You are on page 1of 35

CENTER DIRECTOR’S MESSAGE

W
elcome to NASA Langley Re- and hypersonic flight. Read the Aeronau-
search Center in Hampton, tics section for a more comprehensive re-
Virginia. view of this effort.
I hope you’ll enjoy getting acquainted in In science, NASA Langley has partnered
the following pages as we highlight our ac- with researchers around the world to
complishments as one of NASA’s 10 field centers. study Earth from space so we may advance under-
We’ve had an exciting time helping further the ex- standing of our home planet. Our newest mission
ploration of space, making new scientific discover- was launched in April 2006: the Cloud-Aerosol Li-
ies about our home planet, and conducting break- dar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations
through research in aeronautics to make air travel (CALIPSO). This mission will help us learn more
safer and better for us all. about clouds and airborne particles called aerosols
What has made the past year so exciting at so that scientists may understand how they affect
Langley? our air quality, weather, and climate. We’re also
We have become an important part of the nation’s studying the atmospheres on other planets in the
quest to explore the solar system – NASA’s Vision solar system – such as Mars – so that we can safely
for Space Exploration to the moon, Mars, and be- explore those planets.
yond. Langley is helping to develop a space shuttle As a key part of our research and development ef-
replacement system, which includes two launch forts, Langley has formed strategic relationships
vehicles and the crew capsule known as Orion. As with organizations throughout the private and pub-
part of this effort, we are evaluating designs for a lic sectors. These partnerships and collaborations
launch-abort system that will provide crew escape not only help us achieve challenging missions, they
if the vehicle malfunctions during liftoff. We’re also enable the commercialization and availability
also helping with designs of Orion’s heat shield and
– to you – of NASA technologies and services. This
landing system – and so much more as you’ll find in
collaboration also contributes to the economy of
the Exploration section of this update.
the region and the nation, a subject touched on in
In aeronautics, Langley is hard at work contrib- the Economic Impact section of this document.
uting to NASA initiatives to make air travel safer,
Letting you know about our work here at Langley
quieter, and more efficient through a program that
includes work in fundamental aeronautics, aviation is part of our mission. This update illustrates how
safety and airspace systems. An example of this is your tax dollars are being put to use for the benefit
the research being done toward next-generation of all.
aircraft – such as the blended wing body, a sig-
nificantly more fuel efficient and environmentally Lesa B. Roe
friendly design than current airplanes. Langley also Director
continues to advance developments in supersonic NASA Langley Research Center

LANGLEY 2006 
CONTENTS

1
Exploration Page 4-5
Langley assumes critical roles in the space shut-
tle return to flight, development of NASA’s Con-
stellation Program, and the Orion crew capsule

2
Aeronautics Page 6-7
The Center supports NASA research in
aviation safety, fundamental aeronautics and
future airspace systems, including development
of next-generation aircraft

3
Science Page 8-9
Planetary-airplane research, atmospheric-
sciences studies and development of Earth-
sensing satellites mark several of Langley’s
primary accomplishments

4
Systems Analysis Page 10-11
Langley’s systems analysis experts support
aeronautics, space exploration, science, and
space operations by providing critical insight
for informed decision-making

COVER ART: Artist’s conception of Orion Crew Exploration


Vehicle. INSETS: (Top) blended wing body testing, (Center)
computer modeling of the CLV, (Bottom) CALIPSO satellite.

LANGLEY 2006
CONTENTS

5
Partnerships Page 12-13
Langley’s innovative partnerships and col-
laborations with the nation’s public and private
sectors promote widespread commercialization
and availability of NASA technologies

6
People of Langley Page 14-15
A statistical snapshot of Langley’s most impor-
tant resource: engineers, scientists, researchers,
technicians, analysts, and administrative staff

7
Economic Report Page 18-20
With a 2006 budget of $747 million, Langley
is a major contributor to the local, state, and
national economies with an output that exceeds
$2 billion annually

8
Education & Outreach Page 22-23
Langley’s comprehensive program to inform,
educate, and inspire many audiences, from
students and teachers to the general public —
while preparing for a 400th birthday party

LANGLEY 2006
Image opposite page: Lockheed Martin

An Orion Crew Vehicle in lunar Orbit


E X P L O R AT I O N

H
umankind is reaching beyond the planet Orion’s launch-abort system to provide crew es-
of its birth to the moon, Mars, and the cape should a malfunction occur.
outer reaches of the solar system – per- In collaboration with NASA Ames Research
haps even to other star systems. NASA is leading Center in California, Langley is developing the
the way in making the Vision for Space Explora- Orion heat shield. The shield will be attached to
tion attainable. the cone-shaped Orion to protect astronauts from
After the International Space Station is completed temperatures that could exceed 4,800 degrees.
and the space shuttle retired in 2010, the Vision Langley is also leading the development of options
calls for the advancement of American scientific, for Orion’s landing system, and applying design
security, and economic interests through a robust and fabrication expertise to
space-exploration program that will have humans Orion pad-abort and ascent-
return to the moon by 2020 and explore Mars and-abort flight tests.
sometime thereafter. Explorers won’t have to travel n Shuttle return to flight
In addition, Langley is pro-
such far distances alone, though: specialized robots n Ares I test flight upper-
will help, as will advanced computer systems and viding critical expertise to the
stage studies
next-generation technologies. Constellation system integra-
tion groups, including teams n Orion launch-abort
Sending humans to distant worlds requires a new of engineering experts who system
generation of rockets and passenger spacecraft. are defining program require- n Constellation system
NASA’s Constellation Program is already develop- ments and integrating the integration
ing the next generation of such craft. The Ares I systems necessary to make
and Ares V launch vehicles will provide the thrust, this next generation of space-
while the Orion crew capsule will be a home in exploration vehicles a reality.
space for astronauts.
Getting Ares off the Ground
Returning the Shuttle to Flight
Langley leads development of the Ares launch sys-
In 2006, the return-to-flight team at Langley
tem prototype for its first flight test in April 2009,
continued to support the space shuttle program,
managing the integration of all flight hardware el-
providing critical tools, analysis, and expertise to
ements and delivering the integrated test vehicle
minimize foam loss from the external tank and
to NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The
provide real-time assessments of the spacecraft’s
Langley team is conducting wind tunnel assess-
thermal protection systems. Langley contribu-
ments and analyses to define the aerodynamics
tions to return to flight include an impact-detec-
of the Ares I vehicle and to evaluate potential de-
tion system for the leading edge of the shuttle’s
signs.
wings, methods to repair them in the event of life-
threatening damage, and a new infrared camera The Center will conduct structural and thermal
for astronauts to use during space walks. analyses in the development of the Ares I upper
stage, and will continue studies to determine alter-
Making Exploration a Reality native approaches for several components. Lang-
A Langley team is playing a significant role in the ley is also assisting NASA Marshall Space Flight
Orion crew module, evaluating conceptual designs in Center in Alabama with Ares I upper-stage struc-
the Center’s wind tunnels at speeds in excess of 5,000 tural and thermal studies, including tests to verify
mph. Langley is also overseeing the development of engineering models.

