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Workshop: Future of Modeling in Composites Molding Processes
Co-Sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the United States Department of Energy and the American Plastics Council Co-Chaired by Suresh Advani and Douglas E. Smith June 9-10, 2004 Arlington, Virginia Workshop Web Site: http://www.missouri.edu/~desy9b/nsf/index.htm EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A two day workshop co-sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the US Department of Energy, and the American Plastics Council was held at the National Science Foundation June 9-10, 2004. The objectives of this workshop were to establish a vision for the use of modeling in composite molding manufacturing processes, identify current barriers that must be overcome to realize this vision, and provide a research focus for overcoming these barriers. Molding processes addressed in the workshop included injection molded short and long fiber composites, liquid molding, compression molding, thermoplastic liquid molding, and injection-compression molding. This workshop provided a forum for researchers from industry, government laboratories, and academia to interact and establish future directions in composite molding research. Break-out sessions were conducted in (i) Materials and Measurements, (ii) Processing and Manufacturing, (iii) Properties and Performance, (iv) Sensing, Control and Automation, and (v) Design and Optimization. Thirty-two invited participants (see list given below) provided input on the current state-of-the art, insight on future modeling requirements and applications, and a perspective on issues that must be overcome for modeling to lead future developments in composite materials. The overwhelming consensus of the workshop participants was that the development and deployment of polymer composites would benefit tremendously from a predictive modeling and design approach that integrates processing, material structure, and product performance for both thermoplastic and thermoset matrix materials. While significant advancements have been made in this direction over the past few decades, further research is needed to fully realize the benefits of such a capability in the design and manufacture of future composite components and assemblies. Workshop presentations may be found at the web site given above and specific milestones in support of this vision are provided in the body of this report. The workshop successfully brought academia, government research and industry together to address critical issues related to polymer composites modeling. Results from the workshop are also being used to focus future funding opportunities which leverage resources from the National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, the American Plastics Council and other industry stakeholders.
MOTIVATION FOR WORKSHOP Modeling has long been intimately associated with the advancement of polymer and polymer composite products and manufacturing processes. Early analytical methods preceded computer simulation techniques that today receive widespread application throughout the plastics industry. Over two decades have passed since process simulation tools first became available leading to the rapid development of sophisticated algorithms and numerical procedures for simulating the flow of polymer melts and the effect of fiber reinforcements. These early breakthroughs have largely been followed by incremental advancements. We are now at a point where a significant jump is needed in the way we model composites and their manufacturing processes. Even with the unquestionable success of composites modeling in the past, there is still much work to be done. Research and development of modeling tools have been fueled by unprecedented advancement in computing power and the continued increased demands defined by the industrial sector for high performance, lightweight composite materials. Computational power is no longer the limiting factor when modeling composite molding products and processes. As the applications of modeling in composites processing have become more widespread, the types of numerical procedures, and the role of the simulations in product and process design have both become more diverse. Current research related to composites modeling includes one or more of the following focus areas: materials, measurements, design, optimization, sensing, control, automation, processing, manufacturing, performance, and properties. Our research must now turn towards the integration of these focus areas, and to methods that will improve our confidence in modeling predictions. As we look forward to the future of modeling in composites design and engineering, it becomes apparent that establishing a vision for research in this area is best facilitated through the combined efforts of experts in the field. This workshop provided a focus on current capabilities, future requirements, and key areas that must be addressed so that composites modeling will continue to support product and process advancements. Recent studies by the American Plastics Council support the need for such a workshop. Predictive Engineering has been identified as one of six technical priorities that are needed to support the continued expansion of the use of plastics and polymer composites, particularly in the automotive industry. Their vision of establishing plastics as the material of choice in the design of all major automotive components and systems by 2020 places unprecedented demands on the models used in both product and process design. Establishing a direction for composites research will help to provide key infrastructure for realizing this vision. OBJECTIVES The overall objectives of the workshop were to:
1. Establish a vision for the role of modeling in the design, manufacture, and use of composite products manufactured with molding processes. 2. Identify barriers to the use of modeling of composites molding related to manufacturing, design, controls, materials, properties, and performance. 3. Provide focus for future research efforts in composites molding, e.g., process control and integrated product and process design. SUMMARY OF WORKSHOP ACTIVITIES The workshop was held over a 2 day period. It began with a general session to provide an overview of the workshop format and schedule. Thirty two participants contributed to the workshop which also included approximately ten observers. Meals during the workshop were provided for all of the participants and observers by the American Plastics Council. During the morning of the first day, participants were divided into sub-groups that met in five break-out sessions associated with the following topics: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Materials and Measurements Design and Optimization Processing and Manufacturing Properties and Performance Sensing, Control and Automation
A session organizer was identified for each break-out session. Each sub-group included approximately 5 participants who gave brief (approximately 15 minute) focused presentations on their research, vision, and their perspective on future research needs for their particular topic area. During the afternoon, break-out session organizers compiled key issues and developments for their respective subgroup and presented their findings to all of the participants and observers. The second day began with a general session where representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies presented their roadmap for the role of polymer composites in the 21st century. In the second morning, break-out sessions were again convened, this time to organize findings and establish milestones for each topic. The meeting concluded with a group discussion aimed at summarizing and prioritizing future research needs in the area of modeling composite molding processes. A steering committee meeting was held immediately following the workshop. All of the participant presentations, sub-group summary presentations, and milestone presentations are provided as attachments to this Final Report. The presentations may be found at the workshop web site given above. Also provided is the presentation Research Needs in Predictive Engineering of Advanced Composite Materials made available by participants from the US Department of Energy.
