Road-Runner English

© 2007 Steven Donahue

The speedy Road-runner is the student’s mascot or model guiding the way to fast writing and English skills-building. The Road-runner (Geococcyx californianus) is a slim, long-tailed bird and one of the most striking characters of the cactus belt of the Southwest. The Road-runner, along with Wile E Coyote, were the models for Warner Bros cartoons where the witless Coyote never managed to catch the swift bird. Many times, the characters would communicate by holding up signs. In the 1979 film, The Road Runner, actor and second language learner Arnold Schwarznegger played the clever bird. So get ready to learn English like the fast-as-lightening Road Runner!

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DESCRIPTION

Descriptive essays are organized around a dominant impression, usually personal, about some subject. The descriptive essay develops through the accumulation of concrete and specific details revealing the subject as it is seen, felt, or experience by the writer.

WRITING TASK Identify thing to be described. Identify relationship of thing to writer Identify writer's attraction for/interest in thing KEY PHRASES At its heart, this thing is ______ The most noticeable characteristic of this thing is _____ For the first time I realized that this thing was _____ Whenever I think about this thing, I feel ________ DETAILS Select appropriate details What details will best help the reader see why this thing is important to you? Select an appropriate order Order by time, space, theme, or some other logical pattern that fits the thing being described

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CONCLUSION The conclusion may recap the key details emphasizing the dominant impression. The conclusion may explain the significance, importance, or value of this thing to the writer.

DESCRIPTIVE TERMS Designate Differentiate Exemplify Illuminate Image Indicate Label Limn Make Vivid Paint Peg Pigeonhole Portray Recite Trace Transmit Belong To Brand Button Down Call Called Calling Characterize Characterized Chronicle Chronicled Communicate Communicated Communicating Constitute Constituted Constituting Construe Construed Convey Image Define Defined Defining Delineate Delineated Depict Depicted Depicting Describe Described Describes

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Describing Description Descriptions Designated Detail Detailed Detailing Differentiated Discriminate Distinguish Draw Drawing Drew Elucidate Elucidated Epitomize Epitomized Exemplified Explicate Explicated Expound Expounded Express Expressed Expressing Feature Featured Featuring Identified Identify Identifying Illuminated Illustrate Illustrated Illustrating Impart Imparted Imparting Individualize Individualized Individuate Inform Informed Interpret Interpreted Limned Make Apparent Make Clear Make Up Mark Mark Out Marked Marking Name Named Naming

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Narrate Outline Outlined Painted Painting Particularize Peculiarize Pegged Personalize Picture Pictured Pigeonholed Portray Portrayed Portrayed Portraying Recited Reciting Recount Recounted Recounting Rehearse Relate Related Relating Report Reported Reporting Represent Represented Signalize Singularize Specified Specify Specifying Stamp Stamped Stamping State Stated Stating Symbolize Symbolized Symbolizing Tab Tell Telling Term Termed Terming Terms Told Traced Tracing Transmitted Transmitting

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Typecast Typecast Typecasting Typified Typify Typifying Write Up Writing Up Wrote Up

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(Marjory Stoneman Douglas in the Everglades. River of Grass).

There are (1)_______________ other Everglades in the world. They are, they have always been, one of the (2)_______________ regions of the earth, remote, never (3)_______________ known. Nothing anywhere else is like them: their vast (4)_______________ openness, (5)_______________ than the enormous visible round of the horizon, the racing free (6)_______________ and sweetness of their (7)_______________ winds, under the (8)_______________ blue heights of space. They are (9)_______________ also in the simplicity, the diversity, the related (10)_______________ of the forms of life they enclose. The (11)_______________ of light (12)_______________ over the green and brown expanse of saw grass and of water, shining and slow-moving below, the grass and water that is the meaning and the (13)_______________ of the Everglades of Florida. It is a (14)_______________ of grass.

no unique wholly glittering wider saltiness massive dazzling unique harmony miracle pours central fact river

Helper. Negative. Adjective. Special. Adverb. Totally. Adjective. Shining. Bright. Comparative. Broad. Noun. Having a salty taste. Adjective. Very large. Huge. Adjective. Very bright and shiny. Adjective. Special Noun. When things fit together perfectly. Noun. Something extraordinary. Verbal. To expel water. Phrase. The main idea. Adjective. A flowing body of water.

(Ernest Hemingway in A Farewell to Arms).

In the (1)______________ summer of (2)______________ year we lived in a house in a village that (3)______________ across the river and the (4)______________ to the mountains. In the (5)______________ of the river there were (6)______________ and (7)______________, dry and (8)______________ in the sun, and the water was (9)______________ and swiftly moving and (10)______________ in the channels. (11)______________ went by the house and down the road and the (12)______________ they raised powdered the (13)______________ of the trees. The (14)______________ of the trees (15)______________ were dusty and the leaves fell (16)______________ that year and we saw the troops (17)______________ along the road and the dust

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rising and leaves, (18)______________ by the breeze, falling and the soldiers marching and afterwards the road (19)______________ and white except for the leaves. late that looked plain bed pebbles boulders white clear blue troops. dust leaves trunks too early marching stirred bare Adjective. Relative. Verbal. Noun. A flat area. Noun. The bottom of a river. Noun. Small rocks. Noun. Large rocks Adjective. Adjective Adjective Noun. Soldiers Noun. Small floating material. Noun. Noun. Main part of a tree. Intensive. Also. Adverb Verbal. The way soldiers move. Verbal. To move back and forth. Adjective. Without cover

In the period between (1)____________________ of the English at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607, and the close of the French and Indian war in 1763—a period of a century and a half—a new nation was being (2)____________________ (4)____________________ and nationalities. on this continent to take its place (3)____________________ the of the earth. (5)____________________, it was an epoch of migration. the the English led the and were way. the Next to them in Into the

(6)____________________, western Europe contributed emigrants of many (7)____________________ (8)____________________, importance were (9)____________________ and Irish. Scotch-Irish of negroes Germans.

(10)____________________ were also (11)____________________ Dutch, Swedes, French, Jews, Welsh, (12)____________________, thousands brought from Africa (13)____________________ Southern fields or labor as domestic servants in the North.

the landing prepared among powers first overwhelmingly races

Noun phrase Verbal Preposition Noun Transition Transition Noun

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overall numerical melting pot cast finally and sadly to till

Transition Adjective Noun phrase. A pot where candles are melted to make new candles. Verbal. To throw. The flashlight cast a light. Transition Verbal. To break the soil with a plow for seeds.

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NARRATIVE

Narrative essays are like short stories, are organized around a central conflict. The essay develops a series of crises related to the central problem which culminate in a moment of climax. Narrative essays are usually personal essays dealing with a significant personal conflict where the narrator wrestles with the problem. Most of the times, narrative essays include the word “I” and are in first person. WRITING TASK Identify who is involved. Identify the location. Identify when the action takes place KEY PHRASES It was in the year__________ My first memory was____________ I have a large and loving family I will never forget my first job DETAILS Paint a picture for the reader with details Do not omit important details like names of countries or people. Use transitions to guide the story along. CONCLUSION The conclusion may recap the key details and there can be a happy ending, an unhappy one, or an unresolved situation. The conclusion may explain a lesson learned by the writer.

NARRATIVE KEY PHRASES Agree Own Up Repeat Reveal

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Spin Talk Uncover Accept Accord Acquiesce Adopt Affirm Allow Approve At A Time At That Time Avow Bare Characterize Characterized Characterizes Characterizing Chronicle Chronicled Chronicled Chronicles Communicate Communicated Communicates Concede Concur Confide Confided Confides Confiding Confirm Consent Credit Declare Declared Declares Declaring Delineate Delineated Delineates Delineating Depict Depicted Depicting Depicts Descant Detail Detailed Detailing Details Disclose Disclose Disclosed Disclosed Discloses

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Discloses Disclosing Disclosing Discourse Divulge Divulged Divulges Divulging Enumerate Enumerate Enumerates Expatiate Expose Grant Hold Forth I In That Time Indicate Let Let On Made Known Make Known Make Known Narrate Narrated Narrates Narrating Number Once Upon A Time Open Up Own Paint Painted Painting Paints Permit Picture Pictured Pictures Picturing Portray Portrayed Portraying Portrays Proclaim Proclaim Proclaimed Proclaimed Proclaiming Proclaiming Proclaims Proclaims Profess Professed Professes Professing

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Recite Recite Recited Recited Recites Recites Reciting Reciting Reckon Reckoned Reckoning Recognize Recognized Recognizes Recognizing Recount Recounted Recounting Recounts Rehearse Rehearsed Rehearses Rehearsing Relate Relate Related Related Relates Relates Relating Relating Remember Remembered Remembering Remembers Repeated Repeating Repeats Report Reported Reporting Reports Reveal Revealed Revealed Revealing Revealing Reveals Reveals Set Forth Span Spill Spill Guts Spilled Spilling Spills

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Spinning Spun State Stated States States Stating Subscribe To Talked Talking Talks Tell Tell Telling Telling Tells Tells Told Told Tolerate Unfold Unfolded Unfolding Unfolds Unveil Yield

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Chief Pokagon in the Chautauqua—last Pottawatomi chief of the Pokagon band.

“About the middle of May, 1850, while in the (1)_______________ trade, I was (2)_______________ on the head waters of the Manistee River in Michigan. (3)_______________ on leaving my (4)_______________ I was startled by hearing a (5)_______________, rumbling sound, as though an army of horses (6)_______________ with (7)_______________ was advancing through the deep forests towards me. […] While I (8)_______________ in (9)_______________ and astonishment, I (10)_______________ moving toward me in an (11)_______________ front millions of pigeons, the first I had seen that season. They passed like a (12)_______________ through the (13)_______________ of the (14)_______________ trees, through the (15)_______________ and over the ground, apparently (16)_______________ every leaf. (17)_______________ I stood, half-concealed by cedar (18)_______________. They (19)_______________ all about me, (20)_______________ on my head and shoulders; gently I caught two in my hands and (21)_______________ concealed them under my blanket.“

fur camping one morning wigwam gurgling laden sleigh bells gazed wonder beheld unbroken cloud branches high underbrush overturning statue-like boughs fluttered lighting carefully

Adjective. The skins of animals. Verbal. To sleep outdoors. Transition. Noun. An indian tent. Noun. The sound of gargling with Listerine. Verbal. Carrying. Army of horses is a metaphor. Noun. Like the bells on Santa Claus’ sled. Verbal. To look intently. Noun. In amazement. Irregular verb. To look Adjective. Without a break. Simile. Small parts of a tree. Adjective. Tall Noun. Small trees and plants Verbal. To make something upside down. Adjective. To stand like a frozen statue. Noun. Large branches of trees. Verbal. When leaves or feathers surround a person. Verbal. To lite upon. To sit upon. Adverb. With great care. Tenderly.

First of all, I have a large family and many relatives. My (1)_______________ is Donahue, which is ultimately a (2)_______________ of Irish (3)_______________. However, my family’s origins and (4)_______________ are from various countries and (5)_______________ cultures, such as: Ireland, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and Holland. In fact, the (6)_______________ origins of my family are mostly from northern European (7)_______________. Above all, my family of (8)_______________ has witnessed the entire circle and celebration of family relationships: pregnancy, births, confirmations, first

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communions, holidays, Christmas, Thanksgiving, engagements, marriage, divorce, adoption, grandparents, great-grandchildren, (9)_______________, step-mothers, step-sisters, step-brothers, death, but always (10)_______________ love in all of its (11)_______________. family name surname etymology strands diverse geographical and ethnic stock relatives step-fathers familial dimensions Noun phrase Noun. A person’s last name. Noun. Word origin. Noun. Different pieces of string. Adjective Noun phrase Noun. Ethnicity. Genetic background. Noun Noun Adjective. From family. Noun

My (1)________________ grandfather’s name was Glen Hanson on my mother’s side. His parents were born in Richland, Wisconsin. However, their parents came from Norway, which later (2)________________ into two countries: Sweden and Norway. Initially, they farmed in Wisconsin until the second generation eventually moved out to South Dakota to (3)________________ and found a family farm. In South Dakota, he fell in love and married my grandmother (4)________________ name was Kundi. Significantly, she was a (5)________________ German Catholic, while my grandfather was a Presbyterian. Nonetheless, the were (6)________________, then married. Between them, they had seven children: Leonard, Margaret, Evelyn, Carolyn, Phyllis, Norma. Sadly, one child died at (7)________________ —Jean, the name of (8)________________ my own mother, Margaret took as her middle (9)________________. Leonard had two sons. Next, Margaret had three sons. Later, Evelyn had a son and a daughter. Then, Carolyn had two sons and a daughter. (10)________________, Phyllis had a son and a daughter. Finally, Norma had two daughters. Of course, It is difficult for me to describe or compare or contrast my uncles and aunts because they were all so different. In addition, they have (11)________________ across the land and are living in many parts of America.

maternal split homestead whose devout betrothed childbirth whom namesake even later spread out

Adjective. The mother’s side. Verbal. Cut in two. Noun. Free land. Relative Adjective. Religious. Verbal. Engaged to be married. Noun Relative Noun. Taking someone’s name as one’s own. Transition Verbal

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On my father’s side, my (1)_______________ grandfather’s name was Edward Donahue. His family originally moved east from New York, then Chicago, and finally (2)_______________ in Nebraska. (3)_______________, at a dance in Nebraska, he met my grandmother Esther and fell in love. Of their (4)_______________, four children were born: Bruce (my father), Roger, Gary, Kate, and Marilee. Sudenly, Bruce fell in love with my mother, Margaret Jean, around 1952 and they got married. Then, I was born in 1954 and have two brothers named Robert and David. Later, Roger was married and divorced and had one child. Gary was also married, divorced and after a long period, (5)_______________ and had two children. Kate had three children, a boy and two girls. Last of all, Marilee had 6 children. Two (6)_______________ , and four boys.

