Identity Construction: New Issues, New Directions Author(s): Karen A.

Cerulo Reviewed work(s): Source: Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 23 (1997), pp. 385-409 Published by: Annual Reviews Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2952557 . Accessed: 19/05/2012 16:42
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Annu.Rev.Sociol. 1997.23:385-409 Copyright 1997 byAnnual Reviews All rights Inc. reserved

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IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION: New Issues,New Directions
KarenA. Cerulo
New New of Department Sociology, Rutgers University, Brunswick, Jersey 08903-5073;e-mail:cerulo@rci.rutgers.edu
social KEY WORDS: identity collective identification construction, identity, processes, movements, virtual identity

ABSTRACT The study identity of forms critical a cornerstone within modern sociological of Introduced theworks Cooley and Mead, identity have thought. by studies evolvedandgrown central current to sociological discourse. Microsociological perspectives dominated work published through 1970s. Sociologists the focused primarily the on formation the"me," of exploring waysinwhich the interpersonal interactions moldan individual's senseof self. Recent literature constitutes an antithesis suchconcerns. to refocus attention theindividual from to Manyworks others thecollective; discourse thesystematic over of prioritize scrutiny behavior; some researchers as rather thana approach identity a sourceof mobilization of of product it; andtheanalysis virtual identities competes now with research on identities established thecopresent in world. This essay explores such all in since1980. I close with looktoward a agendaas raised keyworks published thefuture, aimedat synthesizing traditional current and suggesting trajectories concerns.

INTRODUCTION
The study identity of forms critical a cornerstone within modern sociological thought. Introduced theworksof Cooley and Mead, identity by studies haveevolved grown and to central current sociological discourse. Microsociologicalperspectives (socialpsychology, symbolic interactionism), perspectives focusedprimarily theindividual, on the dominated workpublished through 0360-0572/97/0815-0385$08.00 385

have the of generalized others contributingtheconstruction theself.Becauseofthe literature's to since 1980." conscience. Earlyliterature theseattributes approached or as "natural" "essential" from emerging physiologcharacteristics-qualities ical traits.(I revisit issuein theconclusion. race/ethnicity. shift largely by important movements thepast three 1. 3. withagency the 2. New communication technologies freed have interaction therequirefrom ments physical of thesetechnologies expanded array copresence.) this The essaycloses with look a toward future. rooted.stressing similarities sharedattributes the or around whichgroupmembers coalesce.I limitdiscussion keyworkspublished includes several nonsociological works. Intellectual concerns and self-direction re-energized have of study identification processes. I suggest the as trajectories aimedatsynthesizing traditional and current concerns.""me. or psychological predispositions. Writings attend. Tonnies'Gemeinschaft. notion "we-ness' of a group. theproperties 'For recent in directions thisliterature. strategy a demanded themakeup by of thisfield. and changed." exploring interactions an individual's mold thewaysinwhich senseofself. interpersonal research thepasttwodecadesproves of antithetical traditional to But identity a fueled three trends. As a to studies havebeenrelocated thesiteofthecollective. a that that which constitutescollective thepolitical and implications result from collective definitions. particular. THE "NATURE"OF COLLECTIVE IDENTITY Collectiveidentity a conceptgrounded classic sociologicalconstructs: is in Durkheim's "collective Marx's "class consciousness. regional features. thelevelofthecollective." this the of and thegeneralized in other a milieu voidofplace. concerns.386 CERULO on of focused 1970s. result. are maintained. identity to with the of and gender/sexuality. Several to of foci research emerge from development: substance "I." of and thenegotiation copresent cyberspace of and identities. Social and nationalist of decadeshave shifted scholarly attention issues of groupagencyand politicalaction.ISociologists primarily theformation the"me. class forming "holytrinity" the in to field discursive (Appiah& Gates1995:1). ." Weber's and So the addresses the Verstehen. Thisessayexplores eachofthese research agenda. My review expanse.theestablishment "comof munities themind. Stryker see (1992). At scholars are examining mechanics which the by distinctions created.

theschools(e. are concerned with waysin which the the socialization andproject affective.Kupers Marshall 1993. Recent treatmentscollective of identity question essentialism collective the of attributes images. of with Peter Berger.Other works stress in theproblems inherent collective categorization. D Smith1987. West & Zimmerman 1987.2 The Social Constructionism: Anti-Essentialist View In concert theories WI Thomas. 1990. A collective's members werebelievedto internalize these qualities. Such studieschallenge essentialist dichotomies gender of of and dismissnotions gender's primordial roots. Signorielli Morgan1988).g. Signorielli & 1990. Richardson 1989.single a canvas against which socialactors constructed a senseofself.Eder 1995.g. Erving Goffman. attending thesymbols norms initiate sustain and that either/or classifications Bem 1993.Eilberg1985). cognitive. Atkin1982. & Whiting Edwards1988). every collective becomes social a artifact-an entity molded. change socialperformance. & Peiss 1985.Kalisch Kalisch1984.Constructionists conceptualize gender an interacas tionalaccomplishment.Connell (e. agents organize a and data use self. Wittenstrom Wittig works scrutinize 1995. perspectives . and of Social constructionism on informs muchofthework gender identity.MacDonald& Parke1986. behavioral individuals toform gendered of An important constructionism withworksthat rests outgrowth gender in the link.Raissiguier & 1994.Ross& Taylor 1989. delineating roleingender identity acquisition: et family (e. others.Hyde& Linn 1988.g. Whilesuchstudies reflect all numerous intellectual traditions. CL Miller1987.Anti-essentialist and inquiries promote socialconstructhe as tionofidentity a more viablebasisofthecollective self.C Epstein 1988. this members.IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION 387 of structural locations.g. refabricated. identity an via excontinually renegotiated linguistic and From stance. Margolis 1985. 1981. Constructionist often of their the agents socialization. presenting postmodern a to of challenge arguments unified group experiences.Gilligan1990.Kaplan1983. Caldera al 1989.Trepanier and & Romatowski culture media(e. social constructionist and the approach identity to rejects any category setsforward that essential corefeatures theunique or as of property a collective's From perspective.1986).Gaines1991.Thorne 1995. 1995. a singular socialexperience.AJDavis 1984.Gerson 1985.popular & Schwartz Doniger & 1995. Sidel 1991.Hearn1992.Researchers dissect differences male the problematize gender-sex of and the thesebroadlabels forease of presentation fully 2I employ acknowledge variety in subsumed eachcategory. Probyn 1993. 1991. this researchers explore also subof and and to jectivedefinitions femininity masculinity. Hyde et al 1990.Coser 1986. suggestingunified. mobilized accord and in with reigning cultural scripts centers power. Best 1983. Howard Becker.Cookson& Persell 1985.Fausto-Sterling Gailey1987.Sadker Sadker1994.

E Stein1992b. James Davis (1991). that of itemizing theconstructionboundaries both (a) process. Subjective constrict human severely nessandfemaleness Dorothy action expectation.g. reproductive sexual identities.Sault 1994.sithe of on doing. to experience: building identity-based contribute identity sexual languageand and strategies behavior. ual identity.Nanda 1990. In highShilling1993. lighting subjective the defined malethat socially Rather. (e. theemergence shared (b) that a and of stream sexualgroups. the distinctions.Faderman 1981. of writing. Irving exemplify as social locations. renegotiation exploring origins. of sexualcommunities D'Emilio 1983. and of in imprison individuals spheres prescribed alienation utterof of within dubbing "the it scholarship. to bothsuccumb andrecreate as natural ensures social members that signals.In so thisliterature demonstrates inscription gender thebody.Davis documents history the He for ofthe"onedrop a rule. unpacks rule's alternatives. purpose the nonreproductive publicdiscourse. Smith writes this effect powers that ance . meaning biological of tioning the into such and that symbols. the sexuality. argue they theeffects gender of categories.Important entries include work Verta Taylor Whittier & and (1992) on lesbianidentity lesbiansocial movements. sexual that the also explores cultural differences can colorsexual violence. 1988. quesin By biology-thebodyandreproductive andfemale scholars expose socialrituals.Faraday1981.Arditi al 1985. scripting attitudes. mapa three-step sexualcolfrom dominant the groups nonmainstream insulate differentiate and nonmainand consciousness goalsamong of lective. 1981. stereotypes. and of and ofsex andtheroleofpleasure. Gender of expression awayfrom evenas we usedthem" us and these and emotions. definitions behavior.Spallone& Steinberg do of constructionistsnotdeemphasize nature gender. Irvine and gender relations.Stacey& Thorne1985). practices transform differences socialfacts.Bartky 1987.for the in of that charts definitions blackness America. 1987.Corea 1985.Medicine1983.. treating scripts behaviors.Raymond of another stronghold constructionism. Troiden 1994).Oakley1984. provides fascinating F. models speaking. Race and ethnic studies represent historical excursion a example. (c) processes politicization valorize group's sexto approach adolescent Janice (1994) takes similar a Irving minority status. knowledge meaning thebody.Papanek1990.388 CERULO system particular.Whatley Plummer 1994. the as from body(e. of identity the"armor" gender literthe complement gender to approaches sexualidentity Constructionist the of and Taylor NancyWhittier ature. thinking took(women's) and (1990:199-201). of dismantling notions gender emergent multaneously 1988." vehicle racialclassification..Theseworks identificationit occursin varying and the a muchbroader literature meaning. Davis its over and highlights triumph competing development .g. roleofthefamily.Martin et Acker1989.Bordo1993. nine domains" 11) that identifies "axes of constructed (p. language.