LANGLEY 2006 
AERONAUTICS

F
ly faster. Fly farther. Fly safer – and not just NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in Califor-
on Earth. At NASA, aeronautics research nia in 2007.
and space exploration are inextricably In 2006, at Langley’s 8-Foot High Temperature
linked; one day, “planetary” aircraft could fly the Tunnel, the Center teamed with Pratt & Whit-
skies of Mars, Venus, Jupiter, and other worlds. ney Rocketdyne and the Air Force to conduct the
Future aircraft may operate at thousands of miles first testing of a closed-loop, fuel-cooled, variable
per hour. They will be made to withstand extreme geometry hypersonic engine at speeds of Mach 5
heating yet boast quiet, energy-efficient engines (roughly 3,200 mph).
that don’t pollute and can operate at altitudes In 2006, the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft
much higher than today’s aircraft. Research Testbed was developed and flown in sup-
port of NASA’s Aviation Safety Program. This re-
NASA’s New Aeronautics
motely piloted, dynamically scaled aircraft enables
n Aviation Safety NASA is focusing its aeronau- flight validation for high-risk, upset-flight ma-
n Fundamental tics research on three primary neuvers in response to damage or environmental
aeronautics areas: aviation safety, funda- hazards, while providing a means of assessing the
mental aeronautics and future reliability of flight-control software to withstand
n Airspace systems airspace systems. and adapt to dangerous flight conditions.
n Testing and analysis The Center is playing key roles To test advanced concepts and methods for air-
in NASA’s fundamental re- borne self-separation and spacing to address dis-
search in materials and struc- tributed-architecture research questions posed by
tures, aerodynamics, hypersonic and supersonic the JPDO, Langley conducted air-traffic-manage-
flight, fixed-wing and rotary-wing subsonic flight, ment research in its Air Traffic Operations Lab in
aviation safety, and transformational air-traffic- partnership with NASA Ames Research Center
management technology. in California, Boeing, MITRE Corp. and United
Together, these activities leverage NASA’s aero- Parcel Service.
nautics core competencies and address the fun-
Decoding Turbulence
damental research needs of the Next Generation
Air Transportation System (NGATS) for the Joint Researchers are also preparing for a flight test from
Planning and Development Office (JPDO). NASA Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia to study
a challenge faced during the Shuttle’s return-to-
Next-Generation Innovations flight in 2005. Researchers want to better under-
The Center is working with Boeing and the Air stand boundary-layer transition: the point where
Force to explore low-speed stability and control air flow over an aerodynamic surface changes from
characteristics of a next-generation aircraft con- laminar (smooth) to turbulent.
cepts such as the blended wing body, or BWB. A For those studies, a rocket launched from Wallops
BWB would be significantly more fuel efficient will fly at Mach 7, or more than 5,300 miles per
and environmentally friendly than today’s jets. A hour. On board instruments will record data on
21-foot model of the BWB, designated the X-48B, the boundary-layer transition. Langley will pro-
was tested in Langley’s 30x60-Foot Tunnel in April vide programmatic and engineering support to
and May 2006. The X-48B will be flight tested at perform the test and analyze the data.

 LANGLEY 2006
The blended-wing body model being
tested in the 30x60-Foot Tunnel.
An artist’s depiction of the CALIPSO
satellite launched in April 2006.
10 LANGLEY 2006
SCIENCE

T
alk about the weather and you’re guaran- the Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey of
teed a conversation. Do something about Mars. If selected, ARES would fly a science pay-
the weather and you’ll probably win a No- load on the first aircraft to soar over another plan-
bel Prize. et. Our researchers are actively involved in other
At Langley, we seek to understand the measure of Mars-related proposals, including an instrument
weather averaged over time: otherwise known as called Martian Atmosphere and Dust in the Op-
climate. We’re partnering with colleagues around tical and Radio (MATADOR) and several entry,
the world to study Earth from space to better un- descent, and landing activities.
derstand how the climate system responds to natu-
Sifting Climate Clues
ral and human-induced changes. And we’re work-
ing to improve our predictions of the interactions This year, NASA’s Clouds and n Climate impacts of
of land, air, and water. the Earth’s Radiant Energy aerosols and clouds
System, or CERES, contin- n A potential aircraft
The Center has a rich heritage of scientific research
ued to break new ground in survey of Mars
that can be traced to the beginnings of Langley’s
data accuracy essential to cli-
remote-sensing studies in the 1950s and 60s. In n Clouds and the Earth’s
mate research. The CERES
the past two decades, we’ve amassed a huge amount Radiant Energy System
team has developed new ways
of data gathered from Earth-observing satellites n Tracking air-pollution
to integrate multiple instru-
and are applying it to learn more about our home flows
ments on multiple satellites
planet. We’re also leading several projects that will
to uncover key relationships
generate new data from airborne and space-based
in the climate system. CE-
measurement techniques to support a variety of at-
RES currently collects measurements from four
mospheric science and applied science research.
instruments, playing a leading international role
Missions to Earth and Beyond in studying global climate change from space.
Langley’s newest satellite mission – Cloud-Aerosol In February 2006, our researchers were integrally
Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observa- involved in writing and releasing the Assessment
tions, or CALIPSO – thundered skyward atop a of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties report, the
Boeing Delta II rocket in April 2006. CALIPSO most thorough assessment of how small parti-
will enable scientists to study how clouds and aero- cles interact in our upper atmosphere and affect
sols form, evolve, interact, and affect Earth’s air Earth’s climate system.
quality, weather, and climate. In June, CALIPSO
In March, Langley scientists participated in the
collected its first data using lidar, an innovative
first phase of one of the most complex field cam-
laser-based, remote-sensing technique. Data seg-
paigns ever undertaken in the study of Earth’s
ments are streamed together to paint a picture of
atmospheric chemistry. The Intercontinental
what a vertical slice of our atmosphere looks like.
Chemical Transport Experiment investigated air-
CALIPSO is a collaboration between NASA and pollution flows from Mexico City and Asia, bring-
France’s Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales. ing together data from research satellites, aircraft,
We have also had the opportunity to contribute and ground-based instruments to track the pollu-
to a number of planetary science research projects. tion plumes and their potential effects on climate
Our latest such proposal is known as ARES, or and human health.