paternal farmed once union remarried girls

Adjective. Father’s side. Verbal Transition Noun. Married. Verbal Noun

My brother Robert was married (1)_______________ times and had a girl. David (2)_______________ married only once and has two children, one of whom is adopted. Robert is (3)_______________ divorced and unmarried. I married JoHanna in 1975 and we had a son named Ian. Our son, Ian, is now 25 years old. My wife’s family is originally from Italian (4)_______________. Sadly, her mother is now a widow because her husband passed away last year. Her (5)_______________ husband, Pat had many sisters and one brother. On the other hand, Lucille had many sisters and one brother. JoHanna has two sisters: the youngest, Michelle and the (6)_______________, Frankie. Michelle has been married several times and does not have children. Indeed, my wife, JoHanna, was the (7)_______________ for her current husband, Larry. Unlike Michelle, Frankie has been married for about 30 years and has three children. (8)_______________, she has two boys and a girl.

several got currently extraction deceased next in line matchmaker in fact

Adjective Verbal Adverb Noun. Your ethnic or racial background. Adjective Phrase Noun. A person who helps others get married. Ttransition

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Our son, Ian, has only six cousins. In addition, he has only four uncles and three aunts. He had four grandparents and a (1)_________________, but everyone has died except for my wife’s mother, his grandmother. JoHanna and I probably have 40 cousins or (2)_________________and many aunts and uncles (3)_________________. In fact, JoHanna’s sister and her brother-in-law are Ian’s (4)_________________ when he was baptized. I haven’t seen my godparents in many years. I currently have three sister-in-laws. The (5)_________________, Frankie, lives in New Jersey with her husband Stephen. The (6)_________________, Michelle lives in Florida with her husband Larry. My youngest brother, David lives in Oklahoma with his wife Janie. In addition, I have several nieces. One niece, Regina, lives in California. Robert’s daughter, Katelynn, lives in Iowa and is my youngest niece. Sarah is David’s child and she is my niece that lives in Oklahoma. I have three nephews. One nephew, Eric, is a teacher who lives in Delaware. In fact, he has one or two daughters who would be my (7)_________________. I know that his wife, Lis, is or was pregnant, so maybe a child (8)_________________. Another nephew, Aaron, is a college student in Connecticut who will soon be graduating college. Finally, my last nephew is Matthew who is my brother’s son and he is in (9)_________________ school in Oklahoma. step-grandparent second cousins godparents as well oldest youngest great-nieces has been born elementary Noun Noun Noun helper Adjective Adjective Noun Verbal Adjective

(1)________________, I am mostly in touch with my Florida family, including my mother-in-law, sisterin-law, and brother-in-law. But everyday, I think about my (2)________________ and my parents and stepfather, George Harty. When I go to church, I always say a prayer to my (3)________________ mother. I have been married 31 years to my wife, JoHanna, and I thank God everyday for this (4)________________. On my birthday, I think of my mother, and what it must have been like to have her (5)________________ son. (6)________________, and I remember my introduction, to (7)________________ and how it changed my life forever. While I am not close to some of my in-laws, I try to stay at least neutral with the whole family which is the (8)________________ of my life. In fact, I think often of my (9)________________, and the long line of my relatives who have passed away. However, I can’t say that I identify too much with my (10)________________because in my heart I am (11)________________ an American.

nowadays origins

Transition Noun

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dear union first it makes me recall fatherhood fabric ancestors ethnic origins simply

Adjective Noun Adjective Transition phrase Noun Noun Noun Noun phrase Adverb

(1)__________________ I wonder where our (2)__________________ will be living. But perhaps the idea of (3)__________________ will be expanded in the future. (4)__________________, family is being defined not just by blood or (5)__________________, but the fact our fellow (6)__________________ all share the same chromosomes, and the human race is in reality a race of brothers and sisters. In short, we are all (7)__________________. And in this motherhood, fatherhood, (8)__________________ and brotherhood relationship, we are all on a (9)__________________ of human love. sometimes descendents next of kin gradually offspring siblings race kith and kin sisterhood journey Transition Noun Noun. Your closest relatives. Transition Noun Noun. Brothers or sisters. Noun Noun. Combined phrase for all blood relatives. Noun Noun

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EXAMPLE

Finch: To begin with, this case should have never come to trial. The State has not produced one iota of medical evidence that the crime Tom Robinson is charged with ever took place. It has relied instead upon the testimony of witnesses whose evidence has not only been called into serious question on cross examination, but has been flatly contradicted by the defendant. Now there is circumstantial evidence to indicate that Mayella Ewell was beaten savagely by someone who led, almost exclusively, with his left [hand]. And Tom Robinson now sits before you, having taken "The Oath" with the only good hand he possesses--his right. (Harper Lee was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for her first and only novel, To Kill a Mockingbird. It also became an Academy Award-winning film starring Gregory Peck) Example essays, aslo known as expository essays explain the importance and value of some topic by providing evidence. The examples must be, of course, representative and accurate and truly illustrate the points being made. In fact, good example essays should contain two or three solid examples. Examples can include stories or anecdotes about friends or hypothetical examples. .

WRITING TASK Identify the topic. Identify the types of examples Identify what they mean to support the thesis KEY PHRASES

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An illustration of ____________ In this specific instance_______________ For one thing_______________ An ideal example is___________ DETAILS Paint a picture for the reader with details Build up details with a few examples Show what happens to the people described. CONCLUSION The conclusion may recap the key details and there can be a happy ending, an unhappy one, or an unresolved situation. The conclusion may explain a lesson learned by the actors.

EXAMPLE PHRASES E.G., In One Example As An Example Exemplify For Instance In This Instance In This Case A Case In Point Illustrate As An Illustration Of Consider As An Illustration Show Showed Showing Demonstrate Demonstrates Demonstrated Demonstrating Explain Explains Explained Explaining Clarify Clarified Clarifying Clarifies In Order Clarify Illuminate Illuminates Illuminated Illuminating Bring Light An Analogy Analogous Suppose That Specifically

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More Specifically In This Specific Instance Be Exact More Exactly In Particular More Particularly Such As Namely For One Thing That Is I.E., Indeed In Fact Incidentally In Other Words Put It Another Way Thus In Order Clarify Cite A Reference One Sample A Sampling Will Serve Show In The Following Manner In The Same Manner Another Way At The Same Time

( REMARKS BY PRESIDENT CLINTON AND THE FIRST LADY AT "MILLENNIUM AROUND THE WORLD" EVENT December 31, 1999 )

In the time it took the light from Orion to reach the Earth, Leif Erikson (1)_____________; Gutenberg (2)_____________; Galileo (3)_____________; Shakespeare (4)_____________; Elizabeth (5)_____________; Mozart (6)_____________; Jefferson (7)_____________; Bolivar (8)_____________; Lincoln (9)_____________; Einstein (10)_____________; Ataturk (11)_____________; Roosevelt (12)_____________; Gandhi (13)_____________; Mother Teresa (14)_____________; Mandela (15)_____________. sailed printed Verbal. To go by ship. Verbal. To use a printing press.

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dared wrote ruled composed drafted liberated preserved dreamed built led preached healed triumphed

Verbal. To do something risky. Verbal. To put pen to paper. Verbal. To command. Verbal. To create a musical score. Verbal. To write a first version. Verbal. To free people. Verbal. To maintain or hold together. Verbal. To use the imagination. Verbal. To construct. Verbal. To be a leader. Verbal. To offer philosophical or religious advice. Verbal. To cure someone. Verbal. To be victorious.

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(1)____________, owls can (2)____________ a wide variety of (3)____________ shapes and colors, (41)____________ may enhance their ability to survive and (5)____________. (6)____________, there are some species of white owls, which live comfortably in extremely remote, (7)____________ places, so their (8)____________have accustomed to the environment and (9)_________ the (10)____________snow. (11)____________, because of its (12)____________ coloring, those that live in (13)____________ or holes in the sand to better able to (14)____________ into the environment, and this (15)____________ protects them from potential enemies, (16)____________humans. (17)____________, owls are (18)____________ with large ears called (19)____________, (20)____________, at times, resemble the ears of a cat. (21)____________of these ears, they can more effectively hear the small animals or other prey they are (22)____________ during the night. (23)____________, the shape, coloration, and sense (24)____________ of owls all contribute to making them (25)____________ at survival in the (26)____________.

next possess different which thrive for example snowy feathers mimic white to illustrate brownish burrows blend camouflage such as in fact outfitted horns which can due to the design seeking in conclusion organs magnificent wild

Transition Verbal Adjective Relative Verbal. To live and prosper. Transition Adjective Noun Verbal Adjective Transition Adjective Noun. Holes in the ground. Verbal. To become one color Noun. To become one color with background. Helper Transition Verbal Noun. Like the horns of a cow. Helper Transition Verbal Transition Noun. Any part of the body that has a function. Adjective Noun

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(1)_____________________, it is very important (2)_____________________that the owl (3)_____________________ (5)_____________________ (7)_____________________ be animal, a (4)_____________________ (6)_____________________ and intelligent admired by and many

birdwatchers

(8)_____________________

professional

ornithologists. (9)_____________________ they are not hunted but hunting birds, many observing scientists have come to the conclusion that the owl (10)_____________________ extremely clever. (11)_____________________, eagles, some owl-lovers (12)_____________________ that they (13)_____________________ easily be compared to the majestic, (14)_____________________ who perhaps like two American symbols, one aptly representing the day and (15)_____________________, the other metaphorically, the night and (16)_____________________. (17)_____________________, because the night is the usual (18)_____________________ of the owl, most observers who seek owls, (19)_____________________ not usually observe them. Another reason Indeed, many the people who study owls have hooting a frequently sound thought seems to they some have a (20)_____________________ intellect is that many do seem (21)_____________________ questions. (22)_____________________ there is listeners owl (23)_____________________ hauntingly (24)_____________________ (26)_____________________ (27)_____________________. the English word “who” itself. So it seems (25)_____________________ with

that the animal is both clever, and perhaps linguistically

last to note can remarkably canny avidly amateur most because must be in fact posit might soaring power wisdom however domain may superb to pose eerie to echo

Transition Verbal Modal Adverb Adjective. Crafty or smart. Adverb. With enthusiasm. Adjective Helper Subordination Modal/verbal Transition Verbal. To ask a question. Modal Adjective. To fly like a bird. Noun Noun Transition Noun. An area that one controls. Helper Adjective Verbal Adjective. Scary or frightening. Verbal. When sound repeats like in a cave.

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that consensus aficionados gifted

Relative Noun. When all agree. Noun. Experts. Adjective

(1)_____________________, three important and (2)_____________________ aspects have been examined (3)_____________________ essential in describing the (4)_____________________ nightloving owl family. In fact, the majestic owls (5)_____________________to exhibit three main characteristics. (6)_____________________, first, the (7)_____________________ owls prefer to hunt at night in (8)_____________________ darkness and sleep in the brightness of day. (9)_____________________, owls have all sorts of (10)_____________________ shapes and colors. And last owls are (11)_____________________ and canny animals. (12)_____________________, I hope, it has been shown that each of these most (13)_____________________characteristics are equally important in helping the wise owl to (14)_____________________ efficiently out a (15)_____________________ in the natural ecosystem. (16)_____________________, let us recall the famous words of poet Thomas Gray, which mention the wise owl.

in conclusion main as omnipresent have been shown listing them in consecutive order wary pitch next varied wise in the above composition vital carve niche finally

Transition Adjective Helper Adjective. Everywhere at once. Verbal Transition Adjective. Careful and aware. Adjective. The frequency of the voice. Transition Adjective. Variety. Adjective Transition Adjective. Essential. Verbal. To cut with a knife. Noun. An area which animals live in. Transition

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Linguistic Ground Zero

In the movie Scarface, Al Pacino (1)_____________ a Cuban (2)_____________ as Tony Montana is in the bathtub watching TV, and he says to Manny, “ Look at dem pelicangs fly.” While Pacino’s laughable (3)_____________ accent was (4)_____________ with the help of a dialect (5)_____________, the (6)_____________ map of Miami is a (7)_____________ that is the (8)_____________ of New Americans because three out of five foreign-born Miamians are naturalized citizens. Sports accent Faux-Spanish Contrived Coach dialect mosaic Harbinger Verb. Wears. Pretends. Noun. Speaking English with a foreign influence. Adjective. Not a real accent. Pretend Verbal. Made up. Invented. Noun. A person that helps someone. Adjective. A sub language. Adjective. A combination. Noun. Something that predicts the future.

Ben Sheppard Elementary in Hialeah may well be the largest such school in the nation, with (1)______________ 3,000 students. (2)________________12.8 percent of Miami adults have completed college, (3)________________ to the national average of 20.3 percent. Half of all Miamians age five and over (4)________________ to either not speaking English at all or speaking it poorly; and 73 percent speak a language other than English at (5)________________. (6)________________, three out of five foreignborn Miamians are naturalized, suggesting that many of the early (7)________________ from Cuba have taken up U.S. citizenship. Of all of America's cities, only seven were revealed by the 1990 census to have more immigrants than native born. Miami is the largest city among this small number, and its (8)________________share (59.7%) is (9)________________to Hialeah (70.4%). With the growing foreign-born population, it is not surprising that of all Floridians age five and over, more than one in six (17.4%) (10)________________ English at home. And of those, 45.8 percent admit that they either speak no English or speak it (11)________________. In Dade County, (12)________________half (57.4%) do not speak English at home, and most of those (54.6%) either do not speak English at all or speak it poorly. These (13)________________ and numbers will have increased since the 1990 census with the continued (14)________________ in immigration, legal and illegal.

Almost Only Compared Admit Home However Arrivers

Helper. Nearly. Helper. Barely. Verbal. Verbal. Confess. Tell the truth. Noun. In the house. Transition. But Noun. Those who came first.

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Foreign-born Second only Do not speak Poorly Well over Proportions Surge

Noun. Those born overseas. Helper. Second place. Verbal. Do not use. Adverb. Not well Helper. More than half Noun. Amounts. Noun. Growth in numbers.

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DEFINITION

In a formal definition, the term to be defined is given, the class to which it belongs is identified, and how it is differentiated from that class is stated. For instance

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.

WRITING TASK Describe the topic. Tell stories about the topic Compare and contrast it to other things KEY PHRASES An definition of ____________ This can be defined as_______ The definition of ‘amor’ is not like the English ‘love’____ An ideal definition of a ___________ DETAILS Paint a picture for the reader with details Term up definitions with a few examples Class Differentiation Build Show what the defined thing does. CONCLUSION a domesticated, pet. A dog is a canine that is The conclusion may recap the key definitions and there can be a happy ending, an unhappy one, or an unresolvedis a language situation. Spanish quite unlike English. The conclusion may explain a lesson learned by the actors.