Davis concludes in racialcategorization other of rule'simpact thefuture US racerelationson lation the regarding onedrop in of shifts. another In arena. argues. reindividuals choice-a socialcategory actively switch amend and the those mixed of search documents waysinwhich ancestry of affiliations. Like Alba. of immigrants.Joann (1960-1990). shift for shift bearssignificant face with more comfortable as they base videswhite-Euro descendents a larger. the and racialidentity collective variantly considering racialization. as shifts a ethnic In another identity Nagel (1995) examines arena. His datasuggest such contexts growing and ingsituational under the descendents that renegotiation unitesEuropean reconstruction-a that identity umbrella a European-American of Alba identity. Balibar demographic particularlylight developing landscape. keeping In premises. prove non-Euro for of lineage. for Euro-descendents she that negligible white.CONSTRUCTION IDENTITY 389 to its itemizing rolein thestruggle mainfollows one droprulein action. sociopolitical She American identification. with socioeconomic the premises and imposed racialization selfanalyze both thoughtfully Balibar Wallerstein & repression. to Waters's shifts their are (1990) and implications alsocentral Mary Identity ethnicity. or Her decidetoadopt stress. for and for autonomy. of ethnic as Waters comesto understand identity theproduct personal mately. explains of documents changing patterns Native federal factors: with to three shifts reference changing sociopolitical identity . presents themselves" rather thanwiththecultures (1990:306). thesearch collective struggle collective voiceinto incorporate subject's the identity Several works racialandethnic on Richard Alba's (1990) workon Europeantheir Examplesinclude inquiries. Ultiand potentially negative Americans nonwhite. Blending are the lensesforwhich authors renowned. workproblematizes relentlessness whichindividuals in of scrutinizes ethnic identificationlight itssocial Waters clingto ethnicity. within broadanalytical a & Wallerstein (1991) viewracialidentity constructionist and with race considering inconjunction nation class. descended social structures. shelter.Waters In locatestheattraction their ethnic primary to idenAmerican value. Nagel Using US Census figures phenomenon.Commitment ethnic within double-edged a ethnicity lacking a based needforcommunity-community stemsfrom culturally tity individual cost. the with experience the He taintheslavesystem. symbolic forward constructed. also contrasts US classification thoughtful specuwith nations.Waters with her the However. nonwhite a rapidinflux non-Euro. bols of ethnic cultures to ethnicities easilyreshaped response varyare in Alba argues that symbolic one social needs. thisway. argues this broad the prosocial benefits thoseit encompasses. a brings research. with constructionist Alba argues Americans. payoff-rewards. in ethnic anchored strongly that ethnic identity no longer is "concerned withthesymentity he ethnicity a symbolic as Rather.

Gillis1994.national idenYet. on narrative. allies.g. Dyson1993.Ignatiev 1995.Wade 1993.390 CERULO Indian policy.Lane 1981. Works nationalism tity probing to to reference thestateand worldmarkets continue thrive (e. arguesthat collectives ties citizen are not increasingly defined bytheir primordial toa territo but from a discourse tory. A richcollection sociohistorical of works commemoration.Berezin1997. inclusive.Griswold 1992. of such as Benedict Anderson's (1991) workon imagined community. create. according entitlements emerging both transnational human anda setofstructures & celebrating rights see Shapiro Alker (also 1995).Boli 1987. Soysalexamines different strategies which by European nations into She incorporate guestworkers thenational citizenry.Skocpol1985). during in tural(language)and social factors convene (capitalism. 1989.Frankenberg Hout& Goldstein 1993.Y Zerubavel 1995). Newertrends Soysal's (1994) of memmodel.Wagner-PacificiSchwartz & 1991. print technology) a particular historical collective moment.Brubaker 1992.Smedley 1993.Farley 1991.Hobsbaum 1992.Giddens 1984.Beaune1991. growing and American Indian political activism.Jepperson include Yasemin Meyer1991.Schwartz 1987. D the to Anthony Smith (1991) poses perhaps greatest challenge constructo tionism. effectively remaking imagesof the national (also see Bloom 1990).andenemies (e.Shively 1992.g. dismantle identities nations.Williams 1990. 1994. increased American ethnic politics. "Newinstitutionalism" brings to and structures organizamiddle-range questions bear. the of citizenships. innovative Meyer1987). Anderson apas bothspatially proachesnational identity a sociocognitive construct-one and temporally bothenabledand shapedby broader social forces.morethananyarenabefore identity workpresents multivoiced a with excursion. .Schudson1992." which addresses definitions national "postnational changing Western the bership. the symbolization particularly elites. Smith adoptsa middle-ground approach national identity.DeVos 1992. shetraces waysinwhich the policy politics and encouraged an ethnic renewal. 1991.Hewitt of self 1989.g. linking socialconstructionism tomore views.Corse 1996. grapple issues consider constitution theAmerican (e.(Also see Blakely1993. and chart waysin whichactors.Conzenet al 1992. Kubik1994.Hobsbaum Ranger & 1983. 1991.examining political and on and tional influence policy. maor nipulate. principles their political agenda.) Social constructionism a multifaceted drives literature national on identity. Fine 1996. Bellahet al 1985. of culHe documents moments identity times which key construction. ultimately & collective self-definition Birnbaum (e. One also finds elaborations constructionism. Armstrong 1982. In related several studies with constructionist as they the work.Tilly1990). Agulhon 1981.Gellner 1983.He defines essentialist national identity as a product both of "natural" and Natural continuity conscious manipulation. 1988. Nagelargues these that factors raised Native American ethnic and consciousness. Spillman 1997.g. self the scholar'seye.Jewell 1993.

Finally. (Complimentary positions includeConnor 1990. deemphasizing of Michel publicdiscourse. tri-part this combination distinguishes national identity. making themostfundamental it and inclusive collective of identities. JacquesDerrida.In thespirit JeanBaudrillard. as class-as important thevariation bewomen.IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION 391 continuity emerges from pre-existing ethnic identity community. scholar and the Foucault. richest. Patricia ." effort explore full to in call of Works this tradition into questionmodelsthat withtruth. Sucha stance the underemphasizes roleofpowerin theclassification process(e. contend the many that constructionist approach implies identity categories through built interactive effort. Jean-Francois Lyotard. working a in advocate shift analytic tweenidentity categories. and conscious manipulationachieved commemoration.Further. in Diane Fuss elaborates evaluating constructionist the approach gender: to moreprecisely of "specifying thesesubcategories 'woman'does notneceswoman'or 'Anglo-American essentialism. symbolism.'whilecrucially emphasizing their very specificity 'woman'is nonetheless reinscribe essentialist an byno meansa monolithic category. of works gender sexuality on postmodern prove Hill Collins(1991).Hutchinson 1987. is via ideology.Gilman1985).Judith Butler (1990). viewthevariation of they identity categories-i. Smith's In view. postmodernists essentialist identiaminethe"real. fearing that theparadigm ultimately approximates very the essentialism fights it against. and and For students identity.Further.g. In an effort broaden socialconstructionist to the exagenda. in Somefind constructionism's agendainsufficient. JaneFlax (1990).mistakenly suggesting multidirectional of influence and agency" (Calhoun1995:199). Theseweaknesses leavepostmodern of identity theorists skeptical social constructionism's trajectory. within in thestudy identity. postmodern-identity deconrhetoric an in structs established and identity categories their accompanying the range "being. equatediscourse they exposethewaysin which objectified truth as and sustains collective discourse bothforms definitions. and reasons present political other day why tiescontinue be invoked often to and felt" deeply (Calhoun1995:199). 'French sarily preclude bourgeois in that lesbian. hierarchies power. logic levelofhistoricism" at thevery (Fuss 1989:20).) Postmodernism: Deconstructing Categories the Whilesupporting antiessentialism drives that constructionist on inquiries identity. suggesting itsimply that catalogues the construction identity process.e. postmodernists with observation deduction elevating and and concerns focus. Greenfield 1992. and Smith compliments duality this with socialpsychological a dimension. African-Americans. citing "need a as to for community" integral identity work. postmodernists serious cite flaws theschool'sapproach. Calhoun1993 and Hutchinson & extensive Smith 1994offer literature reviews. Connell "a flow 1987. of social arrangements.

andTrinh T Minh-Ha (1989) reconsider gender identity." contest they current hierarchical structures sexuality.Leps & 1992. or on identities excluded thehetero/homo by duality-e. ofcollective nature existence. notesthatelements such as race and social class produce multiple variations "women"and "men.392 CERULO Garber Marjorie (1992).Patricia Hill Collins(1991). lesbian. andFuchs& Ward1994offer process (Agger1991 reviews postmodernism. second. of alternative Constructing readings ofthe of a work'ssexualimplications deconstructs taken-for-grantedness the to dominant sexualmodel. forexample. In to postmodern gender theorists the nature whichgender traditionally challenge dualistic. Theysuggest.The existence thesemultiple categories us on us binary gender conceptualizations. Queertheorists of advocatea new "reading" materials usingan "inside/outside" opposition. heterosexual homosexual and and serious focus identity construction. bisexual transgenderidentities (also see De Lauretis 1984.Fraser 1989. reader of reinterpret the of terms a homosexual of presence.Riley 1988). advohomosexual. etc). the In suchan analysis.andlesbianandbisexual women.g. oppositional by is framed. works sexualidentity on follow similar Corepostmodern a thrust. Anyworkunderanalysis mustbe readwithan eye forthatwhich it itemizes thussimultaneously and read implies. comprehensive . These basic tenets carry provocative methodology. In contrast prior the sexualidentity identity studies (i. Further.Theyexpose in thedangers approaching gender collectives homogeneous as entities urge and careful consideration thecomplex.Warner a 1991). first. focusing instead thewaysin which affiliations of multiple identity qualitatively changethenature human experiDill ence(see alsoAgger1993.Stein1992. of thoseofvarious socialclasses.current "queertheories" of simultaneous considerations catean inclusive approach.Baca Zinn& Thornton 1994.bellhooks(1984).Connell to of 1987. Reminiscent Garfinkel's of approach identifying "invisible" normative structures.Nicholson1990.Whenqueertheorists televisionsitcomLaverneand Shirley Hitchcock's film (Doty 1993) or Alfred a Rope (DA Miller 1991) from homosexual "subject-position.g.Raissiguier 1994.e. explication a cultural product's must of direct readers all excluded to forms sexuality hetero/homo opposition as well." of that distinctions many societies tobuildcomplex use hierarchical stratification of alerts to theflawsof systems. of exploring construction a particular orcommunity-e.Sedgwick 1990. contrast thesocialconstructionist. giving voicetowomen color. Epstein 1992.DonnaHaraway (1991). problemasexualcategories contesting and sexualhierarchies tizing (Butler 1993.S.) of recent. reader must assumetheconnotation homosexuality of in the must a product in thedenotation heterosexuality. theory's queer subject-positioned readings jolt thevery ofclassification. of often contradictory.Seidman treatmentssexual 1992).Nicholson Seidman1995.

