ uRef;aowåmBuD;ay: wifa&;&wm/
pma&;q&mqkdwm

nrSmpma&;w,fqkdvkdY

aqmif;nawGrSm

rD;vif;zkdeJY

a&;w,f/ a&;NyD;orQ tdrfoltdrfom;awGukd zwfjyvkduf? olwkdYta0zefcH
vkduf? olwkdYtdyfMuawmh qufa&;vkdufeJY a&;wmwJh/ taru 0dZ,um&D
£E´m0HowkdYukd zwfvmwJhpmawmfzwf? tazu vTwf½kH;om;qkdawmh olwkdY
b0ifruswmukd axmufjy jyifay;owJh/ q&mBuD;&JU taruawmh &SdNyD;
0dZ,um&DwkdYvkdY cHhnm;wJh pDa&;EIef;zGJUrI r&Sdayr,fh ZmwfuGufZmwftdrfeJY
ZmwfvkdufawG&JU tusifhpm&dwå wnfMunfykHa&;wmu pdwf0ifpm;ESpfouf
p&m aumif;w,fvkdY csD;usL;owJh/ 'D0w¦Kukd yxr rEÅav;wkdif; owif;pm
wkdufukd ay;w,f/ pmjyifq&m q&moifu oljyifa&;csifw,fqkdvkdY jyef,l
NyD; ol&d,OD;babqD ykdYvkdufawmh awmfawmfeJYtaMumif;rjyefbl;/tBudrfBudrf
EId;aqmfpma&;awmhrS

0w¦Kpmrlzwfolu

OD;buav;jzpfaevkdY

csufcsif;

rod&wmqkdNyD; arvrSm 'D0w¦Kukd 100 usyfeJY 0,fr,fvkdY pmjyefvmw,f/
297

tJ'Dpm&awmh ]]igonf pma&;q&mwa,muf jzpfacsNyD}} vkdY ykdif;jzwfvkduf
owJh/
aemuf &efukefqif;NyD; OD;babeJY awGUwJhtcg OD;babu 

East  Lynn 

ukdrSD;NyD; jrefrm0w¦Kwyk'f vkyfygvkdYckdif;vkdY &wemykHqkdwJhtrnfeJY rSD;ay;vkduf
w,f/ tJ'gukd pmrlc 115 usyf? 0w¦K pmtkyf 25 tkyf ay;r,fvkdY
oabmwlNyD;

ol&d,rSm

tJ'D'kwd,tkyfukd

t&ifxnfhoGif;azmfjyw,f/

yifukda&; &efBuD;atmifukd 'kwd,azmfjyw,f/ &efBuD;atmifrSm pmta&;
tom;u rauúmav;ukd twkcdk;wm? Zmwfvrf;qifykHu a&;Ekd;ukd twkckd;
wmygwJh/
1917 ckESpfqef;awmh ol&d,r*¾Zif;rSm t,f'DwmvkyfzkdY ac:vkdY 1917 ck
azazmf0g&Dv (1) &ufaeY r*¾Zif;trSwf 2 upNyD; r*¾Zif;t,f'Dwm
pvkyfw,f/ vc wv (75)usyf? (3)vaphawmh vc&if; 100 usyf^- wESpf
(10) wkd;eJY 180 usyftxd wkd;ay;w,f/ 
jrefrmrIjyKzkdYvnf;

OD;babwkdYu

q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;

ckdif;wmyJ/

Sherlock  Holmes 

ukd

ol&d,a&mufoGm;wJhtcg

(q&mvGef;)wkdY yDrkd;eif;

(q&mausmf)wkdYeJY

tuRrf;w0if jzpfvmw,f/ q&mBuD;[m 1916 ckESpf touf 27 ESpfupNyD;
uavmifukdifNyD; toufarG;vkdufwm touf 80 ausmft&G,f 1972
ckESpfavmuftxd ESpfaygif; (50) ausmf

pma&;oGm;ol

jzpfygw,f/

q&mBuD;woufrSm aESmif;vlawG woojzpfMu&wJh pmtkyfawG trsm;BuD;
a&;cJhwmyg/ tJ'Dpmtkyf (50) ausmfxJrSm &efBuD;atmif? &wemykH? ½lyeE´D?
pkHaxmufarmifpH&Sm;?

*sr'gukdukdBuD;?

½lyuvsmPD?

yxrHq&modef;?

ol&Jaumif;okH;a,muf ponfwkdY ygygw,f/ q&mMuD;u ola&;cJhzl;wJh
pmawGeJY ywfoufNyD; olb,f'if;ukd tESpfNcKdufqkH;vJqkdwmukd olUrSwfwrf;
rSm b,fvkd azmfjyovJqkdawmh ]]uREkfyf\woufwmtwGif; tcspf0w¦Krsm;?
298

bmomjyefrsm;? pGefYpm;cef;rsm;? vQKdU0Sufonf; zdkrsm;? pkHaxmufcef;rsm;?
owif;pmacgif;BuD;rsm;? taxGaxG aqmif;yg;rsm; ponfwkdYukd a&;&jcif;
xuf bmoma&;ac: avmukwå&maqmif;yg;rsm; a&;&jcif;onf t&om
t&SdqkH;? tNrdef,SufqkH; jzpfyg\}} vkdY a&;ygw,f/ q&mBuD; olUb0rSm
a&;wJh bmoma&;aqmif;yg;awGukd pmtkyf½kdufw,f/ 1960rSm yxrwGJ
xGufw,f/ emrnfu 'daX'dX rwåH ]]ukd,fawGUusifhpOf}}wJh/ 'Dpmtkyf (1)
vtwGif; a&mif;vkdYukefvkdY wESpfxJ 3cgjyef½kduf&w,f/ q&mBuD; u tJ'Dvkd
a&;ayr,fh ola&;cJhorQ pmawGxJrSm owif;pmacgif;BuD;a&;cJhwmawGeJY
ywfoufvkdY awmfawmftm;&auseyfwmukdvnf; azmfjy a&;om;zl;ygw,f/
q&mBuD;[m ESpfaygif; 50 ausmf pma&;jcif;eJY toufarG;cJh&mrSm 1917 u
20 ckESpftxd ol&d,r*¾Zif;acgif;BuD;ykdif; a&;cJhwm (3) ESpf? ol&d,
owif;pmrSm 1936 ckESpfuae 42 ckESpftxd owif;pmacgif;BuD;ykdif;
a&;cJhwm (6) ESpf? 1946 cku 1949 ckESpftxd vlxkowif;pmrSm
acgif;BuD;a&;wm yxrtBudrf (3) ESpf? 1950 ckESpfupNyD; 1954 ckESpf txd
vlxkrSm 'kwd,tBudrfvkyfwm (3) ESpf? vkyfom;owif;pmrSm acgif;BuD;
a&;wmu 1963 u 1972 txd (9)ESpf pkpk aygif; (21) ESpf q&mBuD;u
owif;pmacgif;BuD;awG a&;oGm;wmyg/ 'gayr,fh owif;pm ta&;tom;
qkdwm pmtkyfawG a&;wmvkd vufqkyfvufukdifjyEkdifwJh[mrsKd; r[kwfbJ
aeYwkdif;zwfw,f/ NyD;NyD;aysmufaysmuf jzpfoGm;w,fqkdwmrsKd;rkdY owif;pm
q&mtvkyf[m vkyftm;ukd todtrSwfjyK rcH&wwfwJh vkyftm;&SifwrsKd;yg/
'gayr,fh

jynfolawGtay:

MoZm&SdwJh

owif;pmrSef&if

aeYpOfeJYtrQ

jynfwGif;jynfyrSm jzpfyGm;ay:aygufaewJh EkdifiHa&;? vlrIa&;? pD;yGm;a&; pwJh
vlrIjyóemrsKd;pkHeJY ywfoufNyD; 'Dowif;pm&JU okH;oyfcsuf? vrf;ñTef
wifjycsufrsm; a&;ae&ygw,f/ 'g[m tvGefta&;BuD;wJh pmyg/ aeYwkdif;
299

aeYwkdif; odoifhodxkdufwmawGukd rD;armif;xkd;jyaeNyD;? OD;aESmufukd tpmauR;
aeovkdrkdY acgif;BuD;ykdif;a&;wJh t,f'Dwm[m wu,fta&;ygwJh pmay
vkyfom;ygyJ/
ygwDpkH'Drkdua&pDacwfrSm EkdifiHa&;tmPmeJY uif;uif;a0;a0;aeNyD; owif;pm
wapmifMoZm&SdvmzkdY xlaxmifr,fqkd&if 'Dowif;pm&JUta&;tom; txl;
tm;jzifh acgif;BuD;ykdif;&JU tmabmfeJY xlaxmifMu&ygw,f/ vGwfvyfpGm
oabmuGJvGJcGifh? Nidrf;csrf;pGmjiif;ckefa0zefcGifh&SdMuwJh acwfumvrSm owif;pm
wapmif&JU acgif;BuD;ykdif;u ta&;tom;[m jynfoltwGif; tvGefta&;yg
t&ma&mufygw,f/ owif;pmuvnf; jynfolawGMum;u jyóemwcktay:
yxrjyóemeJY qkdif&m taMumif;t&mukd A[kokwtjzpfeJY pkHpkHvifvif
rSefrSefuefuef&SmazG wifjyygw,f/ tJ'gu ynmay;tykdif;yg? NyD;awmhrS
'Djyóemukd

b,fvkdpOf;pm;oifhw,f?

b,fvkd

ukdifwG,fajz&Sif;&if

vlawGtwGuf taumif;qkH;jzpfr,fqkdwJh olUtBuHÓPfukd &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;
wifjyygw,f/ owif;pmzwfw,fqkdwm wu,fuawmh pmwwfwJhvlu
zwfwmjzpfavawmh ynmwwfvlwef;pm;twGuf OD;aESmuftpmukd owif;pm
u rkd;vif;vm&if acgif;BuD;ykdif;uaeNyD; yxrqkH; ay;vkdufwJhoabmygyJ/
owif;pmwapmif[m jynfolUbufu &yfwnfykHrSefw,f? ay;wJh A[kokw
pkHvif rSefuefaumif;rGefw,f? wifjywJhawG;ac:pOf;pm;p&mrsm;utxufwef;
usw,f? ta&;tom;uvnf; tvGefaumif;w,fqkd&if tvGefaumif;wJh
acgif;BuD;ykdif;awG

jzpfvmawmhwmygyJ/

jynfolawGrSmu

aeYpOfeJYtrQ

EkdifiHwumrSm jzpfyGm;ay:aygufaewJh jyóemawG ukd,fhjynfwGif;rSm jzpfyGm;
ay:aygufaewJh vlrIa&;? pD;yGm;a&;? EkdifiHa&;jyóemawG &SdMuw,f rIwfvm;/
'gawGukd owif;pmu ay:vmwkdif; aumufumiifum a&;om;wifjyoGm;
&wmyg/
300

tJ'Dvkd wifjywm aumif;rGefwmeJYtrQ owif;pm&JU MoZmuvnf; xufjruf
pl;&Svm&ygw,f/

owif;pmrSm

ESpfrsKd;ESpfpm;&Sdygw,f/

apmifa&rsm;wJh

owif;pmeJY MoZmwduúrBuD;wJh owif;pm? apmifa&rsm;wkdif; MoZmrBuD;bl;/
MoZmBuD; wkdif;apmifa&rrsm;bl;/ wcsKdUowif;pmu apmifa&rsm;zkdY BuKd;pm;
w,f/ wcsKdUowif;pmu MoZmBuD;zkdY xlaxmifw,f/ MoZmBuD;wJh owif;pm
&JU t&Sdeftapmfukd b,ftxd wefzkd;xm;MuovJqkd&if EkdifiHa&;tmPmukd
&,lxm;Muolwkdif;u 'Dvkd owif;pmrsKd;&JU axmufcHcsufukd t½l;trl;
&,lvkdMupNrJyg/
t*FvefrSm owif;pmacgif;BuD; ta&;tom;eJY ywfoufvkdY emrnftBuD;qkH;
owif;pmBuD;wapmif &Sdygw,f/ tJ'guawmh vef'efwkdif; owif;pmBuD;yg/
oluvnf; acgif;BuD;rSm b,favmufrsm; emrnfBuD;ovJqkd&if owif;pm
wapmifrSm

acgif;BuD;okH;cka&;xnfhay;NyD;

zwfwJhvluvnf;

tJ'gukdyJ

pkHa&rufa& zwfMu&ygw,f/ olu ynma&;? EkdifiH a&;? pD;yGm;a&;pwJh
acgif;BuD;awGukd oufqkdif&m bmom&yfrSm uRrf;usifwJh vlawmfyk*¾KdvfawGukd
ta&;ckdifwmjzpfovkd owif;pmavmurSmvnf; tmPmpuf tvGefBuD;wJh
owif;pmvkdY emrnfBuD;ygw,f/
jrefrmEkdifiHrSm owif;pm xGufay:wJhoufwrf;[m &mrausmfao;ygbl;/
'Doufwrf;twGif;rSm q&mBuD;a&TOa'gif;[m owif;pmacgif;BuD; ta&;
tom;rSm tvGefaumif;wJh owif;pmq&mBuD;vkdY wOD;wnf; ausmfMum;vm
olyg/
'gaMumifh ygwDpkH'Drkdua&pDuaeNyD; wygwDpepfukd ul;ajymif;wJhtcgrSmvnf;
vkyfom;owif;pmBuD;u q&mBuD;eJYyJ olwkdYowif;pmukd pwifwnfaxmif
ygw,f/ OD;apmOD;wkdYu q&mBuD;ukdac:,lNyD; 1963 ckESpfrSmzGifhwJh vkyfom;
owif;pmukd q&mBuD; t,f'DwmcsKyf vkyfapvsuf zGifhvSpfcJhygw,f/ tJ'DrSm
301

q&mBuD; (9)ESpfvkyfay;NyD; 1972 ckESpfurS yifpif,lvmygw,f/ rSwfrd
aeygao;w,f/ q&mBuD; 1936 ckESpf ol&d,owif;pmwkdufrSm acgif;BuD;
0ifa&;awmh olUacgif;BuD;awGukd vlawGu aumif;ygayw,fvkdY woo
ajymprSwfjzpfvmygw,f/
trsKd;om;

bmvkdYaumif;ovJqkdawmh

vGwfvyfa&;&yfwnfcsufeJY

ta&;tom;awGaMumifh

jzpfygw,f/

e,fcsJUqefYusifa&;

tvGefajymifajrmufwJh
a&;wJh

pmawGxJrSm

jrefrmpm
xdrdwJh

ajympum;av;awGn§yfa&;wmrsKd; q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;u olUav;csKd;
awGrSm yxrqkH; pokH;ovkd q&mBuD; a&TOa'gif;uvnf; olUpum;ajyawGrSm
okH;vmygw,f/ ajympum;ukd pa&;wm q&mBuD; ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;NyD;&if
q&mBuD;a&TOa'gif;vkdY ajym&if&ygw,f/ q&mBuD;u olUpmta&;tom;
ywfoufNyD; jrefrmpm0guszGJUykH ckdifcHhuspfvpfrIukd ol rauúmav;qDu
&cJhw,fvkdY ajymygw,f/ rauúmav;&JU pmawGukd q&mBuD;u cDs;usL;ykHu
]]rauúmav;\ 0guswnfaqmufykH oyf&yf uspfvpf ajyjypfjcif;ESifh tcsuf
usatmif a&;wwfjcif;? acsmarGUvSyjcif;? cHhnm;atmif a&;wwfjcif;wkdYrSm
MuufoD;xonfhwkdif t&omay:onfh ta&;tom;rsm;jzpfonf/ 0gusrsm;
onf yGwfpifrS xGufvmonfh *sifuav;ozG,f acsmrGwfaooyf vSaom
aMumifh tcsKdUukd tm*kHaqmifavh &dSonf/ olpmtzwf 0g&ifhvmwJhtcg
olUpmu

pdrfhpdrfh0ifoGm;ovkd

&SdvmNyD;

(3)ESpf

ausmfawmh

olUpwkdif

jzpfvmonf}}
vkdY a&;ygw,f/ aemifa&;ouf ESpfaygif; (30) ausmf&vmNyD; q&mBuD;
touf (60) ausmfawmh a&;[efwrsKd; ajymif;vmw,fwJh/ 'Dt&G,frSm – 
(1) ½kd;½kd;uav;a&;jcif;
(2) t"dyÜm,f&Sif;&Sif;a&;jcif;
(3) zwfíacsmjcif;? a'gifa'gifajy;jcif;
302

ukd oabmusvmw,fwJh/ q&mBuD;u vli,fawGukd cGeftm;&SdwJhpmrsKd;
a&;wwfcsif&if – 
(1) a&;csifwJhtaMumif;t&mu aoaocsmcsm odwJh[m jzpf&r,f/
(2) tcsufusus a&;wwf&r,f/
(3) BuHhckdifuspfvspfwJh0gusrsKd;eJY a&;&w,fvkdYvnf; qkH;rygw,f/
acwfrDvSwJht,ltq
owif;pmacgif;BuD;ykdif;

a&;wmeJY

ywfoufvkdY

uRefru

q&mBuD;&JU

woufwmrSwfwrf;rSm tcef;wcef;tjzpfeJYa&;cJhzkdY awmif;yefvkdY owif;pm
acgif;BuD;rsm;vkdY

acgif;wyfNyD;

pmenf;enf;a&;cJhygw,f/

tJ'DpmxJrSm

bufrvkdufzkdYvnf; a&;ygw,f/ NyD;awmh olUtaeeJY rSefw,fxifovkd
a&;csifwm

tmPm&Sdolrsm;ukd

iJhraecsifwmukdvnf;

&Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;

a&;jycJhygw,f/
uREkfyfrSm rsufESmrvkdufbJ rdrdrSefonfxifaombufrS axmufcHa&;om;
vkdaom qE´jyif;xefol wa,muf jzpfonfhtavsmuf rSefonfhudpöESifh
jzpfvsif rnfolrBuKdufBuKduf-BuKdufBuKduf rSefonfukdom 0efcHa&;om;vkd\/
wkdif;jynfpD;yGm;a&;pHepfwGif vuf0J0g'ukd oabmusapumrl vuf0Jorm;
rsm;ü trSm;rsm;awGUvQifvnf; axmufíjycsifwwf\/ þuJhokdY axmufjyrd
onfhtwGufaMumifh vuf0J0g' atmifjrifa&;twGuf taESmifht,Sufjzpfonf
qkdvQifvnf;

uREkfyf*½krpkduf/

wkdif;jynfü

vuf0J0g'

atmifjrifvQif

vltrsm;pk acsmifcsdEkdifonf[k ,kHMunfaomfvnf; vuf0Jacgif;aqmifBuD;rsm;
rSm;onf xifvQif zkH;zkH;zdzd rvkyfcsif uREkfyfvufvSrf;rDoavmuf azmfxkwf
wifjy&rS auseyfonf/ uREkfyfü ygwDpdwf"mwfrsKd; 0g'pdwf"mwfrsKd; wwfEkdif
orQ uif;atmif aecsifwwfonf ......... vkdY OD;av;odef;u a&;cJhygw,f/
303

q&mBuD; tJ'Dwkef;u tJ'Dta&;tom;ukd uRefrpdwfxJrSm q&mBuD;u
ynmwwfÓOf odyf&Sdw,fvkdY xifrdw,fvkdY/ q&mBuD;ukdawmh bmrSrajymrd
ygbl;/ 'gayr,fh ckaecgrsm; OD;av;odef; toufxif&Sm;&Sdaeao;&if
vuf0JtppfqkdwJh EkdifiHawGrSma&m vuf0JtwkqkdwJhEkdifiHawGrSma&m vuf0J
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309

touf (77) ESpf jynfhwJhaeY
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awmh tckvkd &ufawG a&wGufNyD; rSwfaeae? raeae olwkdYu arhoGm;
Mur,fhvlawG

r[kwfygbl;/

olwkdY

olrsm;twGuf

vkyfay;cJhwmawG

2

a,mufpvkH;u

tifrwefrsm;wJhvlawGyJ[m/

olwkdYb0rSm
tJ'Dawmh

olwkdY&SifoefusifvnfoGm;wJh vlUtzGJUtpnf;u olwkdYukd owd&aeMurSmyg/
q&mu ajymzl;w,f/ ]]armifapmvGif[m orkdif;ukd trsm;BuD; taxmuftul
314

jyKzl;w,f/ tultnDawG ay;zl;w,f}} wJh/ armifapmvGifu orkdif;ukdom
r[kwfygbl;? bmav;rqkd bmrqkdrSmyg/ uRefru ]]armifapmvGifa&? 'kdY
bmukd b,fvkdvkyf&atmifvm;}} vkdY ajym&if ]][kwfuJha':a':}} qkdNyD;
vkyfwmyJ/ OD;vSqkH;oGm;NyD;wJhaemuf uRefrrSm armifapmvGifudk trsm;BuD;
tm;ukd;&wmyg/
]]armifapmvGifa&?

'kdY

bmvkyfMur,f}}

qkd&if

jzpfatmifvkyfwmyJ/

trsm;eJYqkdifwJh udpöawGrSm b,fawmhrSrjiif;wJh vlwa,muf/ tJ'Dvkdvlukd
taygif;toif; a&mif;&if;eJY ywf0ef;usifvlUtaqmufttkHu b,fhES,fvkyf
NyD; arhEkdifyghrvJ/ 'Dopfyif &Sd&Sd r&Sd&Sd olUukd rarhygbl;/ 'gayr,fh
r,fZ,fyifBuD; &Sdaeawmh ykdNyD; owd&rSmaygh/ 'Dr,fZ,fyifBuD;uvnf;
waeYaomtcgrSm tBuD;BuD;jzpfvmrSm rkcsyJ/ tif;apmif;u r,fZ,fyif
BuD;aawGu tr&yl&aumif;pm;pOfu pkdufcJhwJh tyifBuD;awG r[kwfvm;/
'Dr,fZ,fyifvnf;aemf ESpfaygif; 100? 200 &SdwJhtcgrSmawmh tyifBuD;u
tBuD;BuD;?

tyif&if;u

xkdifckHav;eJY

ausmufjym;av;

pmav;eJYrkdY

xkdifrdolawGu ]]aMomf . . . 'Dvkdvlwa,mufukd trSwfw& pkdufxm;wJh
r,fZ,fyifBuD;ukd;}} vkdU odMurSmaygh/ armifapmvGif[m oltouf&Sif
aepOftcgwkef;u olrsm;twGuf olvkyfay;wmawG[m olUom; olUr,m;
twGufvkyfay;wmeJY b,fvkdrS EIdif;pmvkdY r&EkdifwJhvlyg/ olUrSm olrsm;
twGuf vkyfzkdYyJ tcsdef&SdovkdygyJ/ olUtdrftwGuf ol bmrS rsm;rsm;pm;pm;
rvkyfbl; xifwmyJ/ ol[m olrsm;twGuf vljzpfwJholvdkY wynfhawmfuawmh
ajymcsifw,f/

'gaMumifh

olr&SdwJhaemufvnf;

opfyifBuD;u

t&dyfawG

olrsm;ukd

olUtwGuf pkdufay;wJh

at;atmifjratmif

vkyfay;aerSm

jrifa,mifygao;&JU/ olUb0eJY vkdufzufwJh tpDtpOfvkdYyJ wynfhawmfawmh
ajymcsifygw,f/
315

a':ar&Sifukd *syefjynfu *kPfjyKwJhaeY
atmifawmfrl&yf? rEÅav;/
(19.1.95)
*syefjynfa&muf rGefynm&Sif q&mEkdifyef;vSeJY &if;ESD;wJh rdwfaqGawGukd
zdwfMum;NyD; a':ar&SiftdrfrSm tckvkd pka0;MuwJh udpöuav;uawmh q&m
Ekdifyef;vSu olUukd,fpm; uRefrwkdYu a':ar&Sifukd olwwfEkdifwmuav;
olUukd,fpm; csD;jr§ifhay;ygqkdvkdY aiGwodef; vmay;wJhyGJuav;yg/ vGefcJhwJh
wywfcGJESpfywfavmufu q&mEkdifyef;vSu uRefrqDukd *syefjynfuaeNyD;
w,fvDzkef;qufygw,f/

q&mEkdifyef;vSu

*syefjynf

tkdqmumNrKdUrSm

ta&SUawmiftm&S ,Ofaus;rIeJY orkdif;Xmeuygarmu©jzpfygw,f/ q&m tJ'D
a&mufaewm awmfawmfav; MumygNyD/ q&mu OD;vSeJY cifrif&if;pGJ
a&S;uwnf;u oduRrf;aeMuolrsm;rkdY uRefrwdkYeJY tquftoG,f rjywfcJh
olyg/
vGefcJhwJh&uf

tenf;i,fwkef;uawmh

q&mEkdifyef;vSu

uRefrqDukd

zkef;qufNyD;awmh a':ar&SiftaMumif; ra[oDrSm q&mrMuLMuLoif; a&;xm;
wJh aqmif;yg;ukdzwf&vkdY cktxd usef;usef;rmrm &Sdaeao;w,fqkdwmukd
olod&vkdY 0rf;omowJh/ oleJY a':ar&Sifu jrefrmjynfrSm olaewkef;u
a':ar&Sif jrefrmEkdifiHtoHvTifh½kHrSm tvkyfvkyfawmh rMum rMumawGUzl;vkdY
odygowJh/
tckvkd a':ar&Sif usef;usef;rmrm &Sdaew,fqkd&if [kduaeNyD; olwwfEkdifwm
uav;eJY csD;jr§ifhcsifvkdufwm b,fvkdvkyf&rwkef;vkdY uRefrukd vSrf;ar;yg
w,f/
316

q&mEkdifyef;vS

*syefjynfu

zkef;qufajymw,fqkdwm[m

wcgquf&if

tenf;qkH; em&D0ufMumwwfygw,f/ tJ'DrSm q&mu a':ar&Sifukd olwwf
EkdifwJh aiGuav;eJY csD;jr§ifh&if aumif;yghrvm;vkdY ar;&wmu wjcm;aMumifh
r[kwfbl;/

a':ar&Sifu

½kyf&Sifrif;orD;qkdayr,fh

tvGefapmifhpnf;wJh

trsKd;orD;wJh/ toHvTifh½kHrSm olu rGef,Ofaus;rIeJY ywfoufvkdY toHvTifhzkdY
rMumrMumvmwJhtcg a':ar&Sifu toHvTifh½kHu tcrf;tem; tpDtpOfrSL;
tjzpfeJY awGUwwfw,f/ awGUMuvkdY EIwfquf&if ar;wcGef; ac:wcGef;
uvGJvkdY wjcm;pum;ykd bmrS ajymavhr&Sdbl;/ tvGef£a`E´&w,f/ 'gaMumifh
ar;wmygwJh/ aiGeJY ay;wm[m aumif;yghrvm;? oluaum aiGaMu;ukd
vufcHyghrvm;wJh/ uRefru q&mOD;okcwkdY r&SifqDoGm;wJhtcg r&Sifpm;zkdY
okH;zkdYqdkNyD; ay;wm uRefrjrifygw,f/ r&Sifuvnf; vufcHygw,f/ tJ'Dawmh
q&m csD;jr§ifhwmukdvnf; vufcHr,fxifygw,fvkdY ajymawmh q&mu
yxrawmh aiG 25000d ay;csifwmwJh/ aemuf 2 &ufavmufMumawmh
zkef;wcgvmjyefw,f/ 25000d r[kwfbl;/ 50000d ay;csifwmwJh/ aemuf 2
&ufavmufaejyefawmh ig;aomif;r[kwfbl;? wodef;ay;csifwmwJh/ q&mu
ay;r,fqkdNyD; pdwful;awmh pdwful;&if;ul;&if; o'¨guwkd;wkd;vm w,fxif
yg&JU/ q&may;csifwmay;yg/ uRefrwkdYjzpfatmif &Gufaqmifay;ygr,fqkdawmh
zkef;xJu rEÅav;rSm olUrdwfaqG AkdvfrSL;cifarmifnKd&Sdovm;? ygarmu©
OD;csrf;jr &Sdovm;eJY ar;ygw,f/ uRefru &Sdygw,fqkdawmh olwkdYw,fvDzkef;
eHygwf awGygar;NyD; q&mEkdifyef;vSu olUtvSLukd vmMuzkdY *syefjynf
uaeNyD; olukd,fwkdif zkef;eJYvSrf;zdwfxm;wmyg/ r&Sifuvnf; q&mEkdifyef;vS
u

ckvkdulnDw,fqkdawmh

0rf;yef;wom

vufcHwJhtjyif

tJ'DaiG&&if

olUarG;aeYrSm vSLOD;rSmwJh/ q&meJY r&Sif&JU oabmwlnDcsuf&awmh uRefreJY
MuLMuLoif;wkdY wkdifyifpDpOfNyD; q&mzdwfapcsifwJhrdwfaqGrsm;eJY vl 20
317

avmufwufa&mufwJh 'DyGJuav;ukd r&Sif&JU tdyfcef;xJrSmyJ pDpOfMuwmyg/
tm;vkH; atmifatmifjrifjrif jzpfoGm;ygNyD? q&mBuD;OD;csrf;jrwkdY AkdvfrSL;
cifarmifnKd wkdYukdvnf; ckvkdvma&mufwm aus;Zl;wifygw,f/

rsKd;jrifhaqG (yef;csDOD;jraomif;)
ig;ESpfvnf txdrf;trSwf
q&m0efrsm;toif;wkduf? rEÅav;/
(13.2.95)
uAsmq&m rsKd;jrifhaqG? yef;csDq&m OD;jraomif; uG,fvGef tedpöa&mufwm
13-2-95 aeYu (5) ESpfjynfhwJhtwGuf usef&pfwJh q&mharmifESrwpku (5)
ESpfvnf txdrf;trSwfyGJwck rEÅav;NrKdU q&m0eftoif;wkdufrSm usif;yyg
w,f/
tJ'D txdrf;trSwf tcrf;tem;zGifhyGJ rvkyfcif uRefrukd ]]pum;enf;enf;
ajymay;yg? uRefawmfwkdY vmac:ygr,f}} vkdU uRefrqD ajymxm;ygw,f/
zdwfpmrSm reuf 7 em&DvkdYygayr,fh enf;enf;apmawmh at;aerSm pdk;vkdYqkdNyD;
8 em&D avmufrS vmac:vkdY vkdufcJhygw,f/ 'Da&mufawmh y&dowfawGu
uRefrukd apmifhaeMuwm awGU&awmh apmifh&olawGukd tm;emvkdufwm?
at;cgrSat;a&m?

zdwfxm;wJhtwkdif;

pzkdYaumif;wmaygh/

uRefraMumifh

uoduatmuf jzpf&wJh y&dowfukd awmif;yefygw,f/ q&m OD;jraomif;&JU
*kPfjyKyGJukd uRefrwkdY ckvkd usif;yEkdifwm odyf0rf;omygw,f/ bmvkdYvJ
318

qkdawmh q&mOD;jraomif;[m uRefrwkdYavmurSm olrwlwJh tEkynmonf
wa,mufyg/
uRefrwkdYavmurSm pma&;wwfolu trsm;tm;jzifh pmyJ a&;ygw,f/ tJ'g
pma&;q&myg/ uAsma&;zGJUolrsm;uvnf; uAsmyJ trsm;tm;jzifh a&;zGJUMuyg
w,f/ tJ'g uAsmq&myg/ yef;csDq&muvnf; yef;csDum;awGyJ a&;qGJyg
w,f/ aw;oDcsif;rsm; oDzGJUoluvnf; aw;oDcsif;ukdyJ oDzGJUygw,f/ q&m
OD;jraomif;u pm? uAsm? yef;csD? aw;zGJUwm tjyif yef;ykvnf; xkao;w,f/
q&mhvkd tEkynmqkd&if bmjzpfjzpf vkyfEkdifw,fqkdolrsKd;u uRefrwkdYavmu
rSm rsm;rsm; r&Sdygbl;/ NyD;awmh q&mu tEkynmrSm bmvmvm vkyfwwf
w,fqkdwm ajym&½kH &GufMurf;a&usKd tqifhrsKd;awGukdom vkyfEkdifolrsKd;vnf;
r[kwfygbl;/
uRefrwkdY rMumcif q&mhvuf&m yef;csDum;awGukd jyxm;wJh yef;csDjycef;
zGifhawmhrSmyg/ zGifh&if q&m[m yef;csDynmtaeeJY ayrDa'gufrD&SdwJh yef;csD
q&m [kwf&JUvm;qkdwm tuJcwfvkdY &rSmyg/ uAsma&;zGJUwmrSmvnf; q&mh
taeeJY pkpnf;½kdufESdyfwJh rsKd;jrifhaqG&JU uAsmvufa&G;pifuav;awG 6 tkyf
xGufcJhzl;ygNyD/ q&mqkH;wJh 5 ESpfjynfh txdrf;trSwftwGuf q&mhuAsmpmtkyf
aemufxyfwtkyf

uRefrwkdY

½kdufESdyfay;xm;ygw,f/

'Dpmtkyfuav;u

ckepftkyfajrmuf uAsmpmtkyfuav;yg/ tJ'DtxJrSm q&mhyef;csDum;av;awG
vnf; 5 csyf 6 csyf ½kdufESdyfazmfjyxm;ygw,f/ uAsmq&m armifMunfatmif
u ajymygw,f/ q&mudkjraomif; uAsma&;wm uRefawmfwdkYxuf apmowJh/
ckpmtkyfuav;xJrSm q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;&JU yef;csDum;eJY q&mBuD;
ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;uAsmukd zwf&wm yef;csDeJYuAsm wckuwckukd az;r
319

axmufulrI&SdvkdYxif&JU zwfol&JUpdwfxJ xdxdrdrd ay:ay:vGifvGif odyf&Sd
ygw,f/ [kdt&ifu vlxkowif;pmrSm q&mBuD;taMumif;zGJUwJh 'DuAsmukd
zwfcJh&wkef;ueJY rwlygbl;/ q&mhyef;csDum;awGu tcsyf 700 ausmf usef&SdcJh
wmygwJh/

ckum;