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DEFINITION Assign Denote Interpret Ascertain Ascertained Ascertaining Ascertains Assigned Assigning Assigns Characterizing Characterize Characterized Characterizes Construe Construed Construes Construing Decide Decided Decides Deciding Define Defined Defines Defining Definition Delineate Delineated Delineates Delineating Denominate Denominated Denominates Denominating Denoted Denotes Denoting Describe Described Describes Describing Designate Designated Designates Designating Detail Detailed Detailing Details Determine Determined Determines Determining

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Dub Dubbed Dubbing Dubs Elucidate Elucidated Elucidates Elucidating Entitle Entitled Entitles Entitling Etch Etched Etches Etching Exemplified Exemplified Exemplifies Exemplify Explain Explained Explaining Explains Expound Expounded Expounding Expounds Formal Formalize Formalized Formalizes Formalizing Illustrate Illustrated Illustrates Illustrating Interpreting Interprets Interpreted Label Labeled Labeling Labels Name Named Names Naming Prescribe Prescribed Prescribes Prescribing Represent Represented Representing Represents

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Specific Specified Specify Specifying Spell Out Spelled Out Spelling Out Spells Out Tag Tagged Tagging Tags Translate Translated Translates Translating

In the period between (1)____________________ of the English at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607, and the close of the French and Indian war in 1763—a period of a century and a half—a new nation was being (2)____________________ (4)____________________ and nationalities. on this continent to take its place (3)____________________ the of the earth. (5)____________________, it was an epoch of migration. the the English led the and were way. the Next to them in Into the

(6)____________________, western Europe contributed emigrants of many (7)____________________ (8)____________________, importance were (9)____________________ and Irish. Scotch-Irish of negroes Germans.

(10)____________________ were also (11)____________________ Dutch, Swedes, French, Jews, Welsh, (12)____________________, thousands brought from Africa (13)____________________ Southern fields or labor as domestic servants in the North.

the landing prepared among powers first overwhelmingly races overall numerical melting pot cast finally and sadly to till

Noun phrase Verbal Preposition Noun Transition Transition Noun Transition Adjective Noun phrase. A pot where candles are melted to make new candles. Verbal. To throw. The flashlight cast a light. Transition Verbal. To break the soil with a plow for seeds.

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PROCESS

The Common Grackle is an opportunistic forager, taking advantage of whatever food sources it can find. It will follow plows for invertebrates and mice, wade into water to catch small fish, and sometimes kill and eat other birds at bird feeders.

The process essay is commonly called the ‘How To’ essay because it tells you how to do something, usually in a step-by-step process. In a process essay, many times the pronoun “You” is used.

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Act Bring About Complete Get Ready Halt Look After Move Accomplish Accomplished Achieve Achieved Achieving Acted Acting Arrange Arranged Arranges Arranging Cause Close Completed Completes Completing Conclude Concludes Concluding Cook Cooked Cooking Cooks Create Created Creates Creating Determine

WRITING TASK Describe steps to achieve the topic. Tell them in sequence Use the Pronoun “You” KEY PHRASES An definition of ____________ This can be defined as_______ The definition of ‘amor’ is not like the English ‘love’____ An ideal definition of a ___________ DETAILS Paint a picture for the reader with details Build up definitions with a few examples Show what the defined thing does. CONCLUSION The conclusion may recap the key definitions and there can be a happy ending, an unhappy one, or an unresolved situation. The conclusion may explain a lesson learned by the actors.

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Determined Determines Determining Did Discharge Discharges Discharging Do Do Not Doing Done Don't Effect Effecting Effects End Ended Ending Ends Engage In Execute Executed Executes Executing Final Finally Finish Finished Finishes Finishing First Fix Fixed Fixes Fixing Fulfill Fulfilled Fulfilling Halted Halting Last Made Make Make Ready Makes Making Method Methods Moved Moves Moving Next Operate Operated Operates Operating

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Organize Organized Organizes Organizing Perform Performed Performing Performs Perk Preparation Preparations Prepare Prepared Prepares Preparing Produce Produced Produces Producing Pull Off Second See To Step Steps Succeed Succeeded Succeeding Take On Terminate Transact Undertake Way Ways Wind Up Work Worked Working Works Wrap It Up Wrap Up Wrapped It Up

(1)________________________ Do you know someone who does? Below is a “recipe” on how to reduce an accent in (2)________________________ . The three steps involve (3)________________________ of the English sound system, (4)________________________ of your individual sound system, and (5)________________________ of any differences between the two sound systems do you have a foreign accent? three easy steps knowledge awareness treatment Attention getter Rule of three Parallel noun Parallel noun Parallel noun

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(1)_______________ , a complete knowledge of the English sound system is an important step. There are three important parts to the English sound system. Of primary importance are the consonants. (2)_______________, English has 24 consonants. (3)_______________, the English vowels are important too. (4)_______________, English has about 16 vowels. (5)_______________, English does some weird things with words. The weird things that it does are called “adjustments.” (6)_______________, when you say the word “Printer,” many times it will sound like “Prinner,” if said quickly, with no T sound. (7)_______________ is phrases such as “Good Boy,” which sounds like “GooBoy,” when spoken rapidly. (8)_______________, you can see, knowledge of English consonants, vowels, and adjustments is an important subject.

first for example however to illustrate finally for example another example therefore

Transition Transition Transition Transition Transition Transition Transition Transition

Next, an awareness of your (1)___________ (2)___________ system is (3)___________ to improving your (4)___________ accent. Now, you probably speak your (5)___________ language perfectly. However, you may not have some of the sounds that are in English. For example, if you speak Spanish, you do not have the (6)___________ sound like in the word “Thin.” If you are a (7)___________ speaker, you may have trouble with the (8)___________ sound in the word “Hotel.” In summary, you can see that it is (9)___________ to be aware of you own (10)___________ (11)___________ system.

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individual sound essential english first th french h important language’s sound

Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective

Finally, now that you have knowledge of English and awareness of your language’s sound system, what (1)_______________ you do? You (2)_______________ your accent with exercises. First, you (3)_______________ a list of all your problem words. For example, (4)_______________ you are a Spanish speaker, you (5)_______________ to make a list of all the important words that contain TH, such as “Teeth” or “Through.” Another example for French speakers is to make a list of (6)_______________ the important words (7)_______________ begin with H and practice them, (8)_______________ “Help” or “Hero”. Finally, you (9)_______________ record yourself making these words and play them back while riding in the car. To summarize, to treat your accent you (10)_______________ the sounds (11)_______________ causing your accent and practice them.

should should treat should make if may want all that such as

Modal Modal and verb Modal and verb Subordinator Modal and verb Helper Relative Helper

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should tape should identify that are

Modal and verb Modal and verb Relative and verb

In conclusion, there (1)________________ three steps (2)________________ a foreign accent. First, (3)________________ knowledge about the English sound system. Second, (4)________________ aware of your own language’s sound system. Last, (5)________________ your accent with exercises or practice. (6)________________ me, (7)________________ you (8)________________ this advice, you (9)________________ English perfectly!

are to reducing gain become treat believe if follow will be speaking

Verbal Verbal Verbal Verbal Verbal Verbal Subordinator Verbal Verbal. Final thought or comment.

COMPARISON/CONTRAST

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In a comparison/contrast essay there must be a significant reason for comparing or contrasting the items. Second, there should always be some contrast between the items under discussion.

COMPARE AND
contradict counter differ differ from

WRITING TASK Compare 2 or more aspects of a thing or person. Compare a known item with an unknown one. Break down the components of the things compared. Compare 2 things to a larger context KEY PHRASES An contrast between ____________ A comparison between includes_______ While this is ________, the other item is_____ It is difficult to find two more different______ DETAILS Compare and contrast in the same paragraph Devote a paragraph to each item Show what the compared thing does. CONCLUSION The conclusion may recap the key comparisons and there can be a happy ending, an unhappy one, or an unresolved situation.

CONTRAST

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differentiate oppose the contrary the same extent a clear difference a comparable aspect a dissimilarity a distinct difference a distinctive a striking difference a strong distinction a strong resemblance affinity after all against akin also although although this may be true although true an opposing view an unlikeness analogous and yet another distinction another similarity anti as as compared with as well as at the same time at the same time balance but but at the same time by the same ken coincide comparable comparatively compare compared compares comparing conform consistent with contradictory contrarily contrary contrast contrasted contrasting contrasts conversely correlate correspondingly counter despite despite this fact diametrically opposed different from disproportionately dissimilar distinct divergent diverse equal equally equally important equate equivalent

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even so even though exactly farther faster for for all of that further harmonize homogeneous however identical identically in a similar fashion in another way in comparison in contrast in contrast this in like manner in much the same way in one way in opposition in relation in sharp contrast in spite of in the same manner in the same way instead just the same larger less like liken likened likeness likewise look like match matches matching more nevertheless nonetheless notwithstanding o of little difference of no difference on one hand on the contrary on the other hand opposing opposite otherwise parallel parallel paralleling pro rather relate relative relatively resemblance resemble resembling same as similar similarity similarly slower smaller

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still still another still yet synonymous with the antithesis of the next likeness the next variation the reverse order the third distinction though unbalanced unequal unequally unequivocally uniform uniformly unique unlike v. v., versus vs. vs., yet

.

"(1)______________, I wish the Bald Eagle had not been (2)______________ the Representative of our Country. He is a bird of bad (3)______________ Character. He does not get his living (4)______________ . You may have seen him

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(5)______________ on some dead tree near the River, where, too lazy to fish for himself, he watches the labor of the Fishing Hawk; and when that (6)______________ bird has at length taken a fish, and is (7)______________ it to his (8)______________ for the support of his mate and young ones, the Bald Eagle (9)______________ him and takes it from him.

for my own part chosen moral honestly perched diligent bearing nest pursues

Transition Verbal. Adjective. Knowing right from wrong Adverb. To be truthful Verbal. The way a bird sits on a tree branch Adjective. Hard working. Persistent Verbal. Carrying. Noun. The house of a bird Verbal. To chase something or someone.

"With all this injustice, […]he is generally poor and often very lousy. Besides he is a rank coward: The little King Bird, not bigger than a sparrow, attacks him boldly and drives him out of the district. He is therefore by no means a proper emblem for the brave and honest Cincinnati of America who have driven all the King birds from our Country . "(1)_________________, […]he is generally poor and often very (2)_______________. Besides he is a (3)_______________ coward: The little King Bird, not bigger than a (4)_______________, attacks him boldly and drives him out of the (5)_______________. He is (6)_______________ by no (7)_______________ a proper (8)_______________ for the brave and honest (9)_______________ of America who have driven all the King birds from our Country .

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with all this injustice lousy rank sparrow district therefore means emblem cincinnati

Subordinating Phrase. Noun. Very bad. Adjective. Total. Noun. A small brown bird Noun. Area Transition. So Noun. No matter. No way. Noun. Symbol, like a flag. Noun. Famous Roman leader.

"I am (1)__________________ not displeased that the figure is not known as a Bald Eagle, but looks more like a turkey. (2)__________________, the turkey is in comparison a (3)__________________ respectable bird, and a true original Native of America . (4)__________________, though a little (5)__________________ and silly, a bird of courage, and would not (6)__________________ to attack a Grenadier of the British Guards who (7)__________________ to invade his farm yard with a red coat on."

on this account for in truth much more he is besides vain hesitate should presume

Transition. For these reasons. Transition. As a matter of fact. Adjective/Adverb. Greater. Transition. In addition. Noun. A person who loves themselves. Verbal. Would not pause or wait. Verbal. Would dare to.

CLASSIFICATION

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Taxonomic Classification
       

Kingdom: Metazoa ((=Animalia) multicellular animals) Phylum: Chordata (chordates) Class: Aves (birds) Order: Pelecaniformes (pelicans, tropicbirds, cormorants, anhingas) Family: Anhingidae (anhingas) Genus: Anhinga Species: Anhinga anhinga Common Names: Anhinga, Snake-bird

Classification or division essays are the easiest to organize.A writer simply finds three facts or aspects about the subject and expands upon them.. WRITING TASK Divide and conquer the subject. Find three aspects of the subject. Expand with examples on each of these. KEY PHRASES

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There are three types of students__________ One can divide automobiles into three categories____________ Common traits include______ There are three main divisions at work DETAILS Use anecdotes or short narratives Do not omit important details like names of countries or people. Use transitions to guide the story along. CONCLUSION The conclusion may recap the key details and there can be a happy ending, an unhappy one, or an unresolved situation. The conclusion may explain a lesson learned by the writer.

First Second Third Third Last Last Of All Another Type Another Example The Next One Piece A Part A Second Part One Of The The Second Section First Step Second Segment Third Division The Last Process Classify Classifies Classified Classifying Group Groups Grouped Grouping Split Splits Splitted Splitting Divide Divides Dividing Divided Divide Further One Genus The Second Characteristic Another Class

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Another Category In This Category Subdivision Branch Branches Unit Units Section Sections Segment Segments Segmentation Part Parts Partition Element Elements The Elements Of In The Same Group In A Different Setting With This Arrangement Common Traits Uncommon Traits The Complete Completely The Entire Entirely Entire The Whole Wholly The Single The Multiple Multilevel Multistage Multifaceted Separate Separated From Segregate Distinct From Integrate Together With The Turkeys are (1)______________ American birds. Turkeys have the head and neck (2)______________ except for a few (3)______________ bristles. The neck is wrinkled and (4)______________. The tarsus is naked, covered with (5)______________, and, in the male, (6)______________. The tail is broad and rounded with fourteen to eighteen (7)______________ feathers. The male has a “beard” of coarse black (8)______________ hanging from the center of the upper breast.

distinctively naked stiff wattled

Adverb Adjective Adjective- not bending Adjective-fleshy. Like under the throat.

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scales spurred blunt bristles

Noun-like the skin of a fish. Adjective. Like the spurs on a cowboy’s boots. Adjective-not sharp Noun-very stiff hairs. Like the bristles of a brush.

