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Statics of Rigid Bodies

**STATICS OF RIGID BODIES
**

Chapter 1: Introduction

DEFINITION

Mechanics • the study of the relationship among forces and their effects on bodies. • the science which describes and predicts the conditions for rest and motion of bodies under the action of forces. • a physical science (for it deals with physical phenomena)

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Statics of Rigid Bodies

Statics of Rigid Bodies

MECHANICS

MECHANICS

RIGID BODIES

STATICS

bodies at rest

DYNAMICS bodies in motion

What is a FORCE?

represents the action of one body on another that tends to change the state or state of motion of a body. y may be exerted by actual contact or at a distance (e.g. gravitational and magnetic forces). characterized by its point of application, magnitude and direction. represented by a vector.

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DEFORMABLE BODIES

INCOMPRESSIBLE

FLUIDS

COMPRESSIBLE

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Statics of Rigid Bodies

Statics of Rigid Bodies

Effects of a FORCE

• development of other forces (reactions or internal forces) • deformation of the body • acceleration of the body Applied Force

**Development of other forces
**

Applied Force

p Development of force or forces at points of contact with other bodies (reactions).

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Forces acting on a given particle.Statics of Rigid Bodies Statics of Rigid Bodies Development of other forces Applied Force Deformation of the body Applied Force A A Development of forces within the body itself (internal forces) Prev Department of Engineering Sciences Jump to… Stop Show Next Prev Department of Engineering Sciences Jump to… Stop Show Next Statics of Rigid Bodies Statics of Rigid Bodies Acceleration of the body Properties of a FORCE A force represents the action of one body on another and is generally characterized by its point of application. and its direction. it means that the shape and size of the object does not significantly affect the solution of the problems under consideration. rather. however. such assumption does not significantly affect the solution of the problems under consideration. Rigid Bodies .2 ft/s^2 Show Next Prev Department of Engineering Sciences Jump to… Stop Jump to… Stop Show Next 2 . • Magnitude 10N • Direction 30 degrees (upwards or downwards) • Point of Application – line of action (LOA) dashed line having an angle 30 degrees 10N 30o Applied Force pp 10N 30o Prev Department of Engineering Sciences Jump to… Stop Show Next Prev Department of Engineering Sciences Jump to… Stop Show Next Statics of Rigid Bodies Statics of Rigid Bodies DEFINITION Particles . Again.in the context of this course.the problems considered in this course are assumed to be non-deformable. its magnitude.81 m/s^2 or g = 32. Prev Department of Engineering Sciences BASIC QUANTITIES & UNITS Quantity Length Mass Time Force SI m (meter) kg (kilogram) s (seconds) kg*m/s^2 or N Newton ENGLISH ft (feet) slugs s (seconds) lbs (pounds) Acceleration due to gravity g = 9. have the same point of application. does not indicate “smallness of size”.

their resultant vector is the third side of the triangle triangle. sin A sin B sin C = = Q R P Q Department of Engineering Sciences Prev Jump to… Stop Show Next Department of Engineering Sciences Prev Jump to… Stop Show Next 3 . ADDITION OF VECTORS The addition of two vectors is commutative. particle P RESULTANT CAN BE OBTAINED THRU: Parallelogram Law or Vector Addition Triangle Rule R A Q A Department of Engineering Sciences enter 〉〉 Department of Engineering Sciences Prev Jump to… Stop Show Next Statics of Rigid Bodies Statics of Rigid Bodies PARALLELOGRAM LAW The resultant of two forces is the diagonal of the parallelogram formed on the vectors of these forces drawn tail to tail. • Law of cosines. which add according to the parallelogram law.Statics of Rigid Bodies Moment of a Force RESULTANT OF THE ORIGINAL FORCES single equivalent force having the same effect as the original forces acting on the particle. v v v v P+Q=Q+ P P A Q Q’ R 2 = P 2 + Q 2 − 2 PQ cos B r r r R = P+Q P A Q Q’ P+Q A P Q+P P’ P+Q • Law of sines. tail-to-tail. P R A Q TRIANGLE LAW If two forces are represented by their free vectors placed head-to-tail. P R A Q Department of Engineering Sciences Prev Jump to… Stop Show Next Department of Engineering Sciences Prev Jump to… Stop Show Next Statics of Rigid Bodies Statics of Rigid Bodies VECTORS Vectors are defined as mathematical expressions possessing magnitude and direction.