200

avmufukd

a&G;cs,fjyoxm;ygw,f/

q&mhvuf&muav;awGukd MunfhMuygOD;/
q&mhukd

atmufarhowd&wJhyGJ

uRefrwkdY

'DvkdvkyfaeMuwmukd

q&m

ukdjraomif;[m wae&m&mursm; jrifodaervm;vkdYvnf; atmufarhrdw,f/
bmvkdYvJqkdawmh ckvkd vlUb0wkef;u yef;csDawGqGJ? uAsmawGa&;? aw;
oDcsif;awG zGJUaewmrsKd;eJY tcsdefukefwJh vlwa,muf[m tEkynmpsmef
tNrJwef; 0ifpm;aeol jzpf&rSmyg/ tEkynmpsmefqkdwm pdwfaumif; ESvkH;
aumif;&SdrS 0ifpm;vkdY&ygw,f/ olrsm;pdwfcsrf;om&atmif om,mMunfEl;
csrf;ajrh&atmif uAsmeJYtvS? pmeJYtvS? aq;a&mifeJYtvS? toHeJYtvSukd
zefwD;aewmr[kwfvm;/ pdwf,kwfrm&SdwJhvlrsKd; 'Dtvkyfem; roDEkdif ruyfEkdif
ygbl;/ q&mu oltm;wJhtcsdef eef;OD;wkdufxJoGm;NyD; toH&Smw,f/ aw;a&;
w,fav/ 'gaMumifh pdwfaumif; apwemaumif; xm;olrsm; &Sdoifh&SdtyfwJh
t&yfrsKd;rSm q&m&SdaerSmygvkdY uRefru pOf;pm;Munfhrdwmyg/ uRefrwkdY
'DjyyGJvkyfwJh tcrf;tem;twGif;rSmyJ q&ma&;om;pyfqkdxm;wJh oDcsif;uav;
awGukd rEÅav; yefwsm ausmif;u apmif;q&mBuD; OD;jrifharmifeJY olUwynfhr
&D&DoefYwkdYu oDqkdwD;rIwfMuyygvdrfhOD;r,f/ ckacwfrSm bufpkHbufpkHqkdwJh
pum;vkH;ukd rMumrMum okH;pGJoHMum;&wwfw,f/ tEkynmeJY ywfoufvkdY
q&mukdjraomif; bufpkHwmrsKd;u &Sm;ygw,f/ wu,fbufpkHwJh tEkynm
orm;yg/ 'gaMumifh 'Dvkdyk*¾Kdvfukd azmfxkwf&wm 0rf;omwmeJYtwl q&mhukd
touf&Snf&SnfeJY tvSawGukd zefwD;aeapcsifao;w,fav/ q&mh yef;csDum;
awG jyxm;wm MunfhMuygOD;pkdY/
320

vif;,kefarmifarmif arG;aeYyGJ
tr&yl&awmifav;vkH;ausmif;
(9.4.95)

ukdarmifarmifu olUarG;aeY a':a':pum;ajymygOD;qkdNyD;awmh tapmBuD;
uwnf;u pma&;NyD;awmh ylqmxm;w,f/ a':a':uvnf; pum;ajym
&rSmrsm;

aMumufvkdufwm/

r*¾Zif;okH;tkyf

acgif;pOfwckxJeJY

cGJa&;ay;ygqkd&if

jzpfatmif

aqmif;yg;okH;yk'favmuf
BuKd;pm;vkdufcsifao;w,f/

pum;ajymzkdY rvkyfcsifbl;/ bmjyKvkdYwkef;qkdawmh vlu toufBuD;vkdY toH
rxGufwmu wrsKd;? NyD;awmh 'Dt&G,fBuD;a&mufaywJh ckxufxd y&dowf
aMumufwm &Sufwmu raysmufbl;/ tJ'Dawmh pum;ajym&rSmqkd odyf0efav;
wmyJ/ rajymcsifbl;/ EkdYaywJhvkdY ukdarmifarmifu ylqmaew,fav/
ukdarmifarmifqkdwmu

olUarG;aeYudk

awmufwdawmufwJh

vkyfxm;wm

r[kwfbl;/ olu olUpm&GufawG? olUpmwrf;awG zwfMunfhvkdufawmh olarG;
xm;wm [pfwvmwkdY? tkdufcref;wdkY qkdygvm;/ tJ'Dawmh aMumuf&w,f
olUukd uRefrwkdYu/
tJ'geJY olUarG;aeYtaMumif; pum;ajymrvkdY igbmrsm; ajym&ygvdrfhrvJ
pOf;pm;aeawmh uRefrrwfawmfwJh ukdvSazu tJ'Dzdwfpmav;ukdNyD;awmh
rrrm&,fwJh?

ukdarmifarmifu

toufckESpfq,f

b,fuçrSmwkef;wJh/

olUtouf ckepfq,fhig;ESpfavmuf&SdNyDwJh/ olwkdYESpfa,mufu awmxJrSm
twlwlaevmcJhMuwJhvlawGaemf/ 'DxufykdNyD; &if;ESD;p&mr&Sdbl;/ ck ukdvSazu
321

ukdarmifarmif ckepfq,fruawmhygbl; qkdawmh uRefrrSm *Gusaewmaygh/
ukd,fukdifwG,f&rJh 

Subject 

&JU

ckdifrmrIu

enf;enf;rS

rckdifrmawmh

bmvkyf&rSef; rodbl;/ tm*sDEkdrkdwkdavmufrS redyfao;bl; jzpfaewm/
tJ'Dawmh ukdarmifarmifvmawmh olUa&SUrSmyJ ukdvSazu ajymaew,f/
&Sifhtoufu ckepfq,fruawmhbl;qkd/ [kwfvm;vkdY ar;awmh [kwfygw,f?
uRefawmf ckepfq,fyg/ tckdiftrm uRefawmfckepfq,fygeJY ajymw,f/
ajymawmh ol um,uH&Sifu 'DavmufajymaerSawmh [kwfvkduf&rSmaygh
qkdNyD;awmh uRefru pum;ajymzkdY pOf;pm;ygw,f/ tJ'Dvkd pOf;pm; wJhtcgrSm
ayghav tem;rSm

olr&Sdbl;qkd&if

olUarG;aeYtwGuf oljyifqifxm;wJh

[mav;awG uRefrajymOD;r,faemf/
olu arG;aeYyGJtwGufqkdNyD;awmh olUpmtkyfjyyGJygw,fwJh/ aemuf "mwfykHjyyGJ
ygw,fwJh/ olUtw¦KyÜwåd? b,fwkef;u bmvkyfw,f? b,fwkef;u bmvkyf
w,fayghav/ tJ'Dpm&Gufvnf; ygw,f/ NyD;awmh 'DESpfqGrf;uyfOD;r,f/
uRefr wkdYukd rkef;[if;cg;auR;OD;r,f/ ½kyfao;yGJvnf; jyOD;r,f? [kwfvm;/
a':trmu pum;ajymOD; pojzifh pojzifhayghav/ bmrS vkdavao;r&Sd
pDrHxm;wmukd;/
pDrHaeawmh uRefru pOf;pm;Munfhw,f/ ukdarmifarmifvkyfwJh jynfhjynfhpkHpkH
arG;aeYqkdwmrsKd;u odyfvG,fwm r[kwfbl;vkdY? NyD;awmh olu olUtwGuf
pDpOfwmaemf/ olrsm;zkdY vkyfay;wm r[kwfbl;/ tJ'Dawmh ukdarmifarmifom
tar&dum;rSm&Sd&if olrsm;arG;aeYawG vkdufvkyfay;wJhvkyfief; vkyfpm;vkdY
&NyDvkdY/ tJ'DvkdyJ pOf;pm;aewkef; olUrdwfaqG oleJY&if;ESD;wJhvlwa,muf
vmawmh uRefru olvnf;Mum;rSmpkd;vkdY wkd;wkd;av; ukdarmifarmifu arG;aeY
322

vkyfw,fqkdwm aumif;rSwfvkdY vkdYajymrdw,f/ bmvkdYwkef; a':trm&,fwJh/
igajymr,fuGm? 'kdYvltkdawGav? olu toufckepfq,fvkdYajymw,faemf?
'kdYvltkdawG[m tkdvmNyDqkd&if [kdAkdvfcsKyfBuD;ae0if;&JU a,mu©r a'gufwm
boef;ajymwJh ]]tkdemawG}} u wckNyD; wck odyfvmwm/ wckNyD;wckawmif
rubl;/ wcgwav NyKdifNyD;vmao;wm/ toufav;q,fqkd&ifyJ qHyifu
jzLvmNyD/ rsufaphu rIefpjyKvmNyD/ uRefrqkd&if okH;q,fhukd;ESpfup rsufrSef
wyf&wm/ rsufpdq&m0efu cifAsm;wkdYu nBuD;q,fhwem&D q,fhESpfem&DrSm 
Proof 

qkdwJh rIHwdrIef0g; pmawG zwf&wmwJh/ 'DrsufvkH;awGeJYaemf/ tJ'Dawmh

wyfygAsm apmapmpD;pD;qkdawmh okH;q,fhukd;ESpf uwnf;u pmMunfhrsufrSef
pwyf&wm/ rsufrSefBuD; w0if;0if;eJY aewm[m aumif;aumif; ae&mao;
wm r[kwfbl;/ tkdemu wkd;wkd;vmvkdY awmfMum&if vJygOD; yg0g/ awmfMum
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323

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wkd;NyD;awmh

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Remind 

aojcif;w&m;ukd
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324

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ygEkdifygapayghaemfvkdY qkawmif;&if; ed*kH;csKyfvkduf ygw,f/

OD;nKdjr (10) ESpf vnfwJhaeY
tr&yl&awmifav;vkH;ausmif;
(29.9.95)
uaeY[m ukdnKdjrqkH;wm (10)ESpf jynfhwJhaeYrkdY ukdnKdjr atmufarhowd&yGJ
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325

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vsuf vSLwJh'DtvSLu trQarwåmay;a0ay;ygwJh/ 'gaMumifh ukdynmu
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326

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wuúokdvfausmif;om;b0u a&;pyfxm;wJh uAsm 4 yk'fukd ukdnKdjr
vufa&;rl twkdif;awGukd aumfyDyGm;NyD; ,lvmygw,f/ tJ'DuAsmav;awGukd
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wa,muf? tawG;tjrifrSm arwifxG#fqkdwJh uavmifemrnfeJY pmawG
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vSygw,f/ cktxdvnf; vSaeao;olyg/ rcifarvSwmu ,leDAmpDwDrSm
tausmfa';,s – 

]]aemufykd;awG rIdaygufvkdY
pdwfaemufMu vli,fawG
ref;cifaMumifhav/
wuúokdvfajr N*KdvfarTwJh a&Tref;
olaoawmh ewfjynfrSm ewfawG½l;r,f
xl;wJh a&Tref;}} wJhav/

327

'D aemufuAsmuawmh yJcl;ol rcifjrukd a&;zGJUwmyg/ 'Drcifjru Akdvfvusfm
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q&mtwwfoifodyÜHrSm ygarmu©yg/ ckxufxd usef;usef;rmrm &Sdygao;
w,f/ ukdnKdjru tif;vsm;a[mrSm &Sd&SdorQ ausmif;ol Akdvfujym;eJY
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olwJY odcsifwJhvl/ uRefrwkdY tif;vsm;aeMuwkef;u rEÅav;atbDtrfrSm
twlausmif;aezl;wJh rrBuD;? ryk? rMunf qkdwJh nDtpfr okH;a,mufeJY
cifrifMuw,f/ tJ'DnDtpfrokH;a,mufu ukdnKdjreJY armifESr0rf;uGJawG?
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ryku t*Fvdyfpmygarmu© OD;rsKd;rif;ZeD; jzpfw,f/ tMunfu q&m
rif;ok0Pf&JU

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a,mufz

t&Smaumif;w,f xifwmygyJ/ tJ'D nDtpfrokH;a,mufukd taMumif;jyKNyD;
ukdnKdjru tif;vsm;ukd a&Tvrf;aiGvrf;azmufw,f/ vrf;aygufawmh olu
tif;vsm;olawGukd

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cGJxm;ygw,f/

acsmw,f

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pm&if;rSm oGif;ygw,f/ wa,mufrSawmh csrf;omray;csifygbl;/
OD;yÍÆif; ckeifuajymwJh 

Hellhound  at  large 

qkdwmu tkd;a0r*¾Zif;rSm

ukdnKdjra&;cJhwJh t*FvdyfuAsmyg/ 1936 ck? wuúokdvf 'kwd,oydwfBuD;
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328

taMumif;? tJ'Dvlukd i&JacG;eJY wifpm; a&;xm;wmyg/ uRefrwkdYjrefrmu
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&ifhoD;vGef;tm;BuD;w,f? 'grsKd; r*¾Zif;rSm razmfjy&bl;? 'g b,fola&;wm
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ukdatmifqef; ausmif;xkwfcH&wJhudpö[m wuúokdvfu wkdif;AkH;&JU peufwH
jzpfoGm;NyD;

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jzpfvm&NyD;?

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ukdatmifqef;

emrnfBuD;vmygw,f/
oydwfBuD;NyD;awmh tifuGm&Daumfr&Sifqkdwmukd NAdwdoQtpdk;&uzGJUNyD; ausmif;
ol? ausmif;om;awGukd wOD;pD ac:ar;ygw,f? pkHprf;ygw,f/ pkHprf;wJhtcg
rdef;uav;ausmif;olawGukd i&JacG;BuD;uAsmeJY ywfoufvkdY trsm;qkH;ar;yg
w,f/ i&JacG;BuD;u wuúokdvfe,fajrrSm aomif;Murf;aewmvkdY qkdoukd;/
tJ'Dvkd

tar;cH&wJhtcg

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wkdifyifxm;Muovkd?

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ukdnKdjrukd umuG,fajymqkdcJhMuwm woHwnf;yg/ tar;cH&wJh txJrSm
rcifpDwkdY rcif&DwkdY nDtpfrvnf; ygwmaygh/ oydwfarSmufausmif;olawG
tukefvkH;ygyJav/ ukdnKdjrukd 0kdif;NyD; umuG,fMuwm/ aMomf . . . tcsdef
umvawGuvnf; bmrS rMumcJhao;bl; xifayr,fh ukdnKdjrqkH;wmawmif
10 ESpf &SdoGm;NyDwJh/
329

touf (80) jynfhwJhaeY
tr&yl&awmifav;vkH;ausmif;
(29.11.95)
'DESpf touf 80 jynfharG;aeYrkdYvm;rodbl;/ vmvkdufMuwm ESpfwkdif;ESpfwkdif;
vmaeus rdwfaqGawGtjyif b,fESpfwkef;urS rvmbl;wJh rdwfaqGawGvnf;
vmMuw,f/ uRefrpdwfxJ b,fvkd0rf;ajrmufrSef;rodbl;/ 0rf;ajrmufwmeJY
twl aMomf . . . ighukd cifvkdY rifvkdY vm&SmMuwm/ 'Davmuf wul;wuefY
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330

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331

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332

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333

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334

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335

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wax&m wnf;/

336

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ay:OD;oufu -

340

]]tppftrSefw&m;ukd

azmfjyzkdY

toGifo@mef[m

vkdygw,f/

toGif

o@mefawGukd tEkynmeJY tokH;jyKNyD; 0wrkwåd&oukd azmfñTef; zkdY&m
uRefawmf&JU aemufqkH; &nf&G,fcsufyJ}} wJh/

rsKd;jrifhaqG tEkynmbPfwkdufzGifhyGJ
uÍöPr[D&yf? rEÅav;
(2.2.97)
q&mrsKd;jrifhaqG&JU

tEkynmjycef;uav;

a':a':u pdwfygvufyg

a':a':

zGifhay;vSnfhygqkdvkdY

vmcJhygw,f/ bmvkdYvJqkdawmh a':a':wkdY

rEÅav;rSm 'Dvkdjycef;awG rsm;rsm;r&Sdao;ygbl;/ tEkynmorm;awGawmh
awmfawmf&Sdygw,f/ a':a':odoavmuf ajym&&if rEÅav;rSm yef;csDq&m
BuD; OD;atmifcif&JU orD;av;awGu olwkdYtazusef&pfcJhwJh um;awGukd
yef;csDjycef;vkyfzkdY BuKd;pm;wkef; &Sdygao;w,f/ rNyD;ao;ygbl;/ q&mBuD;
OD;atmifcifusef&pfwJh um;awGuawmh trsm;BuD;ygyJ/ jycef;BuD;wck vSvSyy
vkyfEkdifygw,f/
yef;csD ukday:OD;ouf&JU ZeD;eJYom;rsm;uawmh yef;csDjycef;wck vSvSyy
vkyfcsifw,f/ EkdYayr,fh um;awGu rsm;rsm;rusef&pfbl;/ ck q&mrsKd;jrifhaqG
rSmawmh um;awGusef&pfw,f/ um;omru tjcm;ypönf;awGvnf; &Sdw,f/
NyD;awmh q&mrsKd;jrifhaqG&JU usef&pfwJhaqGrsKd;awGu pdwfwlukd,fwl 'Djycef;

341

jzpfajrmufa&;ukd aqmif&GufaeMuwmrkdY rEÅav;rSm 'Dvkdjycef;wck &SdvmNyD
qkdwm vIdufvIdufvSJvSJ *kPf,lp&maumif;ygw,f/
uRefrtBuHjyKcsifwmuawmh q&mhvuf&muav;awGukd tckvkd jyoxm;½kH
rubl;/ jycef;ukd vmMunfholawGu ukd,fBuKdufwJhyef;csDum;av;awG&JU ykHwl
a&mifpkH"mwfykHuav;awGukdyg 0,foGm;vkdY&atmif ykHul;NyD; a&mif;wmrsKd;
vnf; vkyfapcsifygw,f/
aemuf q&mhuAsmpmtkyfuav;awGukd 'Dae&mu a&mif;wmrsKd; vkyfapcsif
ygw,f/ uAsmpmtkyfuav;awG q&m t&ifwkef;u xkwfa0zl;ygw,f/
ckawmh ukefaeNyDxifygw,f/ tJ'Dpmtkyfuav;awGukd xyf½kdufyg/ wrsKd;
1000pDavmuf½kdufNyD;
q&mqkH;wm

aps;enf;enf;tjrwfr,lbJ

ig;ESpfjynfhwkef;u

q&m0eftoif;wkdufrSm

jyefa&mif;ay;yg/
jyyGJvkyfawmh

q&mhum;awG tawmfrsm;rsm;ukd a&mifpkH"mwfykHul;NyD; jyefa&mif;wmawGUvkdY
uRefroabmuswJh ykHuav;awGukd tJ'Dwkef;u 0,fcJhNyD; odrf;xm;cJhygw,f/
q&mrsKd;jrifhaqGu t&ifu rEÅav;usKH;ukd ae&mtrsKd;rsKd;u a&;qGJcJhw,f/ ck
rjrif&awmhNyDjzpfwJh tJ'DusKH;ykH uav;rsKd;awG?

q&mrsKd;jrifhaqGa&;qGJwJh

q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;&JU ykHwlum;rsKd;awGukd ul;NyD; a&mif;apcsifyg
w,f? 0,fMurSmyg/
NyD;awmh jycef;qkdwm wcgcsdwfqGJxm;NyD; jyvkduf½kHeJY NyD;wmrsKd; r[kwfygbl;/
tNrJwrf;xdef;odrf;zdkY vkdygw,f/ jyp&mypönf;uav;awGukdvnf; rMumrMum
ajymif;vJNyD; jyoEkdifzkdY vkdygw,f/ uRefrwkdYrEÅav;ukd