identity-based byideology for to not mobilize choice it.Farrell & & Halle 1984. to achieve they fight expand react. of form agencya and suggest special Identity politics newsocialmovements ensue and "collective Identities a self-conscious emerge movements agency.Burawoy 1993.. by When than movements rather act orresource mobilization.'realsocialism'. confield.Wright & 1986.Katz 1993.they in central thisarea. collectives on distinct take moved identity. definition.CONSTRUCTION IDENTITY 393 and by raised socialconstructionists postdifferences. enand and agency persuade coerce.Gans 1995. has to by The freedom havewhichcharacterized industrial . current counterculture-in of members the1960sstudent scious.health the thediscursive protectionists. Theright property been.identity politicscreates"new social movements.Rather.Garcia 1991. claimsocialprerogative. basisofboth there society. politics identity. rather emancipation. issues the Despite their to struggle self-name. 1995. insulate. In sucha context.Issues ofpolitics raisedin previously are concern identity for the and politics also provides focus works gender/sexuality race.Form1985. 1989. trinity" of beyond "holy this politics movescholars concerns identity with ever.Katznelson Zolberg 1989). groups exemplify and signification. of Mobilization and Collective Identity Politics an and movementsspurs it constitute important identity thepolitical Collective cited scholars.Further. I suggest agencyincludes conscioussense in is collective of groupas agent. mark.In post-material italism itscompetitor existence to a further of right.1997).Katznelson Weir1985. power.g. Identity on of works theformation experiencing socialclass (e.Davidoff Hall 1987.Eichar 1985. collective In thisway.andremains. agency enacted a moralspace. borrowing a thatcollective self(1985:287).Carter 1989. right existence. consciously developoffenses defenses. A . Spurred not properties. HowMcNall et al 1991. a moremeaningful the to or type (1989:177-78.Dudley1994.thehomeless. society beenreplaced the industrial caphas the to to freedom be." actions on and focused theexpressive initiatives areself-reflexive sharply that ofcollective members (Melucci1989:60. cooperate compete..Giddens1991:207-17). emerges and model." members coordinate consciously becausecollectives action. attention a collective's to scholarly modernists direct alike the Suchconcerns underscore and self-characterize. moved issuesofcollective by collectives these too literature.notes: than Alberto Melucci.Vanneman Cannon1987. of one's social environand compassesmorethanthecontrol transformation of and Charles discussion agency the from Taylor's ment. rather.Animal environmentalists.1993. group consciously and and differentiate. freedom.Gallie 1983. Blumin on and for many & 1985.also see Calhoun1991a:51.

Based on theseobservations. find themselves of arguesthat they incapable cross-boundary exchange.Taylor & Whittier 1992). theseworksitemize waysin whichresulting the collective identities direct then movement participants defining paramby the etersand appropriate arenasof collective action. Gamson.Furof conditions he suchgroups often remain unaware theeconomic ther. Such analyses remain fully mindful thewaysin which of movement participants' perceptions history.Robert Benford.Snowetal 1986. believes Piore their that collective mayconstrain goals.1988. and Such linking linking works a forces simultaneous the consideration thought. of social structures.Gamsonet al 1982. and cultural socialconcerns. locatesidentity movements America's ideological He suggests thatcurrent socioeconomic conditions beckona changein this stance.Johnston 1991. . with By merging sociocognitive construction processes concerns structural for and organization this creates exciting an factors.Laranaetal 1994.Tarrow 1992.Huntet al 1994.Further. action (see e. as of Because based movements isolated. micro macroanalyses. Gerhards Rucht et & 1992. cohesive"communities meaning.andothers address theframing schematization identity it occurswithin and of as social movein ments.Jasper Nelkin1992.Cohen & 1985.Studies thisareadelineate frame the alignment processes bring that focusand shared bothgroup to collectives specific identity particular at historicalmoments.Lichterman 1996.McAdam1982. Usingcognitive theories derived from sociologyand anthropology. literature conceptual bridge. This work'sappealrestsin itsmultifaceted theoretical base. Benford 1993.1994. IDENTIFICATION PROCESSES Attention collectives the to and establishmenttheir of identities re-energized has in A interests theidentification itself. Doug McAdam.Benford Hunt1992.394 CERULO collective the pursues freedom be because'that to which frames collective's the defines their identity existence right good (Taylor as and 1989).Snow& Benford 1992. growing literature exscholarly process establish plores the mechanicsby which collectivescreate distinctions.MichaelJPiore(1995).Gamson1992.Johnston al 1994. Fantasia1988. forexample. of provide modelthat and & articulation. in rootsof individualism.g." to Piore such groupsare narrowly focused and formed relative distinctions. In connection withissuesof identity politics and collective agency. cultural and arrangements constrain enhance interpreor the tiveprocesses. Piorepresents five-step aimedatreplacing a with shared a plan identity politics commitment a unified to national structure. Recent literature concerns raises the socialconsequences regarding long-term writes identityof of identity politics. David William Snow.Morris & Muellar1992.

contrast cessfully objective Lamont maintains tri-part a that to Bourdieu. In related work. focus. findings in shared sufficiently togenerate strong hierargrounded widely meaning prove identities relative valuetocollective (Lamont 1995. specifies upper-middleclass in FranceandtheUnited under whichmoral. andZelizer(1985) helptorefocus whichage categories constructed.Lamont Fournier 1992. Modell (1989). probing linguistic pattern identity. 1987. Postman by soci(1982). are on contexts within ologists thecultural are and occur. Waksler (1991). to through his of a that Eviatar Zerubavel (1997a) offers specialedition brings concepts . various authors explore Japanese concepts thewaysin which these distinctions direct collective orientation and boundary In all consider comboth behavior. renegotiate ofinclusion. the boundaries the in MicheleLamont(1992) documents roleof symbolic of from interviews construction valuedidentities. semiotic of the Derrida's focuson difference. thisregard. DiMaggiodemonstrates and and status solidify categories waysin whichartacquisition classification the the distinguish elitefrom ordinary.Elsewhere. age identities built. reproduction gender in withsymbolic boundaries characterize recent inquiries lifecourseresearch as well.1992) landof suchrepertoires. Works Gaines (1991). and Forbes(1995) use cultural sociallensestoexplore Quadagno& Catherine identification distinction and The amongUS JobCorpsparticipants.Winn(1983).Thissection under study. and rules Bourdieu's theories distinction. age transitions issuesofidenSomers White (1992) approach Margaret (1994) andHarrison of that the or tification specifying cultural by repertoires systems meaning charcommunities. authors of and examine workings bothsymbolic the boundaries structural barriers as to and Concerns these factors contributegender inequality.1997. demonstrating theimporvariesacrossspace andtime. Theseauthors especially are concerned acterize various symbolic enabletheinvoking with waysin which the socialcontext sociallocation and In Paul DiMaggio's(1982. on the mark research theartsalso proves important. and itsrole in theconstruction Japanese of on identity. Foucault's work sociomental on classifimodelsofSaussure Pierce.Her workalso emphatanceofboundary types her indicate only those boundaries sizes boundary that firmly strength. Zerubavel's and and elaborates a variety identification on of processes currently cation. authors their munication social practice and linkage context.IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION 395 Suchworks closelylinked are hierarchies. Jeffreys (1989). of to important knowledge theories. also chyandconfer & Jill see Cohen1986. Building the icality "uchi"(inside)and"soto"(outside). including genealogy epistomes. Usingrichdatadrawn with men Lamont the States.socioeconomic. cultural and succonditions boundaries conditions socioeconomic of In create inequality. In a different Jane Bachnik Charles & Quinn(1994) focuson indexarena.Sahlins1989).