WORKSHOP OUTCOMES A general consensus from the workshop was the need to have a comprehensive simulation and design approach that incorporated the complex relationship of process, material structure, and product design for polymer composites. This vision, similar to that identified nearly two decades ago, is of critical importance to the advancement of polymer composites. Significant progress has been made in this direction; however, there is still much research to be done to realize a comprehensive implementation of a tool that fulfills this vision. Specific milestones identified by the workshop in each topic area that are needed to realize the vision established are as follows: Materials and Measurements • • • • Measurement of statistical microstructural features quickly and nondestructively (e.g., obtain 1 micron 3D images for fiber orientation, porosity distribution, microcracking, etc.) and incorporate results in property prediction. Statistically characterize processes through in-situ and quick measurement of material parameters, and use results in process control. New materials such as natural materials, nanomaterials and multi-component blends for improved recyclability, cost and performance, and related material models. Develop validated models for crash energy management and long term durability of composites with a focus on databases, validated models.
Processing and Manufacturing • Comprehensive integration of product and process design for injection molding of long fiber thermoplastics that incorporates fiber orientation, fiber length attrition, composite property and durability prediction, crystallization, shrinkage and warpage. Complete integration of product and process design for liquid molding processes that includes preform processes and architecture, and relates preform architecture to permeability, processing, properties and performance. Increased speed of liquid molding processes through advanced preform architectures, and a better understanding of saturation, preform deformation and fiber wash, and optimal flow and cure.
Properties and Performance • Improved understanding of fatigue and creep durability of polymer composites that includes progressive damage modeling, deformation modeling for nonisotropic materials at large strains, and constitutive modeling for visoelastic/viscoplastic behavior.
Composite models to predict crashworthiness that includes high strain rate behavior, constitutive modeling of viscoelastic/viscoplastic behavior, model validation, and process/material/structure interactions for energy absorption and instability.
Sensing Control and Automation • • • • Introduce control by developing control strategies with process models that take material and process variabilities into account. Stochastic modeling and analysis at a system level that incorporates parameter variability and addresses issues leading to the variability, so as to minimize the uncertainty. Reliable, low-cost sensor development for in-process sensing supporting permeability mapping, flow and cure monitoring for thermoset composites. Integrate sensors, actuators and control algorithms in manufacturing to move towards Automation
Design and Optimization • • • • • • Predictive models of material structure and properties suitable for design purposes (crashworthiness, stiffness, durability, etc…). Interface/interaction between process and structural modeling to design composite components through simulation. Statistical description of microstructure incorporated into modeling and optimization. Detailed structure-oriented simulations essential for multi-scale models. Simulation-based design techniques enabling the integration of detailed physicsbased models and material and process uncertainty. Real-time simulation-based optimization techniques for online process control.
MINUTES FROM POST-WORKSHOP STEERING COMMITTEE MEETING A steering committee meeting was held immediately following the workshop. The discussion centered on how the workshop outcomes could be used to focus the research community on important issues that were raised in the workshop, and options for future support of research in the area of modeling of composite molding processes. The meeting sought to determine funding opportunities that could leverage resources from the National Science Foundation, the US Department of Energy, and the American Plastics Council. Items discussed include the following: • Future research in the area of composite materials that enhances the fundamental understanding of related processes, materials, and products is of critical importance to the expanded use of these materials, and the advancement of many products and industries.
• • •
Outcomes from the workshop will be made available via a workshop web site so that they can help to focus the research community on the important issues when submitting future proposals to the National Science Foundation. Fundamental research in composite materials process modeling will complement research efforts currently underway at the US Department of Energy. Advanced activities that promote the understanding and use of polymer composites is fully supported by the member companies of the American Plastics Council offering opportunities for cooperation on further research in the areas of interest identified in the workshop. The National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, and the American Plastics Council will explore a collaborative funding opportunity in the area of modeling composite molding processes that leverages resources from each organization while the research interest of each.