EkdifiHwumu

{nfhonfawGvmvdrfhr,f? vmcJh&if tEkynmukd pdwf0ifpm;wJh {nfhrsm;ygcJh&if
342

'Dvkdae&mukdvmNyD; MunfhcsifrSmyg/ Munfhvm&if tJ'D{nfhukdvnf; jzpfEkdif&if
tzkd;tcrsm; r,lbJ MunfhcGifhjyKapcsif ygw,f/ 'Dvkdajymwm wjcm;aMumifh
awmh r[kwfygbl;? EkdifiHjcm;{nfhwpk tcsif;csif; pum;ajymae&mrSm jrefrm
EkdifiHu Munfhp&mawG aumif;ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh ykdufqH,ltm;BuD;w,fvkdY
ajymoHMum;cJhw,fqkdwJh pum; Mum;zl;vkdYyg/ q&m[m touf&Snfoifh
oavmuf r&SnfcJhbl;/ 'gayr,fh olUtEkynmawGukd olUarmifESrom;csif;
awGu jrwfjrwfEkd;Edk;? pkpkaqmif;aqmif;eJY tckvkd azmfxkwfEkdifwmuawmh
olrsm;xuf uHaumif;w,f xifygw,f/ q&mu yef;csDom qGJoGm;wJh
yef;csDq&mwa,mufom [kwfygbl;/ pmawGvnf; a&;oGm;wJhpma&;q&m?
uAsmawGvnf; a&;pyf oGm;wJhuAsmq&m? aw;oDcsif;awGvnf; a&;zGJUoDukH;
oGm;wJh aw;jyK tEkynmonfyg/ 'DvkdwOD;wa,mufwnf;eJY tEkynmawG
trsm;BuD; xGufvmolu rsm;rsm; r&Sdygbl;/ &Sm;&Sm;yg;yg; tEkynmonf
rsKd;yg/ olUynmawGukd usef&pfwJh armifESrom;csif;awGu tckvkdodrf;qnf;
pkaqmif;wifjyEkdifwm 0rf;vnf;omw,f? tm;vnf; &w,f/ rEÅav;taeeJY
*kPfvnf; ,lygw,f/ q&mhtEkynmjywkduf t&SnfwnfwHh Ekdifatmifom
tbufbufu BuKd;pm;Muygawmh/

343

yef;csDq&mBuD; OD;atmifcif ESpfywfvnf
ewfuRef;atmifajr
(4.5.97)
q&mOD;atmifcif tedpöa&mufwm wESpfajrmufNyDvkdY q&mhorD; csKdcsKdatmif
wdkYu uRefrqDukd vmNyD; taMumif;Mum;ygw,f/ aemufNyD; wESpfajrmuf
yGJuav; usif;yr,fh q&mhZmwd&Gmukd tarvkdufEkdif&if vkdufcJhygOD;vkdY
zdwfwmeJY q&mh&Gmukd a&mufzl;csifwmuvnf;waMumif;? q&meJY&if;ESD;wm
vnf; waMumif;rkdY BuKd;pm;NyD;awmh vkdufcJhr,fvkdY ajymNyD; uRefrvkdufvm
ygw,f/ c&D;rxGufwm MumygNyD/ c&D;xGufvmcJhawmh aMomf . . . q&mh&Gmu
'DrSmukd;? q&mu 'DZmwdukd; vkdYqkdNyD; q&meJYykdvkdY &if;ESD;ovkd jzpf&jyef
ygw,f/ bmvkdYvJqkdawmh uRefruvnf; 'DZmwd[kwfvm;/ uRefrwkdY
Zpfjrpfu vufawmif;BuD;uyg/ vufawmif;BuD;qkdwm rkH&Gmwbufurf;
anmifyifBuD;qdyfuaeNyD; ykvJvrf;ukdoGm;wJh um;vrf;ay:u vufawmif;
BuD;&Gm[m uRefrtbGm;rsm; Zmwd&Gmyg/ uRefrtbGm;atBuD;u tysKdwkef;u
olwkdY&GmrSm

rkd;acgifvkdY oa&mBuD;ckdif;awmh

rEÅav; acwåvmae&mrSm

rEÅav;rSmtdrfaxmifusNyD; uRefrtarukd rEÅav;rSm arG;wmyg/ uRefrwkdY
uawmh rEÅav;olaygh? EkdYayr,fh vufawmif;BuD;u trsKd;awGeJY tquf
rjywfMubl;/ aqGrsKd;awGuvnf; w&GmvkH;qdkawmh tNrJwrf; 0ifxGuf
oGm;vmaeMuwm/
tck csif;wGif;ukd armfawmfeJY pkefNyD; ewfuRef;&Gmukd vm&wJhtcgawmh aMomf .
. . q&mOD;atmifcifeJY igwkdYeJUu we,fxJom;awGyguvm;qkdNyD; q&mwkdYukd
ykd&if;ESD;&jyefw,f/
344

q&mOD;atmifcifeJY uRefrwkdYeJY odcJhuRrf;cJhwm MumygNyD/ q&mhZeD;wifwif
eJYvnf; &if;ESD;cifrifwmyg/ NyD;awmh OD;atmifcifu yef;csDq&mqkdwmeJYtnD
pdwfoabmuvnf; tvGef at;aq;oabmaumif;NyD; pdwfxm;tvGefEl;nHh
ygw,f/
OD;atmifcifeJY uRefru reuftapmBuD;xNyD; vrf;avQmufMuwJh vrf;avQmuf
zufawG/ oluvnf; pdyfykwD;uav;eJY uRefruvnf; pdwfykwD;uav;eJY
oleJYuRefru toGm;rSmawGUwJhtcg awGUw,f? tjyefrSm qkHwJhtcg qkHw,f/
usKH;ta&SUxdyfu

jynfBuD;rGefazmifrSm

avhusifhcef;vkyf&if;

qkHwJhtcg

qkHw,f/ qkHMuawmh pum;ajymrdMuao;wm/ aemuf wifwifqkH;oGm;awmh
uRefru OD;atmifcifukd oem;aew,f/ ukd,fu olUt&if rkqkd;rjzpfcJhwm/
rkqkd;r b0eJY (15) ESpfyJ &SdNyDqkdawmh woufvkH;vufwGJvmwJh b0Muifazmf
vufwGJjzKwfoGm;wJhtcg usef&pfol&JUtjzpfukd em;vnfaevkdY OD;atmifcif
cHEkdif&nf&SdygapvkdY qkawmif;aew,f/ aemufawmh OD;atmifcif yef;csDum;awG
qGJaew,f/

qGJwmrS

um;awGtrsm;BuD;qGJaewm?

wukd,fawmfjyyGJ

vkyfrvkdYwJhqkdwJh owif;awG csKdcsKdatmifwkdYqDu Mum;ae&w,f/ 'gaMumifh
OD;atmifcifwa,muf ola&SUu olUZeD;u qkH;jyoGm;awmh vlqkdwm raocif
om vkyfp&m&Sdwm vkyfEkdifwm? aooGm;&if tm;vkH;ed*kH;csKyfwmyJqkdwJh todeJY
um;awGukd qGJaewmxifw,fvkdY uRefru atmufarhvkdufw,f/ uRefr
xifwJhtwkdif; rSefwmaygh/ OD;atmifcif[m 2 ESpfavmuftwGif;rSm tHMop&m
aumif;avmufatmif yef;csDum; 100 ausmf a&;qGJoGm;EkdifcJhwmyJ/ ck
olUum;awGtm;vkH; olUorD;awGvufxJrSm aumif;aumif;rGefrGef usef&pf
ygw,f/

345

OD;atmifcifu

yef;csDq&mqkdayr,fh

wcsKdUyef;csDq&mawGvkd

pD;yGm;a&;

csKdUcsKdUwJhwJh r[kwfbl;/ olUZeD;a':wifwifu tdrfuaeNyD;awmh &SmazGauR;
aeEkdifawmh olu pdwf&Sdvuf&Sd olvkyfcsifwmukd vkyfEkdifwJh yef;csDq&mrsKd;/
'gaMumifh olUum;awG ckvkd trsm;BuD;usef&pfNyD; aumif;aumif;rGefrGef &Sdae
wmrkdY OD;atmifcif[m aemifESpf 50? ESpf 100 qkd&if ykdvkdY emrnfBuD;OD;rSmrkdY
orD;awGu um;awGukd wav;wpm; &Sdapcsif? xm;apcsifw,f/ q&m
OD;atmifcifukd,fwkdifuvnf; olUum;awG[m Mumav tzkd;wefav jzpfvdrfh
r,fvkdY ,kHMunfcJhwmyg/ um;awGqGJ&mrSm 'D,kHMunfcsufvnf; ygygw,f/
'gaMumifh orD;awGukdajymcsifw,f/ q&mhyef;csDtarGukdvnf; qufcHEkdifwJh
orD;u BuKd;pm;qufcHyg/ q&mhum;awGukdvnf; xdef;odrf; apmifha&SmufMu
yg/ nDtpfrokH;a,muf pnf;pnf;vkH;vkH;eJY tazhqE´awG taumiftxnf
azmfEkdifatmif BuKd;pm;MuygvkdYvnf; uRefru arwåm&yfcHcsifw,f/
OD;atmifcif[m pkdufvkdufrwfwyf olvkyfcsifwmawGukd woufvkH; aZmufcs
vkyfoGm;Ekdifolvnf;jzpfw,f/ wjcm;yef;csDq&mawG[m 0rf;a&;ukd iJhMu&
ao;vkdY ukd,fvkyfcsifwmukd OD;atmifcifavmuf vkyfroGm;EkdifMuygbl;/ olu
ukokdvfaumif;vkdY? wifwif &SmazGauR;vkdY olvkyfcsifwmawGukd aemufqH
rwif;bJ vkyfEkdifwm/ yef;csDum; w&mhav;ig;ajcmufq,f vuf0,fxm;
EkdifwJh yef;csDq&mqkdwm jrefrmrSmvnf; r&Sdbl;/ urÇmrSmvnf; &Sdr,f
rxifbl;/ odyf&Sm;w,f/ tJ'Dawmh orD;awGu qufNyD; um;awGukdvnf;
xdef;yg/ ynmukdvnf; vkdufpm;EkdifwJh orD;yg&if vkdufpm;yg/ taz
yef;csDq&m? orD;yef;csDq&mqkd&if b,favmuf aumif;rvJvkdY atmufarhrd
ygw,f/

346

q&mOD;atmifcif&JU Zmwd&Gmukd tckvkda&mufatmif vmcJhEkdifwm 0rf;om
ygw,f/ &Gmol&Gmom;awGeJY tckvkd awGUcGifh&wmvnf; 0rf;omygw,f/
q&mhtazu tEkynm vufrIynmawGeJY toufarG;ol? q&mhtaz&JU
vuf&mawG 'De,fu ausmif;uefbk&m;awGrSm rvGwfwrf;awGUEkdifw,fqkdvkdY
uRefrwkdY vufawmif;BuD;&Gmu wefckd;BuD;bk&m; a&TjrifwifrSmvnf; q&mh
tazhvuf&mawGrsm; &Sdrvm;vkdY atmufarhrdw,f/ ewfuRef;u &Gmol&Gmom;
awGukdvnf; q&mOD;atmifcif r&Sdawmhayr,fh olUorD;awGukd q&m&Sdwkef;
uvkdyJ tciftrifrysuf &SdMuNyD; rEÅav;ukdvnf; t0iftxGufrysuf
qufoG,faeMuyg/ orD;rsm;uvnf; 'D&GmuaqGrsKd;awGeJY taz&Sdwkef;uvkdyJ
qufqHcifrifrIukd qufvufjyKvkyfMuyg/ uRefrwkdYvnf; csKdcsKdatmifwkdYukd
taMumif;jyKNyD;

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a&mufzl;&?

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awGUqkH

rdwfjzpf&wJh twGuf tm;vkH;ukd aus;Zl;wifaewJh taMumif;eJY ed*kH;csKyfyg&ap/

aus;Zl;wifvTm
'Dpmtkyf jzpfajrmufa&;twGuf tultnD ay;MuwJh vlxk (OD;) pdef0if; eJY
yef;½kdif;ajrpmayu ukdpkd;jrifh? nKdopf? ukd0if;vIdif? 'DZkdif; pkd;0if;Nidrf;? 'DZkdif;
armifat;csKd? OD;ausmfZHvS? ausmf&ifjrifh? ql;iSuf? rsufESmzkH;eJY twGif;ykHawG
a&;qGJay;wJh yef;csDjrwfausmh wkdYudk txl;aus;Zl;wif&Sdygw,f/

347

tcef; ( 6 )

tara':trm&JYpmwcsdKY

348

tar aeaumif;vm;
vlxka':trm
uRefrukd vli,fawGuawGU&if ]taraeaumif;vm;} vkdY EIwfqufwwfMu
w,f/ uRefruvnf; ]at; ckxdawmh aeaumif;ygao;&JU}vkdY ajzrdwwfw,f/
NyD;awmh pdwfxJ q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;ukd csufcsif;owd&rdNyD; q&mBuD;
ajymwwfvSwJh ]aumif;w,fqkdayr,fh vlBuD;aumif;ayghuGm} qkdwJh pum;
av;ukd em;xJMum;a,mifNyD; tar aeaumif; vm; ar;olukdvnf; q&mBuD;
ajymwwfwmuav;ukd qufajymcsifaerdw,f/
bmvkdYvJqkdawmh aevkdYawmhaumif;ygao;&JU/ 'gayr,fh [kdwkef;uvkd tvkyf
awGwGifatmif vkyfEkdifawmhwmrS r[kwfbJ/ wcsKdUuawmh tarhpmawG
r*¾Zif;awGrSm rjywfwrf; zwfae&vkdY taraeaumif;aer,fqdkwm odNyD;
0rf;omaew,fvkdYvnf; pma&;Muw,f/ [kwfwmayg/ tarhpmawGu r*¾Zif;
awGrSm ygaeao;wmukd;/ 'gayr,fh tcktdrfrSm tarhpmtkyfa[mif; wcsKdUukd
jyef&kdufvkdY taru 0ifNyD;pmrSm;&Smay;? y&kzwfay;&wJh tcgawmh ]ig
[kdwkef;urkdY 'Dvkda&;Ekdifwm? ck 'DpmrsKd; igra&;Ekdifawmhbl;} vkdY ukd,fhpdwfxJ
atmufarh&if; 0rf;enf;ESajrmovkdeJY/ ck tara&;aewJh pmawGtay: tm;r&
odyfjzpf&ygw,f/ t&nftaoG;csif;u uGmwmukd;/ vltyifyef; cHEkdifcsif;
uvnf; uGmNyD [kwfvm;/EkdYayr,fh bmwwfEkdifrSmwkH;/ OD;vS ajymwwfvSwJh
Z&m [kwfvm;/ vlxkOD;vSu olUtouf 60 ausmf 70wGif; a&mufvmawmh
y&dowfxJrSm pum;ajymwJhtcg urÇmausmf eyrf;orm;BuD; ykHjyifukd &,fum
armumeJY rMumcP xnfhxnfhajymwwfw,f/

349

olUykHjyifu wcgwkef;u tvGefoefrmwJh eyrf;orm;BuD;wa,muf &SdowJh/
b,foleJYowfowf oluEkdifwmcsnf;yJwJh/ &IH;yGJwyGJrSr&SdcJhzl;bl;wJh/ 'gaMumifh
vlUavmurSm

oleJY,SOfowf0HhwJh

eyrf;orm;

ray:xGufawmhbJ&SdaevkdY

waeYrSm oluawmifxdyfwufNyD; rkd;ay:u odMum;rif;ukd arwåm&yfcHowJh/
]odMum;rif;BuD; cifAsm? uRefawmf[m eyrf;rowf&&if raeEkdifwJhvlrkdY
vlUjynfrSm uRefawmfeJY ,SOfowf0HhwJh eyrf;orm;r&SdawmhvkdY odMum;rif;BuD;
&JU ewfjynfrSm eyrf;owfcsifwJh ewfom;&Sd&if wa,mufavmuf uRefawmfhqD
vTwfay;prf;yg}vkdY awmif;owJh/ odMum;rif;u 'DvlUpum;Mum;awmh rif;
'gavmuf eyrf;vkH;csifae&if ewfjynfu[mukd rac:eJYOD;/ tJ'D rif;&yfaewJh
awmifatmufu awmifajcrSm awmif,mpkdufaewJh tbGm;BuD;eJY t&ifvkH;/
tJ'D tbGm;BuD;ukdEkdif&if ewfom;wa,muf ewfjynfu vTwfay;r,fvkdY
qdkowJh/
eyrf;orm;BuD;u odMum;rif;rkdYvkdYom vufcHvkduf&w,f/ 'Dpum;udk vkH;vkH;
rauseyfbl;/ 'gayr,fh olu eyrf;vkH;csifaeolqkdawmh bmwwfEkdifrSmwkH;/
odMum;rif;ay;wJh bufukdyJ vufcHvkduf&wmaygh/ pdwfxJ rausrvnfeJY
awmifatmufqif;vmNyD; awmif,mpkdufaewJh tbGm;BuD;ukd olu bmrajym
nmrajym 0ifzufvkH;awmh eyrf;orm;BuD;[m olcsnf; tBudrfBudrf atmufu
usaeowJh/ tbGm;BuD;ukd ol vkH;vkH; rEkdifbl;/ 'ghaMumifh ig b,fwkef;urS
'Dvkdrjzpfzl;bl;/ b,foleJYrqkd cg;ukd csKd;ypfEkdifcJhw,f/ b,fvkdjzpfwmvJ/ ig
txifrSm;vkdY vm;qkdNyD; wcgjyefvkH;w,f/ olyJ atmufuusjyefw,f/
tBudrfBudrf&Sdawmh ]odMum;rif;&,f? b,fhES,fvJ? uRefawmf 'DtbGm;BuD;ukd
rEkdifEkdifbl; jzpfaew,f? bmaMumifhvJ}vdkY ar;&awmh odMum;rif;u NyKH;NyD;
]rif; olUukd b,fEkdifvdrfhrwkH;? olu Z&mav}vkdY ajymowJh/ OD;vS&Jh
ykHjyifav;u/
350

uRefrwkdYvnf; Z&mukd touf 40 ausmf 50 upNyD; rodcsifbJeJY
odvmcJh&wmqkdawmh b,frSm rpH&Sm; vkyfvkdY& rvJ/ 'gaMumifh Z&muawmh
&mrSmyJ/ 'gayr,fh wwftm;orQawmh vIyf&Sm;&OD;r,fqkdNyD; a&;pGrf;orQ
a&;ae&wmyg/
'kwd,urÇmppfBuD; jzpfwkef;u uRefrwkdYaqGrsKd;wokduf rEÅav;ajrmufbuf
awmifNyKH;&Gmem;u uykdifawmifilpk ausmif;rSm a&Tref;q&mawmf OD;auo&&JU
t&dyfukdckdNyD; ppfajy;aeMuawmh q&mawmfOD;auo&u uRefrwkdYtarukd ]rpk?
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367