LANGLEY 2006 11
S Y S T E M S A N A LY S I S

B
old ventures require bold preparation. The ploratory science that will be done on the moon.
more complicated a project or program, We fully anticipate our involvement in similar ac-
the greater the need to explore multiple tivities for exploration of Mars and beyond.
options in order to achieve the desired mission Our engineers have also participated in and pro-
objective. vided analytical assessment for a congressionally
At Langley, our systems engineers and analysts are mandated study to detect, characterize, and docu-
helping NASA prepare to return to the moon, ex- ment near-Earth objects like asteroids and meteor-
plore Mars and conduct missions throughout the ites that could pose a global threat.
solar system. Our experts in systems analysis sup-
port aeronautics, space explo- Planning for 21st Century Air Travel
ration, science, and space op- Langley helped commercial aviation become a re-
n Space exploration erations, in providing critical ality. In this new millennium, we’re helping the
architectures insight for informed decision- nation prepare for a dramatic expansion of jet trav-
n Lunar-surface making to achieve mission el. By 2020, air traffic may grow to three times the
approaches objectives. level of the year 2000.
n Study of the airspace What are the possible ap- More people, more aircraft, more flights: that’s a
transportation system proaches to meet certain snapshot description of what we’re modeling for
n Impact of very light jets mission goals and objectives? other government agencies like the Federal Avia-
on the airspace What systems and technolo- tion Administration.
gies are required to enable One of our major accomplishments in 2006 was
these approaches and what are an assessment of the impact of very light jets on
the associated costs and risks? How much should the nation’s airspace. These aircraft are expected
we spend on developing new systems and tech- to greatly increase in numbers with flights from
nologies? Questions like these go to the heart of medium and small airports not otherwise served
Langley’s systems-analysis process. by commercial airlines. We also conducted an
airspace transportation system vulnerability study
Exploring Moon, Mars, and Beyond under our Aviation Safety Program.
Langley’s systems analysts helped to define NASA’s
Vision for Space Exploration. We also made signif- Our Ultimate Customer
icant contributions to the Administrator’s 60-Day Our ultimate customer is the American citizen.
Exploration Systems Architecture Study, leading By providing reliable analytical information in
the technology assessment and prioritization that advance of complex, multiyear programs and
defined such systems as the Crew Exploration Ve- projects, we help decision makers appropriately
hicle — Orion — and the crew and cargo launch invest taxpayer money. And we also help our col-
vehicles, Ares I and V. leagues develop and design robust aircraft, space-
We are currently playing a leadership role in NASA’s craft, and the advanced technologies necessary for
Lunar Architecture Study to define lunar-surface safest possible air travel and the continued explo-
access approaches, associated systems, and the ex- ration of space.

12 LANGLEY 2006
Horizontal lunar lander concept shown
undocking from the Orion Crew Vehicle.
Our strategic partners participate in studies at Langley’s Transonic Dynamics Tunnel.

Langley licenses a low temperature oxidation catalyst.

A National Institute of Aerospace student working in the


Morpheus Lab. NASA technology used in a
NASCAR Air Purifying System.
14 LANGLEY 2006
PA RT N E R S H I P S

F
ostering new invention. Transferring innova- cies in ways that enhance agility and adaptability
tion from the laboratory to the marketplace. of the contributions to the agency mission. In cer-
Advancing the nation’s competitiveness. Im- tain cases, these relationships leverage cost sharing
proving the day-to-day lives of American citizens. and other resources. Strategic relationships include
Educating current and future workforce. partners, suppliers, and customers.
The Vision for Space Exploration reiterates the di- Langley has established relationships with the Na-
rection provided in the National Aeronautics and tional Institute for Aerospace (NIA), and the Re-
Space Act of 1958 to promote innovative partner- search Operations, Maintenance, and Engineer-
ships and commercial collaborations to help accom- ing (ROME) master contract. Langley maintains
plish NASA’s challenging mission. NASA will con- relationships with other government agencies and
tinue to utilize and expand the use of partnerships departments as well, including
to make available a wider variety of technologies Army Research Labs, the Air
and expertise than is available within the agency. Force Research Laboratory, the n 1243 patents to date
Naval Air Systems Command,
These partnerships also make NASA-developed n Novel technologies
and the Department of Ener-
technologies and services available for commercial- n Applied problem-solving
gy’s Sandia National Laborato-
ization to stimulate economic development that
ries. Langley seeks a balanced n Workforce educators
can further benefit NASA and the public.
amount of work for its custom-
Technology Transfer ers in support of the nation’s
Two of the tools used by NASA for promoting pri- technological competitiveness.
vate sector participation are the Small Business In- Work with Others
novation Research and Small Business Technology
During 2006, Langley scientists and engineers
Transfer programs. These initiatives accelerate the
completed more than 100 projects working with,
involvement of small, high-tech companies by pro-
partners in other government agencies and indus-
viding funding for research and development.
try. The projects spanned NASA’s mission areas of
The creation and transfer of innovation is a key space exploration, the emerging commercial space
goal of technology transfer at Langley. In the past sector, space operations, science, and aeronautics
nine years, the Center has averaged more than 150 applications for the civil defense and security sec-
inventions per year, resulting in 22 U.S. patents tors.
and 12 foreign patents annually. These inventions Langley has partnered with the Defense Advanced
span a broad spectrum of aerospace technologies, Research Projects Agency and the Air Force, for
including sensor and instrumentation, materials, example, to investigate novel high temperature
aircraft innovations, and software. materials and hypersonic configurations for the
Langley has led NASA by averaging eight com- Force Application and Launch from Continental
mercialization licenses per year that return approxi- United States (FALCON) program. And when
mately $550,000 in royalties. These licenses have NASA Kennedy Space Center and Boeing expe-
led to products that NASA has utilized on critical rienced anomalies in nozzle-gimbal controls on
space, exploration and aeronautical programs. the rocket motors of the Delta II Heavy Launch
Vehicle, Langley partnered with Boeing to apply
Strategic Partnerships Center expertise in computational methods, flight
Langley implements the Agency’s strategy through dynamics, controls, and experimental testing in
strategic relationships. These relationships extend Langley’s internationally acclaimed National Tran-
the scope and application of Langley’s competen- sonic Facility.