(1)_________________, early in the sixteenth century, the Spanish conquerors invaded Mexico, they found the natives in possession of some large (2)_________________ birds which were extremely (3)_________________. (4)_________________, some were transferred to Spain and it was found they would (5)_________________ easily in captivity. (6)_________________these birds were introduced into France and England, and (7)_________________emigrants brought them back to America.

when domesticated toothsome later breed in time by and by

Transition Adjective. Can be raised in captivity. Adjective. Hard to chew. Transition Verbal. To mate and produce animals. Transition Transition. Over a period of time. Sporadically.

The (1)______________ Turkey in its native condition is (2)______________ a North American species. In fact, the wild birds in this country today (3)______________ inhabit (4)______________ woods and

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the borders of swamplands. (5)______________, in the southwest one (6)______________ look for them among the chaparral in the (7)______________ streams, or in the oak and pinon groves. wild distinctively chiefly deep on the other hand may neighborhood Adjective. Not civilized or domesticated. Adverb. Special. Adverb. Mainly Adjective. In the middle. Transition. Modal. Can. Noun. Near by.

Wild Turkeys are (1)_______________, and a strong (2)_______________ will have two or three hens under his (3)_______________. When the (4)_______________approaches, the hens (5)_______________and make their (6)_______________ in the grass or bushes in some open place in the woods. They hide their nests with (7)_______________, not only to avoid foxes and other (8)_______________ animals, but (9)_______________detection by the gobbler. It is (10)_______________ believed that he will break eggs if he (11)_______________a nest.

polygamists gobbler observation laying time steal away nests great care predatory to prevent unanimously comes upon

Adjective. To have more than one wife. Noun. The male turkey. Noun. Care or power of. Noun. Birds producing eggs. Verbal. To hide. Noun. Place where eggs are layed. Adverb phrase. Very carefully. Adjective. Animals that hunt other animals. Verbal Adverb. All agree. Verbal. Encounter or find.

1899 THE BLUE HOTEL by Stephen Crane Chapter 1 The Palace Hotel at Fort Romper was painted a light blue, a shade that is on the legs of a kind of heron, causing the bird to declare its position against any background. The Palace Hotel, then, was always screaming and howling in a way that made the dazzling winter landscape of Nebraska seem only a gray swamp-like hush. It stood alone on the prairie, and when the snow was falling the town two hundred yards away was not visible. But when the traveler alighted at the railway station he was obliged to pass the Palace Hotel before he could come upon the company of low wooden houses which composed Fort Romper, and it was not to be thought that any traveler could pass the Palace Hotel without looking at it. Pat Scully, the proprietor, had proved himself a master of strategy when he chose his paints. It is true that on clear days, when the great trans-continental

52

trains, long lines of swaying boxcars, swept through Fort Romper, passengers were overcome at the sight, and the cult that knows the brown-reds and the subdivisions of the dark greens of the East expressed shame, pity, horror, in a laugh. But to the citizens of this prairie town, and to the people who would naturally stop there, Pat Scully had performed a feat. With this opulence and splendor, these creeds, classes, egotisms, that streamed through Romper on the rails day after day, they had no color in common. As if the displayed delights of such a blue hotel were not sufficiently enticing, it was Scully's habit to go every morning and evening to meet the leisurely trains that stopped at Romper and work his seductions upon any man that he might see wavering, luggage in hand. Name ___________________________________________ Directions: Read the first word in each line. Draw a circle around the other word or words in the line that means about the same as the first word. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 dazzling 11 swaying 12 overcome 13 pity 14 swept 15 proprietor student owner friend Looked around missed Tripped passed through visitor pain sympathy size appearance Become old produce Make helpless remember looking chasing singing rocking loyal bright guilty afraid TERM shade howling prairie delights splendor heron landscape shame obliged wavering Word 1 ditch wailing Frozen lake beaches beauty Poisonous snake prince disgrace mended unsure Word 2 color trapping swamp clubs fruit ridge scenery purpose hoped shallow Word 3 window carrying forest joys age stone office material required poor Word 4 tray finding Grassy plain riddles location Wading bird music anger yelled necessary

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16 rails 17 through 18 opulence 19 feat 20 mistake skillful act injury work garden nest luxury below away within near tracks songs clouds hills

COMPARISON/CONTRAST

54

In a comparison/contrast essay is that there must be a significant reason for comparing or contrasting the items.. Second, there must be a clear reason for comparing or contrasting the items in the essay.
WRITING TASK Compare two things to prove which is more valuable. Use a commonly known item to compare/contrast with an unknown one. Methodically analyze two items. Focus on comparison of things in a larger context ORGANIZATION Point-by-Point in same paragraph Devote a paragraph to each topic KEY PHRASES Compared to ______ is In contrast _____ For the first time I realized that this thing was _____ The central difference involves ________ DETAILS Select appropriate details What details will best help the reader see why this comparison and contrast is important and relevant? Select an appropriate order Order by time, space, theme, or some other logical pattern that fits the thing being described CONCLUSION The conclusion may recap the key details emphasizing the dominant impression. The conclusion may explain the significance, importance, or value of this thing to the writer and wrap up the comparison

. Franklin's Letter to His Daughter (excerpt)

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"(1)_________________, […]he is generally poor and often very (2)_______________. Besides he is a (3)_______________ coward: The little King Bird, not bigger than a (4)_______________, attacks him boldly and drives him out of the (5)_______________. He is (6)_______________ by no (7)_______________ a proper (8)_______________ for the brave and honest (9)_______________ of America who have driven all the King birds from our Country .

with all this injustice lousy rank sparrow district therefore means emblem cincinnati

Subordinating Phrase. Noun. Very bad. Adjective. Total. Noun. A small brown bird Noun. Area Transition. So Noun. No matter. No way. Noun. Symbol, like a flag. Noun. Famous Roman leader.

"I am (1)__________________ not displeased that the figure is not known as a Bald Eagle, but looks more like a turkey. (2)__________________, the turkey is in comparison a (3)__________________ respectable bird, and a true original Native of America . (4)__________________, though a little (5)__________________ and silly, a bird of courage, and would not (6)__________________ to attack a Grenadier of the British Guards who (7)__________________ to invade his farm yard with a red coat on."

on this account for in truth much more

Transition. For these reasons. Transition. As a matter of fact. Adjective/Adverb. Greater.

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he is besides vain hesitate should presume

Transition. In addition. Noun. A person who loves themselves. Verbal. Would not pause or wait. Verbal. Would dare to.

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CAUSE/EFFECT
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Today 50% of South Florida’s original wetland areas no longer exist. The numbers of wading birds, such as egrets, herons, and ibises, have been reduced by 90%. Entire populations of animals, including the manatee, the Cape Sable seaside sparrow, the Miami blackheaded snake, the wood stork, and the Florida panther, are at risk of disappearing. Exotic pest plants such as melaleuca, Brazilian pepper, and Australian pine have invaded natural areas, choking out native plants and altering habitats. Massive die-offs of seagrass beds in Florida Bay have been followed by the extensive losses of wading birds, fish, shrimp, sponges, and mangroves. These grim indicators warn of a system under assault and in jeopardy of collapse.

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WRITING TASK Show the direct or indirect connection between two events. Use couching terms such as: some, many, frequently Methodically analyze the connection between two items. Frame things in IF ………. THEN format ORGANIZATION

The logical inference is _____________ Point-by-Point in same paragraph Devote a paragraph to each topic DETAILS Select appropriate details thatPHRASEScausal connection KEY show the What should occurr ______ then If this details will best help the reader see why this cause/effect and contrast conditions and relevant? Should theseis importantbe met then …. Select an appropriate order can expect ______ If and when this occurs, we Order by time, space, theme, or

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some other logical pattern that fits the thing being described CONCLUSION Avoid faulty or illogical conclusions. Fallacies. Overeggareation. The conclusion may explain the significance, importance, or value of this thing to the writer and wrap up the comparison

The Cause and Effect essay explains why something happened or why two events are connected. For example, a student that attends class, does all the homework, and participates is the cause of getting a good grade (the effect).

. .

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CAUSE/EFFECT Accordingly Incidentally By The Way Owing To Effect Effects In Effect Impact Impacts Impacted Impacting Due To Result Results Resulting Resulted As A Result As A Result Of Resulted In The End Result The End Product The By-Product Of The Outcome The Outgrowth The Aftermath The Ramifications Of As A Consequence Consequently Consequentially In Conclusion After Following That Eventually Further Furthermore Subsequently It Follows That Created Cause Causes Causing Caused Causation Caused By Because Because Of Because Of This For This Purpose Reason For This Reason For These Reasons By Reason Of In View Of Hence Henceforth Otherwise Since Then Therefore Thereafter

Thereupon Thus To This End With This Object So In Fact Of Course In Short Little By Little Gradually On This Account On Account Of Made Make Making Produced Produces Producing Yielded Generated Induced Induces Inducing Started Starts Start Starting Precipitated Precipitates Precipitating Initiated Initiates Initiating Initiate Launched Launch Launches Launching

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In the period between (1)____________________ of the English at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607, and the close of the French and Indian war in 1763—a period of a century and a half—a new nation was being (2)____________________ of the earth. (5)____________________, western Europe it was an epoch of on this migration. of many continent to take its place (3)____________________ the (4)____________________ (6)____________________, contributed emigrants

(7)____________________ and nationalities. (8)____________________, the English led the way. Next to them in (9)____________________ importance were the ScotchIrish and the Germans. Into the (10)____________________ were also (11)____________________ Dutch, Swedes, French, Jews, Welsh, and Irish.

(12)____________________, thousands of negroes were brought from Africa (13)____________________ Southern fields or labor as domestic servants in the North.

the landing prepared among powers first overwhelmingly races overall numerical melting pot cast finally and sadly to till

Noun phrase Verbal Preposition Noun Transition Transition Noun Transition Adjective Noun phrase. A pot where candles are melted to make new candles. Verbal. To throw. The flashlight cast a light. Transition Verbal. To break the soil with a plow for seeds.

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(1)___________________ The reasons are various. (2)___________________, the Pilgrims and Puritans of New England, the French Huguenots, Scotch-Irish and Irish, and the Catholics of Maryland, (3)___________________ from (4)___________________ governments that denied them the right to worship God according to the dictates of their consciences. (5)___________________ came to escape the (6)___________________ of poverty in the Old World and to find free homes in America. (7)___________________, like the negroes from Africa, were (8)___________________ here against their (9)___________________. The (10)___________________ of adventure (11)___________________ to the restless and the lure of profits to the (12)___________________ merchants

why did they come? some of them fled intolerant thousands bondage thousands dragged will lure appealed enterprising

Phrase. Attention Getter. Phrase used as subject. Verbal. To escape. Adjective. To not allow differences of opinion. Noun. Used as subject. Noun. In prison-like conditions. Noun. Used as subject. Verbal. Opposite of pulled. Noun. Human ability to have free choice. Noun. Something that attracks. Like a worm on a hook to catch a fish. Verbal. Enticed. Attracted. Verbal. When people are inventive or work hard.

The CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES WE the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

people order form union justice tranquility defence

noun Logic transition Verbal Noun Noun Noun-peaceful Noun 64

general blessings posterity ordain

Adjective Noun Noun-descendants Verbal-order to

WE the (1)_______________ of the United States, in (2)_______________ (3)_______________ a more perfect (4)_______________,

establish

(5)_______________, insure domestic (6)_______________, provide for the common (7)_______________, promote the (8)_______________ welfare, and secure the (9)_______________ of liberty to ourselves and our (10)_______________, do (11)_______________ and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

ARTICLE I Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

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establishment prohibiting abridging to assemble redress

Noun. To create. Verbal. Stopping. Verbal. Stopping. Verbal. To gather. Noun. To compain about.

Congress shall make (1)____________ law respecting an (2)____________ religion, or (3)____________ the free exercise thereof; or (4)____________

of the

freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably (5)____________, and to petition the government for a (6)____________ of grievances.

( REMARKS BY PRESIDENT CLINTON AND THE FIRST LADY AT "MILLENNIUM AROUND THE WORLD" EVENTDecember 31, 1999 ) In the time it took the light from Orion to reach the Earth, Leif Erikson sailed; Gutenberg printed; Galileo dared; Shakespeare wrote; Elizabeth ruled; Mozart composed; Jefferson drafted; Bolivar liberated; Lincoln preserved; Einstein dreamed; Ataturk built; Roosevelt led; Gandhi preached; Mother Teresa healed; Mandela triumphed.

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In the time it took the light from Orion to reach the Earth, Leif Erikson (1)_____________; Gutenberg (2)_____________; Galileo (3)_____________; Shakespeare (4)_____________; Elizabeth (5)_____________; Mozart (6)_____________; Jefferson (7)_____________; Bolivar (8)_____________; Lincoln (9)_____________; Einstein (10)_____________; Ataturk (11)_____________; Roosevelt (12)_____________; Gandhi (13)_____________; Mother Teresa (14)_____________; Mandela (15)_____________. sailed printed dared wrote ruled composed drafted liberated preserved dreamed built led preached healed triumphed Verbal. To go by ship. Verbal. To use a printing press. Verbal. To do something risky. Verbal. To put pen to paper. Verbal. To command. Verbal. To create a musical score. Verbal. To write a first version. Verbal. To free people. Verbal. To maintain or hold together. Verbal. To use the imagination. Verbal. To construct. Verbal. To be a leader. Verbal. To offer philosophical or religious advice. Verbal. To cure someone. Verbal. To be victorious.

