Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine or hard liquor.

People have various misconceptions of what of alcohol and what Alcoholism is about. Where some believe anything that is extracted from fruits is wine and therefore anything wine is alcohol. There are 2 types of production of alcohol. One is the commercial production of Alcoholic beverages, this is Ethyl alcohol and is used in the production of alcoholic beverages, consists of C2H5OH; a clear liquid with a burning taste and a pleasant smell. Anonther is the Non commercial alcohol which is also defined as traditional beverages and this is produced for home consumption or limited local trade and counterfeit or unregistered products in Ghana. The legal age a person can consume alcohol is age eighteen and above. In addition some believe that when we drink and fall in the gutter is when we can be refered to as an alcoholic but to the contrary according to, alcoholism also known as "alcohol dependence," is a disease that includes four symptoms which are Craving: A strong need or compulsion to drink. Loss of control: The inability to limit one's drinking on any given occasion. Physical dependence: Withdrawal symptoms, such as nausea, sweating, shakiness, and anxiety, occur when alcohol use is stopped after a period of heavy drinking. Tolerance: The need to drink greater amounts of alcohol in order to "get high." We see that all the symptoms highlight someone that take the small amount of alcohol and not neccessarily a person that drinks to stupor.

The common traditional alcohol beverage in Ghana is called “Akpeteshie” and she has been listed among countries where alcohol consumption is high. The alcohol consumed is mostly illicit, this is according to reports that was released by the International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP) 2008. Furthermore, existing literature on alcohol consumption among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa suggests that a greater proportion of adolescents have consumed or currently consume alcohol. Two Ghanaian studies conducted among secondary school students and among nationally representative samples of in and out-of-school youth found that the prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was approximately 25%. According to the 2003 World Health Survey, the proportion of 18-24 year old males reporting heavy drinking (defined as consuming five or more standard drinks in one sitting at least once a week) was estimated at 1% in Ghana. The alcohol beverages sector in Ghana is booming as 30 million litres of alcohol are consumed yearly and more and more youths are getting involved in th use of this drug. A survey conducted by Ghana Organization on Foetal Alcohol Syndrome estimated that the per capita consumption of alcohol is 1.5 litres - about 7 million gallons of alcohol consumed annually. Doubtlessly, this amount translates to serious economic losses to the individual as well as the nation at large.

The Add Health study also found parents play a significant role in protecting children from alcohol use. In addition.” which was defined by researchers as a sense of closeness to parents and feeling loved and cared for by parents. Grube and Wallack (1994) showed that greater recall of alcohol advertising is significantly related to more positive beliefs about alcohol use. However. which in turn are associated with greater future intentions to drink alcohol among children and adolescents. The relationships between responses toward alcohol advertising . Children whose parents tell them to avoid alcohol are less likely to drink alcohol. Parental presence was found to be another protective factor against alcohol use. A growing body of research indicates a positive association between alcohol advertising and alcohol use among young people. Students were protected against alcohol use if they felt “parental connectedness. although to a lesser degree. For instance. In contrast. affective responses toward beer advertising are positively related to current and later alcohol use among children and adolescents.The exposure of Alcohol to the youths by parental relationships and family life strongly impact whether or not a youth will be involved in alcohol use. of those students who reported their parents forbid them to drink (88 percent). students who reported easy access to alcohol in the home were more likely to drink alcohol. 69 percent had never tried alcoholic beverages (Krouse 1997). in a poll of high-achieving high school students. For example. children of parents who have favorable attitudes about drinking are more likely to initiate and continue to drink.