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368

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369

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370

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371

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372

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373

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374

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csuf? trsKd;om;a&; OD;wnfcsufrsm;eJYtnD jyKpka&;om;xm;aMumif; OD;pGm
wifjyvkdyg w,f/

1/ jrefrmhr[m*Dw

jrefrmhr[m*DwqkdwJh vlxka':trm&JUvuf&mpmtkyfu 1981 - ckESpfxkwf
&Ir0r*¾Zif;rSm ]]r[m*Dw&JU a&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpf}}qkdwJh acgif;pOfeJY vpOf
tcef;qufa&;cJhwJh aqmif;yg;awGukd pkaygif;NyD; pmtkyfxkwfa0cJhwm jzpfyg
w,f/
taMumif;oifhvkdY ajymjy&&if uRefawmftck wifoGif;wJh pmwef;rSmygwJh
pmtkyf (5)tkyfxJrSm ]]jynfolcspfaom tEkynmonfrsm;}}eJY ]]atmifAv?
zkd;pdef? pdefuwkH;}} qkdwJh pmtkyfESpftkyfukd pma&;ol[m b,folUwkdufwGef;rIrS
rygbJ olUapwemeJYol? olUpdwfxJjzpfvmwm ola&;wmyg/]]a&Tref;wifarmif}}
qkdwJh pmtkyfukdawmh OD;wifarmifu olUtaMumif;a&;prf;ygajymvkdYwaMumif;?
a&;oifhwJhyk*¾KdvfjzpfwmwaMumif;rkdY a&;om;wmjzpfygw,f/ aemufwtkyf
jzpfwJh ]]tNidrfh}} pmtkyfukdawmh pma&;q&m[m olUrSm wm0ef&Sdao;w,f?
'De,fy,fusefao;w,fqkdNyD; a&;cJhwmyg/ 'D ]]jrefrmhr[m*Dw}} pmtkyfus
awmh wcsdefu rEÅav;r[m*Dw toif;0ifjzpfwJh 0wfvkHOD;cifarmifa'G;
(a&Tjynfrif;BuD;vkdY ac:wJh a,mtwGif;0ef OD;zkd;vIdif&JU ajr;)u ajymjywm?
a&;prf;yg? a&;prf;ygqkdwmukd a&;jywm? *DwrdcifBuD; a':apmjrat;Munf
rEÅav;vmNyD; olukd,fwkdif qufoG,f`rGuf[ aqG;aEG;csufawGukd a&;rSwfNyD;
jyefa&;jywm jzpfygw,f/
403

'Dpmtkyfu r[m*DwvkdYac:wJh a&S;oDcsif;BuD; oDcsif;cefYawG? 'DoDcsif;awGeJY
wGJzufwD;rIwf&wJh Armwl&d,m&JU odMum;rif;ac:ac:? jA[®mrif;ac:ac:?
ac:vkdYjzpfavmufwJh ]]apmif;aumuf}}eJY wjcm;Armwl&d,mawG? a&S;utqkd
ynm&Sif? twD;trIwf ynm&SifawG taMumif;ukd yxrydkif;? 'kwd,ykdif; cGJNyD;
a&;om;xm;wJh pmtkyfjzpfygw,f/'Dpmtkyf[m pma&;oltaeeJY r[m*Dw
tay:rSmxm;&SdwJh apwemaumif;eJY aygif;pyfNyD; a&;xm;wmrkdY tptqkH;
zwfMunfhwJhtcg apmif;qkdwJh Armwl&d,mppfppf? wl&d,mxJrSm tqifh
tjrifhqkH;vkdY ac:EkdifwJh 'Dapmif;aumufukd jrefrmawG jrwfEkd;pkHrufapcsif
vSwJhapwem[m

uGufuGufuGif;uGif;

ay:vGifvSygw,f/

'Dpmtkyf&JU

]]a&;olUtrSm}}qkdwJh pmrsufESm[m vlxka':trm&JU oDcsif;BuD;? oDcsif;cH
awGtay:rSmxm;wJh jrwfEkd;wem&SdrI[m owif;pmrsufESmzkH;acgif;pOf pmvkH;
trJBuD;awGvkdxif&Sm;vSygw,f/
'Dpmtkyfukdzwfvkduf&if apmif;wD;csifpdwfaygufvmrSmjzpfovkd a&S;u jrefrm
oDcsif;BuD;awG[m tifrwef tqifhjrifhrm;wJh jrefrmh,Ofaus;rI tEkynm
w&yfqkdwmod&SdNyD;? 'Dynmukd av;pm;orI? jyKpkxdef;odrf; apmifha&SmufvkdwJh
pdwftm;xufoefrIrsKd; jzpfay:vmrSm aocsmygw,f/
'Dtcsufukd jrefrmhr[m*Dwpmtkyf pmrsufESm 17rSm ]]Armwl&d,mapmif;ukd
taemufEkdifiHu wl&d,mrsm;eJY rEIdif;,SOfoifhbl;? 'DvkdyJ r[m*Dwyg oDcsif;
BuD; oDcsif;cefYrsm;ukdvnf; xif&mjrif&m vkyfrypfxkdufygbl;}}vkdY a&;om;
xm;ykH[m tcsKday:ysm;&nfavmif;ay;wmygvkdY qkdEkdifygw,f/ ya'o&mZm
wkdY? jr0wDwkdY? taemufeef;wkdY? vIdifwkdY? jyifpnfwkdY wpwp ajrawmifajr§muf
vmMuwJh r[m*Dw&JU tzGHUNzKd;? twkd;wufqkH;umv (2) &yfukdaz:jyygqkd&if
(u) rif;wkef;rif;eJY oDaygrif;vufxuf

404

(c)

ygawmfrlaemufykdif;eJY

rEÅav;r[m*Dwtoif;BuD;

rm;rm;rwfrwf

&yfwnfaewJhtcsdefqkdNyD; a,bk,s aumufcsufcsEkdifygw,f/
tJ'Dtcsdeftcg (2) &yfteuf ygawmfrlaemufykdif;rSm jrefrmEkdifiH txuf ?
atmuftm;vkH; rlrwlayr,fh r[m*Dwu ae&m0ifqefYNyD;? yef;yefaewJh
umvjzpfygw,f/ aemuf tckumvtac: acwfa[mif;oDcsif;ae&m,lvmwJh
umvupNyD;? 'DaeY pwD&D,kdacwftxd r[m*Dw[m wjznf;jznf; aoG;qkwf
vmwJhvlrrmvkd zkwfvIdufzkwfvIduf? ,ufuef,ufuefeJY &Sifaewm touf
awmh rxGufao;ygbl;/
'DaeY'D&ufrSm r[m*Dwukd wu,fvkdufpm;wJhvlawG tvGefenf;aeygNyD/
txl;ojzifh *Dwrdcif? zcifBuD;awGjzpfwJh a':apmjrat;Munf? pdefaA'g?
OD;boef;? q&mbBuD;? q&mbav;? OD;barmif? OD;cspfarmif? a':atmif
MunfpwJh yk*¾KdvfawGeJY txdtawGUrsm;NyD; ukd,fwkdifukd,fus oif,lxm;vkduf
EkdifwJh yk*¾KdvfawGu 'DaeY'DcgrSm toufu 50 ausmf? 60? 70eD;eD;qkdovkd
jzpfaeygNyD/ 'DvlawG&JU vufxJrSm 'DynmusefcJhvkdY tajctae t&yf&yft&
ay;a0Ekdifao;w,fqkd&ifjzifh olwkdYqDu &atmif,lNyD; acwfvli,fawG&JU
yg;pyfu pwD&D,kdukd qkdMuovkd? oDcsif;BuD;vnf; qkdMuprf;yg? vufu
*pfwmawG? atmf*ifawG wD;aeMuovkd? apmif;? ywåvm;pwmawGvnf;
tifeJYtm;eJY wD;Mu? acgufMuprf;ygvkdY 'DuaeNyD; jrefrmhr[m*DwtwGuf
tm;jznfhay;yg&ap/'Dpmtkyf[m jrefrmhr[m*Dw&JU tESpfcsKyfvkdYajymr,fqkd&if
ajymvkdY&ygw,f/ r[m*Dw&JU orkdif;aMumif;ukd ya'o&mZm&JU wHxsmupç
rajymayr,fh apmif;qkdwJh wl&d,mzGHUNzKd;vmwJh umvuae wjznf;jznf;
wkd;wufvmwJh r[m*Dwa&pD;aMumif;ukd xdxdrdrd ajymoGm;ykH[m pmzwfolukd
pmtkyfxJu pmvkH;av;awGaemuf t[kwfqGJac:oGm;Ekdifwmukd vSvSyy
awGU&ygw,f/
405

'gwifru *DwrSm om,mrIukdt"duxm;wJh  (Orchestral)  eJY ,Ofaus;rIukd
t"duxm;wJh  (Classic)  u@ESpfck&JU owdxm;tyfwJh taetxm;eJY wuG
- r[m*DwrSm ta&;tBuD;qkH;jzpfwJh pnf;0g;
- twD;q&meJY tqkdq&m&JU ynm
- trsKd;om; ,Ofaus;rI tEkynm&Jh tqifhtwef; pwJh r[m*Dw&JU
yifraomhcsufawGukd

ykdifykdifEkdifEkdif

odomEkdifatmif

olUuavmifpGrf;eJY

wifjyxm;ygao;w,f/
uRefawmf&JU pmwef;rSm 'DpmtkyfeJY qufpyfNyD; r[m*Dwavmu&JU tusyf
twnf;av; taMumif;vnf; tvsOf;oifhvkdY ajymjycsifygao;w,f/ ukd,fh
bk&if? ukd,fht&Sif r&SdawmhwJh aemufykdif;rSm EkdifiHz&kdz&JjzpfoGm;ovkd vlrsKd;&JU
,Ofaus;rIvu©Pmw&yfjzpfwJh 'Dr[m*Dw[mvnf; olUrl? ukd,fhrlqkdNyD;
uGJjym;vmcJhygw,f/ 'g[m bk&ifr&SdvkdY jzpf&wm ygyJ/ rEÅav;rl? ajrvwfrl?
jrpf0uRef;ay:rl qkdNyD; tuGJuGJ tjym;jym; jzpfvmygw,f/ vlawGuvnf;
[kda&muf'Da&muf eJY wuGJwjym;pDqkdawmh 'Dvkdjzpfwm qef;awmh rqef;
ygbl;/ 'DvkdrluGJawmh ynmykdif;rSm ykdpkHvmw,fvkdY ajym&ifjzpfayr,fh pepf
aumif; tpOftvmwckuawmh ysufpD;oGm;wm trSefygyJ/
'DtwGuf [kdwkef;wcsdefu wm0ef&SdolawGtaeeJY ]]EkdifiHawmfrl}} qkdNyD;
r[m*Dwykdif;uxdyfoD;awGeJY ñSdEIdif;wkdifyifNyD; jyKpkxm;vkdY twGJ (3)wGJ
pkpkaygif; oDcsif; w&mhig;q,favmufawmh 'DrltaeeJY &SdaeygNyD/ 'Dpmtkyf
xJrSm (bGJU) oDcsif;ykdif; taeeJY yk'fa&enf;aewmawGU&ygw,f/ Oyrmr*FvmoD&d? rif;crf;awmfpkHvS? qkdif;awmf &wemi,fav? ZrÁLa&mifuGefY pwJh
NrKdUbGJU?

rif;crf;awmfpkHbGJU?

qkdif;bGJU?

apmif;bGJUawG

ygoifhw,fvdkY

,lqygw,f/ ywfysKd;ykdif;rSmqkd&ifvnf; oDcsif;BuD;orm;awGtBuKduf ]]&0def
406

a'gif;,mOfysH}}vkd oDcsif;rsKd;ukd jznfhpGufxkdufygw,f/ 'ghtjyif r[m*Dw
oDcsif;awGukd &EkdiforQ pkMunfh&if yk'fa& (1000) eD;eD;&SdaevkdY tm;vkH;
rlaumif;? rlrSef jzpfzkdY vkdtyfaeygao;w,f/ ppfrjzpfcifu q&mOD;cifaZmfwkdY
vkyfaqmifxm;wJh jrefrmEkdifiHokawoetoif;ykdif "mwfjym;(22)csyf[mvnf;
AkH;xJwcsKdU ygukefawmh tpktaqmif;aumif;wJhvlvufxJ usefoavmuf
usefw,f? 'grSr[kwf tm;vkH;&Sdaeao;w,f qkd&ifawmh tifrwef 0rf;om
p&maumif;ygw,f/ 'D"mwfjym;awGxJrSm BuKd;? bGJU? oDcsif;cefY? ywfysKd;?
,kd;',m; oDcsif;awG eJY &wk? &uef? tJ? {csif;? tkdifcsif;? vl;wm;? armfuGef;?
av;csKd;awGtygt0if

e&nf;?

ajr§mufpnf?

AkHBuD;oHawGukd

a':apmjr

at;Munf? a':a'vDñGefY? ta0;a&mufrif;BuD;wkdYu oDqkdtoHoGif;ay;xm;
NyD;? oDayg e&nf;awmfom;awG&JU vufoHukdyg Mum;EkdifvkdY 'Du@[mvnf;
r[m*DwavmutwGuf ta&;ygvSwmukd awGU&ygw,f/
aemuftusyftwnf;wcku r[m*DwavmurSm r&Sdoifhr&SdtyfwJh ]]*kdPf;}}
qkdwm &SdaewJhtcsufygyJ/ a&S;u trsKd;orD;BuD;awGxJrSm 'Dynm tppf
trSefukd wu,fwwfNyD;? wu,fxdef;odrf;? wu,fzGHUNzKd;atmifvkyfcJhol
(2)OD;[m 'Dorkdif; rSm txift&Sm;&Sdygw,f/
tJ'D (2) OD;uawmY
1/ tvuFmausmfpGm a':apmjrat;Munf (bDat)
2/ 0PÖausmfxifa':atmifMunfwkdY jzpfMuygw,f/ apmif;eJY ywfouf&if
OD;zl;a*gif? a&SUawmfajy; armifarmifokduf? a'0£`E´m armifarmifBuD;wkdY
ta&;BuD;ovkd qkdif;eJYywfouf&if pdefaA'g t&ma&mufovkdyJ? r[m*DweJY
ywfouf&if 'DtrsKd;orD;BuD; (2) OD;vkH;[mvnf; ta&;ygvSygw,f/
b,folU*kdPf;&,fvkdY ruGJjym;xkdufygbl;/
407

'D *kdPf;qkdwmeJY ywfoufNyD; ppfukdif;awmif½kd; uspGmacsmifq&mawmf&JU
tqkH;tr[m erlem,lxkdufygw,f/ ]]wkdY omoemrSm 0dyóemeJY ywfouf
&if rkd;ukwf? pGef;vGef;? r[mpnf pojzifh &Sdaeayr,fh owdyXmef av;yg;?
r*¾if&Spfyg; w&m;omjzpfygap? 'g[m tppftrSefcsnfhyJ}} ]]ynwfrwlvkdY?
vlawGruGJaumif;bl;}} wJh/
'gaMumifh r[m*Dwukd vkdufpm;wJholenf;yg;vSwJh 'DvkdtcsdefrSm *kdPf;ruGJ
xkdufbJ? trsKd;om;,Ofaus;rIukd wpnf;wvkH;xJ xdef;odrf;oifhMuNyDvkdY
tBuHjyKcsifygw,f/
vlxka':trm&JU
jrifhrm;vSwJh

'DpmtkyfrSm

,Ofaus;rIw&yf

xdef;odrf;xm;MuygvkdY

'DvkdtpOftvmaumif;NyD;
raysmufpaumif;bl;?

wyfvSefYxm;wJh

tqifhtwef;
xdef;odrf;EkdiforQ

apwemaumif;ukd

txift&Sm;

awGU&ygw,f/
'DpmtkyfrSm

apmif;ynmykdif;eJYywfoufNyD; twdrf;t,drf;av; enf;enf;

ygygw,f/ 'g[mvnf; pma&;ol[m apmif;wD;aeol? oDcsif;qkdaeol
r[kwfwm&,f? rSwfom;wJhtcg tenf;tusOf; vkdtyfoGm;wmav;awG
&,faMumifh jzpfaumif;jzpfEdkifygw,f/
'gav;uvGJ&if 'Dpmtkyf[m trsKd;om;,Ofaus;rIw&yf raysmufysufatmif
ckepfarmif;wifay;xm;wJh trsKd;om;a&;tm;rmef tjynfhygwJYpmtkyfaumif;vkdY
rSwfcsufcs&rSmjzpfygw,f/

408

2/ tNidrfh (y? 'k)

tNidrfhqkdwmu jynfolawGtlvIdufonf;vIduf ESpfNcKdufMuwJh tEkynmw&yf
jzpfygw,f/ obifqkdwJh ywf0ef;usifu ,Ofaus;rI tqifhtwef;w&yfukd
wkdif;wmMunfhr,fqkd&if ]tNidrfh}qkdwJh tpdwftykdif;wck[m wlwlwefwef
ajymjyEkdifwJh &J&J0Hh0Hh rSwfausmuftwifcHEkdifwJhe,fy,fwae&m jzpfygw,f/
tNidrfh[m ae&m 2 ae&majymif;NyD; wjznf;jznf; zGHUNzKd;wkd;wufcJh&wJh
obifvnf; jzpfygw,f/ tNidrfh&JUacwfOD;u eef;awmf? tdrfawmfxJrSm
oaE¨wnfcJhayr,fh

xD;aysmuf?