fetal classification. John C Turner presents depersonalization a process as enabling collective identities. in to historical.Aho situates analysis a variety recent his incidents. and provide a multitiered of analysis collective identification theideologies and that to suchstudies identiit. this 1995)toarticulate project Complimenting agenda. Finally. its institutionalization. approach and fication a process as that unfolds relation economic. socialism. political contexts. Finally. O'Barr1994). & fivestepsof James Aho (1994) invokes 1994). political. and of Aho carefully explores development collective the moral righteousness. anchored thestudy discourse symbolization." and that both is The study objectsalso proveskeyto recent of research identification. support In contrast deterministic theories. social. construction sexualidentities. identity in of Severalworks. After sources of and the Enlightenment. in the the contexts which understand political. other processes (Turner al 1987. 1997b). interviews. Marxist charting historical . Further. He notestheprocesses which by suchsentiments legitimate destruction the the of with "other. Berger Luckman's of reification elaborate to boththeconstruction deconstruction political and in of enemies. economic ditions enabledthree that the specific ideologies:theProtestant Reformation. Dauber's of French (1992) work Pueblopottery. emotional concollective and et tagionandempathy. on Severalworksnotethe ways in whichindividuals groupsuse artoband and jects (Martorella 1989). works identity cast discourse symbols mediators structure action. government documents. such. (Rubenstein and identities.Aho buildsan interesting foran enemy by case "them" "us." Grappling thequestion "Can onestruggle effectively against evil without becometainted it?". Amongsocialpsychologists. periodsof identity and these interpretation. other the of and interesting areas(also see E Zerubavel 1991.commodities commodity signs(Appadurai 1986. on Mukerji's (1994. Hennion &Meadel 1993. His work mapsthe waysinwhich depersonalization permits socialstereotyping. a case study a KKK defection. Nippert-Eng (1996) andSilver(1996) offer in excursions theroleofpersonal on peciallyinteresting possessions bridging transitions.Authors to chart these complementary sociomental processes they as explore identification distinction monetary and in exchange.1997)studies formal of use to structures objects better andZukin's(1991) exploration city gardens.and economic esobjectsareproduced.multitiered As view atcritical investigations identification in junctures a collective's history. explores general cultural. and groupcohesiveness. dissolution theSoviet the and of Union.orclothing Goldman 1992.396 CERULO and lumping splitting life. Usingmediareports. including periodsof identity production. cooperation altruism. including of theRubyRidgeaffair. action. ethnocentrism. and as of and Robert Wuthnow's of the on (1989) work communities discourse exemplifies Wuthnow the and conapproach. cultural.

1997)wasamong first fully Meyrowitz explore link."the and enemy "them." ultimately. inquiries symbol and reception interpretation elucidate faulty thus identity the symbolization. Wuthnow's inquiry rich demonstrates complex the chainby which movement and ideologies resulting identities both are born sustained.Finally. andthegovernments mediathat and modeled disseminated perspecand each tive. form American the of foreign policy. to NCTs weaken According Meyrowitz. Other multitiered worksincludeMichele Dillon's (1993. specifying conditions under whichsymbols failto capture fervency those can the of they portray. works of on and Her explore waysin which the political climate theinstitutional and of status discourse to producers relates both nature the the and effect discursive of strategies. and FollowingWuthnow's example."Inthis NCTs way. 1996) studies discourse divorce abortion.1989.they meshpublicand private. beckonnewtypes performances. analyzing fundamentalist discourse itsrelationship and to genderand national identities. form collective of and new configurations: Television fostered riseofhundreds "minorities"-people in perceiving has the of a who wider to as in isolated somepocket it. locatetheselfin newhybrid arenasof action.Valentine Moghadam(1994) adoptsthe multitiered approach. orsever connections the between and physical social"place.too. and analyzing thecollective application experience thethree and of ideologies through the decades. Joshua the to the (1985. a suggesting newtheoretical modelfor predicting symbol her on change. Wuthnow examines audience reception reaction. TECHNOLOGY AND IDENTITY In thepresent one environment. havereframed generalized others they andthe"generalized elsewheres" which selftakes the (Meyrowitz 1989) from itscues. identifiessetofsocialstructural variables appear delimit that to general rulesof symbolic expression. begin seethemselves unfairly the and disenfranchisedgiving them accesstosocialinformation empowered disabled the by . cannot consider without reference identity to newcommunication the technologies (NCTs). the examine waysin which electronic mediareNCT/identity His works the of organize sites socialinteraction. Wuthnow traces modesbywhich the eachideology instituwas tionalized. NCTs havechanged backdrop is which against the identity constructed. Finally.Cerulo(1995). Ceruloalso explores institutionalthe ization identity of symbols.IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION 397 theseagendas. taking readers through schools." the sucha discourse exploring waysinwhich of shapesvisions the American "us.appliesa multitiered in of perspective herstudy national identity symbolization. the of Probing various contexts anthem flag and she a adoption. the religious scientific and groups.Television of has world. In a similar vein.David Campbell(1992) examines American the "discourse ofdanger.

without and demanding theaverage that citizen leavehis orhereasychair (1986:309).keyboards keyboard technology homogenizes merge workand playworlds. the casts controls. He the and power. keyboard technology reduces distance the between children adults. present opportunities collective they affiliation mobilization.Altheide ofcommunication. these new formats reshape socialactivity. communication formats "block"thesocial stage. 3). television and computers. presenting and information.2. NCTs create newenvironments selffor and new for development identification. promotingtype reverse Similarly.Altheide that the argues limits directs form substance thesocial interaction and the and of technology it enables." by demonstrating . often and a of socialization. According Meyrowitz. David Altheide in (1995) posescomplementary positions hiswork NCTs on and theself. For example. differthe children encesdividing from adults be than may lessstark those distinguish that thecomputer literate from nonliterate. In thisway. turn. linkadultworkspaces children's and playspaces.398 CERULO in spiteof their physical isolation. and Altheide's on illuswritings keyboard technology trate theseideas. of and the of many explore impact NCTs on formation resulting and collective community identity. socialcontrol. He argues that NCTs enablenewcommunication formats-new modesofselecting. communication also explores intersection the Beyondspecific tools. considers waysin which some withthe and communication formats technology its resulting provide a whileleaving others vulnerable therealto powerto define social situation ityof crafted Altheide outlines the images. and spuror shapenewones.calculators. Subsequent communities more as and nologically generated tangible real. In thespirit Meyrowitz Altheide. can waysin which scripting action eveninrealms to emergent thought possessan internal logic.and reconfigure children's play via theworldof adulttools(1995: chaps. videogames. argues as He technolthat keyboard a of ogyinitiates largemajority modern exchange. Thusatthepresent socialmoment.suggesting specific waysin which media-generated works describe techa provide "pseudo-gemeinschaft" experience. In organizing. linethat the The homefrom separates work to maynowpale in comparison online/offline borders.Television givenwomen outside has an viewof their incarceration thehome. author thekeyboard a newdoorto interaction. In considering human experience withtelephones. Andtelevision been has ableto do this without requiring disabled leavetheir the to wheelchairs. modify dismantle or they current practices. placesenabled NCTs reconfigure boundto the by the ariesthat distinguish collectives. without asking the housewife stopcooking to dinner. Television weakened in has visibleauthorities destroying by the distance mystery onceenhanced and that their auraandprestige. In theseand similar discussions. Severalauthors the document processes which the NCT's build"we-ness. Beniger (1987) initiated communities thisagenda. But whilekeyboards may us transport to places noteasilyaccessedin thepast. ATMs. and adult work playsites.

that the (also & Fisher's(1992) sociohistorical Similarly. provide uniquepicture a the and of detailing building experiencing online Turkle docupersona.IDENTITYCONSTRUCTION 399 concrete effects techno-links charting of and emergent cultures reference of that canunify oncedisparate socialactors (Cerulo al 1992. Byron Nass (1996) approach to communication mediaas objectsrelevant identityinteractions. essence. authors suggest that thehuman brain notsufficiently evolved to has relative technology's rapidadvancement.Cerulo Ruane1997. Butothers areless enthusiastic regarding impact NCTs on community identity. of to soOverall. relevant communication the efficacy. thesize and movement TV screenimagesaffects and in of physical responses perceptions personal bodyspace waysidentical to real-life motion. Further.Steuer 1992.Thesepatterns implications identity hold for studies and to beyond. authors that In find mediaobjects becomea the building in building self. Sherry Turkle onlinecommunities (1995). et & Dayan 1992.Tichi1991). the of and Schlesinger (1993). explores and their on impact personal construction.Indeed. another Reeves& Clifford experience arena.Turkle's any In secondto theconcrete.peoplearepolite computers though even ently to of theydon't need to be.Purcell1997. CONCLUSION Theliterature reviewed here an constitutes antithesis traditional to studidentity built The research fronts. works cited here refocus ies. Testimony ofMUD members. forexample. designed address disand forms NCT-generated of tinguish bonds(see Calhoun199lb.Liebes 1990. notes both potential thesurprising the and failureofelectronic mediain constructing a unified European identity among the nations comprise Euro-community see Morley Robins1995). These contradictory positions haveled sometoinitiate multidimensional models to models. Reeves& Nass suggest this can waysinwhich knowledge improve future technological products. follows of identity She members a viras tualcommunity they interact "multi-user in domains" (MUDS).anantithesis uponseveral . for that with voicesdifferdiscover. the ments waysinwhich individuals online relative other to negotiate identities of the selvesand"real" facets theself. Cerulo varying 1997). Relatedworksmagnify identification processeswithin specific NCT domains.for example.By probing balancebetween "virtual" work forces to question perspective places virtual us that selves. they of humanviable"other" the and outline waysinwhich the mirror Reeves& Nass to-machine human relationships purely relationships. research thetelephone on suggests that structure be remarkably can resilient technological to community change.Fisher(1997) remains skeptical NCT's ability reconfigure cial bonds(also see Postman 1992). instance. alongwith Turkle's keeninsights. peopletreat computers female than thosewith malevoices.