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS Suresh Advani, University of Delaware Cengiz Altan, University of Oklahoma Jian Cao, National Science Foundation and Northwestern University Joseph Carpenter, US Department of Energy Julie Chen, National Science Foundation and University of Massachusetts - Lowell Wei Chen, Northwestern University John Coulter, Lehigh University Hari Dharan, University of California - Berkeley Michael M. Fisher, American Plastics Council Peter H. Foss, General Motors Corporation James Glancey, University of Delaware Larissa Gorbatikh, University of New Mexico John Griffith, Boeing Corporation Susan Hill, University of Dayton Research Institute James D. Holbery, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory K. T. Hsiao, University of South Alabama Karl Jacob, Georgia Tech K. Jayaraman, Michigan State University Peter Kennedy, Moldflow Laurent M. Matuana, Michigan State University Ba Nghiep Nguyen, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory T. Papathanasiou, University of South Carolina Richard Parnas, University of Connecticut Byron Pipes, University of Akron Ranga Pitchumani, University of Connecticut Jim Sherwood, University of Massachusetts - Lowell Douglas E. Smith, University of Missouri - Columbia Mark T. Smith, US Department of Energy Ramesh Talreja, Texas A&M University Chuck Tucker, University of Illinois - Urbana-Champaign
David Warren, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Michael G. Wyzgoski, Delphi Corporation LIST OF ATTACHMENTS All of the following attached presentations may also be obtained at the workshop web site listed above. Department of Energy Presentation 1. Research Needs in Predictive Engineering of Advanced Composite Materials by Joe Carpenter, Mark Smith, and David Warren Materials and Measurements Group Presentations 2. An Experimentalist’s View of Modeling Composite Molding Processes by Richard Parnas 3. Modeling of Natural Fiber-Thermoplastic Composites Manufactured with Molding Processes by Laurent Matuana 4. Current Research and Future Challenges: Materials, Mechanics and Manufacturing Issues in Composites Molding by Cengiz Altan 5. Practical Considerations In Determining Material Properties by Susan Hill 6. Characterization of Raw Material Properties for Optimum LCM Processing by Chuck Zhang 7. Presentation Summary: Materials and Measurements Group 8. Milestones: Materials and Measurements Group Processing and Manufacturing Group 9. Improved Fiber Orientation Predictions for Injection Molded Composites by Chuck Tucker 10. Research Problems in Molding Blends and Nanocomposites by K. Jayaraman 11. Have we Improved Processability for Liquid Molding with Process Modeling? by Suresh Advani 12. Resin Transfer Molding by Hari Dharan 13. Presentation Summary: Processing and Manufacturing Group 14. Milestones: Processing and Manufacturing Group Properties and Performance Group 15. On Process On Process-Properties-Performance Relatationships for Molded Composites by Ramesh Talreja 16. Delphi Research Areas by Mike Wyzgoski 17. Performance Modeling of Polymer Composites by Peter Foss 18. On Scale Effects in Composite Modeling by Larissa Gorbatikh
19. Opportunities and Barrier Issues in Carbon Nanocomposites by R. Byron Pipes 20. Presentation Summary: Properties and Performance Group 21. Milestones: Properties and Performance Group Sensors, Control and Automation Group 22. Sensors, Controls, and Automation for Advanced Composites by John Giffith 23. Simulation-based Design System for Flow Control in Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) by K.T. Hsiao 24. Sensors, Controls and Automation by Peter Kennedy 25. Research Activities Related to Flow Processes During Composite Manufacturing by John P. Coulter 26. Automation and Control For Liquid Injection Molding Systems by James Glancey 27. Role of Modeling in Bridging the Science and Practice of Composites Processing by Ranga Pitchumani 28. Presentation Summary: Sensors, Control and Automation Group 29. Milestones: Sensors, Control and Automation Group Design and Optimization Group 30. Understanding Microstructure, Processing and Processability Interactions in Composites by T. Papathanasiou 31. Design and Optimization: Status & Needs by Wei Chen 32. Damage and Optimization Models for Analysis and Design of Discontinuous Fiber Composite Structures by Ba Nghiep Nguyen 33. Enhancing the Understanding of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thermostamping Woven Composites to Develop a Comprehensive Design Tool by James Sherwood 34. Optimal Design for Molded Composite Products and Processes by Douglas E. Smith 35. Presentation Summary: Design and Optimization Group 36. Milestones: Design and Optimization Group
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