eef;aysmufjzpfcJh&wJh

aemufykdif;rSmawmh

jynfoleJYteD;pyfqkH;obif? jynfolUtonf;pGJobif? jynfolU&ifeJY wxyf
wnf;usvSwJh pifay:uobifvkdYqkdEkdifygw,f/ 'D tNidrfh&JU rdcifeJY zcifBuD;
awGuawmh OD;cspfzG,f? a':pdefokHwkdYygyJ/ 'Dvkd jynfolUobif taMumif;ukd
pma&;olu aphaphpyfpyf? ,Of,Ofaus;aus;? pkHpkHvifvif a&;zGJUxm;ykH[m
]]tNidrfh}} yGJuwmukdMunfhae&ovkdygyJ/ pmtkyfeJYtNidrfhpif? tNidrfhpifeJYpmtkyf
[m t[yfuGmraebl;/ pmtkyfu tNidrfhpifay:wuf uvkduf? tNidrfhpifu
pmtkyfxJ0ifNyD; 0guszGJUvkdufeJY pnf;pnf;0g;0g;&SdvSygw,f/ pma&;ol[m
tNidrfheJYywfoufNyD; 'Dpmtkyf twGJ (2) wGJrSm tNidrfh? OD;cspfzG,f? a':pdefokH?
tNidrfhrif;orD;? bkef;BuD;ysH{,mOfusL;? tNidrfhñGefYaygif;? uav;ESpfyg;oGm;?
tNidrfhwl&d,m? tNidrfh'kd;? tNidrfhoDcsif;? tNidrfhvljyuf? tNidrfh ysufvkH;?
vljyufrif;om;? tNidrfhvljyufMuD;awG? jrefrmñGefYtNidrfhBuD;? tNidrfhaxmifawG?
&efukeftNidrfh? tNidrfhobif tvm;tvm pwJh acgif;pOfawG cGJjcm;NyD;
a&;xm;ykH[m ]]jrefrmhtNidrfhobifeJYywfoufNyD; pdwf0ifpm;olawGtzkdY wxkdif
wnf;eJY tNidrfhqkdwm

bmvJvkdY

ar;aep&mrvkdatmif
409

jzwfoef;cJh&wJh

tNidrfhorkdif;eJYwuG wifjyxm;wmrkdY jynfhpkHckdifrmvSwJh pmtkyfwtkyf vkdY
qkdxkdufygw,f/
eef;awmfxJrSm ]]tNidrfhawmf}} vkdY ac:&wJh ,Ofaus;? odrfarGU? Nidrfhajimif;
om,mvSwJh tajctaeuae tNidrfh rif;orD; Mobmaomif; (0PÖausmfxif
tar a':Mobmaomif;)u tqwf? tvwf? tysH? t~uG? tjrL;? txawGeJY
tNidrfhacwfwckukd wDxGifajymif;vJvkdufykH[m tNidrfhjzwfoef;cJh&wJh umv
w&yfrSm ta&;ygvSwmrkdY ]]tNidrfhwacwfajymif; rif;orD; Mobmaomif;}}vkdY
pma&;olu a&;om;xm;NyD; 'DudpöeJYywfoufNyD; aoaocsmcsm wifjyxm;
wmukdvnf; awGU& ygao;w,f/
tNidrfh&JU cspfp&maumif;wJh ÓOfwcku tNidrfhrif;orD;eJYvljyuf tay;t,leJY
uMu&wJh tcsufygyJ/ rif;orD; armvkdU armrSef;rodatmif ynmeJY ckay;wJh
obiftwwf[m tqifhtwef;jrifhrm;vSw,fvkdY olUtEktnm 

(Art) 

ukd

*kPfjyKcsD;rGrf;Mu&rSm jzpfygw,f/ tcsdwftqufrdav? ÓPf&SdorQ tvkyf
vkyfEkdifav? y&dowf&JU &ifxJutjrL;u 0g;ceJ yg;pyfzsm; a&mufvmav
ynm&Sif&JU t&nftaoG;u awmufajymifavvkdY aumufcsufcs&rSm jzpfyg
w,f/ 'DtEkynm 'D&ou ynmÓPf? [moÓPf? jzwfxkd;ÓPf EkHYaevkdY
r&ygbl;/ umv? a'o tay:rSm vTmMunfhwwfwJh em;? rsufpdjzpfzkdYvnf;
tifrwef vkdtyfygw,f/ 'Dtykdif;rSm OD;ocFgwkdY? OD;"mwfckd;wkdYtaMumif;[m
erlem,lavmuf ygw,f/
aemufwck ta&;ygvSykHukd pma&;ol cs,frIef;xm;wmu ]]tNidrfhoDcsif;}}
taMumif;yJ jzpfygw,f/ a&S;wkef;uawmh tNidrfhoDcsif;wyk'f[m rif;orD;
wvufukd [kd;[kd;ausmfatmif pGrf;aqmifEkdifwmrdkY jynfolcspfwJh tNidrfh
rif;orD;jzpfzkdY oDcsif;a&;q&m[m tc&maygh/ 'DvkdzufrSm &SmrS&Sm; pGrf;aqmif
EkdifvSolu rrsm;vSwJh pmqkdawmfawGxJrSm xifay:vGef;wJh eef;awmfa&SU
410

q&mwifyg/ olUoDcsif;rqkdzl;wJh rif;orD;vnf; r&SdoavmufygyJ/ 'Dvkd
wkdif;ausmf jynfausmf tNidrfhoDcsif;a&;q&m&JU tNidrfhpifay:a&mufvm&wJh
tjzpfoepfukd

pma&;q&mu

olU&JU

uavmiftwwfeJY

jynfhjynfhpkHpkH

pDcs,fxm;yg ao;w,f/
avbmwDwkdY?

Ouúvmat;MunfwkdY?

raiGNrKdifwkdY?

Mobmaomif;wkdY

tNidrfhpifay:rSm uMuwJhtcg olwkdYEIwfzsm;u oDcsif;[m jynfolawG
[uf[ufyufyuf vkdufqkdMuwJh oDcsif;rkdY ]]pmpDñTef;zGJUvQif? emrnftvGef
xnfhcsif}}wJh eef;awmfa&SUwif&JU tvkdqE´u tvGefobm0usvSygw,f/
q&mwif[m jynfolUpmqkdyg/ jynfolUb0eJY tvGef[yfrdwJh oDcsif;a&;q&m
yg/
tNidrfhuNyDqkdwJhtcg rif;orD;tu ~uGwufvmatmif zefqif;ay;EkdifwJh
t&m[m ]]tNidrfh'kd;}}yg/ rif;orD;&JU tu tvS tqpfusKd;atmif ykdYay;Ekdif
ol[m 'kd;q&myg/ 'Dq&mawG&JUtaMumif;ukdvnf; taru woD;woefY?
wcef;wu@ taeeJY olwkdYtaMumif; rusefcJh&avatmif pmzGJUxm;yg
ao;w,f/
avbmwDwkdY acwfuae [kdraeYwaeYutxdawmh tNidrfhobif[m jynfol
Mum;rSm xD;xD;rm;rm;eJY pDpDjrnfjrnf &SdaecJhwm tm;vkH;todyg/ 'DaeY
'D&ufusawmh tNidrfhqkdwm acwfa&pD;aMumif;eJY ,SOfEkdifavmufatmif tm;yg;
w& r&SdvSbl;vkdY qkdEkdifovkd? tNidrfh&JU tqifhtwef;uvnf; [kdwkef;[kdcg
avmuf rjrifhrm;vSawmhbl;vkdY ajym&rSmyg/tNidrfh&JUonf;ajcraysmufatmif
xdef;odrf;NyD; BuKd;BuKd;pm;pm; uaeMuwJh rif;orD;awG? vl&TifawmfawG
&Sdaeao;ayr,fh t½kd;ukdt&GufzkH;NyD; tvkyfvkyfaeolawGvnf; &SdaeygNyD/
ukd,fykdifoDcsif;awGzufutvGefYtvGef
oDcsif;rqkdawmhwJh

tm;enf;vmovkd

olawGawmif&SdaeNyDqkdawmh
411

tNidrfh&JU

yg;pyfuae
t½kd;tom;u

aysmufrSef;rod aysmufaewJh ]]rdwfuyftNidrfh}}awG&JU tem*wf[m vSrSvSygh
rvm;vkdY oHo,jzpfr,fqkd&if jzpfxkdufNyDaygh/ 'DaeY 'D&ufrSm tNidrfhrif;orD;
awG&JU EIwfcrf;awmf a&Tyg;pyfu ]]vli,fa&qdyf? awmifxdyfopfyif? O,smOf
yef;rmvf? a&uef? a&wGif;? ,rif;ysKdppf? 0wfpm;opfESifh jzLvSpf&dyfNidrf?
vlUpnf;pdrf0,f? tcsdefomawmif;? naeapmif;wJh &Sif ..... qkdwJh ajcqif;
rsKd;ukd tm? ESm? vQm awGeJY ypfcwfqkdNyD; tNidrfhoDcsif;qufqkdvkdY
tNidrfheJYwlatmif uEkdifolawGenf; aeNyDrkdY? 'Dvkdtqif;rsKd; jyefa&mufatmif
]],Ofaus;rItodpdwf"mwf}} eJY BuKd;pm;MuzkdY 'Dpmwef;uwqifh ]]rD;0g}}
jyvkdufyg& ap/
aemufwck tm;enf;csufu tNidrfhzufu vlawmfawmfrsm;rsm; pmzwftm;
enf;aeao;wJh tcsufygyJ/ tNidrfhpif ay:rSm vuFm&GwfwmrsKd; r&Sdoavmuf
jzpfaewm awGU&ygw,f/ OD;cspfzG,fwkdY p wDxGifcJhwJh pkHwGJoDcsif; qkdwmrsKd;
awG

tNidrfhckHay:u

aysmufoGm;wmMumvSNyDrkdY

jyefNyD;qef;opfMunfh&if

rqkd;vSbl;vkdY ,lqygw,f/ a&S;u vl&TifawmfBuD;awGrSm pmayA[kokw
u~uG,f? pum;uvnf;wwf? q&maumif;awG&JU enf;emvnf; &zl;vkdY
olwkdYu a&SUuaecif;NyD; rif;orD;ukd qGJac:oGm;Ekdifygw,f/ tcktcgrSmjzifh
'Dvkdac:Ekdifcif;EkdifwJhzufuvnf;

a&S;uavmufawmh

yDyDoor&SdvS

awmhbl;vkdY ,lqygw,f/
acwfwkdif; acwfwkdif;rSm b,facwfjzpfjzpf xl;cRefwJhvluawmh &SdpNrJygyJ/
[moynmeJY ywfouf&if rsufarSmuf acwfrSm olUenf;olU[efeJY acwfukd
xif[yfEkdifwJh xif&Sm;ausmfMum;olawG &Sdaeygw,f/ jynfoluvnf; wjcm;
[moxuf acwfukd oa&mfwJh [morsKd;qkd&if ykdNyD;BuKdufwwfMuygw,f/
'gaMumifh tNidrfhpif[m acwfeJYwom;wnf;&SdaewJh acwfrD tEkynmawG
arG;zGm;&mae&mvkdY qkdEkdifygw,f/
412

tNidrfhrSm avbmwDwkdYausmfwmukd pH wckxm;r,fqkd&if xm;avmufygw,f/
tJ'DrSm Ouúvmat;MunfwkdY vlBuKdufrsm;wmu wrsKd;? Mobmaomif;
emrnfBuD;wmu wrsKd;yg/ olwkdYxJrSm Mobmaomif;u yefwsm&JU turdcif
BuD;rkdY wynfhwyef;awG trsm;BuD; xm;&pfcJhEkdifygw,f/ xif&Sm;wJholawG
uawmh yefwsmpef;pef;? a':cifpdef? trmpdef? EGJUEGJUpef;? a':jroef;?
a':cif0if;EG,f? raA'g?

NyKH;csKd? yefwsmeDeD0if;?

nKdnKdqef;?

rdrdarmf

pwJholawGyJ qkdMuygpkdY/ 'djyif emrnf& rif;orD;awGvnf; trsm;BuD;yg/
rEÅav;rSmawmh touft&G,ft&a&m? 0gt&a&m? tu? tqkd? tajymrSm
rEÅav;tNidrfh&JU vSywJh 0dnmOf raysmufysufatmif xdef;odrf;xm;Ekdifol (2)
OD;uawmh a&Tref;ol jrifhjrifhoef;eJY yefwsmaX;aX;jrifhwkdYqkd&if rSm;r,frxif
ygbl;/ &efukefzufukd taeMumvkdY wavmuwDAGDrSm jrifvkduf&wJh yefwsm
aX;aX;0if;[mvnf; a&S;rlukd xdef;odrf;xm;Ekdifol wOD;ygyJ/ {,mOfusL;
aumif;w,fvkdY

ajymcJhMu&olawGuawmh

rdwfqufjroef;?

rm,mwif?

a':cifpef;wif? raA'g? xdyfoD;oef;oef; polawGjzpfygw,f/ wjcm;
uRefawmf owdrxm;rdolawGvnf; &SdEkdifygao;w,f/ 'Dvkd jrefrmhrl jrefrmh
[efukd wav;wpm; xdef;odrf;xm;olawG rsm;rsm;pm;pm;&SdzkdY ta&;[m
acwf&JU ta&;BuD;wJh vkdtyfcsufw&yf jzpfyg w,f/
tckacwf tNidrfhawG[m tjyiftqifu ZmwfBuD;avmufeD;eD; jzpfvmvm;
jzpfvm&JU? rkd;tvif; uvm;u&JU? pwD&D,kdoDcsif;awG qkdvm;qkd&JU? 'gayr,fh
]]tNidrfh}}&JU ynmtppftrSefuawmh wkd;wudrvmwJhtjyif qkwf,kwfoGm;
w,f vkdYjrifygw,f/ pdefaA'gvkd yk*¾KdvfrsKd;eJY wGJu&wJh tNidrfhñGefYaygif;
qkdwmrsm; b,fawmhrS jyefMunfh&ygrvJ rajymwwfygbl;/ 'gukd wzuf
wvrf;u umuG,fwJhtaeeJY rEÅav;rSm oufBuD;tNidrfh (1)? (2) qkdNyD;
toufBuD; 0g&ifh vl&TifawmfBuD;awGeJY a':rsKd;cspfoef;? a':cifpef;wifwkdY
413

wNidrfhpDwGJNyD; a&S;utNidrfhykHpHtwkdif;uwJhtcg y&dowfu tifrwef ESpfNcKduf
Muwmukd awGU&ygw,f/ 'gukdMunfh&if tm;ay;wJh y&dowf[m ]]tNidrfh}} &JU
t½kd;tom;ay:rSm pGJvef;wkef;qkdwm xif&Sm;ygw,f/ 'Dvrkdif;ukd t&,lNyD;
'DacwfrSm emrnf&SdaewJh tNidrfhzufu tEkynmonfawGtaeeJY avbmwD&JU
pef;rsKd;? y&dowf tm;ay;rIrsKd;? olU[dwfrsKd;jyef&atmif BuKd;pm;xkdufMu
ygw,f/
b,f tEkynmyJjzpfjzpf wae&mwnf;rSm &yfraeygbl;/ &yfae&ifvnf;
tEkynm ryDoawmhbl;/ 'gayr,fh wkd;wufw,f? wDxGifw,fqkdwm
vlrsKd;&JUrlv ,Ofaus;rIvrf;aMumif;uae aoGzDoGm;vkdUawmh rjzpfaumif;
ygbl;/ 'Dvkdjzpfr,fh tajctaersKd;qkd&ifawmh trsKd;om;a&;tjrifeJY jywfjywf
om;om; [efYwm;&rSMu jynfoltm;vkH;&JU wm0efygyJ/ uRefawmfwkdY vlrsKd;eJY
EkdifiHtay:ukd wjcm;uaeNyD; rsufaphus? txifwBuD;&Sd&wJh t&mawG[m
pmay,Ofaus;rIeJY tEkynmawGygyJ/  Fielding  Hall  vkd pma&;q&muqkd&if
'DvlrsKd;[m 'Dta&;t&mawGeJYywfouf&if tNrJxdyfwef;uaerSmvkdY txif
u& a&;om;xm;wmukd zwfzl;MurSmyg/ olwkdY csD;usL;av;pm;w,fqkdwmu
jrefrm&JUpmayppfppf? tEkynmppfppf? ,Ofaus;rIppfppftay:rSmyg/ [wfbGKdif 
(Half  Boil) 

tEkynmawGtay:rSm txifBuD;ta&;xm;Muwm r[kwfygbl;/

'Dtcsufukd wjcm;olawG owdrxm;rd&ifawmif ZmwfwkdY? tNidrfhwkdY? qkdif;wkdU?
pmaywkdYbufuyk*¾KdvfawG tEkokckrt&yf&yfeJY oufqkdifolawGu txl;jyKNyD;
owd&SdMuzkdY trsm;BuD; vkdtyfygw,f/
]]tNidrfh}}pmtkyfrSm pma&;olu tNidrfhpifay:uae Mumypfwm ,kZeat;pdefu
pw,fqkdwmvkd cJ&mcJqpf orkdif;aMumif;omru? zsmay:rSm xkdifqkdwJh
tNidrfhb0uae tNidrfhckHay:a&mufwm 1890-ckESpfpwJh taxmuftxm;awG
ukd

ckdifckdifrmrm

a&;jyxm;wmrkdY

'DESpf[m
414

tNidrfhckH

&mjynfhESpfvkdYvJ

qkdEkdifygw,f/
vlxka':trmtaeeJY ]]tNidrfh}}ukd a&;wm[m

'De,fy,fawmh ola&;zkdY

usefao;w,fqkdwJh todeJY a&;wmvkdY ajymayr,fh uRefawmfhtxifuawmh
tNidrfhukdcspfwJh oHa,mZOfuykdrsm;vdrfhr,fvkdY ,lqygw,f/ bmjzpfvkdYvnf;
qkdawmh a':trm&JU ]]tNidrfh}}pmtkyfu rD;a&mifatmufrSm vljyufawGeJYwGJNyD;
uaewJh tNidrfh rif;orD;&JU tvStyukdomru ]]tNidrfh}}qkdwJh vSvGef;wJh
ADZukdxifueJ jrifomatmif trdt& pDjc,foDukH;xm;vkdYygyJ/