(1)____________,

owls

can

(2)____________

a

wide

variety

of

(3)____________ shapes and colors, (41)____________ may enhance their ability to survive and (5)____________. (6)____________, there are some species of white owls, which live comfortably in extremely remote, (7)____________ places, so their (8)____________have accustomed to the environment and (9)_________ the (10)____________snow. (11)____________, because of its (12)____________ coloring, those that live in (13)____________ or holes in the sand to better able to (14)____________ into the environment, and this (15)____________ protects them from potential enemies, (16)____________humans. (17)____________, owls are 67

(18)____________ with large ears called (19)____________, (20)____________, at times, resemble the ears of a cat. (21)____________of these ears, they can more effectively hear the small animals or other prey they are (22)____________ during the night. (23)____________, the shape, coloration, and sense (24)____________ of owls all contribute to making them (25)____________ at survival in the (26)____________.

next possess different which thrive for example snowy feathers mimic white to illustrate brownish burrows blend camouflage such as in fact outfitted horns which can due to the design seeking in conclusion organs magnificent wild

Transition Verbal Adjective Relative Verbal. To live and prosper. Transition Adjective Noun Verbal Adjective Transition Adjective Noun. Holes in the ground. Verbal. To become one color Noun. To become one color with background. Helper Transition Verbal Noun. Like the horns of a cow. Helper Transition Verbal Transition Noun. Any part of the body that has a function. Adjective Noun

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(1)_____________________, (2)_____________________that (6)_____________________ birdwatchers and the

it owl by

is

very

important be a

(3)_____________________ many

(4)_____________________ intelligent and (5)_____________________ animal, admired (7)_____________________ professional ornithologists. (8)_____________________

(9)_____________________ they are not hunted but hunting birds, many observing scientists have come to the conclusion that the owl (10)_____________________ extremely clever. (11)_____________________, some owl-lovers (12)_____________________ that two American symbols, one the they (13)_____________________ easily be aptly other representing metaphorically, the the day night and and

compared to the majestic, (14)_____________________ eagles, who perhaps like (15)_____________________,

(16)_____________________. (17)_____________________, because the night is the usual (18)_____________________ of the owl, most observers who seek owls, (19)_____________________ not usually observe them. people who study owls have intellect frequently is (20)_____________________ that Another reason many they do have a many seem thought

(21)_____________________ questions. Indeed, the (22)_____________________ hooting sound seems to some listeners (23)_____________________ hauntingly the English word “who” itself. So it seems (24)_____________________ there is a (25)_____________________ with owl (26)_____________________ that the animal is both clever, and perhaps linguistically (27)_____________________.

last to note can remarkably canny avidly amateur most because

Transition Verbal Modal Adverb Adjective. Crafty or smart. Adverb. With enthusiasm. Adjective Helper Subordination

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must be in fact posit might soaring power wisdom however domain may superb to pose eerie to echo that consensus aficionados gifted

Modal/verbal Transition Verbal. To ask a question. Modal Adjective. To fly like a bird. Noun Noun Transition Noun. An area that one controls. Helper Adjective Verbal Adjective. Scary or frightening. Verbal. When sound repeats like in a cave. Relative Noun. When all agree. Noun. Experts. Adjective

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(1)_____________________, three important and (2)_____________________ aspects have been examined (3)_____________________ essential in describing the (4)_____________________ night-loving owl family. In fact, the majestic owls (5)_____________________to exhibit three main characteristics. (6)_____________________, first, the (7)_____________________ owls prefer to hunt at night in (8)_____________________ darkness and sleep in the brightness of day. (9)_____________________, owls have all sorts of (10)_____________________ shapes and colors. And last owls are (11)_____________________ and canny animals. (12)_____________________, I hope, it has been shown that each of these most (13)_____________________characteristics are equally important in helping the wise owl to (14)_____________________ efficiently out a (15)_____________________ in the natural ecosystem. (16)_____________________, let us recall the famous words of poet Thomas Gray, which mention the wise owl.

In conclusion, three important and main aspects have been examined as essential in describing the omnipresent night-loving owl family. In fact, the majestic owls have been shown to exhibit three main characteristics. Listing them in consecutive order, first, the wary owls prefer to hunt at night in pitch darkness and sleep in the brightness of day. Next, owls have all sorts of vaired shapes and colors. And last owls are wise and canny animals.In the above composition, I hope, it has been shown that each of these most vital characteristics are equally important in helping the wise owl to carve efficiently out a niche in the natural ecosystem.Finally, let us recall the famous words of poet Thomas Gray, which mention the wise owl. in conclusion main as omnipresent have been shown listing them in consecutive order wary pitch next varied wise Transition Adjective Helper Adjective. Everywhere at once. Verbal Transition Adjective. Careful and aware. Adjective. The frequency of the voice. Transition Adjective. Variety. Adjective

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in the above composition vital carve niche finally

Transition Adjective. Essential. Verbal. To cut with a knife. Noun. An area which animals live in. Transition

In the period between the landing of the English at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607, and the close of the French and Indian war in 1763—a period of a century and a half—a new nation was being prepared on this continent to take its place among the powers of the earth. First, it was an epoch of migration. Overwhelmingly, western Europe contributed emigrants of many races and nationalities. Overall, the English led the way. Next to them in numerical importance were the Scotch-Irish and the Germans. Into the melting pot were also cast Dutch, Swedes, French, Jews, Welsh, and Irish. Finally and sadly, thousands of negroes were brought from Africa to till Southern fields or labor as domestic servants in the North.

In the period between (1)____________________ of the English at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607, and the close of the French and Indian war in 1763—a period of a century and a half—a new nation was being (2)____________________ on this continent to take its place (3)____________________ the (4)____________________ 72

of

the

earth.

(5)____________________, western Europe

it

was

an

epoch

of

migration. of many

(6)____________________,

contributed

emigrants

(7)____________________ and nationalities. (8)____________________, the English led the way. Next to them in (9)____________________ importance were the ScotchIrish and the Germans. Into the (10)____________________ were also (11)____________________ Dutch, Swedes, French, Jews, Welsh, and Irish.

(12)____________________, thousands of negroes were brought from Africa (13)____________________ Southern fields or labor as domestic servants in the North.

the landing prepared among powers first overwhelmingly races overall numerical melting pot cast finally and sadly to till

Noun phrase Verbal Preposition Noun Transition Transition Noun Transition Adjective Noun phrase. A pot where candles are melted to make new candles. Verbal. To throw. The flashlight cast a light. Transition Verbal. To break the soil with a plow for seeds.

Do you have a foreign accent? Do you know someone who does? Below is a “recipe” on how to reduce an accent in three easy steps. The three steps involve knowledge of the English sound system, awareness of your individual sound system, and treatment of any differences between the two sound systems. do you have a foreign accent? three easy steps knowledge awareness Attention getter Rule of three Parallel noun Parallel noun 73

treatment

Parallel noun

(1)________________________ Do you know someone who does? Below is a “recipe” on how to reduce an accent in (2)________________________ . The three steps involve (3)________________________ of the English sound system, (4)________________________ of your individual sound system, and (5)________________________ of any differences between the two sound systems.

First , a complete knowledge of the English sound system is an important step. There are three important parts to the English sound system. Of primary importance are the consonants. For example, English has 24 consonants. However, the English vowels are important too. To illustrate, English has about 16 vowels. Finally, English does some weird things with words. The weird things that it does are called “adjustments.” For example, when you say the word “Printer,” many times it will sound like “Prinner,” if said quickly, with no T sound. Another example is phrases such as “Good Boy,” which sounds like “GooBoy,” when spoken rapidly. Therefore, you can see, knowledge of English consonants, vowels, and adjustments is an important subject. first for example however to illustrate finally for example another example Transition Transition Transition Transition Transition Transition Transition

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therefore

Transition

(1)_______________ , a complete knowledge of the English sound system is an important step. There are three important parts to the English sound system. Of primary importance are the consonants. (2)_______________, English has 24 consonants. (3)_______________, the English vowels are important too. (4)_______________, English has about 16 vowels. (5)_______________, English does some weird things with words. The weird things that it does are called “adjustments.” (6)_______________, when you say the word “Printer,” many times it will sound like “Prinner,” if said quickly, with no T sound. (7)_______________ is phrases such as “Good Boy,” which sounds like “GooBoy,” when spoken rapidly. (8)_______________, you can see, knowledge of English consonants, vowels, and adjustments is an important subject.

Next, an awareness of your individual sound system is essential to improving your English accent. Now, you probably speak your first language perfectly. However, you may not have some of the sounds that are in English. For example, if you speak Spanish, you do not have the TH sound like in the word “Thin.” If you are a French speaker, you may have trouble with the H sound in the word “Hotel.” In summary, you can see that it is important to be aware of you own language’s sound system. individual sound essential english first th french h important language’s sound Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective

Next, an awareness of your (1)___________ (2)___________ system is (3)___________ to improving your (4)___________ accent. Now, you probably speak your (5)___________ language perfectly. However, you may not have some of the 75

sounds that are in English. For example, if you speak Spanish, you do not have the (6)___________ sound like in the word “Thin.” If you are a (7)___________ speaker, you may have trouble with the (8)___________ sound in the word “Hotel.” In summary, you can see that it is (9)___________ to be aware of you own (10)___________ (11)___________ system.

Finally, now that you have knowledge of English and awareness of your language’s sound system, what should you do? You should treat your accent with exercises. First, you should make a list of all your problem words. For example, if you are a Spanish speaker, you may want to make a list of all the important words that contain TH, such as “Teeth” or “Through.” Another example for French speakers is to make a list of all the important words that begin with H and practice them, such as “Help” or “Hero”. Finally, you should tape record yourself making these words and play them back while riding in the car. To summarize, to treat your accent you should identify the sounds that are causing your accent and practice them. Finally, now that you have knowledge of English and awareness of your language’s sound system, what (1)_______________ you do? You (2)_______________ your accent with exercises. First, you (3)_______________ a list of all your problem words. For example, (4)_______________ you are a Spanish speaker, you (5)_______________ to make a list of all the important words that contain TH, such as “Teeth” or “Through.” Another example for French speakers is to make a list of (6)_______________ the important words (7)_______________ begin with H and practice them, (8)_______________ “Help” or “Hero”. Finally, you (9)_______________ record yourself making these words and play them back while riding in the car. To summarize, to treat your accent you (10)_______________ the sounds (11)_______________ causing your accent and practice them.

should should treat should make if may want all that

Modal Modal and verb Modal and verb Subordinator Modal and verb Helper Relative

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such as should tape should identify that are

Helper Modal and verb Modal and verb Relative and verb

In conclusion, there are three steps to reducing a foreign accent. First, gain knowledge about the English sound system. Second, become aware of your own language’s sound system. Last, treat your accent with exercises or practice. Believe me, if you follow this advice, you will be speaking English perfectly! are to reducing gain become treat believe if follow will be speaking Verbal Verbal Verbal Verbal Verbal Verbal Subordinator Verbal Verbal

In conclusion, there (1)________________ three steps (2)________________ a foreign accent. First, (3)________________ knowledge about the English sound system. Second, (4)________________ aware of your own language’s sound system. Last, (5)________________ your accent with exercises or practice. (6)________________ me, (7)________________ you (8)________________ this advice, you (9)________________ English perfectly!

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First of all, I have a large family and many relatives. My family name is Donahue, which is ultimately a surname of Irish etymology. However, my family’s origins and strands are from various countries and diverse cultures, such as: Ireland, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and Holland. In fact, the geographical and ethnic origins of my family are mostly from northern European stock. Above all, my family of relatives has witnessed the entire circle and celebration of family relationships: pregnancy, births, confirmations, first communions, holidays, Christmas, Thanksgiving, engagements, marriage, divorce, adoption, grandparents, great-grandchildren, step-fathers, stepmothers, step-sisters, step-brothers, death, but always familial love in all of its dimensions. family name surname etymology strands diverse geographical and ethnic stock relatives step-fathers familial dimensions Noun phrase Noun. A person’s last name. Noun. Word origin. Noun. Different pieces of string. Adjective Noun phrase Noun. Ethnicity. Genetic background. Noun Noun Adjective. From family. Noun

First of all, I have a large family and many relatives. My (1)_______________ is Donahue, which is ultimately a (2)_______________ of Irish (3)_______________. However, my family’s origins and (4)_______________ are from various countries and (5)_______________ cultures, such as: Ireland, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and Holland. In fact, the (6)_______________ origins of my family are mostly from northern European (7)_______________. Above all, my family of (8)_______________ has witnessed the entire circle and celebration of family relationships: pregnancy, births, confirmations, first communions, holidays, Christmas, Thanksgiving, engagements, marriage, divorce, adoption, grandparents, great-grandchildren, (9)_______________, step-mothers, step-sisters, step-brothers, death, but always (10)_______________ love in all of its (11)_______________.

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My maternal grandfather’s name was Glen Hanson on my mother’s side. His parents were born in Richland, Wisconsin. However, their parents came from Norway, which later split into two countries: Sweden and Norway. Initially, they farmed in Wisconsin until the second generation eventually moved out to South Dakota to homestead and found a family farm. In South Dakota, he fell in love and married my grandmother whose name was Kundi. Significantly, she was a devout German Catholic, while my grandfather was a Presbyterian. Nonetheless, the were betrothed, then married. Between them, they had seven children: Leonard, Margaret, Evelyn, Carolyn, Phyllis, Norma. Sadly, one child died at childbirth—Jean, the name of whom my own mother, Margaret took as her middle namesake. Leonard had two sons. Next, Margaret had three sons. Later, Evelyn had a son and a daughter. Then, Carolyn had two sons and a daughter. Even later, Phyllis had a son and a daughter. Finally, Norma had two daughters. Of course, It is difficult for me to describe or compare or contrast my uncles and aunts because they were all so different. In addition, they have spread out across the land and are living in many parts of America. maternal split homestead whose devout betrothed childbirth whom namesake even later Adjective. The mother’s side. Verbal. Cut in two. Noun. Free land. Relative Adjective. Religious. Verbal. Engaged to be married. Noun Relative Noun. Taking someone’s name as one’s own. Transition

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spread out

Verbal

My (1)________________ grandfather’s name was Glen Hanson on my mother’s side. His parents were born in Richland, Wisconsin. However, their parents came from Norway, which later (2)________________ into two countries: Sweden and Norway. Initially, they farmed in Wisconsin until the second generation eventually moved out to South Dakota to (3)________________ and found a family farm. In South Dakota, he fell in love and married my grandmother (4)________________ name was Kundi. Significantly, she was a (5)________________ German Catholic, while my grandfather was a Presbyterian. Nonetheless, the were (6)________________, then married. Between them, they had seven children: Leonard, Margaret, Evelyn, Carolyn, Phyllis, Norma. Sadly, one child died at (7)________________ —Jean, the name of (8)________________ my own mother, Margaret took as her middle (9)________________. Leonard had two sons. Next, Margaret had three sons. Later, Evelyn had a son and a daughter. Then, Carolyn had two sons and a daughter. (10)________________, Phyllis had a son and a daughter. Finally, Norma had two daughters. Of course, It is difficult for me to describe or compare or contrast my uncles and aunts because they were all so different. In addition, they have (11)________________ across the land and are living in many parts of America.