Determine their resultant.Statics of Rigid Bodies Statics of Rigid Bodies SUM OF VECTORS If the vectors are coplanar.have the same direction as P with magnitude nP P + P = 2P P P Q A Q S Department of Engineering Sciences Prev P 1. Resultant of Several Concurrent Forces SOLUTION: • Trigonometric solution . R = P+Q+S = P+S+Q Q Q P A R S Jump to… Stop Show Next Q R Jump to… Department of Engineering Sciences Prev Stop Show Next Statics of Rigid Bodies Statics of Rigid Bodies VECTOR ADDITION Vector addition is associative. PRODUCT OF A SCALAR & VECTOR P R = P+Q+S = P+S+Q v v nP .use the triangle rule for vector addition in conjunction with the law of cosines and law of sines to find the resultant. A set of concurrent forces applied to a particle may be replaced by a single resultant force which is the vector sum of the applied forces. • Vector force components: two or more force vectors which.5P -2P R Jump to… Stop Show Next Department of Engineering Sciences Prev Jump to… Stop Show Next Statics of Rigid Bodies Statics of Rigid Bodies Resultant of Several Concurrent Forces • Concurrent forces: set of forces which all pass through the same point. The two forces act on a bolt at A. the resultant may be obtained by using the polygon rule for the addition of vectors – arrange the given vectors in a tip-to-tail fashion and connect the tail of the first vector with the tip of the last one P A Q S Department of Engineering Sciences Prev VECTOR ADDITION Vector addition is associative. together. Department of Engineering Sciences Prev Jump to… Stop Show Next Department of Engineering Sciences Prev Jump to… Stop Show Next 4 . have the same effect as a single force vector.

From the Law of Cosines.Apply the triangle rule.04° Department of Engineering Sciences Prev Jump to… Stop Show Next Department of Engineering Sciences Prev Jump to… Stop Show Next Example 2 Resultant of Several Concurrent Forces Determine graphically. sin A sin B = Q R sin A = sin B Q R 60 N 97.8 O ⎟ ⎠ The angle of the resultant: θ = 30O + 17.8O 5 . R 600 N α 900 N R ≈ 1400 N θ ≈ 46o From the scaled drawing of the forces.6 = 1391 N For angle θ.73N • Trigonometric solution . using sine law: 30o 45o 30o θ Note: The triangle rule may also be used. R 2 = P 2 + Q 2 − 2 PQ cos B = (40 N )2 + (60 N )2 − 2(40 N )(60 N ) cos 155° R = 97.Statics of Rigid Bodies Statics of Rigid Bodies Resultant of Several Concurrent Forces Resultant of Several Concurrent Forces From the Law of Sines.04° A = 15. the resultant is Trigonometric Solution R 600 N For the magnitude of R. the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the two forces using (a) Parallelogram law and (b) the triangle rule. 600 N 900 N 45o 30o 28 Graphical Solution A parallelogram with sides equal to 900 N and 600 N is drawn to scale as shown. using the cosine law: 135o θ 900 N R 2 = 900 2 + 600 2 − 2(900 )(600 ) cos135 o R = 1390. 29 30 R 600 = sin 135 O sin α α = sin −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ 600 sin 135O 1391 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ = 17.73N = sin 155° α = 20° + A α = 35. Join the forces in a tip to tail fashion and measure the magnitude and direction of the resultant.

Likewise.Example 3 50 N 25O O Solution (a) sin α sin 25 sin β = = R 50 35 (a) Determining α & β α P Two forces are applied as shown to a hook support. From the head of R. The two components P and Q are then drawn such that they extend from the tail of F to points of intersections. Join the tail of P to the tail of R. • In the same way. P Q i.86 O 31 32 Solution (b) sin α sin 25 sin β = = R 50 35 O Resolution of Forces 50 N 25O P α β R (b) Determining R R= 50 sin β sin α R = 73.22 N • It has been shown that the resultant of forces acting at the same point (concurrent forces) can be found. a given force.e.14 35 ⎝ ⎠ β = 180 O − α − 25 O β = 117. (b) the corresponding magnitude of R. a’ Q R P 35 36 b’ 6 . 33 34 Resolution of Forces: Case 1 • (a) When one of the two components. • There are two major cases. P is known: The second component Q is obtained using the triangle rule. The magnitude and direction of Q are d t f determined graphically or b i d hi ll by trigonometry. a line pa a e to b’ is drawn from the head o e se. F can be resolved into components. extend a line parallel to a’ until it intersects b’. determine by trigonometry (a) the required angle α if the resultant of the two forces applied to the hook support is to be horizontal. P α β R 50 N 25O ⎜ α = sin −1 ⎜ ⎛ 50 sin 25 O ⎞ O ⎟ ⎟ = 37. Knowing that the magnitude of P is 35 N. e parallel o b s d a o e ead of F to the point of intersection with a’. R = P + Q R Resolution of Forces: Case 2 • (b) When the line of action of each component is known: The force R can be resolved into two components having lines of actions along a’ and b’ using the parallelogram law.