LANGLEY 2006 15
THE PEOPLE OF LANGLEY

P
eople are NASA Langley Research Center’s gineering positions include aerospace engineers,
most important resource. The collective computer engineers, electronics engineers, physical
contributions from Langley engineers, scientists, physicists, and mathematicians.
scientists, researchers, technicians, analysts, and Professional administrative fields include human
administrative support staff are all essential to resources, finance, procurement, information tech-
achieving mission success. nology, and legal. Engineering technicians and
Although the majority of Langley’s current work- electronics technicians account for the majority of
force is permanent, the Center is beginning to technician positions, although Langley also has a
emphasize the use of term and number of quality-assurance specialists and equip-
n Term and temporary temporary appointments to in- ment specialists. Clerical positions include secre-
appointments crease staffing flexibility. These taries and assistants.
n 72% are college time-limited appointments are
well-suited to projects of a fixed Dedication and Motivation
educated
duration, enabling Langley to Striving to hire “the best of the best” continued
n More than 40% hold adjust skills to meet changing at Langley in 2006, when 48 percent of new hires
master or doctoral mission requirements. held bachelor degrees and 44 percent held master
degrees or doctoral degrees. The Center recruits from an
With an active role in NASA’s
n The average length of array of public- and private-sector entities, includ-
Vision for Space Exploration
service is 20 years ing colleges and universities, the National Institute
and continuing efforts in aero-
nautics, systems engineering, for Aerospace, industry, business, and Langley’s co-
Earth science research, and systems analysis, the operative-education program.
future of Langley employment is promising. Langley’s civil service workforce has an average of
20.4 years of federal service: the second highest
By the Numbers
within NASA. Personal dedication to NASA’s mis-
NASA is recognized as a world-class science and sion and love of the work being performed appear
engineering agency within the federal govern- to be key reasons for the continued service.
ment. For its part, Langley is proud to employ
highly technical, highly educated personnel, with In the recent Office of Personnel Management
57 percent of the Center’s civil service employees Federal Human Capital Survey, 81.5 percent of
engaged in engineering, research, and Langley employees “strongly agreed” or “agreed”
scientific fields. Currently, 72 per- that they liked the kind of work they
cent of the Langley’s workforce Occupation Distribution were performing, and 72.6 percent
has at least a bachelor degree “strongly agreed” or “agreed” that
and almost 20 percent hold a Clerical their work gave them a feeling
doctoral degree. 4 % of personal accomplishment.
Technician Science & Maintaining this high-caliber,
While there are four broad
19 % Engineering motivated workforce is essen-
categories of occupations at
the Center, they encompass 57 % tial for Langley as it plays an ac-
Administrative
a variety of positions and ar- 20 % tive role in NASA’s exploration,
eas of expertise. For example, aeronautics, and science research
professional science and en- and development.

16 LANGLEY 2006
Karen Taminger analyzes an aluminum fractured surface using an electronic scanning microscope.

Jeffrey Hinkley, left, and Matthew Boyd work on an experiment William Kinard with a model of the MISSE experi-
involving active materials. ment that flew on the space shuttle.

LANGLEY 2006 17
ECONOMIC REPORT

S
ince our founding in 1917, Langley has con-
tinued to pioneer new frontiers in aeronau-
tics and space research. The Center’s contri- Langley Funding Level
butions to aerosciences, atmospheric sciences, and
technology commercialization are improving the $ 900 $ 864m
$ 864m$ 827m
$ 900
way the world lives. $ 827m
800 $$ 751m $ 747m
800 $$ 751m $ 728m $ 747m
The Center contributes significantly to the local, $ 728m
700

M I L L I O N S
state, and national economies. Langley’s budget in 700

M I L L I O N S
fiscal year 2006 was $747 million, which reflects 600
600
an increase from the 2005 fiscal year of $19 mil- 500
500
lion. In addition, the Center

I N
400
had 198 active reimbursable

I N
400
n Average budget
agreements for work funded by

D O L L A R S
300

D O L L A R S
$780 million/year 300
others in fiscal year 2006, ac- 200
n Diversified portfolio counting for an added $48 mil- 200
100
n Impact on Hampton lion – an increase of 41 percent 100
Roads, Virginia over the previous year’s level. 0
0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
and nation 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
To fulfill our responsibilities Includes Langley programs
Includes Langley programs
Reimbursable
Reimbursable
funded from other NASA funding
and achieve our goals, the Cen- funded from other NASA
Centers
funding
ter requires a wide range of commodities and ex- Centers

pertise that include engineering services, wind tun-


nel support and maintenance, laboratory testing,
computer equipment, and the like. Langley uti-
lizes innovative and efficient procurement mecha- FY 2006 Research & Development Funding
nisms to fulfill this ongoing need for services and
goods. External Business Space Operations
External Business Space Operations
$ 45 m $ 17 m
$ 45 m $ 17 m
As Langley acquires goods and services to perform
the NASA mission, the direct, indirect, and in- Cross Agency
Cross Agency
Programs
duced impacts of expenditures affect the economic Programs
Aeronautics
$ 47 m Aeronautics
health and development of the local, state, and $ 47 m
$ 293 m
national economies. The dollars spent by Langley $ 293 m
Institutional
enhance business development, create jobs, and in- Institutional
Support
crease the tax base. Support
$ 103 m
$ 103 m