On my father’s side, my paternal grandfather’s name was Edward Donahue. His family originally moved east from New York, then Chicago, and finally farmed in Nebraska. Once, at a dance in Nebraska, he met my grandmother Esther and fell in love. Of their 80

union, four children were born: Bruce (my father), Roger, Gary, Kate, and Marilee. Sudenly, Bruce fell in love with my mother, Margaret Jean, around 1952 and they got married. Then, I was born in 1954 and have two brothers named Robert and David. Later, Roger was married and divorced and had one child. Gary was also married, divorced and after a long period, remarried and had two children. Kate had three children, a boy and two girls. Last of all, Marilee had 6 children. Two girls, and four boys. paternal farmed once union remarried girls Adjective. Father’s side. Verbal Transition Noun. Married. Verbal Noun

On my father’s side, my (1)_______________ grandfather’s name was Edward Donahue. His family originally moved east from New York, then Chicago, and finally (2)_______________ in Nebraska. (3)_______________, at a dance in Nebraska, he met my grandmother Esther and fell in love. Of their (4)_______________, four children were born: Bruce (my father), Roger, Gary, Kate, and Marilee. Sudenly, Bruce fell in love with my mother, Margaret Jean, around 1952 and they got married. Then, I was born in 1954 and have two brothers named Robert and David. Later, Roger was married and divorced and had one child. Gary was also married, divorced and after a long period, (5)_______________ and had two children. Kate had three children, a boy and two girls. Last of all, Marilee had 6 children. Two (6)_______________ , and four boys.

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My brother Robert was married several times and had a girl. David got married only once and has two children, one of whom is adopted. Robert is currently divorced and unmarried. I married JoHanna in 1975 and we had a son named Ian. Our son, Ian, is now 25 years old. My wife’s family is originally from Italian extraction. Sadly, her mother is now a widow because her husband passed away last year. Her deceased husband, Pat had many sisters and one brother. On the other hand, Lucille had many sisters and one brother. JoHanna has two sisters: the youngest, Michelle and the next in line, Frankie. Michelle has been married several times and does not have children. Indeed, my wife, JoHanna, was the matchmaker for her current husband, Larry. Unlike Michelle, Frankie has been married for about 30 years and has three children. In fact, she has two boys and a girl.

several got currently extraction deceased next in line matchmaker in fact

Adjective Verbal Adverb Noun. Your ethnic or racial background. Adjective Phrase Noun. A person who helps others get married. Ttransition

My brother Robert was married (1)_______________ times and had a girl. David (2)_______________ married only once and has two children, one of whom is adopted. Robert is (3)_______________ divorced and unmarried. I married JoHanna in 1975 and we had a son named Ian. Our son, Ian, is now 25 years old. My wife’s family is originally from Italian (4)_______________. Sadly, her mother is now a widow because her husband passed away last year. Her (5)_______________ husband, Pat had many

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sisters and one brother. On the other hand, Lucille had many sisters and one brother. JoHanna has two sisters: the youngest, Michelle and the (6)_______________, Frankie. Michelle has been married several times and does not have children. Indeed, my wife, JoHanna, was the (7)_______________ for her current husband, Larry. Unlike Michelle, Frankie has been married for about 30 years and has three children. (8)_______________, she has two boys and a girl.

Our son, Ian, has only six cousins. In addition, he has only four uncles and three aunts. He had four grandparents and a step-grandparent, but everyone has died except for my wife’s mother, his grandmother. JoHanna and I probably have 40 cousins or secondcousins and many aunts and uncles as well. In fact, JoHanna’s sister and her brother-inlaw are Ian’s godparents when he was baptized. I haven’t seen my godparents in many years. I currently have three sister-in-laws. The oldest, Frankie, lives in New Jersey with her husband Stephen. The youngest, Michelle lives in Florida with her husband Larry. My youngest brother, David lives in Oklahoma with his wife Janie. In addition, I have several nieces. One niece, Regina, lives in California. Robert’s daughter, Katelynn, lives in Iowa and is my youngest niece. Sarah is David’s child and she is my niece that lives in Oklahoma. I have three nephews. One nephew, Eric, is a teacher who lives in Delaware. In fact, he has one or two daughters who would be my great-nieces. I know that his wife,

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Lis, is or was pregnant, so maybe a child has been born. Another nephew, Aaron, is a college student in Connecticut who will soon be graduating college. Finally, my last nephew is Matthew who is my brother’s son and he is in elementary school in Oklahoma. step-grandparent second cousins godparents as well oldest youngest great-nieces has been born elementary Noun Noun Noun helper Adjective Adjective Noun Verbal Adjective

Our son, Ian, has only six cousins. In addition, he has only four uncles and three aunts. He had four grandparents and a (1)_________________, but everyone has died except for my wife’s mother, his grandmother. JoHanna and I probably have 40 cousins or (2)_________________and many aunts and uncles (3)_________________. In fact, JoHanna’s sister and her brother-in-law are Ian’s (4)_________________ when he was baptized. I haven’t seen my godparents in many years. I currently have three sister-inlaws. The (5)_________________, Frankie, lives in New Jersey with her husband Stephen. The (6)_________________, Michelle lives in Florida with her husband Larry. My youngest brother, David lives in Oklahoma with his wife Janie. In addition, I have several nieces. One niece, Regina, lives in California. Robert’s daughter, Katelynn, lives in Iowa and is my youngest niece. Sarah is David’s child and she is my niece that lives in Oklahoma. I have three nephews. One nephew, Eric, is a teacher who lives in Delaware. In fact, he has one or two daughters who would be my (7)_________________. I know that his wife, Lis, is or was pregnant, so maybe a child (8)_________________. Another nephew, Aaron, is a college student in Connecticut who will soon be graduating college. Finally, my last nephew is Matthew who is my brother’s son and he is in (9)_________________ school in Oklahoma.

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Nowadays, I am mostly in touch with my Florida family, including my mother-in-law, sister-in-law, and brother-in-law. But everyday, I think about my origins and my parents and step-father, George Harty. When I go to church, I always say a prayer to my dear mother. I have been married 31 years to my wife, JoHanna, and I thank God everyday for this union. On my birthday, I think of my mother, and what it must have been like to have her first son. It makes me recall, and I remember my introduction, to fatherhood and how it changed my life forever. While I am not close to some of my in-laws, I try to stay at least neutral with the whole family which is the fabric of my life. In fact, I think often of my ancestors, and the long line of my relatives who have passed away. However, I can’t say that I identify too much with my ethnic origins because in my heart I am simply an American. nowadays origins dear union first it makes me recall fatherhood fabric ancestors ethnic origins simply Transition Noun Adjective Noun Adjective Transition phrase Noun Noun Noun Noun phrase Adverb

(1)________________, I am mostly in touch with my Florida family, including my mother-in-law, sister-in-law, and brother-in-law. But everyday, I think about my (2)________________ and my parents and step-father, George Harty. When I go to church, I always say a prayer to my (3)________________ mother. I have been married 31 years to my wife, JoHanna, and I thank God everyday for this (4)________________. On my birthday, I think of my mother, and what it must have been like to have her (5)________________ son. (6)________________, and I remember my introduction, to 85

(7)________________ and how it changed my life forever. While I am not close to some of my in-laws, I try to stay at least neutral with the whole family which is the (8)________________ of my life. In fact, I think often of my (9)________________, and the long line of my relatives who have passed away. However, I can’t say that I identify too much with my (10)________________because in my heart I am (11)________________ an American.

Sometimes I wonder where our descendents will be living. But perhaps the idea of next of kin will be expanded in the future. Gradually, family is being defined not just by blood or offspring, but the fact our fellow siblings all share the same chromosomes, and the human race is in reality a race of brothers and sisters. In short, we are all kith and kin. And in this motherhood, fatherhood, sisterhood and brotherhood relationship, we are all on a journey of human love. sometimes descendents next of kin gradually offspring siblings race kith and kin sisterhood journey Transition Noun Noun. Your closest relatives. Transition Noun Noun. Brothers or sisters. Noun Noun. Combined phrase for all blood relatives. Noun Noun

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(1)__________________ I wonder where our (2)__________________ will be living. But perhaps the idea of (3)__________________ will be expanded in the future. (4)__________________, family is being defined not just by blood or (5)__________________, but the fact our fellow (6)__________________ all share the same chromosomes, and the human race is in reality a race of brothers and sisters. In short, we are all (7)__________________. And in this motherhood, fatherhood, (8)__________________ and brotherhood relationship, we are all on a (9)__________________ of human love.

The Turkeys are distinctively American birds. Turkeys have the head and neck naked except for a few stiff bristles. The neck is wrinkled and wattled. The tarsus is naked, covered with scales, and, in the male, spurred. The tail is broad and rounded with 87

fourteen to eighteen blunt feathers. The male has a “beard” of coarse black bristles hanging from the center of the upper breast. distinctively naked stiff wattled scales spurred blunt bristles Adverb Adjective Adjective- not bending Adjective-fleshy. Like under the throat. Noun-like the skin of a fish. Adjective. Like the spurs on a cowboy’s boots. Adjective-not sharp Noun-very stiff hairs. Like the bristles of a brush.

The Turkeys are (1)______________ American birds. Turkeys have the head and neck (2)______________ except for a few (3)______________ bristles. The neck is wrinkled and (4)______________. The tarsus is naked, covered with (5)______________, and, in the male, (6)______________. The tail is broad and rounded with fourteen to eighteen (7)______________ feathers. The male has a “beard” of coarse black (8)______________ hanging from the center of the upper breast.

When, early in the sixteenth century, the Spanish conquerors invaded Mexico, they found the natives in possession of some large domesticated birds which were extremely toothsome. Later, some were transferred to Spain and it was found they would breed easily in captivity. In time these birds were introduced into France and England, and by and by emigrants brought them back to America. when Transition domesticated Adjective. Can be raised in captivity. toothsome Adjective. Hard to chew. later Transition breed Verbal. To mate and produce animals. in time Transition by and by Transition. Over a period of time. Sporadically.

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(1)_________________, early in the sixteenth century, the Spanish conquerors invaded Mexico, they found the natives in possession of some large (2)_________________ birds which were extremely (3)_________________. (4)_________________, some were transferred to Spain and it was found they would (5)_________________ easily in captivity. (6)_________________these birds were introduced into France and England, and (7)_________________emigrants brought them back to America.

The wild Turkey in its native condition is distinctively a North American species. In fact, the wild birds in this country today chiefly inhabit deep woods and the borders of swamplands. On the other hand, in the southwest one may look for them among the chaparral in the neighborhood of streams, or in the oak and pinon groves.

The (1)______________ Turkey in its native condition is (2)______________ a North American species. In fact, the wild birds in this country today (3)______________ inhabit

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(4)______________ woods and the borders of swamplands. (5)______________, in the southwest one (6)______________ look for them among the chaparral in the (7)______________ streams, or in the oak and pinon groves.

Wild Turkeys are polygamists, and a strong gobbler will have two or three hens under his observation. When the laying time approaches, the hens steal away and make their nests in the grass or bushes in some open place in the woods. They hide their nests with great care, not only to avoid foxes and other predatory animals, but to prevent detection by the gobbler. It is unanimously believed that he will break eggs if he comes upon a nest. polygamists gobbler observation laying time steal away nests great care predatory to prevent unanimously comes upon Adjective. To have more than one wife. Noun. The male turkey. Noun. Care or power of. Noun. Birds producing eggs. Verbal. To hide. Noun. Place where eggs are layed. Adverb phrase. Very carefully. Adjective. Animals that hunt other animals. Verbal Adverb. All agree. Verbal. Encounter or find.

Wild Turkeys are (1)_______________, and a strong (2)_______________ will have two or three hens under his (3)_______________. When the (4)_______________approaches, the hens (5)_______________and make their (6)_______________ in the grass or bushes in some open place in the woods. They hide their nests with (7)_______________, not only to avoid foxes and other (8)_______________ animals, but (9)_______________detection by the gobbler. It is (10)_______________ believed that he will break eggs if he (11)_______________a nest.

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Why did they come? The reasons are various. Some of them, the Pilgrims and Puritans of New England, the French Huguenots, Scotch-Irish and Irish, and the Catholics of Maryland, fled from intolerant governments that denied them the right to worship God according to the dictates of their consciences. Others came to escape the bondage of poverty in the Old World and to find free homes in America. Yet others, like the negroes from Africa, were dragged here against their will. In summary, the lure of adventure appealed to the restless and the lure of profits to the enterprising merchants. why did they come? some of them fled intolerant others bondage yet others dragged will in summary lure appealed enterprising Attention getter. Hook Transition and subject Verbal. To leave Adjective. Not accepting other views or beliefs Noun as subject imprisonment Transition and subject Verbal. Opposite of pulled. Noun. Freedom of choice. transition Noun. Something which attracks. Fisherman use lures to catch fish. verbal

wild distinctively chiefly deep on the other hand may neighborhood of

Adjective Adverb Adverb. Main part. Adjective Transition Modal Phrase. Near by.

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Why did they come? The reasons are various. Some of them, the Pilgrims and Puritans of New England, the French Huguenots, Scotch-Irish and Irish, and the Catholics of Maryland, fled from intolerant governments that denied them the right to worship God according to the dictates of their consciences. Thousands came to escape the bondage of poverty in the Old World and to find free homes in America. Thousands, like the negroes from Africa, were dragged here against their will. The lure of adventure appealed to the restless and the lure of profits to the enterprising merchants. why did they come? some of them fled intolerant thousands bondage thousands dragged will lure appealed enterprising
Phrase. Attention Getter. Phrase used as subject. Verbal. To escape. Adjective. To not allow differences of opinion. Noun. Used as subject. Noun. In prison-like conditions. Noun. Used as subject. Verbal. Opposite of pulled. Noun. Human ability to have free choice. Noun. Something that attracks. Like a worm on a hook to catch a fish. Verbal. Enticed. Attracted. Verbal. When people are inventive or work hard.