Huber1991. usingthesedata to configure structure talkin She thenexamines as talkstructures vehiclesthatconstitute organizations. example. thus a to building uniqueanalytic approach organizational Bodenmapsconversational acrossvaried and tity. example. Other eral of themultitiered identity projects represent prime determined eradicate to macro-micro initiatives underway. drives In tions." rather but suggestive models-modelsthat illustrate can what is from the careful reflection pastandpresent. than of theanalysis virtual of identities competes now with research identities on esin world.Swidler1986). number the worksheretofore lishedthe linksof whichI speak. Wileyargues conceptions a suigeneris mayprove of vitalto thedefense democratic principles.Sewell 1992. are For elements DeidreBoden(1994) innovatively combines themicro-macro divide. reference issues addressing intersection thesocial and thecultural with (Schudson1989. Her efforts result an interesting in that theory frames gender a as social institution-a of free-standing that entity establishes patterns expectaorders socialprocesses." "you. Boden arguesthat "thewaysin whichorganizational actors realizeboththe this at advocate path(Collins1986. idenofeach arena. noting not"idealtypes. 3Within sociology largemany of the to in particular.severalrecent on successful macro-micro workon habitus. function. considering old andthenewofidentity. In tablished thecopresent the one finds field a This ripeforsynthesis. form. . on be gainedwhen future mined Some have achieveda productive of the synthesis identity workthrough of for reconciliation theory. Norbert Peircian Meadianparadigms form neoand to a Wiley(1995) merges pragmatist oftheself-the selfas a three-dimensional view dialoguebetween "I. works chosen here are synthesis. In recent workon genderidentity." Wileythen notions reflexivity of and works with pragmatist and Durkheimian to a a solidarity concepts create modelof "a semiotic self." sui generis resistant socialdetermination. analyzing organizations they emerge dailyinteraction. Habermas's a of discussedhave successfully estabther.These works to often prioritize discourse overthesystematic scrutiny behavior. Judith Lorber (1994) synthesizes constructionist postmodern and concerns of theday withissuesraisedby sex roletheorists Marxist and feminists past of decades. exchanges of the organizational settings. and socialorganizations. Researchon social movements sevor illustrations. another arena. Furtheory. in Others attend macro-micro to the linkages promoting causeofsynthesis. Finally. Giddens's linkages:Bourdieu's or structuration theories communicative of action. within as organizations.400 CERULO from scholarly attentions theindividual thecollective.a historical spurred self In era to by that of self identity politics.3 theoretical advancesrelevant identity to studiesrest Indeed. of Manystudies approach identity a sourceofmobilization as rather a product it. section suggests potential avenues for that such The works exemplify efforts." "me.Ritzer1990).

At present. they sociologists identity viewsthat conrituals. distinction between social and thecultural the maintain critical the analytic and consideration actors. 32). world and treatment thesymbols.Forexample. study elucidates conditions acts. Amongsocialpsychologists. Burke& Franzoi1988. (see via attention livedexperience the to and broader socialinstitutions. tapping In materias a processthatis fully identity culturally from cultural mustdiligently als garnered the studies sociologists approach." Yet.She of linkages analyzing in (1997b)pursues macro-micro in theinstitutionalization of storytelling formats thisarea and docexplores of the suchformats haveon audienceevaluations violent can uments impact her the under which macro-social In essence.socialpsychologists' exand of resulting identities.Cerulo project similarly interesting narratives violence. Via careful collectives.their 1980. the addressed During 1980s. on talkand identity. for a cannot to of afford ignore these provide works. enacted. the to has or cultural studies approach identity dominated field. thesametime. holdrich rewards identity rests blendan site level. symbolic efforts translate to focused to each schoolof thought. works such constituted. scholars collective micro-level studies thearea. of socialpractices. noted mulscholars currently the are exploring waysinwhich identity that collective of affiliations the experience.g. of Schudson1997). suggest they waysinwhich on and identity.thehumanist the ing of intellectual perspectives. theimpact bothon human multiple roles.Muchcommon in existsbettraditional ground earlier I and to weentraditional newapproaches thetopic. an themicro-processes actually constitutes 'environment' a of the (Snow 1987 offers of talkbecomethemacro-structure organization. integral from social psychological the realm themacrolevelcould to certain findings for collective studies. sociologist withsome care. To be sure. important ofsynthesis inthecareful Atthebroadest Within pasttwodecades. Further. of merger hingeson social theories the that (1997) proposea macro-micro self-schema might unify theory mind.knowledge thecognitive and projected is is toolswithwhichidentity constructed. cultural the studies position appearssomewhat in conclusion locatestheconstructed that nature culture of trapped a singular of socialaction frequently frame inthesole service power. Knowing this. thoughtful . experience. qualitatively change nature human tipleidentity focusing on similar themes.) another In arena.Specifically.Thoits1986). and processes. ForBoden.Stryker of collective micro-level and different elements "human inquiries pursue sure.IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION 401 to in environmentscritical what is working constraints opportunitiestheir and " (p. inquiries individual collective of also revisit identity might In thecause of synthesis. of richandthorough this At the must consider literature stitute identity. To be perience (see e. of can and micro-patternscognition norms communication direct of complex PeggyThoits& LaurenVirshup identification.

School. eastern Univ. Reflections Resistance. ism and postmodernism: sociological their triarchal power. 1993. Reading: Birnbaum 1988. ciologyof theEnemy. Cambridge NJ: BlakelyA. TheLensesof Gender:Transof Yale Univ. 34(2):195-216 London:Verso. Engl: Cambridge Appiah KA.Changing C. Park. paand AggerB. 1993. munication:Cultural Formats Control.Test S. B. I Diamond. ed. ThisThing Darkness:A Soof Knopf WM. tities.IL: Univ. and Feminism SociologicalTheory.402 CERULO cultural and products rituals associated with. 1990. Tube Berezin 1997. 61-86. 2nded.Press and communication power. ularies motive ment movement. Annu. Carolina Atkin 1982. Race. I. Dramaturgy in Camthe social movements: social construction Commodities Cultural Perspective. suchexperience.ChicagoPress Commun.Newbury pp. 1983. M Schwartz. of mediaandthegrowth pseudo-community. Memory. IntoBattle: ReMythsand Symbolsof Nation in Lateand publican Imagery Symbolism France. poststructuralS. An Ecology of ComNewHaven. CJ 1994. ward Feminist a Postmodern Critical Theory. Arditi KleinRD. in Medieval France.feminism. TheSocial LifeofThings: Benford HuntSA. Sage CA: Verso Bartky 1988.Sociol.Press CT: Greenwich.CT: Bem SL. Huston.Swidler A. Wallerstein 1991. Foucault.annurev. CT: Yale Univ. 1991.Press BellahRN.Madsen Sullivan R. Cambridge. GatesJr. NationalIthaca. A.Press Univ. Univ. Imagined Communities. Gates HL Jr. 65-81. 14(3):352-71 Res.MA: NorthAgger 1993. Boston. TheEuropean Experience. BellahRN. 1-6. London: Wallace. Marianne M. Sociol. and sues. RA ed.Beniger 1987. NewYork: Aho JA. Engl: Addison-Wesley Bachnik Quinn Jr. Chicago. 1992. Rev.Ethnic Identity: Transffr. SR Berke1789-1880.Press. Nation. RD. Critical theory.Gender. in ture. Engl: Cambridge ley: Univ. Women. KA Appiah. Press Tipton SM. ofFeeling: CulR. Iden.The personalization mass In JR.org. Boysand GirlsLearninElementary In TV and Teens: Experts Look At The IsBloomington: Indiana Univ. 1991.BlacksIn TheDutchWorld: Princeton. NY: Cornell Armstrong 1982. 1995.In press JA. Q.States CollectiveAction: pp. 1991.Press J. 17:105-31 On ed.Habitsof theHeart. and RD. Princeton Univ.Press P. pp. Univ.Situated Univ. sociology the of identity fully can elucidate intricate the linksbetween social and cultural the domains. L Quinby.1994.Press Altheide DL. Culture Power:Toand pp.Transl. We'veAll Got Scars: What ism. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thanksto Paul DiMaggio and MicheleLamont helpful for comments an on earlier version this of manuscript.ChapelHill: Univ.Press .Nations Before Press Best R. VisittheAnnualReviews home page at http://www.Sociol. Editorsin62(1):36-55 identities. Cambridge. In BalibarE. 1991. of troduction: multiplying HL ed. Inq. maleandfemale roles.Wash.You couldbe thehundredth of monkey: collective action frames vocaband Hawthorne: Aldinede Gruyter the disarmaof within nuclear AndersonB.1995. Making gendervisible. Minden 1985. Praeger Beaune C. The Birthof an Ideology: Agulhon 1981. Politics. Boston:Pandora and Identity FascistItaly. of bridge. Literature Cited Acker J. New Haven.York:Harper Row & mation White America. 66-70. 1985.N.New The Alba RD. Appadurai 1986.Calif.TheGoodSociety.Press the forming Debate on Sexual Inequality. and Class: Ambiguous Identities. Seattle: Univ. 1989.Communities M. Benford 1993. Feminism Foucault: In and relevance.