Science
Science
$ 105 m
$ 105 m
Exploration
Exploration
$ 137 m
$ 137 m

20 LANGLEY 2006
ECONOMIC REPORT

Economic Impact Non-Monetary Benefits


In fiscal year 2006, NASA Langley and its related or- Langley supports the welfare of the region, the Com-
ganizations generated a total economic output for the monwealth of Virginia and the nation in other ways
nation of approximately $2,265 million, and created that are not easily monetized, enriching quality of life
20,649 full time equivalent (FTE) jobs for research and the well-being of the community at large.
professionals, scientists, engineers, and support ser- NASA Langley scientists and engineers have conceived
vices. of and helped to put into practice many new scientific
The direct economic benefits flow from three primary breakthroughs. Not only has the direct expenditure
sources that together create the majority of the direct on this work benefited the region and nation, it also
economic output. Three sources are direct procure- has spawned numerous commercial activities, many
ments and expenditures, contractor services, and visi- in Virginia. In Fiscal year 2006,
tors to Langley. Langley personnel developed ideas
that led to 109 invention disclo- n Economic output
Direct procurement expenditures at Langley’s Hamp-
sures, 25 patents applications, and exceeds $2B
ton location for labor, operating equipment, supplies,
16 patents issued. annually
and construction by the Center and related organiza-
tions totaled $722.0 million in FY 2006. Spending Langley’s employees routinely vol- n 20,649 jobs
by Langley visitors added another $5.4 million, yield- unteer their time and knowledge. n Economic engine
ing total direct expenditures in the Hampton Roads In FY 2006, Langley reached out
region of $727.5 million. Indirect expenditures add- to the general public through its
ed $378 million, and induced expenditures totaled speakers bureau, presenting 24,341 individual talks,
$1,160 million. lectures, or speeches to civic organizations, public and
Taken as a whole, Langley facilities represent an in- private schools, area colleges and universities, cham-
vestment in land, buildings and scientific equip- bers of commerce, and numerous other non-profit
ment amounting to $2.6 billion that include 788 organizations.
acres. As Langley prepares for new missions and NASA Langley personnel also bring science and engi-
programs, increasing infrastructure investment, even neering topics alive in K-12 and university classrooms,
greater regional economic benefits are likely to ensue. enriching the educational experience for a wide array
of students.
With a 2006 budget of $747 million, NASA Langley
creates a total economic output for the nation worth By any standard, NASA Langley is an economic en-
$2.3 billion and 20,649 jobs. gine that enormously benefits the citizens of the re-
gion, the commonwealth, and the nation.
Langley Economic Impact
$ 2.61 b Langley Total Job Creation
$ 2.61
$ 2.47 b b
$ 2.5
$ 2.5 $ 2.47 b
$ 2.25$b2.25 b b$ 2.30 b Indirect Indirect
B I L L I O N S

$ 2.30
B I L L I O N S

$ 2.06 b
2.0 2.0 $ 2.06 b 2,985 2,985

1.5 1.5
I N
I N

1 1 Induced Induced
Direct Direct
D O L L A R S

10,135 10,135
D O L L A R S

.5 .5 7,529 7,529

0 0
*2002*2002 2004 2004
2003 2003 2005 2005
2006 2006
*Fiscal Year
*Fiscal Year

LANGLEY 2006 21
LANGLEY’S IMPACT ON THE NATION
Geographical Distribution Summary
of Fiscal Year 2006
WASH.

MONT. MAINE.
N.D.
ORE. MINN. Glenn Research VT.
Center N.H.
IDAHO WIS. MASS.
S.D. N.Y.
R.I.
WYO. MICH.
Ames CALIF. N.J. CONN.
IOWA PA.
Research NEB. DEL.
Center NEV. MD.
UTAH Goddard Space Flight
ILL. IND. OHIO Center
COLO. NASA Headquarters
W.VA.
KAN. MO. VA.
KY. Wallops Flight Facility

Jet Propulsion N.C. Langley Research


TENN. Center
Laboratory ARIZ. OKLA. Marshall Space
N.M. Flight Center S.C.
Dryden Flight ARK.
Research Center GA.
MISS. ALA. District of
TEXAS LA. Kennedy Space Columbia
Center
FLA.
HAWAII
Key to State
ALASKA Funding Levels
Johnson Space
Center Stennis Space
Center $0 -$1 million

$1-5 million

$5-20 million

+ $20 million
Top Obligations to Business Contractors:
Sverdrup Technology Inc...................... $ 69.6 m + $200 million
Science Applications Intl Corp.................. 50.6 m
Raytheon STX Corp.................................. 29.8 m Top Obligations to Non Profit Institutions:
Swales Aerospace.................................... 19.4 m
National Institute of Aerospace . ..........$ 27.8 m
GASL Inc.................................................. 16.9 m
• Georgia Tech .....................................2.9 m
Air Products & Chem. Inc......................... 16.8 m
• University of Maryland....................... 1.3 m
Dominion Virginia Power ......................... 15.1 m
• University of Virginia ..........................1.3 m
Tessada & Assoc Inc................................ 14.1 m
• Virginia Tech ......................................1.2 m
Lockheed Martin Gov’t Services................ 9.6 m
• N.C. State University ......................... 900 k
Chugach Industries Inc............................. 6.8 m
• N.C. A&T State University ................. 450 k
Aurora Flight Sciences Corp...................... 6.7 m
Aerospace Corp........................................5.4 m
Unisys Corp.............................................. 6.4 m
Hampton City . .........................................4.7 m Top Obligations to
ASRC Management Services Inc............... 6.2 m
Texas Engineering Experiment Station .....3.5 m Educational Institutions:
Analytical Mechanics Associates Inc......... 6.1 m
Georgia Tech Research Corp. ...................2.9 m
Praxair Inc................................................. 4.5 m Glenville State College.......................... $ 3.7 m
Institute Advanced Learning & Research.. 2.6 m
Virginia Natural Gas Inc.............................. 4.4 m Morgan State University........................... 3.4 m
Virginia Air & Space Center ......................1.7 m
Four Dimensional Leadership..................... 3.6 m Princeton University ............................... 2.5 m
Research Triangle Institute . .....................1.5 m
Photo opposite page: Boeing/Thom Baur

Mainthia Technologies.............................. 3.1 m Utah State University.............................. 2.4 m


National Consortium for Aviation Mobility..1.0 m
ILC Dover Inc............................................ 2.7 m University South Florida.......................... 1.8 m
Clinton-Essex-Warren-
Government Technology Serv Inc.............. 2.4 m Washington BOC ..................................920 k University Wisconsin Madison.................. 1.1 m
Center For Systems Management Inc........ 2.2 m Mid-Atlantic Aerospace Complex .............915 k Fairmont State University......................... 1.0 m
Modern Machine & Tool Co Inc.................. 2.1 m Wise County Va. Develop Program.............817 k City Univ. N.Y. City College........................ 993 k
Lockheed Martin Corp Aero....................... 2.0 m Old Dominion University Hampton University.................................. 729 k
Advanced Technologies Inc....................... 2.0 m Research Foundation........................... 736 k University of Colorado Boulder................. 668 k
Nextgen Aeronautics Inc........................... 1.9 m Total Learning Research Institute..............643 k College of William & Mary........................ 578 k

22 LANGLEY 2006
LANGLEY 2006

A image of the CloudSat/Calipso launch.