(1)___________________ The reasons are various. (2)___________________, the Pilgrims and Puritans of New England, the French Huguenots, Scotch-Irish and Irish, and the Catholics of Maryland, (3)___________________ from (4)___________________ governments that denied them the right to worship God according to the dictates of their consciences. (5)___________________ came to escape the (6)___________________ of poverty in the Old World and to find free homes in America. (7)___________________, like the negroes from Africa, were (8)___________________ here against their (9)___________________. The (10)___________________ of

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adventure (11)___________________ to the restless and the lure of profits to the (12)___________________ merchants.

Whatever the motive for immigrants coming; however, they managed to get across the sea. The immigrants set to work with a will. They cut down forests, built houses, and laid out fields. They founded churches, schools, and colleges. They set up forges and workshops. They spun and wove. They fashioned ships and sailed the seas. They bartered and traded. Here and there on favorable harbors they established centers of commerce—Boston, Providence, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Charleston. As soon as a firm foothold was secured on the shore line they pressed westward until, by the close of the colonial period, they were already on the crest of the Alleghanies. motive however managed set will cut built laid out founded forges spun fashioned bartered established foothold crest Noun. Reason to do something. Transition. Notice semicolon and comma. Verbal. Were able to do. Verbal. To begin. Noun. Determination to succeed. Verbal. To chop or severe. Verbal. To construct. Verbal. To plant or set the borders of. Verbal. To create something the first time. Noun. A place where iron utensils are created. Verb. To make thread into clothing. Verb. To create or make. Verb. To exchange goods without money. Verbal. To create for the first time. Build. Noun. To establish a first place. Noun. The top of a mountain. The peak.

Whatever the (1)_________________ for immigrants coming; (2)_________________, they (3)_________________ to get across the sea. The immigrants

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(4)_________________ to work with a (5)_________________. They (6)_________________ down forests, (7)_________________ houses, and (8)_________________ fields. They (9)_________________ churches, schools, and colleges. They set up (10)_________________ and workshops. They (11)_________________ and wove. They (12)_________________ ships and sailed the seas. They (13)_________________ and traded. Here and there on favorable harbors they (14)_________________ centers of commerce—Boston, Providence, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Charleston. As soon as a firm (15)_________________ was secured on the shore line they pressed westward until, by the close of the colonial period, they were already on the (16)_________________ of the Alleghanies.

More irritating laws were passed by the British Parliament against the American colonists. Rioting appeared in the streets of cities. Tea was dumped in the harbor of Boston and seized in the harbor of Charleston. The British answer was more force. The response of the colonists was establishing Continental Congress for defense. Then an unexpected and unintended clash of arms at Lexington and Concord in the spring of 1775 brought forth from the king of England a proclamation: "The Americans are rebels!" So, the die was cast, and the American Revolution had begun. George Washington was made commander-in-chief. Armies were raised, money was borrowed, a huge volume of paper currency was issued, and foreign aid was summoned. Benjamin Franklin plied his diplomatic arts at Paris, and in 1778 he induced France to throw her sword into the balance. Three years later, British General Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown. In 1783, by the formal treaty of peace, King George III acknowledged the independence of the United States. The new nation, endowed with an imperial domain stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River, began its career among the sovereign powers of the earth. irritating Adjective. Causing a problem

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appeared dumped establishing clash forth die made raised borrowed. issued summoned plied induced sword surrendered endowed sovereign

Verbal.To become seeable Verbal. To drop Verbal. To found or create. Noun. Fight. Particle.Bring to the front or make known. Noun. A mold for forming molten metal. Verbal. To create. Verbal. To lift up. Verbal. To obtain money that has to be repaid. Verbal. To produce. Verbal. To call. Verbal. To apply one’s skills. Verbal. Convince someone. Noun. A large knife for fighting. Verbal. To give up. To be given or receive. Adjective. Independent countries.

More (1)__________________ laws were passed by the British Parliament against the American colonists. Rioting (2)__________________ in the streets of cities. Tea was (3)__________________ in the harbor of Boston and seized in the harbor of Charleston. The British answer was more (1)__________________. The response of the colonists was (4)__________________ Continental Congress for defense. Then an unexpected and unintended (5)__________________ of arms at Lexington and Concord in the from the king of England a George Washington was spring of 1775 brought (6)__________________ and the American Revolution had begun.

proclamation: "The Americans are rebels!" So, the (7)__________________ was cast, (8)__________________ commander-in-chief. Armies were (9)__________________, money was (10)__________________, a huge volume of paper currency was (11)__________________, and foreign aid was (12)__________________. Benjamin Franklin (13)__________________ (14)__________________ his diplomatic arts at Paris, and in 1778 he into the at France to throw her (15)__________________

balance. Three years later, British General Cornwallis (16)__________________

Yorktown. In 1783, by the formal treaty of peace, King George III acknowledged the independence of the United States. The new nation, (17)__________________ with an

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imperial domain stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River, began its career among the (18)__________________ powers of the earth.

Right now, American schools are aiming to low because competency in reading and math is the meagre minimum. Reading and math have been the sole focus of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) testing, such as the Florida FCAT. Today’s economy requires not ony high-level competence in academic disciplines but also 21st century skills. Such skills include knowing more about the world, thinking outside the box , becoming smarter about new sources of information, and developing good people skills. right now aiming competency meagre sole requires knowing thinking becoming developing Transition. Immediately. Nowadays. Verbal. To target something. Noun. Ability to do something. Adjective. The bare minimum. Very little. Adjective. Only Verbal. Neccesary. Required. Verbal. Knowledge. Verbal. To use the mind. Verbal. To change. To grow.

(1)________________, American schools are (2)________________ to low because (3)________________ in reading and math is the (4)________________ minimum. Reading and math have been the (5)________________ focus of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) testing, such as the Florida FCAT. Today’s economy (6)________________ not ony high-level competence in academic disciplines but also 21st century skills. Such skills include (7)________________ more about the world, (8)________________ outside the box , (9)________________ smarter about new sources of information, and (10)________________ good people skills.

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9/11 speech by President George W Bush Address to the Nation September 11th 2001

Good evening. Today, our fellow citizens, our way of life, our very freedom came under attack in a series of deliberate and deadly terrorist acts. The victims were in airplanes, or in their offices; secretaries, businessmen and women, military and federal workers; moms and dads, friends and neighbors. Thousands of lives were suddenly ended by evil, despicable acts of terror. fellow deliberate suddenly despicable Adjective. Related. In common. Adjective. Planned in advance. Adverb. Quickly. Without warning. Adjective. Extremely horrible.

Good evening. Today, our (1)_____________ citizens, our way of life, our very freedom came under attack in a series of (2)_____________ and deadly terrorist acts. The victims were in airplanes, or in their offices; secretaries, businessmen and women, military and federal workers; moms and dads, friends and neighbors. Thousands of lives were (3)_____________ ended by evil, (4)_____________ acts of terror.

The pictures of airplanes flying into buildings, fires burning, huge structures collapsing, have filled us with disbelief, terrible sadness, and a quiet, unyielding anger. These acts of mass murder were intended to frighten our nation into chaos and retreat. But they have failed; our country is strong.

flying

Verbal. To go in the air.

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burning collapsing filled unyielding mass chaos

Verbal. To ignite on fire. Verbal. To fall down. Verbal. To make full or complete. Adjective. Not giving up or decreasing. Adjective. Wholesale. Many. Noun. Without any order.

The pictures of airplanes (1)____________ into buildings, fires (2)____________, huge structures (3)____________, have (4)____________ us with disbelief, terrible sadness, and a quiet, (5)____________ anger. These acts of (6)____________ murder were intended to frighten our nation into (7)____________ and retreat. But they have failed; our country is strong.

A great people has been moved to defend a great nation. Terrorist attacks can shake the foundations of our biggest buildings, but they cannot touch the foundation of America. These acts shattered steel, but they cannot dent the steel of American resolve.

great great shake foundations foundation

Adjective. Important. Adjective. Important. Verbal. To move back and forth. Noun. The supporting structure. Noun. The supporting principles.

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shattered dent

Adjective. To break in many pieces. Verbal. To hit something and make a mark.

A (1)______________people has been moved to defend a (2)______________ nation. Terrorist attacks can (3)______________ the (4)______________ of our biggest buildings, but they cannot touch the (5)______________ of America. These acts (6)______________ steel, but they cannot (7)______________ the steel of American resolve.

Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way--in short, the period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received, for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only. worst Noun. Superlative of bad. foolishness Noun. To be a fool or stupid. 99

incredulity darkness despair everything direct to noisiest

Noun. Not believing. To doubt. Noun. Opposite of light. Noun. To be without hope. Noun. All. Preposition. Straight. Adjective. Not quite. Lots of noise.

It was the best of times, it was the (1)__________________ of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of (2)__________________, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of (3)__________________, it was the season of Light, it was the season of (4)__________________, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of (5)__________________, we had (6)__________________ before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going (7)__________________ to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way--in short, the period was so far like the present period, that some of its (8)__________________ authorities insisted on its being received, for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only.

Edgar Allen Poe The Raven Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary, Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore-While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping, As of some one gently rapping--rapping at my chamber door. "'Tis some visitor," I muttered, "tapping at my chamber door-Only this and nothing more." dreary weary quaint tapping rapping tapping Adjective. Very sad and dark. Adjective. Extremely tired. Adjective. Not sophisticated. Noun. A knock. Noun. A hard knock. Noun. A knock.

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more

Noun. Additional.

Once upon a midnight (1)____________, while I pondered, weak and (2)____________, Over many a (3)____________ and curious volume of forgotten lore-While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a (4)____________, As of some one gently rapping—(5)____________ at my chamber door. "'Tis some visitor," I muttered, "(6)____________ at my chamber door-Only this and nothing (7)____________."

Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen Chapter 1 It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife. universally single in want of Adverb. Agreed by all. Adjective. Alone. Phrase. Need. Looking for.

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It is a truth (1)___________ acknowledged, that a (2)___________ man in possession of a good fortune, must be (3)___________ a wife.

William Shakespeare Hamlet. To be, or not to be,--that is the question:-Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end them?--To die,--to sleep,-to be question nobler slings Verbal. To exist. Noun. Something that is asked. Adjective. To be kingly. To act with honor. Noun. A weapon that throws stones. 102

sea

Noun. Metaphor meaning a huge amount.

To be, or not (1)_________,--that is the (2)_________:-Whether 'tis (3)_________ in the mind to suffer The (4)_________ and arrows of outrageous fortune Or to take arms against a (5)_________ of troubles, And by opposing end them?--To die,--to sleep,--

In 1953, David Riesman penned The Lonely Crowd: A Study of the Changing American Character which raised questions about conformity and individuality in postwar America. Similarly, in the 2004 award-winning movie, Crash, Detective Graham (Don Cheadle) says at the beginning: “In L.A., nobody touches you. We're always behind this metal and glass. I think we miss that touch so much that we crash into each other just so we can feel something.” This similar, cumulative loneliness in today’s crowded Internet is a phenomena whose trajectory for human learning and understanding is yet unknown. penned raised Verbal. To write. Verbal. To bring up. To elevate.

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cumulative phenomena trajectory yet

Adjective. Adding up. Things that accumulate. Noun. Plural. Something that happens and can be seen or felt. Noun. The path or route. Helper. Still not determined.

In 1953, David Riesman (1)________________ The Lonely Crowd: A Study of the Changing American Character which (2)________________ questions about conformity and individuality in post-war America. Similarly, in the 2004 award-winning movie, Crash, Detective Graham (Don Cheadle) says at the beginning: “In L.A., nobody touches you. We're always behind this metal and glass. I think we miss that touch so much that we crash into each other just so we can feel something.” This similar, (3)________________ loneliness in today’s crowded Internet is a (4)________________ whose (5)________________ for human learning and understanding is (6)________________ unknown.

Job applicants are routinely “Googled,” a verb that has now made it into the new Webster Dictionary, before they are interviewed. Whether the information contained on billions of Web sites is reliable or not: the proclivity to do search engine background checks is a growing phenomenon. A trend which wholly blends the private and the public life of an individual into one massive digital file—archived somewhere, probably, at a server farm on a pastoral river in Oregon. routinely whether proclivity phenomenon wholly massive Adverb. As a matter of course. All the time. Subordination. If. In case. Noun. A tendency towards. Usually done. Noun. Singular. Something that can be seen or felt. Adverb. Totally. Adjective. Gigantic. Huge. Big. 104

archived pastoral

Verbal. Stored and listed. Adjective. Peaceful. Like Eden.

Job applicants are (1)_____________ “Googled,” a verb that has now made it into the new Webster Dictionary, before they are interviewed. (2)_____________ the information contained on billions of Web sites is reliable or not: the (3)_____________ to do search engine background checks is a growing (4)_____________. A trend which (5)_____________ blends the private and the public life of an individual into one (6)_____________ digital file—(7)_____________ somewhere, probably, at a server farm on a (8)_____________ river in Oregon.

So the Internet is a combative world, a looking glass, that paradoxically keeps people apart, while bringing them together. Indeed, I have gone to three weddings this past year where the parties met over the Internet and matchmaking services are legion on the Web. Moreover, when users go online, their psychological barriers are down, particularly adolescents, and information is divulged willingly, and digitized forever. Whither this trend will lead is not hard to discern: personal privacy, as known and defined in the past, is exactly that—it is past. However, its overall impact on education is still on a future not yet written—if there will yet be writers after the post-war convergence of technologies. combative Adjective. Fighting. glass Noun. A looking glass is a mirror. paradoxically. Adverb. Contradiction. Opposite. met over Verbal. To meet. To get together. 105

matchmaking legion barriers digitized. whither discern impact yet convergence

Noun. To introduce a future husband and wife. Adjective. A great many. A huge amount. Noun. Obstacles. Something that stops. Verbal. To reduce information to 1s and zeros. Helper. Where to. Verbal. To determine. To see. To visualize. Noun. To affect or change something. Helper. Still not. Noun. When things come together.

So the Internet is a (1)______________ world, a looking (2)______________, that (3)______________ keeps people apart, while bringing them together. Indeed, I have gone to three weddings this past year where the parties (4)______________ the Internet and (5)______________ services are (6)______________ on the Web. Moreover, when users go online, their psychological (7)______________ are down, particularly adolescents, and information is divulged willingly, and (8)______________ forever. (9)______________ this trend will lead is not hard to (10)______________: personal privacy, as known and defined in the past, is exactly that—it is past. However, its overall (11)______________ on education is still on a future not (12)______________ written—if there will yet be writers after the post-war (13)______________ of technologies.