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PressKenflict Ireland. of S. Culture. UnrulyPractices: Power. Relig. Fournier. Segmented Things Perfectly DotyA. EicharDM. Lamont. Politics. Univ. Politics: Labor Politicsin American Mass Culture.404 CERULO De Lauretis 1984. Inq. AmericaCalling: A Social idence fromfourcountries.Am. Boulder. Newbury Gender. and partisan warriors. NewBrunswick: Rutgers Univ. The WarAgainstThe Poor: pp. Feminism and lationsin feminist boundaries DiMaggio P.E Stein.MM Ferree. Differences.Soc. CO: Westview New York:Basic Books Divorce:MoralCon. 1995.CamRoutledge Univ. 1996. Reflecting Discourse and Gender in Contemporary American Minneapolis: CulturalCriticism.Minn. FuchsS. Univ.Fine GA. structural change:theextension thehigh Postmodernism.Myths Gender:Biand Men. Sociol. and dance. Matters: Jobs. Elite Families: Class and Univ.Press IL: ness. TheEnd of theLine: Lost Frankenberg 1993. London: Hutchin. 1991. Minneapolis: Univ. Gay politics. FisherC. Epstein CF.Rev. GamsonWA. ancestry: T.AliceDoesn't: Feminism. So67:(1):113-18 and Flax J.Minneapolis: Interpreting New York:Plenum Univ. DudleyKM. To History theTelephone 1940.SexualPolitics. M Form W. of K Plummer. In Gender: A hierarchy. pp. NewYork: Gamson WA. centCulture. Farley 1991.ChicagoPress Fractured Queer: FormW. of De Vos GA. 1988. tity Myth. Life.Press Homewood: In counters With lesbian research. Cambridge Fantasia 1988. Whatdid it tellus? Demography Cinema.New Lives in Postindustrial Univ.Debating of and the memory incompetence:meltIn Lexington: Univ.Classification art. Univ. AlSexualComPower in Nineteenth-Century D'Emilio J. of and Class pp. model theatre.Cultural Harding.What deconstruction and doesittake andwhere when place? MakPress in casesinlaw. InForms bia's Dead End Kids. CA: Sage CT: Yale Univ.Press R. to NewYork:Routledge culture opera.1983. 1993. 303-22 in Am. 1987.Social Cohesion Alien. and theSocial OrderNew Haven. L.Essentially wood New York: RoutWith Nature. the ed. tucky in abordifferencesthe DillonM.Talking New York:Morrow BerkeUniv. Unjust Authority. Dyson M. 1995. 1992. Engl: Cambridge Faderman 1981.NY Press and A. 1994. TheMaking theModern Homosexual. nity: historical Cult. AboutWomen in ological Theories ation: Minorities the U.S.Press Boston. 1985.Minn.Off H. ages of President 101(5):1159-93 tiondiscourse theCatholicChurch:evof Sociol. Handbook Social ScienceResearch.Chicago. Chicago. Occupation Class ConSociol. Minn.Deceptive Park. 1992.New York:Pantheon thelimits socialconstructionism. 1995.Press ed. ley: Univ. iming supporters. 1983. building and ingfacts science.Press Press EderD. 1996. Analyzing gender Univ. 1989. 1992.Press 1. Reputational entrepreneurs DillonM. Press Univ.The newcensusquestion .Calif.and Difference. 1992. 32-67. ed.Press Race R. 4:33-50. Faraday 1981.Making Labor. Univ. 1993. Berkeley: of 57(1):25-36 in entrepreneurship DiMaggioP. Divided We Stand: Work1900-1940.In Cultivating in M IL: Urbana: pp.Calif. 1987. Cultural of pp. IL: munities. Eilberg-Schwartz Doniger 1995. TheSocial Construction Whiteof America. EnB.52(4):440-55 In and theory.Gans H. Radicalismin France and Britain.Fireman Rytina 1982.Calif.39-62. 1990. WhiteWomen. Am. IdenHer Head!: The Denial of Women's ledge on and perspectives in Berkeley: GaileyCW.Rev. Speaking:Feminism. 1993.NewYork: Gallie D.Press the bridge.Surpassing LoveqfMen.Liberating Dorsey ed.ChicagoPress bany:StateUniv.Bloomington:Indiana Semiotics. New and TheUnderclass Antipoverty Policy. Sociol.1992. and Japan. J. 112-29. A. Postmodernism genderreciol. B of Distinctions: Sex.Press ethnic identity: Gaines D.Ill.ChicagoPress Black: African Fraser N. nineteenth-century Parts 2. 1989. Fuss D.SchoolTalk:GenderandAdolesis S.Evolutionary Religion.ed. Social Theory. TeenageWasteland:SuburEpsteinS. 28:411-29 FarrellBG. 1993. son York:Basic Books about R. Boston. ingClass StratificationAmerica. 1997. 1982.Cultural Univ.21-57.239-93. DiMaggioP. 1989. W. Technologyand commucomplexities. Media Fisher C.Fausto-Sterling 1985.Cultures Solidarity.Minneapolis: Chicago.59(4):484-500 New York: Greensciousnessin America. Hess.Minn. Ward 1994.LJNicholson. Social Inequality ofDesire.

Calif. J. London:Allen& Unwin Univ.32(4):317-31 Soc. GiddensA.PJ ertyOwners. of MA: Harvard Univ.Growing intheTwentieth W. Chicago.Hout M. PoliticsAmongBlue-CollarProp. Is thegaze male? In PowKaplan Hobsbaum 1992. of Since1780: Programme.Meninthe J. 1992. 1991.1994. Ads Socially. Bull. 185-208 ation. SexualCultures the and Stereotypes Sexuality. 3-28. Press ChicagoPress Halle D.Identity SA.pp. 1983. 1994. Sociol. NJ: Princeton. Larafta al 1994. Engl: Cambridge Dressingand Cultural Anxiety. 1939-1979. Hobsbawm RangerT. Reality. thenewsocial moveHennionA.IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION 405 Garber M. New Univ.Sociol.Crossof Tradition. in Working zations.1991. PA: Irving. and Beyond:Cultural Imagesand theShapChicagoPress ing of US Social Policy. of Race. Rev. grievances.Nations E. Analysis. Philadelphia. York:Cambridge Univ. C S New Myth. Hunt Benford SnowDA. 1993. NY: Cornell Americans. Greenfield 1992.Press lence. 1990. 1983. GerhardsJ.59(1):64-82 Am.IL: Univ. Construction ofAdolescentIdentities. The Invention Katz M. campaigns WestGermany.Berkeley: Hutchinson SmithAD. Thompson. The NationStateand VioNationalism.Press Ithaca. Press M. New York: Univ.2nded. Commemorations: Politics Ignatiev 1995. 1991.Women's Stud. TheDynamics Cultural J. 3-35 See et desire: the mediators advertising of be. 1994. A ed. 1985. ofNational Identity.PeissK. Old Jeffreys 1989. Bull. American 1929.In TheNew InstitutionalismOrand Home. 204-31. Meadel C. sisGilliganC.IL: Univ. College Station:TexasA & M Univ.Press Rutgers struction Deconstruction PublicMen Johnston Larafta Gusfield 1994.HuberJ. PublicEye: TheConUniv. Theory From Margin to Garcia RA. Goldstein JR.Press and Irving JM. Temple pp. 309-27.Modernity Self-Identity. 19(1/2):31. LinnMC. 1991. Mesomobiliza.Macro-Micro Linkages Sociin in tion: organizing framing twoprotest and Newbury ology. Difference Pathology: and lescent In sexualities.Press York:Routledge Jasper NelkinD. Hewitt 1989. Roles 10(11/12):533-53 oftheAmerican Self PA: Philadephia. 98(2):555-95 fields: framing processes thesocialconand Gerson JM. Jepperson Meyer RL. 1994. of H. 1993.Rev. and Nationalisms ersofDesire: ThePolitics Sexuality. and PublicPatriarchies. ter: notesfrom underground female the of Psychol. Snitow. 1990. How 4. Cambridge. RuchtD. pects of the ethniccomposition white of Univ.Press Routledge hooks 1984. VestedInterests. . Princeton New York:Routledge Univ. The "Underclass" Debate: E. IL: Univ.Chicago. reconceptualizing genderrelations. Cyborgs.andMadness. 1985. 1993. 107(2):139-55 adolescence. Nations and Nationalism. New York:Oxford and CA: Univ. pp. Cambridge. Stansell. WW Powell.Dilemmas JP. JM NY: Cornell Univ.Idenand JR. 104(1):53-69 GillisJ. Chicago DiMaggio.Nationalism: RoadsTo L. New Brunswick: Hearn 1992.1991.How the The N.America's Man: Work. Griswold 1992. Am. The Rise of the MexicanCenter Boston:South End Press MiddleClass: SanAntonio.ThepublicorNigerian village.Q. Nationalism. The AnimalRights J. Five Crusade: The Growth a Moral Protest.Reading R. RD.pp.Press EA.5 mil1941.New York: RoutHaraway D. 1984. novelsand the imaginary JW. Probl.and ledge Women: The Reinvention Nature. 1992.Cultural differences adoGilmanSL.From KS. Goldman 1992.Sociol.Chicago. 1984. Park. Tales of Nationalism: York:Routledge Catelonia.1984. 1991. 1994.Press. Psychol. The artisans of ments. Stanford Hyde JS.Gender differences in 44 verbal ability.Feminist b. on Soc. Temple Univ. Simians. CA: Sage in Am. 1983. 1992. 1988.ganizational ed.Press Ithaca.pp. lionIrish immigrants became million 40 Irish Press Americans: demography subjective and asGellnerE. IrishBecameWhite.57(5):709-24 der and the construction formal of organiHalle D. Sex rolestereotweenproduct and consumer.Press Stanford.Thewriting themud on wall: York:Routledge London/New Century.HydeJS. to Mammy MissAmerica in theAmerican Home. of GiddensA. Larafta See consciousness: etal 1994. InsideCulture:Artand Class Jewell 1993. Hutchinson 1987.Boundaries. ed. E. New York:FreePress Modernity.KalischBJ.KalischPA. New York:Monthly Rev. struction movement of negotiidentities. J. Teaching derdifferences mathematics in Shakespeare's performance.Fennema Lamon SJ. London:Routledge and tities.New Johnston of H. GenE. Theory typesof nursesand physicians TV: a 11(1):191-209 of Sex dichotomy occupational portrayals.