A visitor pictures herself as a NASA astronaut at the NASA booth during the Margaret Pippin and summer interns work on a tropospheric environmen-
Godspeed Sail tour of the 400th anniversary of Jamestown. tal air quality project.

Sharon Bowers, a science teacher detailed to NASA Langley, leads an activity during NASA Explorer Institute training in January 2006.

Teachers in a NASA Explorer Schools Technology Immersion Workshop pose for a photo in a digital-learning lab at Langley.

24 LANGLEY 2006
E D U C AT I O N & O U T R E A C H

F
our hundred years ago, intrepid explorers set Education at Home and Across the Globe
foot on North American soil for what would Other informal education partnerships with More-
become the first permanent English settle- head Planetarium, the North Carolina Museum of
ment in the New World. As NASA prepares to Natural Sciences, and the Colonial Williamsburg
lead the nation in the exploration of space, Lang- Foundation helped Langley reach an estimated
ley relies on a comprehensive program to inform, one million people.
educate, and inspire its audiences – from students
Through Langley’s precollege programs, three new
and teachers to the general public. NASA Explorer School partnership awards were
In 2006, Langley’s Education programs generated competitively selected for three years: four public
approximately 3 billion “looks” – people or house- elementary schools in Virginia, and in North and
holds reached multiple times – at the work Lang- South Carolina. Each school
ley does through outreach and education programs will receive $17,500 over three
and events. years for technology develop- n 3 billion reached
ment needs. Over 200,000 n Exhibits, events, and
Some 9.5 million people had the opportunity to
students and 1,500 teachers informal education
share in the excitement of NASA’s aeronautics
were reached in the Center’s n Distance learning
breakthroughs, its space exploration vision, and its
Aerospace Education Pro-
Earth-observing missions through state fairs, air n K-12, higher
gram. Through NASA’s Digital
shows, community events, and museums. Through education
Learning Network, Langley
the news media, some 1.8 billion looks were gener-
delivered 260 distance-learn-
ated at stories in newspapers, magazines, TV, radio
ing events to schools, informal
and the Internet. And another 1.4 billion looks education sites, and conferences across the world.
were produced through education programs in- A total of 5,750 students and 1,358 educators par-
volving students and faculty around the nation. ticipated in interactive sessions with Langley sub-
Prepping for a 400th Birthday Party ject-matter experts and education specialists. The
network is managed by Langley and has staff and
Langley is an official partner in the Jamestown
studios at all NASA centers. Across the network,
2007 celebration. As part of the 400th anniver-
1,271 events were presented to nearly 45,000 stu-
sary preparations, the Center participated in the
dents and educators.
Godspeed Sail, using speakers, educational materi-
als, and exhibits to highlight agency activities and Robust University Participation
draw parallels between exploration of yesteryear Our higher-education programs supported 165
and today. Godspeed visited six major East Coast students from 70 minority colleges and 41 uni-
ports, with some 450,000 people attending the versities. The National Institute of Aerospace, the
festivities. University of Maryland Eastern Shore, and Ben-
nett College partnered in conjunction with Lang-
Aero-Space Day
ley to host the 10th Annual Pre-Service Teacher
On February 2, 2006, some 80 Langley represen- Conference. Participants came from 30 states, in-
tatives, aerospace industry leaders, and members cluding the District of Columbia, and consisted
of professional organizations converged in Rich- of 493 students, 83 faculty members and 38 am-
mond for Aero-Space Day. They met with Gen- bassadors from 76 colleges and universities. The
eral Assembly members and key Commonwealth Center also welcomed Oak Ridge Association of
officials to discuss the importance of aerospace to Universities as the new manager of NASA’s Post-
the Commonwealth. doctoral Program.

LANGLEY 2006 25
AGENCY FUNCTIONS

NASA Engineering and Safety Center


The NESC mission is to perform
independent testing, analysis, and
assessments of NASA’s high-risk
projects to ensure safety and mis-
sion success. The NESC engages
proactively to help NASA avoid
problems and is a strong, Agency-
wide technical resource that offers
a forum for reporting technical is-
sues and contributing alternative
viewpoints for high-risk NASA
programs. For each technical as-
sessment that is conducted, NESC
accesses a ready group of engineer-
ing experts – called Super Problem LaRC/Jeff Caplan
Resolution Teams (SPRTs) – from NESC researchers work on a special-purpose combined-loads testing machine at Langley.
15 technical discipline areas.
by providing expertise to the SPRTs debris transport, Crew Exploration
The NESC is funded by the Office of
and assessment teams. In addition, Vehicle water-vs.-land landing risks,
the Chief Engineer and is comprised
the NESC has utilized Langley’s CEV smart buyer, Atlas V tank fail-
of technical experts from each NASA
facilities to complete a number of ure investigation and stress analysis,
center, industry and academia. The
critical independent tests and analy- Delta II tank investigation and the
NESC management office is at Lang-
ses. For example, Langley played an Langley 8-Foot High Temperature
ley. Langley employees have been
important role in the NESC’s as- Tunnel oxygen storage pressure ves-
instrumental in the NESC’s success
sessment of: shuttle external tank sel inspection requirements.

Independent Program Assessment Office


The Independent Program Assessment ments to thorough vetting of issues, grams, and the Ocean Surface Topog-
Office, at Langley, provides indepen- and developed independent cost-esti- raphy Mission.
dent, unbiased information and find- mate validation by the technical team Through these reviews, IPAO made
ings to NASA decision makers. The members.
several recommendations to enhance
IPAO mandate is to assess newly pro- IPAO also completed a number of mission success, ranging from improve-
posed and ongoing programs and proj- program implementation reviews, ments to entry, descent, and landing,
ects to provide an objective advisory to and identified several program man- to the addition of redundancy to the
mission directorates and the NASA agement issues which led to improve- cruise stage and select hardware, to
Program Management Council. ments in NASA program management implementation of vigorous risk man-
In 2006, among several other signifi- and execution. agement process, and finalization of
cant changes, IPAO improved the in- Also IPAO completed reviews on such clear requirements and success criteria.
dependent review procedures to assure programs and projects as Mars Sci- IPAO also recommended program re-
mission success by emphasizing pre- ence Laboratory, James Webb Space baselining with an adequate financial
site review preparation by the review Telescope, Lunar Robot Orbiter and reserve and implementation of test-as-
teams, strengthened member commit- the Robotic Lunar Exploration Pro- you-fly mitigation strategies.