85 N FA = 516. respectively.Example 4 a a Example 4 95O FB 40O FA α P 45.unit vectors of j magnitude 1 directed along the positive x and y axes.0 45. Fy – scalar components of F Fy FX = -655.9 N j θ x i ˆ F x = F xi Fy = F sin θ .3 N i 0 α = 35 0 Fx θ = 145 j FY = 458.0O P 45O P=800N 45.0° 40.may be positive or negative depending upon the sense of F x and F y . determine the components of the force in a and b axes. F Fy = Fyˆ j F = 800 N F x F y .19 N 38 37 Rectangular Components of a Force & Unit Vector y Example 5 ˆ i and ˆ .0° sin 95 O sin 45 O sin 40 O = = 800 FB FA b b α = 180 − 45° − 40° α = 95° FB = 567.0° 40.0° 15.the absolute values are equal to the magnitude of the component forces F x and F y 40 Fx = F cos θ 39 Given Rectangular Components y tan θ = Example 6 Determine the resultant of the three forces below. 15.0° 15.0O 25.vector components of F Fx .0° Given P is 800 N. Fy Fx 2 2 F Fy θ x F= Fx + Fy y y 800 N 600 N 45o Fx Rx = ∑ Fx Ry = ∑ Fy 41 tan θ R = Ry Rx Ry 350 N x R 60o 25o θΡ Rx x 42 7 .

6 – 300 = 290. the resultant can be drawn from the tail of the first force to the head of the last force. Rectangular Components of a Force The rectangular components of a force can be determined easily depending on the given characteristics of the force. Note: The sine and cosine laws are hard to implement because usually the given angles are absolute.2 + 273. the magnitude and direction of all of the forces are given.4O 1419.8 N i +1419. Rectangular Components of a Force Given the Magnitude and Two Angles z z Fz Given the Magnitude and Two Angles Fz z θz θ xy F xy F y Fz = F cosθ z θz o z o o Fy y F Fz y o θz θ xy F xy F y Fx F xy x θ xy x θy Fxy = F sin θ z Fx = Fxy sin θ xy = F sin θ z sin θ xy Fy = Fxy cos θ xy = F sin θ z cos θ xy Fxy = F sin θ z x x 8 . RX = ΣF x = 350 cos 25O + 800 cos 70O -600 cos 60O RX = 317.8 N RY = ΣF y = 350 sin 25 + 800 sin 70O +600 sin 60O RY = 147.Solution y 800 N 600 N 45o 60o 25o x 350 N Forces in Space The resultant of forces in 3-D space can p be determined using parallelogram law/triangle law.3 2 = 1449 N F = 1449 N 78. F 43 F = 290.8 2 +1419. F2 F1 F3 R θ z θy y θx x Note: In this illustration.3 N F= 290. Rectangular components can also be used to get resultant.6 = 1419.8 Forces in Space z Force Polygon z From the force polygon. The magnitude and direction of the resultant can be computed using successive use of the triangle law.4 O 290.9 + 751 + 519.3 N j Resultant.3 θ = tan −1 = 78. o F1 F2 o y F3 x The resultant of concurrent forces acting on a particle in space will also act at the same particle. Only the magnitude and direction are to be determined.

Fx F = F cos θ = (500N) θx (500N)cos 600 Fx = +250N Fy = F cos θy = (500N) cos 450 Fy = +354N Fz = F cos θz = (500N) cos 1200 Fz = -250N x z θz θz Example 7 Fy θy y Note: The angle a force F forms with an axis should be measured from the positive side of the axis and will always be between 0 and 1800. Fy and Fz of the force. Fx x o θx Fz F Fx o θx θy Fy y Fz F F = 250N i + 354N j – 250N k F = 250N i + 354N j – 250N k Direction Cosines ˆ ˆ F = F cos θxi + cos θyˆ + cos θzk j let λ= cos θx i + cos θy j+ cos θz k λ = unit vector λx= cos θx λy= cos θy λz= cos θz Direction Cosines cos θx = Fx / F cos θy = Fy / F θx = cos-1 (Fx / F) θy = cos-1 (Fy / F) θz = cos-1 (Fz / F) ( ) λx2 + λy2 + λz2 = 1 it follows that. cos2 θx + cos2 θy + cos2 θz = 1 cos θz = Fz / F F = √Fx2 + Fy2 + Fz2 F=Fλ The force vector is equal to the product of the magnitude of the force and the unit vector. with the x. 450 and 1200. θy y Fx = Fcos θx Fy = F cos θy Fz = Fcos θz where cos θx. respectively. cos θy and cos θz are direction cosines F = Fxi + Fyj + Fzk ˆ ˆ F = Fxi + Fyˆ + Fzk j F = Fx 2 + Fy 2 + Fz 2 x Example 7 z A force of 500N forms angles of 600.Rectangular Components of a Force Given the Magnitude and Two Angles z Rectangular Components of a Force Given the Magnitude and Three Absolute Angles Fz Fz = F cos θ z Fx = Fxy sin θ xy = F sin θ z sin θ xy y y y Fy = Fxy cos θ xy = F sin θ z cos θ xy o z o Fy y θz θx F Fx F xy x θ xy In vector form.y and z axes. Find also the vector representation of the force. Find the components Fx. 9 .