People with alcoholism should be immunized against hepatitis Band they may need a larger . Alcohol can have major effects on major organ systems. About 10% to 35% of heavy drinkers develop alcoholic hepatitis. and harmful by-products of digestion nontoxic. The liver is the largest internal organ in the body.and The relationships between responses toward alcohol advertising and drinking behaviors. 1989. nicotine. The liver performs over 500 vital functions. Aitken and his colleagues found that descriptions of advertisements and the imagery portrayed in advertisements become more differentiated for youth of 10 to 14. and blackouts: which can be fatal if not properly treated. For example. hallucinations. Austin and Knaus (2000) further demonstrated that youths’ appreciation of portrayals in alcohol advertising is positively related to their desire to emulate the people and lifestyle featured in the advertisements.525 with a population of 24 million compared to Nigeria with a case of 26. are complex. 1988). it weighs about 3 pounds and holds about thirteen percent of the body's blood supply. and fats. glucose. It processes all of the nutrients that the body requires. cholesterol. According to a statistic by the rightdiagnosis. Leathar. In a healthy adult. alcohol breaks down into various chemicals which are very toxic in the liver. the occurrence of Liver cirrhosis in countries such as Ghana has reported cases of 30. The liver is particularly harmed by alcohol. leading to cirrhosis in about 10% to 20% of cases. In addition. young children tend to respond morally and literally to alcohol advertisements because of the products promoted. & Scott. can cause shaking limbs. The blood is then pumped back to the heart. Withdrawal from alcohol. It also makes potentially toxic substances. It is probable that alcohol advertising may predispose young people to drinking. Aitken. Blood flowing from the stomach and intestines goes into the liver where it extracts nutrients and toxins. including alcohol. After years of drinking. Conversely. ammonia. liver damage can be very severe. It can permanently damage the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. People with alcoholism are also at higher risk for hepatitis B and C. being predisposed to drinking may make young people respond more favorably toward alcohol advertisements. Not eating when drinking and consuming a variety of alcoholic beverages are also factors that increase the risk for liver damage. it can cause ulcers.103 and a population is 170 million. and cirrhosis of the liver. vitamins. drugs. whereas older youth are able to comprehend the more subtle implications suggested by the images shown as most adults do. In the body. including proteins. Children are aware of alcohol advertisements and this awareness increases with age (Aitken. inflammation or the pancreas. Understanding of the complexity of alcohol advertisements also increases with age. however. in severe cases.

Several sources have recommended family involvement as important for the success of alcohol prevention strategies. Even though the rate of Alcohol use in Ghana is high amongst youths all is not lost. and Marijuana Use Among Ghanaian Senior Secondary Students in an Urban Setting" Vol 2 No1. weight. however. heart disease. small jaw. Richardson et al. Cigarette. small. fetal alcohol syndrome. can significantly influence alcohol use or non use among youths. it may cause physical or mental retardation. length etc. Lake Forest (IL): Who’s who among American high school students. P. pg 53-65. drugs. and marijuana use than do adolescents receiving more adult supervision (Mulhall et al. such as parent-child relationships. Family factors. The solutions to prevent youth alcoholism should be multifaceted. Some of these abnormalities include: growth deficiencies (head. and parental involvement. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse. facial abnormalities (small head. 1993). Fetal alcohol syndrome is caused by alcohol consumption of pregnant women. 1997. 1996. narrow unusual-looking eyes). For example.dose of the vaccine for it to be effective. communication. The consumption of alcohol greatly increases the risk of abnormalities for the unborn child. Because of increasing demands on their time and attention. parents are spending less time with their children and therefore need strategies and ideas to help them effectively parent their children (Kumpfer 2000). 2003 . Several studies have found that young adolescents who are more likely to be without adult supervision after school have significantly higher rates of alcohol. monitoring and supervision. The Youths are the future of tomorrow the cost of medicare is increasing and the limited resources the nation would have used in building schools and roads would be spent on psychological and other health related issues as a result of alcohol drinking. and in some cases. and limb abnormalities. Recent evidence shows that even moderate drinking in young girls(due to premarital sex) during pregnancy can result in serious damage to the child. tobacco. "The Prevalence of Alcohol. we should do all in our power to regulate the time the youths in our care spend outside school and be reminded that every action of alcohol use by us as parents in the presence of the youths will result in them copying these behaviours. Krouse. Twenty-eighth annual survey of high achievers’ views on education. social and sexual issues.). discipline methods.

P.Aitken. "Preventing adolescent drug abuse through a multimodal cognitive-behavioral approach: Results of a 3-year study" BOTVIN. P.. S. (1988). et al. B.. D. BAKER. Vol 58 No4. & Scott. "Home alone: Is it a risk factor for middle school youth and drug use?" MULHALL. A.. C.. 23. Vol 26 No1 pg39–48. 1996. P. Alcohol and Alcoholism. Journal of Drug Education.J. DUSENBURY. Ten. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. STONE. L. 1990 . Leathar. 491–500.. D.F. pg 437– sixteen-year-olds’ perceptions of advertisements for alcoholic drinks. E. and STONE.. G.

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