26 LANGLEY 2006
AGENCY PROGRAMS

NASA/JPL/CTEC
The image above illustrates the complex interaction between the Earth and the sun.

Science Support Office

T he Science Support Office (SSO)


at Langley supports the Science
Mission Directorate at NASA Head-
Solar Terrestrial Probes programs.
Today, the SSO also supports the
New Frontiers, Living With a Star,
and the technical, management,
and cost evaluations of proposals
received in response to the AO so-
quarters in the acquisition of Earth Mars Exploration, and Earth System licitations. The SSO additionally
and space science missions and in- Science Pathfinder programs. The has responsibility for special studies,
struments. The SSO was initially SSO assists these programs during assessments, and reviews for Science
established at Langley in 1996 to the development of Announcement Mission Directorate.
support the Explorer, Discovery, and of Opportunity (AO) solicitations

The Exploration Technology Development Program

E xecution of the Vision for Space


Exploration will require devel-
opment of both transportation ele-
the ETDP and consequently main-
tains the Exploration Technology
Program Office (ETDPO). Rigor-
ments, including Orion, Ares I and ous project management, including
Ares V, and lunar and planetary sur- documented project expectations,
face systems. The Vision’s success earned-value management, and
will require sustained and focused strict costing control, is applied to
investments in surface systems and the technology projects to ensure
advanced crew vehicle systems. The that the investments are relevant to
Exploration Technology Develop- Constellation needs. With a rich
ment Program (ETDP), within the history of developing relevant tech-
Exploration Systems Mission Di- nologies and experienced program
rectorate (ESMD) is developing ad- and project managers, Langley has
vanced technologies to pursue these the unique combination of skills to
systems. Langley has been assigned ensure that the program is successful
the role of overall management of and meets its objectives.

LANGLEY 2006 27
LANGLEY’S VISITOR CENTER

T
he Virginia Air & Space Center (VASC) is The VASC has grown from a regional air and space
a nationally recognized, non-profit science museum to a world-class, science center. A recent
center in Hampton, Virginia that serves as expansion resulted in the Adventures of Flight
the official visitor center for NASA Langley. It is aviation gallery, which spans 100 years of aviation
the permanent home for the Apollo 12 Command history from the origins of flight to the future of
Module, lunar geologic samples, and an impressive flight. The gallery provides innovative, stimulating
collection of more than a dozen historic aircraft educational experiences for visitors, more teaching
spaces for student groups and teacher workshops,
The facility, partially funded by Langley, also and enhances the facility’s role as visitor center for
boasts a five-story IMAX‚ 3D Theater that extends Langley.
the visitor’s experience with a
variety of compelling and edu- A New Space Gallery
n Langley’s official cational giant-screen films, like In a new initiative, the VASC is upgrading its Space
visitor center Space Station 3D and Roving Gallery. Over half-a-million cubic feet of existing
Mars, that chronicle NASA’s space is being developed into a state-of-the-art ex-
n 1.5 million students
exploration initiatives. hibition gallery focusing on NASA technologies
served
and space science through interactive exhibits and
n IMAX Theater Supporting NASA’s
stories of human ingenuity. Key concepts that will
mission
n New space and be presented in the new Space Gallery are: Hu-
aeronautics exhibit The VASC features extensive man Spaceflight – Living and Working in Space,
galleries aviation and aerospace exhibits Unmanned Space Exploration, Rockets and Satel-
that explore Langley’s role in lites, Visions of Spaceflight, NASA Spin-off Tech-
all aspects of NASA’s mission nologies, and Weather.
and Vision for Space Explora-
The Space Gallery exhibit upgrade will also include
tion, from aeronautics and science to future mis- educational program enhancements like a new
sions to the moon, Mars and beyond. Digital Discovery Lab that will promote NASA
The center also serves as a unique setting for meet- technology. The new Space Gallery is scheduled to
ings and receptions. It has been host to numerous open in the spring of 2007 and will embody the
NASA and community functions, most recently spirit of exploration coinciding with the VASC’s
a public lecture by NASA Administrator Michael 15th anniversary and Jamestown Virginia’s 400th
Griffin. anniversary celebrations.

Since its opening in 1990, the VASC has nearly The VASC Strategic Plan 2010 outlines seven key
1.5 million students with high-quality, interactive results that will guide growth and direction over
the next five years. It also resulted in a new mis-
educational programming that encourages chil-
sion statement: to educate, entertain and inspire
dren to pursue careers in math, science and tech-
explorers of all ages, which reflects NASA’s vision,
nology. Many students are considered at-risk, and
mission and core values.
through assistance from the space center, they are
afforded many exciting educational opportunities For more information about the Virginia Air &
not available elsewhere. Space Center, go to http://www.vasc.org

28 LANGLEY 2006
PHOTOS/VASC

The Virginia Air & Space Center in Hampton is the official visitor center for Langley Research Center.

Dr. Robert Braun, a professor at the Georgia Institute of Technol-


ogy, talks to students about the Mars exhibit.

A young visitor explores the center’s new Space Gallery Exhibit.