4m E O(1.9)2 + (1. 0.4m Example 9 Determine the vector representation of the given force.5) y dx = 0.5)2 x d = 2.40 Example 8 F = 70 N θx = cos-1 (Fx / F) = cos-1 (20/70) z F Fy Fx x Fz o y θy = cos-1 (Fy / F) = cos-1 (-30/70) ( 30/70) Fz Fy Fx x o y F = Fx 2 + Fy 2 + Fx 2 F = (20 N ) + ( −30 N ) + (60 N ) 2 2 2 θy = 115. 2.2)2 + (0.0.40 θz = cos-1 (Fz / F) = cos-1 (60/70) θy = 31. z e ) o O (x o . Fz = 60N. y o .0.5m 1.00 F = 4900 N = 70 N Rectangular Components of a Force Given the Magnitude and Two Points where Force Passes Rectangular Components of a Force z z E (xe .6kN 1. y e .2. z E 2.0 = +1. z θx = 73. 1. θy. z e ) F d x = xe − x o d y = ye − yo d z = ze − zo o E (xe . Determine its magnitude F and the angles θx.4 -1.6kN y 1.5 1. 1.0) E(0. Fy = -30N.5 = +0.4.0 -1.9 dz = 1.2m F=1.Example 8 A force has the components Fx = 20N. z e ) F Fz Fx ˆ ˆ F = Fxi + Fyˆ + Fzk j y Fy O( xe . z o ) y d = dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2 Fy = dy F d Fz = dz F d x Fx = x dx F d cos θx = dx d cos θy = dy d cos θz = dz d ˆ ˆ F = Fxi + Fyˆ + Fzk j Example 9 Determine the vector representation of the given force.5 .5m x d= (− 1.2m O O 1.5.5m F=1. y e .2 dy = 2.12m 10 . z 2. y e . θz it forms with the coordinate axes.2 = -1.5m 1.

905kN i + 0. 5 (1.6 m i + 12 m j − 12 m k ) .6 2 + 12 2 + 12 2 . λ BH = | TBH | R = ∑F Rx = ∑ Fx Rxi + Ryi + Rzk = ∑ (Fxi + Fyj + Fz ) = (250 N ) → + (500N ) j − (500 N ) k i Fy = 500 N Fz = − 500 N = (∑ Fx)i + (∑ Fy ) j + (∑ Fz )k Fx = 250 N Ry = ∑ Fy Rz = ∑ Fz 11 . 280) E TDBX TDBZ TDBY 510mm E(480. Graphical or trigonometric methods are generally not practical in the case of forces in space.12 Fz Fx O D 210mm E y 510mm 400mm Fz = + 1. = | TBH |.1.679 kN ˆ + 1.6kN ) = 0. BH = Addition of Concurrent Forces in Space 0. λ BH = → TBH → TBH BH 1 = (0. 0. 0.2 m j .131kN 2. .9 (1. 750 N BH = 0. .6 m i + 1.12 E + 0 . 2 (1. 510.6kN ) = 1.905kN 2.6kN ) = −0.679 kN 2. 18m | BH| . .12 x Fy A ˆ ˆ F = −0. z Example Sample Problem 2. 510. 280mm Fx = Fy = − 1.Example 9 Determine the vector representation of the given force. determine the components of the force exerted by the cable on the support D. 600) r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ TDB = TDBX i + TDBY ˆ + TDBZ k = 240i − 255 ˆ + 160 k ( N ) j j TDBZ = dz 320 TDB = (385) = 160 N d 770 Solution: Position vector of BH = 0. = 18 m .6 m i + 12 m j − 12 m k . → → → → The resultant R of two or more forces in space will be determined by summing their rectangular components.10 : (2. 280) D 210mm O(0. Knowing that the tension in the cable is 385 N.89) A frame ABC is supported in part by cable DBE which passes through a frictionless ring at B. 600) dx = xE – xO = 480-0=480 400mm TDB = 385N dy = yE – yO = 0-510=-510 dz = zE – zO = 600-280=320 C A z B 480mm 600mm x d = 770 mm TDBX = TDBY = dx 480 TDB = (385) = 240 N d 770 dy d TDB = − 510 (385) = −255 N 770 E(480. | BH| 18 .2 m k Magnitude.131kN k j C B 600mm z 480mm x Example 280mm O(0.

Addition of Concurrent Forces in Space R = Rx 2 + Ry 2 + Rz 2 cos θx = Rx R cos θy = Ry R cos θz = Rz R 12 .

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