3/ a&Tref;wifarmif

vlxka':trma&;cJhorQ trsKd;om;obifeJY oufqkdifwJh pmtkyfawGxJrSm
tEkynmoabmt&

tvSqkH;?

t~uGt&GqkH;

pmtkyfukdajymprf;ygqkd&if

uRefawmfuawmh ]]a&Tref;wifarmif}}vkdY 'ufceJ ajzrdrSmyg/ yk*¾KdvfcifvkdY
w&m;rifw,f qkd&ifvnf; uRefawmfu tvuFmausmfpGm a&Tref;OD;wifarmif
xuf ykdBuKdufwJhZmwfrif;om;r&SdvkdY 'D tqkdrSefygw,fvkdY ajym&rSmyg/
OD;wifarmift&ifu Zmwfobife,fy,frSm ausmfayhqkdwJh atmifAv? zkd;pdef?
pdefuwkH;qkdwJh {&mryk*¾KdvfBuD;awG &SdcJhayr,fh olwkdYukduRefawmfu rsufpdeJY
rDwmr[kwfbl;/ pmtkyfuwqifh em;uwqifhrD&? od&? Mum;&wmrkdY olwkdY&JU
BuD;us,fcrf;em;vSwJh obifb0ukd cefYrSef;rdayr,fh uRefawmfukd,fwkdif
rDvkdufwJh a&Tref;OD;wifarmifusawmh igodrkdY a&Tref;ae&mrSm [kdvlawG
rwkd;Ekdifwm aerSmyg/

415

'Dvkdqkd&if rif;u ukd,fhrsufpdeJY rjrif&wkdif; a&S;uvlawGxufykdNyD; axmufcH
aewm w&myghrvm;qkdwJhar;cGef; ar;p&m&Sdygw,f/ OD;zkd;pdefwkdY vufxufu
oGif;cJhwJh "mwfjym;awGudk em;axmifMunfhwJhtcg tqkd? tikd? tajym
aumif;ovm; rar;eJYqkdovkd aumif;ygw,f/ 'gayr,fh OD;wifarmif&JU
&GJukefonfxJu a&T .. ..qkdwJh oHtloHzsm;rsKd; tJ'D"mwfjym;awGxJrSm
rawGU&wJhtjyif vuf0JokE´&trwf? umVK'g,Dtrwf Zmwf½kyfawG&JU &ifoyf
½Iarm tHhMoavmufwJh tajymeJY oka'¨m'erif;BuD;&JU tvGrf;awGu em;xJ
pGJaewmrkdY 'DtpGJukd razsmufEkdifwJhtwGuf a&Tref;zufESpfav;omaewmygvkdY
ajz&yg vdrfhr,f/
OD;wifarmifukd uRefawmfig;ESpfom;avmufuwnf;u Munfhvmwm ol
uG,fvGefawmh uRefawmfhtouf q,fhig;ESpf &SdaeygNyD/ tJ'Dwkef;u vuf0J
okE´&wkdY? awmxGufcef;wkdYukd t&om rcHwwfao;ygbl;/ vuf0JokE´&
aemufykdif;ZmwfrSm rJZmawmxJ qD;ESif;awG NzKdufNzKdufusaewmukd wcrf;
wem;Munfh&awmh w,fNyD;oabmuswmyJ &Sdyg w,f/ &wkawG? vuFmawG?
tajymtqkdawGukd oabmraygufao;ygbl;/
touf ESpfq,f? tpdwfa&mufvmawmh i,fi,fwkef;u Aubkd;bkd;BuD;eJY
umVK'g,Dukd oabmus&muae awmxGufcef;ukd t&omcHwwfvmygw,f/
Ak'¨0ifZmwfawmfawGxJrSm OD;wifarmifucJhorQ awmxGufcef;[m aemufykdif;
Zmwf&JU &oqkdwJh aywHeJYwkdif;&if aytrDqkH;? a'guftrDqkH;vkdY qkdEkdifygw,f/
vuf0JokE´&ukdawmh ]]wifarmifvuf0J}} qkdwJh pmqkdt&xl;NyD; ajymp&m
vkdr,frxifygbl;/
a&S;wkef;ubkd;at

obifynm&SifBuD;awG[m

½kyftaeeJY?

ynmtaeeJY

OD;wifarmifxufomw,fyJqkdMuygpkdY/ 'gayr,fh y&dowftay:rSm xm;wJh
apwem? olU&JUwDxGiftm;? y&dowftay:av;pm;rI? ynmukd rwif;rwdrf
416

wrf;

BuKd;pm;qnf;yl;rI? pmayavhvmvkdufpm;rI? obifrIay:rSmxm;wJh

0D&d,? olU&JUtajymtqkd ynmt&mawGrSmawmh OD;wifarmifu ododomom
BuD; omw,fvdkY qkd&rSmyg/ rsm;jym;vSwJh OD;wifarmif&JU *kPfyk'fawGxJrSm
xdyfqkH;u t&nftaoG;ukd ajymygqkd&ifawmh Zmwfq&m&JU tajym ynmvkdY
uGufwdajz&rSmyg/ 'geJYywfoufNyD; bbOD;okc 1964-ck? rwfvxkwf
aoG;aomuf r*¾Zif;rSm a&;cJhwJh ]]pdwf csrf;omjcif;}}vkdY acgif;pOfwyfxm;wJh
aqmif;yg;xJu tenf;i,f aumufEIwfwifjyvkdygw,f/
..

..

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.. ]]a&Tref;

ukdwifarmifukd,fwkdif

w&m;"r®ESifhywfoufí

A[kokwrsm;pGm&Sdonf/ A[kokw&Sdoavmuf w&m;pum;tajymaumif;onf
ukd olUy&dowfrSeforQ odMuayvdrfhrnf/ Zmwfpifay:wGif ujytokH;awmf
cH&if; Zmwfvrf; ZmwfuGuftvkdufom wwGwfwGwfaeatmif ajymwwfonf
r[kwf? tdrfrSmae&if; rdwfaqG taygif;toif;ESifh awGUonfh tcgwGifvnf;
taMumif;qkduf&mwkdif; u&m;a&oGeftqufrjywfa[majymEkdifonf/ olum;
pum;ajymzkdY 0goem ygolwnf;? Mum;em&olrsm;bufuvnf; rysif;r&d
pdwf0ifpm;p&m jzpfbdonf}}.. .. ..vkdY aqmif;yg;wae&mrSm az:jyxm;
ygw,f/
'DtaMumif;awGukd vlxka':trmu rEÅav;ol&JU tnmaveJY tyDtjyif
wifjyxm;&mrSm ]]'Dpmtkyfa&;wJh taMumif;u}}qkdwJh yxrpmrsufESmupNyD;
pmzwfy&dowfukdqGJac:oGm;vkdufykHu pmtkyfNyD;NyDqkdwJh ]]'gaMumifh a&Tref;
wifarmifvkdyJ

olUom;awGvJ

ArmZmwfobifukd

xdef;odrf;oGm;EkdifwJh

rif;om;awG jzpfvmygap/ vkHYv0D&d,? ZGJeJYBuKd;pm;rI rSm zathajc&meif;EkdifwJh
om;awG jzpfvmygapvkdY arwåmxm; qE´jyKMuw,f}} qkdwJh ae&mom
a&mufoGm;a&m? 'Dpmtkyfukd *smat; olUtar½kdufcsifaeao;wmyJ/

417

a':trm&JU 'dt&ifu ]]atmifAv? zkd;pdef? pdefuwkH;}}qkdwJh Zmwfrif;om;
BuD;awGtaMumif; a&;xm;wJh pmtkyf[m obifrIeJYywfoufNyD; a&;vmorQ
pmtkyfawGtxJrSm pmrsufESm trsm;qkH;? txlqkH;pmtkyfyg/ 'gayr,fh 'D
]]a&Tref;

wifarmif}}

qkdwJh

Zmwfrif;om;BuD;taMumif;

woD;woefY

a&;xm;wJhpmtkyfeJY ,SOfMunfh&if 'DpmtkyfrSm a&;[efuvnf; ykdoGufaew,f/
qGJaqmifrIvnf; ykd&Sdaew,f/ txJu taMumif;t&mawGrSmvnf; vkH;0
jcm;em;aewJh taetxm;awG trsm;BuD;awGU&ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh ]]a&Tref;
wifarmif}} qkdwJh pmtkyfukd ]]jynfolcspfaom tEkynmonfrsm; 'kwd,wGJ}}vkdY
ac:r,fqkd&if ac:jzpfw,fvkdY qkdcsifygw,f/ a&Gref;wifarmifukd jynfolawG
b,favmufcspfMuw,f qkdwm 'DpmtkyfxJ rSmygwJh olUpsmye&JU pnfum;
okdufNrKdufykHu rSwfausmuftwifcHaeav&JU/
wu,fwef;usawmh ppfNyD; 'Dzufykdif;rSm a&Tref;wifarmif[m eHygwf (1)
rif;om;yg/ 'DaeYxdvnf; 'DeHygwf (1) ae&mrSmyJ olr&Sdawmhayr,fh
ol&Sdaew,fvkdY ajym&OD;rSmyg/ 'Dpmwef;wifoGif;wJhtcsdefrSm OD;wifarmif
uG,fvGefcJhwm (21)ESpf wif;wif;jynfhvkdY (22)ESpfxJawmif a&mufvmygNyD/
'gayr,fh 'DaeYtxd olUae&mrSm b,foluawmh ae&mpm; 0if,lNyDqkdwJh
tjzpfrsKd; rBuKH&ao;ygbl;/
oabmuawmh (21)ESpfNynfhNyDqkdwJh umv&SnfBuD;rSm jrefrm Zmwfrif;om;
awG [kwfwdywfwd rBuKd;pm;Muao;bl;qkdwJh tajzu rar;bJeJY xGufaewm
rkdY ZmwfobifavmutwGuf tm;wuf&rnfhtpm; tm;ysuf&rvkd jzpfaewm
aygh/OD;wifarmif BuKd;pm;w,fqkdwmu olBuKd;pm;om;yJvkdY vQmzsm;av;wif
ajymjzpf½kH BuKd;pm;cJhwmr[kwfygbl;/ jrefrmhZmwfobiforkdif;rSm armfuGef;xkd;
ukdxkd;rS jzpfr,fhol tqifhtwef;eJY xkdufwefatmifukd cg;awmif;usKdufNyD;
tHBudwfvkdY BuKd;pm;cJholqdkwm b,folrSrjiif;omygbl;/ n0uf obifopfeJY
418

ywfoufNyD; trsKd;om;ynm0ef OD;zkd;usm;&JU tBuHÓPfukd olrsm;awG
taumiftxnfrazmfEkdifcJhayr,fh OD;wifarmifu vSvSyyatmifatmifjrifjrif
taumiftxnf azmfEkdifcJhygw,f/ 'DudpötwGuf OD;wifarmif BuKd;pm;cJhykHukd
'Dpmtkyf&JU pmrsufESm 326u 340 txd pma&;ol o½kyfazmf xm;wmukd
zwfMunfh&if 0D&d,rif;om; ukdwifarmif&,fvkdY a':trmokH;EIef;wm[m
tH0if*Gifus&SdvSwmukd xifxif&Sm;&Sm; awGUMu&rSmyg/ n0ufwkef;u pdef
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Stage  Show 

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419

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420

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421

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422

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423

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424

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425

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426

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r[kwfbJ olukd,fwkdifpyfwJhoDcsif;awG qkdNyD;uwmyg/ olu tkdifuav;
usif;uav;eJY

y&dowf&ifqkdYvmatmif

vGrf;Ekdifw,fvkdY

od&ygw,f/

aemufNyD; &Gmpm;BuD;pdefaA'geJY trsm;qkH;wGJoGm;wJholrkdY olwkdYESpfOD;&JU tqifh
twef;jrifhrm;vSwJh tEkynmw&yf[m rl&,fvkdY &yfwnfcJhEkdifwm jzpfyg
w,f/ 'DacwfrSm ukdvTrf;rkd;aumif;rIeJY vli,fawG odaewJh ]]yef;ovm;arysKd}}
,kd;',m;[m

OD;pdefuwkH;&JUoDcsif;

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oDqkdcJhwJh

oDcsif;yg/
OD;pdefuwkH;u ]],drf;}}pxGifwJh yk*¾Kdvfyg/ olUwDxGifrIawGu tEkynmjynfhwJh
olawGrS ,lEkdifwmrkdY rsm;rsm;pm;pm;awmh usef&pfcJhrSm r[kwfygbl;/ olu
pdwfxm;oabmxm;BuD;wJhol? apwemaumif;wJholrkdY wynfhom;ajr;awG&JU
cspfcifav;pm;rIukdyg cH,l&wJholyg/ 'ghtjyif ol[m tdrfaxmifzuftay:rSm
opöm&SdwJhyk*¾KdvfwOD;vnf; jzpfygw,f/
vlxka':trm&JU 'Dpmtkyfukd zwf&wJhtcg obifqkdwJhawmtkyfBuD;xJu
ZmwfobifqkdwJh xnf0gvSywJh awmtkyfwtkyf&JU u@ukd ajcajcjrpfjrpf
427

od&ygw,f/ 'Dvkd pmzwfoltaeeJY pmxJuae todynm&atmif a&;ol
zufu pGrf;aqmif&w,fqkdwm pOf;pm;Munfh&if vG,fulwJh tvkyfwck
r[kwfygbl;/
'DpmtkyfawGa&;aewkef;u pma&;olrSm 'gawGukd avmufavmufvm;vm;
vkyfjyzkdY owif;pmqkdwJh tajccHyifr ausm½kd;pcef;BuD;&SdvkdY NyD;ajrmuf&wm
rSefayr,fh ukd,fodwJhtcsufvufukd &oajrmufatmif? tpDtpOfwnfhatmif?
zwf&olvufu rcscsifatmif? zefwD;&w,fqkdwmu xl;cRefajymifajrmufwJh
t&nftaoG;r&SdbJeJY rjzpfEkdifygbl;/
'DuaeY

ZmwfobifeJY

ESD;EG,faeolawGtaeeJY

wjcm;pmtkyfawG

rzwfrd&ifawmif 'DatmifAv? zkd;pdef? pdefuwkH;eJY a&Tref;wifarmifukdawmh
ausnufaeatmif zwfxm;zkdYvkdygvdrfhr,f/ 'DvkdzwfrdNyDqkd&ifvnf; ukd,fh
twGuf obifrI A[kokwbufu xdxda&mufa&muf &oGm;rSm jzpfwJhtjyif
ukd,favQmuf&r,fh vrf;aMumif;[m olwkdYvkd vSyatmif twkdif;twm wck
txd aqmif&GufEkdifvdrfhr,fvkdY ,lqygw,f/ jrefrmZmwfobif[m ½kyfao;
NyD;&if tqifhtjrifhqkH; obifynmyg/ 'Dynm[m 'DvlawGvnf; r&Sda&m
wkd;wufrvmwJhtjyif qkwf,kwfvmw,fqkdwm rjzpfaumif;ygbl;/ 'Dvkd
jzpfvmwm[m trsKd;om;a&;qkdwJh aywHeJY wkdif;Munfh&ifvnf; pkd;&drfa&rSwfrkdY
yGJua&m? yGJMunfhrSmyg wm0ef&SdMuygw,f/
a&S;uvlawG[m obifrIrSm wm0efausyGefcJh&ufueJY avsmh&nf;vmwm[m
aumif;wJhvu©Pm r[kwfygbl;/ pm;0wfaea&;csnf;zdNyD; tjypfwifae½kH?
y&dowftBudKuf

vkdufvkyfae&wmygvkdY ajymae½kHeJYvnf;

vkHavmufwJh

taMumif;jycsuf r[kwfao;ygbl;/ BuKd;pm;rI ayghavsmhwm? jrefrmh,Ofaus;rI
tEkynmukd jrwfEkd;&r,fhzufu owdvGwfcsifovkd jzpfaewm? wjcm;

428

,Ofaus;rIukd ykHwlul;csaewm? t½kd;ay:uae rwDxGifEkdifwm pwJh tcsuf
awG[mvnf; 'DudpötwGuf pOf;pm;oifhwJh tcsufawGyg/
vlxka':trmuawmh Zmwfobifukd pmaye,frSm xD;xD;rm;rm; usef&pf
atmif olUuavmifpGrf;eJY tifwkduftm;wkduf vkyfxm;cJhygNyD/ 'DpmtkyfeJY
jynfolcspfaom tEkynmonfrsm;pmtkyfawGrSm oDcsif;tñTef;? tu©&mpOf
tñTef;? tu©&mpOfrmwdum? ynm&Sifrsm;&JU trnfrsm;? oDcsif;rsm;? Zmwf
obifynmcP;fqkdif&m a0g[m&trnfeJY tzGifhpum; pwJh tykdif;awGukdyg
q&mawmfa&Tukdif;om;&JU tultnDeJY xnfhoGif;EkdifcJhwmrkdY pmtkyf&JU *kPfj'yf
[m ykdNyD; cefYxnfvmw,fvkdY todtrSwfjyK&rSmyg/ pma&;ol[m EkdifiHausmf
Zmwfrif;om;BuD;awGtaMumif;a&;&if;eJY ZmwfpmawG? ZmwfoDcsif;? tNidrfh
oDcsif;awG? pmaye,frSm tu©&mtaeeJY usef&pfatmif aqmif&GufcJh½kHru?
oDcsif;a&;q&mawG&JU ajymifajrmufwJhtzGJUtEGJUeJY ukd,fykdif t&nftcsif;awGyg
rSwfwrf;rSwf&meJYwuG raysmufysufatmif aqmif&Gufxm;wmrkdY 'Daus;Zl;
w&m;ukd pmzwfoleJY jynfol awG tm;vkH;u rarhravsmheJY om;pOfajr;quf
vufqifhurf;ay;MurSm trSefyg/
ckaersm;

atmifAvav;?