Paradoxes of Gender New ModellJ.406 CERULO Views from History. KubikJ.Press McAdamD. of Boulder. Lamont 1992. 1981.Press MedicineB. Berkeley: MacDonald K. New Social Movements. In for and Power New York: The HiddenHalf StudiesofPlains Indian Intimacy.Colliding M. York:Oxford Univ. Theories. New York:Univ. ParkeRD.PressAm.ChicagoPress Chicago. NC: medium and versus Century Durham.Press Univ.Money. E. PoliticalProcessAnd The Katznelson Weir 1985.TheRitesofRulers. 1982. 1994. CA: Sage Cambridge. Medicine. 1992. M. Princeton. New Mukerji 1997. 1986.Meyrowitz 1997. Manners: The Culture theFrenchand theAmeri. 1995.NomadsofthePresent:Soof can Upper MiddleClass. JAI Martin 1987.and Soc. ThePowerofSymbols Against Bringing Class Back In Contemporary and theSymbols Power: TheRise ofSolidarHistorical Perspectives. press In Structure: Constituting State. 1994. Park. Greenwich. DukeUniv. New Katznelson ZolbergA. PA: Meyrowitz 1989.ChicagoPress IL: cratic Ideal. CL."Soc. 1985. Culture and social moveWestern Europe and the United States. and 80. of 1930Class. 267pp.Calif.IntoOne's Own: FromYouth Haven: Yale Univ.Press Temple where. Guilford B ed. Roles 15(7/8):367and Identities: 78 cieties. M. NewYork:OxbianTheories.Society. and MartorellaR.32(4):332-34 Cultural Boundaries. 1991. Larafia al 1994. Univ. 1997.Schooling I. in CT: subject. Warrior women: sex role Kupers TA. IL: Univ. 1989. Inside/Out: In Lesqf Cultural Dallas. Inq.In Current cial Movement New Perspectives Social Theory.Press Theory. Princeton NJ: Univ. worlds strangers: in Discourse. Meyer. and theDecline of theDemo1970. No Sense of Place. and MeyerJ. Yale Vol. Working I.Analrope. IL: cialMovements Individual and NeedsinConChicagoPress PA: temporary Society. Apprehending Criminal: the 34 The Production Deviancein Nineteenth. Genderand National Sex Women Politics Muslim and in Sochildren parents. The Woman theBody: A Mukerji 1994. JW ed. Electronic Landscapes. and Lamont Fournier 1992. London:Routledge CM. Dif theIndividual.The political E. Challenging Codes: CollecUS.ed. 1994.New York:Routledge LorberJ.Qualitative differences among American for Community: Activists Reinventing gender-stereotyped toys: implications Commitment. 1993. . 1989. 36-57 See et Princeton. Morals. 6(3):323Leps M.Frontiers SoMarshall BL. 1987. Newbury J ftrences. Fantasia R. 242-60. The generalized J. E Long.StateUniv. FreedomSummer. 1992. Gender." on Global Media.pp. Levine RF. Chicago. ed. Revisioning Men's Lives: alternatives plains Indian women. Race. Class York:Oxford Univ. 11. 1990. New York:Basic Books McAdam D. Princeton Brunswick. Press 16(9/10):473-88 Liebes T. 1991. Univ.Press Cambridge In Sociology black and whiteworkers. Nationalidentity naand Univ. in mobilization of C. Lane C.Press Meyrowitz 1985.Stud. M. Cultivating M. in formal French Cultural Boston: nature seventeenth Analysis Reproduction. 1995.Press ToAdulthood theUnited in States. theory changes "them" Press "us. P Albers. ments.TheExport Meaning:Cross Miller DA.Reproducing gendered Morris Mueller the in AD. forAll: Development Black Insurgency. GM Thomas. York: New Lamont 1997. Boli. D Fuss.Territorial Ambitions the C. Engl: Cambridge Univ. London:Zed Books the MargolisDR. 1987. French Hist. JR. 119-41.Press Formation: Nineteenth-Century Patterns in McAdamD. New York: tionalization itseffects. 1988.19(2):349-65 tiveAction the in InformationAge. of negotiations the meaning "woman. Parent-child Univ. Univ. CT: Univ. Rutgers NJ: NJ: Univ. of century Beacon Theory 23:651-77 Soc. 67(1):59-71 Lichterman 1996. 1986.pp. 1983. 1991. Institutional and In Basil Blackwell.Press tionalboundary in patterns Franceand the MelucciA. Haven. Larafia Johnston Gusfield eds. pp. 1989. 1994.Press of physical play: theeffects sex and age on MoghadamVM. CorporateArt. New J. CO: Westand theFall ofStateSocialism Poland. ity in view PA: University Park. moralities between Univ. 1994. Readings of Gay Press ford Univ. York: Cambridge New Univ.Shifting of of J.Mass Commun.MelucciA. Temple LamontM. Women.Spaces ofIdentity: D. Self and life course: instituCulturalStudies. gardens. The SearchforPolitical Miller P.Press H. Stud. Philadelphia. Sex Roles cognitivesocial development.Press McNall SG. Re-defining situation: Morley RobinsK. Probl. Penn. elsePhiladelphia. FO Ramirez. Chicago. Crit.

Boulder. 1996. ed.42(2):171-90 coln assassination. 67(1):101. New York: Schlesinger 1993.Press NicholsonLJ.Do boysprefer H.and collective identities PioreMJ. The Captured Womb: His. 1995. Univ. Watergate American N.ed. Nass C. New York:Routledge York:Columbia Univ. spectives from mediastudies theefficacy on Homosexual. Univ. Homophobia. bridge. and New Brunswick: Rutgers Inequalities: Women and World DevelopUniv.To teachless than needs.Albany:StateUniv. C. Mourning themaking B. in media. Nippert-Eng 1996. 1990.Calif. Boundaries: The Makingof and CO: Westview Franceand Spain in thePyrinnies. ing Sociologyand Cultural Studies. ity.Press QuadagnoJ. II: C. NewYork:Holmes& Meier Raymond 1994.American ethnic renewal: RileyD. of themeaning desire:reflections theculof on Closet. she ley: Univ. Televiand Am.Gender Univ.entitlements. EngagIn a diPurcell 1997. The Media Equa.Forbes andthecultural of mak. 1992. London:Sage .Press Sociol. New York: pp. 1995. 1995. SadkerD. 1994. Inq.SewellWHJr.The welfare state Cornell Univ. L Sex. eds. Papanek 1990. the Po.Sexing Self Gendered studiesand the London: Routof sitionsIn Cultural Studies.Homeand Work: Nego. alloca.Press Random House Indian NagelJ. 162-81. social construction "social construction": ledge notes 'Teddy on Bear Patriarchy'. Englishlanguage. Schudson 1989.ManyMirrors: BodyImageand tions.Press politics. 43(2):6-17 MA: Harvard Univ.Berkeley: Univ. Ithaca. BecomRaissiguier 1994. In Persistent Social Relations.Schwartz 1987. Shapiro MJ.SchudsonM. 1997. 1995.Synthesis. 1989. Cambridge. J. Micro-macro linkagein sociMan Nor Woman: NandaS.Press fromeach morethanshe can do.Becoming Women 64 Formation a French Schwartz 1987. and Postman 1992. G Ritzer. 1992. Taylor 1989. Alker H. Rethinking Gender. of a sacredsymbol:Durkheim theLinand Soc. How culture works: perPlummer 1981. New LJ.SeidmanS. of Am.Calif.and 98(1):1-29 Places. Commun. Life.SchudsonM.ChicagoPress CO: Westview OakleyA. D. stereotypingthe Minneapolis: Frontiers. Boulder. New York: centsexuality. Beyond Individualism. daddy Postmodernism: BeyondIdentity Politics. The Epistemology the identity. Technopoly: Surrender Reconstruct N. York:Cambridge of New V Richardson.NY Elite as a Ruling Press Class.60(6):947-65 RitzerG.Neither The ologicaltheory: applying metatheoretical a Hijaras ofIndia. agency. The Structure Powerin in M.Towards communication K.Wishful ed. nism. value.Sociol. Social Ross H. Feminism/Postmoder. SeidmanS. I Tinker.SaultN. RP. cultural thinking: Oxford Univ. 1988. transformation.Minn.IL: Univ.Press ment. Soc. in Richardson 1989.1995.New York:Delacorte Memory:How WeRemember. 1994.Rev.Press tities. New York: Basic to New Books ofCulture Technology. Chicago. 1992. Culture theAd. and reproductiongender: and Job Soc. The The Past. Society.Dress Codes: Meanings BoundariesThrough tiating Everyday AndMessages American In Culture.pp.AmI That Name? Minneapolis: politicsand theresurgence identity. E alectic: embedded -andthe enIn Long.TheBodyand Social Theory. and ed. ness: How American Schools Cheat Girls. New Media LikeReal Peopleand sion. ingWorkers: Identity of Vocational America: The Corporate School. P. GeorgeWashington: of B. of In hood. or his physicalstyleof play? Sex Roles New York:Cambridge Univ. The 12 NY: Making an American of Symbol. SahlinsP. Forces70(2):343Probl.IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION 407 Gardens Versailles.Press of tural construction gayandlesbian adoles. FailingAt FairA tory the of MedicalCareofPregnant Women. Taylor. 347-70. inggoodgirls boysinthe Corps. CamEurope. Cultural Probyn 1993.Territorial IdenL. 5-9.Press M. 1984. London:Hutchinson ofsymbols.In Frontiers Social Theory: New of The Nicholson ed.Minn. London:Basil Black New York:Scribner's O'Barr W.New York:Basil Blackwell. Challenging Engl: Cambridge Press Boundaries:GlobalFlows. Forget. BerkeH.SadkerM. Irving See Routledge 1994. 1994.In Feminist Shilling 1993. TheMakingoftheModern K.Belmont: Wadsworth tool. York:Knopf E. 1990. 1990. C. 1990.TheDisappearance Child. Univ. Soc. press technology hancement place. Embattled Eros. 115-50 Reeves B.Schwartz 1991.Rubenstein 1995.Press 20(1):23-33 CE. pp.pp. 18:153-80 Theory Postman 1982. J. and SedgwickE.Atheory structure: of dualtion: How People TreatComputers.