LANGLEY 2006 29
R E C O G N I T I O N S & AWA R D S
n Dr. Bruce Wielicki has been awarded the n Dr. Edward H. Glaessgen was named Security Symposium. Mr. Jarvis J. Arthur
Presidential Rank of Meritorious Senior Associate Fellow of the American Institute of III, Dr. Lawrence J. Prinzel III, Mr. Steve
Professional. Aeronautics and Astronautics. P. Williams, and Ms. Lynda J. Kramer of
n Dr. Peter A. Gnoffo received the Presiden- n Dr. John T. Wang was named Associate NASA Langley authored the paper.
tial Rank of Meritorious Senior Professional Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronau- n The Chemically-Reconstituted Ferritin
from the President of the United States. tics and Astronautics. Bionanobattery Team received the 2005
n NASA Langley Research Center Direc- n Mr. Roger A. Hathaway received the 2006 Nanotech Briefs Nano 50 TM Award. Dr.
tor Ms. Lesa B. Roe, Deputy Director Mr. Educator Technical Achiever of the Year Sang H. Choi, Mr. James R. Elliott Jr., Mr.
Stephen G. Jurczyk and Director of Systems from The National Technical Association. Glen C. King of NASA Langley and Dr.
Analysis and Concepts Dr. Ajay Kumar Sang-Hyon Chu and Dr. Jae-Woo Kim of
n Dr. Joycelyn S. Harrison received the
have been awarded the Presidential Rank of the National Institute of Aerospace, and Dr.
Technology All-Star Award from the Na-
Meritorious Executive. Yeonjoon Park of the Science and Technol-
tional Women of Color Technology Awards
ogy Corporation were the team members.
n Mr. Howard J. Lewis received the Federal Conference.
Aviation Professional Award (Managerial n The technical paper “Visualization of a
n Ms. Anna McGowan received the 2006
Category) from the Capsule Entry Vehicle Reaction-Control
Award for Technical Innovation Govern-
U.S. General Services System Thruster” was named the 2006 Best
ment from the National Women of Color
Administration. Paper by the AIAA Aerodynamic Measure-
Technology Awards Conference.
n Mr. Frank E. Batts ment Technology Technical Committee. Dr.
n The late Mr. Jack Reeder, former Na- Paul M. Danehy, Ms. Jennifer A. Wilkes,
was confirmed by the
tional Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Mr. Gregory J. Brauckmann, Mr. David W.
U.S. Senate for pro-
(NASA’s forerunner) research pilot, was Alderfer, Mr. Stephen B. Jones of NASA
motion to the rank
inducted into the Virginia Aviation Hall of Langley and D. Patry of Swales Aerospace
of Brigadier General
Fame. authored the paper.
in the Virginia Army Brigadier General
National Guard. Frank E. Batts n The technical paper “Synthetic Vision
Enhanced Surface Operations and Flight
n Mr. Jonathan B. Ransom received Emer-
ald Honors Award for career achievement Procedures Rehearsal Tool,” was named the
from Science Spectrum Magazine. 2006 Best Paper by the SPIE Defense and

n Dr. Yongxiang Hu received the prestigious


Inaba Prize at the 23rd International Laser
Radar Conference
n Dr. Martin G. Mlynczak received a Dis-
tinguished Alumnus Award from the Univer-
sity of Missouri Physics Department.
n Dr. Robert Tolson, retired, was inducted
into Virginia Tech’s Academy of Engineering
Excellence.
n Dr. Stephen A. Rizzi received an Out-
standing Aerospace Engineer Award from
the School of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Purdue University.
n Mr. Samuel A. Harvey received an
Auxiliary Police Officer Service Award for
outstanding service to law enforcement
from the Newport News (Virginia) Police
Department.
n Mr. Thomas J. Horvath was named
the National Engineer of the Year by the
American Institute of Aeronautics and
Astronautics.
LaRC/Jeff Caplan
n Dr. Thomas F. Brooks was named Fellow Dr. Stanley E. Woodard, Dr. Qamar A. Shams, and Mr. Bryant Taylor received an R&D 100 Award
of the American Institute of Aeronautics and for their Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System from R&D Magazine.
Astronautics.

30 LANGLEY 2006
ARES is a proposed Mars Scout mission to study
the atmosphere, surface, and interior of Mars.
LANGLEY 2006 31
Testing an aircraft model in the Transonic
Dynamics Tunnel at Langley.
32 LANGLEY 2006
SENIOR LEADERSHIP TEAM

Lesa B. Roe Stephen G. Jurczyk Douglas L. Dwoyer Cynthia C. Lee


Director Deputy Director Associate Director Chief of Staff
for Operations

H O W T O C O N TA C T U S
NASA Langley Research Center
Office of Strategic Communications and Education
757 864-6300

Government Relations
757 864-2505

Doing Business with Langley


757 864-3000

Public Inquiries
public-inquiries@larc.nasa.gov

LANGLEY 2006 33
LOOKING FORWARD

N
ow that you’ve had a chance to see what tests of the Ares 1 Crew Launch Vehicle to evaluate
we do at NASA Langley Research Cen- the launch vehicle stack.
ter, I hope you agree it’s quite an excit- This is often difficult and tedious work, but our sci-
ing place. I deeply believe that what we do enriches entists and engineers love what they do. There is an
all Americans, from the joy of learning, to finding exhilaration that comes with successful accomplish-
ways to improve the lives of people everywhere, to ment, as in the record-breaking hypersonic flight of
the economic benefit that research and develop- the X-43A, or the development of a new satellite
ment provides to the nation. capability, like the CALIPSO lidar instrument.
We look forward to the return of humans to the With the continuing support of Congress and the
moon and the exploration of Mars and beyond. American people, NASA, Langley, and the agency’s
We are excited by the prospect of providing criti- other field centers will advance the exploration of
cal information to our country’s leaders so they space, the study of our planet, and the safety and
can make the decisions necessary to preserve and efficiency of air travel. I thank you for that support
protect Earth. And as for improving the safety and and your continuing interest. With your help, I
efficiency of air travel – that’s something we can all look forward to continuing our critical work in the
relate to, every time we board an airplane. years ahead – and in the decades to come.

We’ll continue our tradition of excellence in ap- As I mentioned in the Introduction, we at NASA
plied engineering. Our experts in structures, ma- and Langley continually strive to inform you about
terials and other disciplines in the aerospace scienc- our activities … which is a way of saying, I’ll keep
es, along with the NASA Engineering and Safety you regularly informed of our projects, programs
Center that is hosted at Langley, helped return the and progress.
space shuttle to flight after the Columbia accident. Share our excitement about the NASA Mission and
A project team in residence at Langley is managing Langley’s role in this historic endeavour.
the Orion capsule launch-abort system, which is
slated for tests beginning in 2008. Others at Lang- Lesa B. Roe
ley are evaluating designs of the Orion’s landing sys- Director
tem, with vertical drop tests using a half-scale crew NASA Langley Research Center
module. Still more are conducting wind tunnel December, 2006

34 LANGLEY 2006