0ifpm;owJhqkdwJh

zkd;pdefav;?

owifrsm;Mum;&&ifawmh

pdefuwkH;av;

b,fAkdufxJrSm

wwkdif;jynfvkH;u

0kdif;NyD;

rD;aecef;apmifhay;zkdY toifhjyifxm;MurSm rvGJbl;vkdY ,kHMunfrdygw,f/

5/ jynfolcspfaom tEkynmonfrsm;

jrefrmhobife,fy,feJYqkdifwJhpmawGukd pmzwfolawG ESpfNcKdufpGJvef;atmif
429

ta&;EkdifqkH; pma&;q&m[m ]]vlxka':trm}} ygvkdY qkd&&if 'Dtqkd[m
rvGefwefygbl;/ obifeJYywfoufNyD; pma&;olawG? xif&Sm;wJhpma&;q&m
awG &SdMuygw,f/ 'gayr,fh a':trma&;wJh 'DpmtkyfawGukd ykdNyD;ESpfouf
Muw,f qkdwmu 'Dbmom&yfay:rSm ,lwJh½Iaxmifhjcif; rwlvkdY jzpfygw,f/
pma&;ol[m olUpmwrf;rSm ]]yGJMunfh½Iaxmifh}} u ,lygw,fvkdY 0efcHxm;
ygw,f/
q&mrBuD;&JU 'Dpmtkyf (5)tkyfrSm ]]jynfolcspfaom tEkynmonfrsm;}}qkdwJh
pmtkyf[m arc? arvdceJY wlygw,f/ a':trm&JU ,Ofaus;rItEkynm
pmtkyfawGxJrSm jynfwnfvkdufwJh pmtkyfyJvkdY ajymr,fqkdvnf; ajymomyg
w,f/ 'Dpmtkyfukd tajcjyKNyD; pma&;ol[m obif&JU {&m0wDeJYwlwJh
atmifAv? zkd;pdef? pdefuwkH;? a&Tref;wifarmif? tNidrfh? jrefrmhr[m*DwqkdwJh
½kd;&mobifrI pGrf;tm;awGukd qifhumqifhum arG;zGm;ay;cJhwm jzpfygw,f/
'DpmtkyfawGukd pdwf0ifwpm; zwfMunfh? avhvmMunfhvkdufwJhtcg pmtkyf
wtkyfeJY wtkyf[m qufpyfrIawG trsm;BuD;&Sdaewmukd awGU&ygw,f/ qkdu-a&;-wD;qkdwm olUu@eJYol &Sdaeayr,fh 'Dt&mtm;vkH;[m rdom;wpkvkd
wpnf;wvkH;wnf; &SdaewJh t&mawGqdkwm wjznf;jznf; oabmayguf
vmygw,f/
uRefawmfwkdY vlrsKd;&JU ,Ofaus;rI[m taemufwkdif;eJY rwlygbl;/ pmayu
vnf; jcm;em;ovkd? ,Ofaus;rIuvnf; uGJjym;ygw,f? wcg 'Dpmay?
'D,Ofaus;rItqifhukd urÇmeJY,SOfNyD; &ifabmifwef;MunfhvkdufwJh tcgrSm
vnf; olu tvkH;t&yfrDaewmukd awGU&jyefygw,f/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh
qufEG,frI&Sdygw,fqkdwJh ta&SUwkdif;,Ofaus;rIawGxJrSmukd olu OD;aqmifEkdif
avmufwJh tqifhatmuf edrfhqif;roGm;ygbl;/ 'gaMumifh 'DvlrsKd;eJY 'DEkdifiHrSm
vlvmjzpf&wm tifrwef auseyfp&m 0rf;om*kPf,lp&m aumif;ygw,f/
430

vlrsKd;wrsKd;? EkdifiHwEkdifiHrSm b0&yfwnfrI? vkHNcKHa&;? pD;yGm;a&;qkdwmawG
eJYtwl ,Ofaus;rIqkdwm &Sdygw,f/ tJ'D ,Ofaus;rIqkdwm[mvnf; pmay
qkdwmeJY wGJaewmygyJ/ orkdif;eJYcsDMupkdYqkd&ifawmh pmayeJY,Ofaus;rI[m
ouf&Sd vlom;awGtwGuf ta&;tBuD;qkH;ygvkdY ajymae&wJh pD;yGm;a&;vkdyJ
ol[mta&;ygwJhae&mrSm &Sdaewmukd rjiif;omygbl;/
'D

pmay?

,Ofaus;rIqkdwmuvnf;

tOD;tpuae

wDxGifBuHqrIawG

eJYaygif;NyD; ESpfy&dapä'MumvmwJhtcg tqifhqifhajymif;vJoGm;wmukd awGU&yg
w,f/

tJ'DrSm

qif;oufvmwJhvlrsKd;?

yx0Dtaetxm;?

EkdifiHa&;

ywf0ef;usif? ppfrufjzpfyGm;rI? ukd;uG,fwJhbmompwJh tajccHtaMumif;awG
ay:rSm rlwnfNyD; zGHUNzKd;oGm;wm? &yfwefYoGm;wm? qkwf,kwfoGm;wm?
wjcm;,Ofaus;rI&JU t0g;tNrKdcH&wm ponfjzifh ykHo@meftrsKd;rsKd; jzpfoGm;
wmukd awGUEkdifMuygao;w,f/
Oyrm-uRefawmfwkdY&JU

]]oBuFef}}yGJukd

Munfhr,fqkd&if

jrefrmvlrsKd;awG

trsm;qkH; ukd;uG,fwJh Ak'¨bmom t,l0g'eJY tdrfeD;csif;EkdifiH&JU [dE´Lt,l0g'
awG a&m,Sufaewmukd awGUMu&rSm jzpfygw,f/ 'gayr,fh uRefawmfwkdYu
,Ofaus;rI tqifhtwef;rSm tm;aumif;armif;oefqkdawmh oBuFef[m jrefrmh
½kd;&myGJae&mukd taotcsm &,lEkdifcJhMuwm[m om"uwckygyJ/ uRefawmf
wkdY jrefrmh,Ofaus;rIukd a,bk,stm;jzifh yk*Hukd tajcwnfr,fqkd&ifaawmif
aemufusaumif; aemufusrSm jzpfygw,f/ yk*HxufapmwJh ysL,Ofaus;rIukd
'DxufykdNyD; pkHpkHaphaph azmfxkwfEkdifr,fqkd&if 'DvlrsKd;eJY 'DEkdifiH&JU ,Ofaus;rI
tqifhtwef;[m tckxufjrifhrm;w,fqkdwm ajrBuD;xJuxGufoavmuf
ysLacwftaxmuftxm;awGu tckdiftrm oufaocHaewm tm;vkH;tod
jzpfrSmyg/
'gayr,fh 'DaeY'D&ufrSm ysLvlrsKd;qkdwmudk uRefawmfwkdY rawGUEkdifawmhygbl;/
431

olUpm? olUtokH;taqmif? olwkdYaecJh wJha'o? olU,Ofaus;rI tEkynm
vuf&mawGukdom awGUEkdifygawmhw,f/ jrpfom;NrKdU a&TrkaXmbk&m;0if;xJrSm
tuste xdef;odrf;xm;wJh ysLausmufpmjzpfwJh (jre'Dausmufpm) qkd&if
zwfEkdifatmif BuKd;pm;qJyJ jzpfw,fvkdY od&ygw,f/
pmaytaxmuftxm;awGuaeNyD; ysL,Ofaus;rItzGJUwzGJU w½kwfjynf a&muf
cJhw,fvkdY od&ayr,fh 'DaeY'D&ufrSm ysLtu? ysLtqkd? ysLoDcsif;? ysLtwD;
trIwfawG[m b,fvkdygvdrfhqkdNyD; pOf;pm;r&awmhavmufatmif qdwfokOf;cJh
NyDrkdY txdef;todrf;rwwf&if tajctaeray;&if vlrsKd;a&m? ,Ofaus;rIyg
aysmufuG,foGm;Ekdifw,fqkdwm txifu& awGUae&wJhtwGuf 'DvkdtEÅ&m,f
rsKd;ukd BuKdwifumuG,fwwfzkdY vkdygvdrfhr,f/ vlrsKd;wrsKd;&JU ,Ofaus;rIukd
pmayeJY xdef;odrf;ay;rI[m tqifhtjrifhqkH;jzpfovkd aemufwrsKd;taeeJY
tJ'DvlrsKd;&JU

obifrIt&yf&yfeJYvJ

xdef;odrf;xm;Ekdifygw,f/

'ghtjyif

yef;q,frsKd;twwfynm toG,foG,feJYvnf; rSwfwrf;jyKEkdifMuygao;w,f/
jrefrmh,Ofaus;rI tEkynme,fy,fawGxJu pmay? *Dw? obifqkdwJh
ynmawG[m xD;eJY eef;eJY? t&SifeJY? ocifeJY bk&ifeJY &Sdkwkef;u qifhumqifhum
zGHUNzKd;wkd;wufvmayr,fh ygawmfrlaemufykdif;rSm vlrsKd;jcm;&JU ,Ofaus;rIu
xkd;azmuf ae&m,lcJhwmawG&SdvmvkdY wdrfaumwm? aysmufuG,fysufpD;oGm;
wmawG trsm;BuD;yg/ 'gayr,fh 'DbufumvrSm trSwfrxif wkd;wuf
vmwm? ,Ofaus;rItpOftvmzGHUNzKd;vmwJhtykdif;awGvnf; &Sdwefoavmuf
&SdcJhygw,f/
rsufarSmufumvrSmawmh 'D,Ofaus;rItykdif;rSm tm;rvkdtm;r&jzpfae&wJh
wcsKdUt&mawGukd awGUae&ygao;w,f/ uRefawmfwkdY EkdifiH&JU ,Ofaus;rI
tarGtESpfu ]]jrefrmh,Ofaus;rIokduf}}&,fvkdY ajymjzpfatmif twkH;tcJeJY
&Sdaewmyg/ aysmufuG,fwefoavmufvnf; aysmufuG,fcJhwmawG pm&if;cs
432

Munfh&if enf;rSmr[kwfygbl;/ 'Dawmh uRefawmfwkdYu ]]uaeY}} qkdwJh
taetxm;uae bmvkyfMurvJqkdawmh &wwforQ aumufoif;aumufNyD;
raysmufysufatif olUxuf ig pGrf;EkdiforQ vkHYv? 0D&d,? todw&m;awGeJY
xdef;odrf;MuzkdYyJ &Sdygw,f/ 'DaeY 'D&ufrSm uRefawmfwdkYvufxJ &SdNyD;om;
,Ofaus;rIawG

raysmufrqkH;atmif

EkdifiHa&;tod?

vlrsKd;a&;todawGeJY

yl;aygif;NyD; tpGrf;ukefumuG,f xdef;odrf;Mu&rSmu ypöKyÜef&JU ta&;tBuD;qkH;
wm0efygyJ/
vlxka':trm[m 'DtEÅ&m,f rusa&mufatmif olwwfpGrf;uRrf;usifwJh
uavmifeJY pmayqkdwJh tkwfjrpfay:rSm ,Ofaus;rItEkynmcHwyfBuD; (5)ckukd
tckdiftrmwnfaqmufcJhol jzpfygw,f/ 'DcHwyfBuD;awGukd olu jynfol
cspfwJh tEkynmonfawGeJY tEkynmpGrf;tm;awGukd olUae&meJYol tokH;csNyD;
jynfolawG&JU tm;ay;ulnDrIeJY wnfaqmufcJhwm jzpfygw,f/ a':trm
a&;cJhorQ

obifykdif;qkdif&mpmtkyf

'DpmtkyfawG[m
wtkyf[m

(5)tkyfukd

tEkpdwfMunfhr,fqkd&if

ig;yGifhqkdif a'gufwkdifBuD;awGeJY wlygw,f/

olUigaxmufyhH?

ihgolulnDqkdovkd

wtkyfeJY

tm;wckjzpfvmatmif

tcsif;csif; usm;uefxm;wmukd vSvSyy? pnf;pnf;vkH;vkH; awGUMu&rSmyg/
Oyrm- jynfolcspfaom tEkynmonfrsm;pmtkyfxJu qkdif;bk&if &Gmpm;BuD;
pdefaA'g[m 'D ig;tkyfvkH;rSm olrygbl;&,fvkdY r&Sdygbl;/ ol[m obifrI
tEkynm ,Ofaus;rIa&;&mrSm b,favmufrsm; ta&;ygw,fqkdwm pmtkyf
awG

tm;vkH;zwfNyD;wJhtcg

xif;ueJ

ay:vmwm

tHhrcef;p&myg/

jynfolcspfaom tEkynmonfrsm; pmtkyfrSmygwJh &SmrS&Sm; tEkynmonfBuD;
(8)OD;&JU tEkynm t&nftaoG;awG[m tHhrcef;p&maumif;ovkd? pma&;ol
uvnf; olwkdY&JU ykH&dyfawGukd aq;jc,fwmu aumif;vGef;vkdY b,folu
ykdvSaerSef;rodatmifvSaewm[m pmzwfolawGtodyg/ 'gayr,fh OD;aA'geJY
433

a':aiGNrKdif? eef;awmfa&SUeJY avbmwDwkdY taMumif;[m pmzwfolawGtzkdY
ykdNyD; pdwf0ifpm;Muwmukdvnf; pmzwf&if; odvmMu&rSmyg/ tm;vkH;xJrSm
pma&;ol&JU uavmiftcRefqkH;? tjrqkH;ukdajymygqkd&ifawmh ]]NrKdUrNidrf;}}vkdY
ajym&rSmygyJ/
]]Armhaw;*Dworkdif;wGif ESpfumv&Snfvsm;pGm wnfwHhusef&pfrnfh owådrsm;
&Sdaom ArmoDcsif; 

(Modern  Classics) 

rsm;ukd oDukH;a&;zGJUoGm;cJhonfh

NrKdUrNidrf;um; taoapmí ESajrmxkdufonfh Armhom;aumif; wOD;ygay}}vkdY
pma&;ol[m

NrKdUrNidrf;pmrsufESmukd

ed'gef;ysKd;xm;wmukd

om"utaeeJY

wifjyvkdygw,f/
pma&;ol 'Dvkded'gef;ysKd;xm;ovkdyJ pma&;olukd,fwkdifoDukH;xm;wJh 'Dpmwef;
yg pmtkyf (5)tkyf[mvnf; jrefrmhobifrI pmayorkdif;rSm ESpfumv
&Snfvsm;pGm wnfwHhusef&pfrnfh owådrsm;&Sdaom pmtkyfawGqkdwmuawmh
um,uH&Sifukd,fwkdif

owdxm;rdaumif;rS

xm;rdygvdrfhr,f/

wu,fh

tajctaerSmawmh vlxka':trm&JU jynfolcspfaom tEkynmonf tBuD;
trSL;jzpfwJh obife,fy,fu pmtkyf (5) tkyf[m jrefrmhobifrItwGufawmh
*E¦0ifajrmufwJh

pmay 

vkdY

(Classics) 

ajymr,fqkd&if

*kPfwifNyD;

ajymvkdY&ygw,f/ 'De,fy,ftaMumif; ajymMupkdYqkd&if 'Dig;tkyfukdz,fNyD;
ajymvkdY &ukd r& ygbl;/
'ghtjyif

jrefrmhobiftwGuf

qkdif&me,fy,fu

okawoejyKaeMuwJh

okawoDawGtwGuf

tm;ukd;tm;xm;jyK

(Reference)  jzpfw,f

qkd&ifvnf; jiif;vkdYr&ygbl;/ 'ghaMumifh jrefrmhobifrI

pmaye,fBuD;wckvkH;ukd

rÍÆLou

EkdifavmufwJh

&nfñTef;pmtkyf 

ewfyef;yifeJYtvm;o@mefwlw,fvkdY

wifpm;r,fqkd&ifjzifh vlxka':trm&JU 'Dpmtkyfig;tkyf[m 'DtyifBuD;ay:rSm
tpDt&DyGifhaewJh ta&mifa&m? tqif;eJY teHYygrusef jynfhpkHvSwJh yef;yGifh
434

awGxJrSm ]]arT;vGef;vSwJh yef;ig;yGifhyg}}vkdY wifjy&if; uRefawmfh pmwef;ukd
ed*kH;csKyftyfygw,f/
pkd;Ekdif (rEÅav;wuúokdvf)
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
pkd;Ekdif (rEÅav;wuúokdvf)
1955? arv-tz OD;vSarmif? trd a':cifwifhwkdYu ppfukdif;arG;?
rEÅav;BuD;? trnf&if;-pkd;Ekdif/
rEÅav;wuúokdvf ½lyaA'toif;twGif;a&;rSL;ESifh tEkynmtoif;
A[kdaumfrwD0iftjzpfaqmif&GufcJh/
1983? Mo*kwfv-]]a,mh½Idif;,m;e,fom;yef;cspfol}acgif;pOfjzifh
pmayvkyfom;r*¾Zif;wGif aqmif;yg;pwifa&;om;/
1987? {NyDv-]]aiGa&mifawmifwef;rsm;qDokdY waeYwvH}}
c&D;oGm;aqmif;yg;ukd ]]aomif;ajymif;axGvm}} r*¾Zif;wGif
tcef;qufa&;om;cJh/
1989? 1992 - ]]q&mBuD;a&TOa'gif;\ avmukwå&mpmay tcsKdUtay:
avhvmcsuf}}? ]]om"k. . . .okc}} pmwrf;rsm; zwfMum;cJh/
vuf&Sd*sme,f? r*¾Zif;tcsKdUwGif *Dw? tawG;tac:? orkdif;?
,Ofaus;rItEkynmESifh bmoma&;pmayrsm; a&;om;qJ/
tqifhjrifhynmOD;pD;Xme? taxGaxGtkyfcsKyfa&;OD;pD;XmewkdYwGif 0efxrf;tjzpf
aqmif&GufcJhNyD; 1990jynfhESpfwGif jyefwrf;0ift&m&Sdtjzpfu EIwfxGufcJh/

435