MA: Northeastern Univ. CA: Sage Analysis.Me's andwe's: forms Am. Jussim. pp. coloniality Feminism. DM NewAm.51(2):259-72 avowalofpersonal identities. Interactionism: A York:Viking Social Structural Version. and films tions western of among American IndiRoutledge ans andAnglos. PB Evans. 3-43. in social movement communities: lesbian SmithDE.NY: GeneralHall 32(4):301-16 New York: Stein A. N. York:OxTheory Miford Univ. Frontiers SocialMoveVol. Hills. 1. The ConceptualPractices feminist mobilization. GayAndLesbianIdentity: StaceyJ.pp. 1987. cultures. AD Morris. Morris Mueller See & Power Boston.ed. Univ. Lukes. Rochford BurkeW Jr. Commun. identity.In press Theory. movement ArchitectureEveryday ed. Sociol. 19(1):1-20 Tarrow 1992. The missing Dix in A Sociological inist revolution sociology. America:OriS Collins. RD AshSnowDA. Benford 1992. Univ. Sistersand queers: the de. 1992a. Turner Hogg MA. television.Press Soysal YN. Bloomington: dianaUniv. and Sex Spillman 1997. CT: Press Thorne 1995. Press Nevada ingofthe Modern Identity..pp. 1988. in and Silver I. ment Univ. man. ML M.D Mueller1992. N. Bringing stateback in: and collectiveaction frames: constructin of research.TheEveryday World ProbAs Harvard Univ.SteinE.Press.pp.Nation Commemoration: roleperceptions.Sociol.Rev.Made To Or. Menlo Park. Analysis.SourcesoftheSelf: TheMakC. S tory. NE. In ing meaning through action. Thousand Oaks. Bored.Formsof Desire.Cowboys Indians:percep. New York: J.ed. the Skocpol T. Role transitions.Native. Engl: Cambridge ginand Evolution a World of Boulder. Simon& Schuster centering lesbianfeminism.57(6):725.Collective Sociology.Rev.Frame school.Steven E.Oxford: AD Blackwell rope.Press fem. TheCategory Rueschemeyer. Newbury Park. SpalloneP. SD. Adolesc. 174-202 T Skocpol. theory. 1987. YaleUniv. L. grants and Postnational Membership Eu.Soc. Cambridge. 1985.Taylor 1985. objects. Limits Citizenship: of in C. MA: Smith DE. J. 1996. but pp. 256-81.Steuer 1992. virtual reality: dimen34 sionsdetermining telepresence. Children.Trepanier ML. 1985. Am. 1986.Press Univ. Cam. View.Race inNorth A. Steinberg 1987. Boston. frames and Identity: Fundamental Issues.NewHaven. Selfand of In R. TichiC.Multiple identities: examining Snow DA. Cultivation gatta. 1986. Health Care Stryker 1992. 93-102. Swidler 1986. New York: Oxford more. On Her Own: Growing In Up 42(4):73-93 TheShadowOf TheAmerican Dream. New York:Macmillan Signorielli Morgan pp. 1992.Thenarrative constitution of Forge an a and Hearth:Creating identity: relational network approach. 871-76. Mentalities.LifeOn TheScreen. Oakes PJ.Identity S. CM Mueller.Press lematic: Feminist A MA: Taylor Whittier 1992. Symb.Turkle 1995. cesses. B. HisSmedley 1993. and Capital.. Am. Philosophy. Encyclope: In 11(1):50-58 dia ofSociology. European IL: States 990-1990.ThorneB. . of Univ. CA Pine participation. Identity work among the and status differences disin gender marital homeless: the verbal construction and tress.Master In of in L cycles protest.National Identity.Chicago. Romatowski in der: TheMyth Reproductive Genetic tributes rolesassignedto characters and of And Oxford: children's sex and Progress. J. P. M Carrithers.ChicagoPress JA. ed. Taylor 1989.See Morris& strategies analysis current Bringing State The BackIn.408 CERULO Shively 1992.ThePerson. ed.Troiden RR. 23:605-49 American Culture. Engl: Cambridge thePerson:Anthropology.51(3):464-81 Somers MR.Sociol. 1985. micromobilization. 1991.Coercion. V.51(2):273-86 Am. in Snow DA. mostly apart: gender arrangements eleRD.and strategies. Reno: Univ. J. 1992b. AtDL. Sociol. In C.pp. Roles 13(5/6):263-72 PostNationalIdentities the United Trinh in TM. 1988.Electronic Television New Soc.Culture action:symbols A. Sidel R.133-55.New Stryker 1980.Rev.Reicher 22(1):33-55 JC.Press bridge. S. CO: Westview Press Smith AD. Rev. 104-29 of Press ThoitsP. Probl.CA: Signorielli 1990. 1994.Girlsandboystogether.In Sociology:Exploring the K. 92(6): 1336-71 andfunctions socialidentities. Symbolic S. 1991. 1994. and Benjamin/Cummings gender roles. 1989.Defining J. Interact. political S. Pergamon writing: differences sex L. Cambridge. Other:Writing Creating InNew York:Cambridge and StatesandAustralia. EF Borgatta. 1990. 1991.Rev. of Social.Tilly 1990.Sociol. Thoits Virshup 1997. identity Northeastern Press Univ. Benford alignment promentary and of Life.

ThePoM. 1990. and Gender Soc.Cambridge.TheSemiotic Self Chicago. Baltimore: John New York:Columbia Hopkins Univ.Press Univ. R. Tem. Inf LW.New York: Free Press Press WestC. Children of Worlds:The Formation Social Zinn MB.Calif.Press imagesand popular fiction.Cambridge.Fearofa queerplanet. 183-205 Zerubavel 1995. and Princeton. 1985. 1995.TheAmerican Vanneman Cannon Behav. to Univ. 97(2):376. Doing gender. Am. of PA: M. Roots: CollecWhite 1992.Identity Control.TheViet.Keeping adolescence the Zerubavel 1997b. Perception Class.Wright 1989. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Engl: Cambridge Univ.TheDebateon Classes. Wittenstrom 1995. tive and Remaking IsraeliNaMemory the of tional Tradition. 1983. in E.ChicagoPress Berkeley:Univ. 1987.Studying Social Worlds mation. Zerubavel 1997a. Blackness And Race Mixture: Wittig 1986. Chicago.pp. E. Self and collective: cognition New York:Random House and social context. EdwardsCP. 1994. Williams 1990.One is notborn woman. McGarty WinnM. 1987. Children Without Childhood.Cambridge. Philadelphia. nam veterans memorial: commemorating don/New York:Verso a difficult R. 1991.5:396-409 R.Haslam SA. Bull.Chicago IL: NJ:Princeton Univ.TheFineLine: Making E. Cambridge. European and NewYork: Children: Socialism.Wuthnow 1989. PA: Philadelphia. Identities the United in States. Women Color in Different of of US Society. in Univ. Social Mindscapes: InAn of To picture: construction adolescent sexuality vitation Cognitive Sociology. ed. 1:125-51 Sociol.Soc.IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION 409 BlackwellMS.Rediscovering Sothe Social Value:TheCreation ofBlack Irish and cial Group: A Self-Categorization Theory.Press Turner JC.Landscapes Power:From S. Warner 1991.Communities Discourse: of Ideology and Social Structure theReforin 420 the of WakslerFC. of bia. a Fem. Univ. in Berkeley: tinctions Everyday Life. Oakes PJ.SpecialIssue: lumping D. of In In TheDynamics Racial Identity Colometicsof Gender. Recovered Y. and/or caring: pro20(5):454-63 cesses ofidentifying women'sactivities. H. Sociological Readings. Text New York:Basic Books 9(14):3-17 Waters MC. ple Univ. 11:3 Whatley MH. PricingthePricelessChild. EthnicOptions: Choosing Zerubavel 1991. Falmer Press M. MA: HarvardUniv.Press B. 1988.pp. in textbook See Univ. DisIdentities America.Work K. Wagner-PacificiSchwartz 1991. of troit Disneyland. 1994.Calif.Press IssuesFall:47-54 Wade P. J. Press Press IL: Zukin 1991.Forum splitting. 1994.Themark gender. MA: Harvard Irving 1994.the Enlightenment. TempleUniv.Hierarchical R. Social ZelizerV. past. DeWileyN. 63-73. Zimmerman 1987.Press Press Whiting BB.LonEO. MA: Harvard Univ. Sociol. C.Wittig 1981. 1993. NK Miller. Pers. Dill BT. Behavior. Structures Press and . Psychol.

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