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Probably no candidate for the presidency ever had such passionate popular support as Andrew Jackson had in 1828. He was truly a man of the people. Born of poor parents in the upland region of South Carolina, schooled in poverty and adversity, without the advantages of education or the refinements of cultivated leisure, he seemed the embodiment of the spirit of the new American democracy. Early in his youth he had gone into the frontier of Tennessee where he soon won a name as a fearless and intrepid Indian fighter. On the march and in camp, he endeared himself to his men by sharing their hardships, sleeping on the ground with them, and eating parched corn when nothing better could be found for the privates. From local prominence he sprang into national fame by his exploit at the battle of New Orleans. of the people schooled adversity embodiment frontier intrepid endeared parched prominence sprang Phrase. Same as everyone. Verbal. To learn from experience. Noun. Hard or difficult times. Noun. The body of or the perfect example. Noun. The edge of civilization. Adjective. Without fear. Fearless. Verbal. To make people love you. Adjective. Very dry. Noun. To become famous or important. Verbal. To make something jump.

(1)______________ no candidate for the presidency ever had such (2)______________ popular support as Andrew Jackson had in 1828. He was truly a man (3)______________. Born of poor parents in the upland region of South Carolina, (4)______________ in poverty and (5)______________, without the advantages of education or the refinements of cultivated leisure, he seemed the (6)______________ of the spirit of the new American democracy. Early in his youth he had gone into the (7)______________ of Tennessee where he soon won a name as a fearless and (8)______________ Indian fighter. On the march and in camp, he (9)______________ himself to his men by sharing their hardships, sleeping on the ground with them, and eating (10)______________ corn when nothing better could be found for the privates. From local (11)______________ he (12)______________ into national fame by his exploit at the battle of New Orleans.

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Alexis de Tocqueville, a French liberal of mildly democratic sympathies, made a journey to this country in 1831. He described in a very remarkable volume, Democracy in America, the grand experiment as he saw it. On the whole he was convinced. After examining with a critical eye the life and labor of the American people, as well as the constitutions of the states and the nation, he came to the conclusion that democracy with all its faults was both inevitable and successful. Slavery he thought was a painful contrast to the other features of American life, and he foresaw what proved to be the irrepressible conflict over it. He believed that through blundering the people were destined to learn the highest of all arts and self-government on a grand scale. The absence of a leisure class de Tocqueville thought a necessary virtue in the republic. "Amongst a democratic people where there is no hereditary wealth, every man works to earn a living, or has worked, or is born of parents who have worked. A notion of labor is therefore presented to the mind on every side as the necessary, natural, and honest condition of human existence. remarkable Adjective. Special. grand Adjective. Very large. Important. on the whole Phrase. Overall. Completely. inevitable and successful Noun phrase. Will happen for sure and have a good outcome. irrepressible Adjective. Cannot be stopped or repressed. blundering Noun. To make many mistakes. grand scale Noun phrase. In a huge fashion. virtue Noun. To good parts of a person or thing. earn a living Noun phrase. To go to work and make money. honest Adjective. To tell the truth.

Alexis de Tocqueville, a French liberal of mildly democratic sympathies, made a journey to this country in 1831. He described in a very (1)______________ volume, Democracy in America, the (2)______________ experiment as he saw it. (3)______________ he was convinced. After examining with a critical eye the life and labor of the American people, as well as the constitutions of the states and the nation, he came to the conclusion that democracy with all its faults was both (4)______________. Slavery he thought was a painful contrast to the other features of American life, and he foresaw what proved to be the (5)______________ conflict over it. He believed that through (6)______________ the people were destined to learn the highest of all arts and self-government on a

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(7)______________. The absence of a leisure class de Tocqueville thought a necessary (8)______________ in the republic. "Amongst a democratic people where there is no hereditary wealth, every man works to (9)______________, or has worked, or is born of parents who have worked. A notion of labor is therefore presented to the mind on every side as the necessary, natural, and (10)______________ condition of human existence.

In 1802, Jefferson sent his friend, James Monroe, to France with the power to buy New Orleans and West Florida. Before Monroe arrived, the regular minister, Livingston, had already convinced Napoleon that it would be well to sell territory which might be wrested from him at any moment by the British sea power, especially as the war, temporarily stopped by the peace of Amiens, was once more raging in Europe. He was simply dazed when Napoleon offered to sell the entire domain and get rid of the business altogether. Though staggered by the proposal, he and Monroe decided to accept. On April 30, they signed the treaty of cession, agreeing to pay $11,250,000 in six per cent bonds and to discharge certain debts due French citizens. Spain protested, Napoleon's brother fumed, French newspapers objected, but the deed was done."We shall not send an emigrant beyond the Mississippi in a hundred years," lamented Livingston, the principal author of the Louisiana purchase. power Noun. Potentcy. Strength. convinced Verbal. To make someone change their mind. wrested Verb. To take a way from someone with a twisting motion. raging Adjective. On fire. In full force. dazed Verbal. Stunned. Taken back. Shocked. staggered Verbal. Stunned. Off balance. Shocked. cession Noun. Give up. protested Verb. To complain. fumed Verbal. Angry. On fire. objected Verbal. To complain. Raise a complaint. deed Noun. An act. An accomplished act. lamented Verbal. Complained. Cried about. In 1802, Jefferson sent his friend, James Monroe, to France with the (1)_____________________ to buy New Orleans and West Florida. Before Monroe arrived, the regular minister, Livingston, had already (2)_____________________

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Napoleon that it would be well to sell territory which might be (3)_____________________ from him at any moment by the British sea power, especially as the war, temporarily stopped by the peace of Amiens, was once more (4)_____________________ in Europe. He was simply (5)_____________________ when Napoleon offered to sell the entire domain and get rid of the business altogether. Though (6)_____________________ by the proposal, he and Monroe decided to accept. On April 30, they signed the treaty of (7)_____________________, agreeing to pay $11,250,000 in six per cent bonds and to discharge certain debts due French citizens. Spain (8)_____________________, Napoleon's brother (9)_____________________, French newspapers (10)_____________________, but the (11)_____________________ was done."We shall not send an emigrant beyond the Mississippi in a hundred years," (12)_____________________ Livingston, the principal author of the Louisiana purchase.

President Monroe, on the occasion of an Indian outbreak, ordered General Jackson to seize the offenders, in the Floridas, if necessary. The high-spirited warrior, taking this as a hint that he was to occupy the coveted region, replied that, if possession was the object of the invasion, he could occupy the Floridas within sixty days. Without waiting for an answer to this letter, he launched his expedition, and in the spring of 1818 was master of the Spanish king's domain to the south. occasion outbreak seize high-spirited hint coveted answer Noun. Anniversary or date. Verbal. To start something like a fight. Verbal. To grab or take by force. Adjective. Full of energy and pride. Noun. A clue to some meaning. Adjective. Something everyone wants. Noun. The solution to a question. A reply.

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launched master

Verbal. To let boat go. To start something. Noun. To be the ruler or king of something.

President Monroe, on the (1)______________ of an Indian (2)______________, ordered General Jackson to (3)______________ the offenders, in the Floridas, if necessary. The (4)______________ warrior, taking this as a (5)______________ that he was to occupy the (6)______________ region, replied that, if possession was the object of the invasion, he could occupy the Floridas within sixty days. Without waiting for an (7)______________ to this letter, he (8)______________ his expedition, and in the spring of 1818 was (9)______________ of the Spanish king's domain to the south.

There was nothing for the king of Spain to do but to make the best of the inevitable by ceding the Floridas to the United States in return for five million dollars to be paid to American citizens having claims against Spain. On Washington's birthday, 1819, the treaty was signed. It ceded the Floridas to the United States and defined the boundary between Mexico and the United States by drawing a line from the mouth of the Sabine River in a northwesterly direction to the Pacific. inevitable ceding claims ceded defined Noun. Something that is going to happen. Verbal. To give something up. Noun. Debts or something owed to someone. Verbal. To give up something. Verbal. To describe.

There was nothing for the king of Spain to do but to make the best of the (1)______________by (2)______________ the Floridas to the United States in return for five million dollars to be paid to American citizens having (3)______________ against 111

Spain. On Washington's birthday, 1819, the treaty was signed. It (4)______________ the Floridas to the United States and (5)______________ the boundary between Mexico and the United States by drawing a line from the mouth of the Sabine River in a northwesterly direction to the Pacific.

Tired of waiting, returned Cubans reach Keys again Miami Herald December 16, 2006 Seven Cubans arrived in the United States a second time Friday, almost a year after they were repatriated because they first landed on an abandoned Florida Keys bridge not considered U.S. territory by immigration authorities.

second almost repatriated first abandoned considered

Adjective. More than once. Helper. Nearly. Just about. Verbal. Brought back to your original country. Adjective. The premier time. Adjective. Something no longer in use. Verbal. An opinion or judgement.

Seven Cubans arrived in the United States a (1)___________ time Friday, (2)___________ a year after they were (3)___________ because they (4)___________ landed on an (5)___________ Florida Keys bridge not (6)___________ U.S. territory by immigration authorities.

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Although a federal judge later said they should have been allowed to stay and the United States issued them visas, relatives said they grew tired of waiting for the Cuban government’s permission to leave the island and took off on a homemade boat. although later allowed issued grew homemade Subordination. Even though. Adverb. After a time. Verbal. To permit. Verbal. To grant or give. Verbal. To enlarge. To become. Adjective. Something not made in a factory.

(1)___________________ a federal judge (2)___________________ said they should have been (3)___________________ to stay and the United States (4)___________________ them visas, relatives said they (5)___________________ tired of waiting for the Cuban government’s permission to leave the island and took off on a (6)___________________ boat.

For ten years—1868-78—a guerrilla warfare raged in the island of Cuba. American citizens, by virtue of their ancient traditions of democracy, naturally sympathized with a war for independence and self-government. Expeditions to help the insurgents were fitted out secretly in American ports. Arms and supplies were smuggled into Cuba. American soldiers of fortune joined their ranks. guerilla Adjective. Unconvential war. Terrorism. by virtue Helper phrase. By the fact. Due to the fact. sympathized Verbal. To have feelings towards. expeditions Noun. A group of people who travel to help others with equipment. fitted out Verbal. To equip or supply. smuggled Verbal. To avoid customs. soldiers of fortune Noun phrase. Soldiers who are paid money to fight. ranks Noun. A group of soldiers. For ten years—1868-78—a (1)_________________ warfare raged in the island of Cuba. American citizens, (2)_________________ of their ancient traditions of democracy, naturally (3)_________________ with a war for independence and self-government. (4)_________________ to help the insurgents were (5)_________________ secretly in 113

American ports. Arms and supplies were (6)_________________ into Cuba. American (7)_________________ joined their (8)_________________.

In February, 1898, a private letter written by Señor de Lome, the Spanish ambassador at Washington, expressing contempt for the President of the United States, was filched from the mails and passed into the hands of a journalist, William R. Hearst, who published it to the world. In the excited state of American opinion, few gave heed to the grave breach of diplomatic courtesy committed by breaking open private correspondence. The Spanish government was compelled to recall De Lome, thus officially condemning his conduct. contempt filched journalist excited gave heed breach correspondence Noun. Hate. Distaste. Disrespect. Verbal. Stolen. Noun. A reporter for a newspaper. Adjective. To be emotional. Verbal. To pay attention. To give consideration. Noun. A break of an agreement or protocol. Noun. A letter.

In February, 1898, a private letter written by Señor de Lome, the Spanish ambassador at Washington, expressing (1)_____________ for the President of the United States, was (2)_____________ from the mails and passed into the hands of a (1)_____________, William R. Hearst, who published it to the world. In the (3)_____________ state of American opinion, few (4)_____________ to the grave (5)_____________ of diplomatic courtesy committed by breaking open private (6)_____________. The Spanish government was compelled to recall De Lome, thus officially condemning his conduct.

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Startling events then followed in swift succession. The navy, as a result in no small measure of the alertness of Theodore Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of the Department, was ready for the trial by battle. On May 1, Commodore Dewey at Manila Bay shattered the Spanish fleet, marking the doom of Spanish dominion in the Philippines. On July 3, the Spanish fleet under Admiral Cervera, in attempting to escape from Havana, was utterly destroyed by American forces under Commodore Schley. On July 17, Santiago, invested by American troops under General Shafter and shelled by the American ships, gave up the struggle. On July 25 General Miles landed in Puerto Rico. On August 13, General Merritt and Admiral Dewey carried Manila by storm. The war was over. startling succession trial by battle Adjective. Shocking or surprising. Noun. One event after another. Noun phrase. To decide an issue through war or fighting. Adverb. Totally. Absolutely. Verbal. To surrender or quit. Noun. Island that is an American colony. Adverb. By a quick military campaign.

utterly gave up puerto rico by storm

(1)___________________ events then followed in swift (2)___________________. The navy, as a result in no small measure of the alertness of Theodore Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of the Department, was ready for the (3)___________________. On May 1, Commodore Dewey at Manila Bay shattered the Spanish fleet, marking the doom of Spanish dominion in the Philippines. On July 3, the Spanish fleet under Admiral Cervera, in attempting to escape from Havana, was (4)___________________ destroyed by American forces under Commodore Schley. On July 17, Santiago, invested by American troops under General Shafter and shelled by the American ships,

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(5)___________________ the struggle. On July 25 General Miles landed in (6)___________________. On August 13, General Merritt and Admiral Dewey carried Manila (7)___________________. The war was over.

Mexico, in 1836, then sought to close the flood gates. It stopped all American colonization schemes, canceled many of the land grants, put a tariff on farming implements, and abolished slavery. However, these barriers were raised too late. A call for help ran through the western border of the United States. The sentinels of the frontier answered. Davy Crockett, the noted frontiersman, bear hunter, and backwoods politician; James Bowie, the dexterous wielder of the knife that to this day bears his name; and Sam Houston, warrior and pioneer, rushed to the aid of their countrymen in Texas. sought flood gates. schemes implements abolished however sentinels frontiersmen dexterous warrior countrymen Verbal. To seek. To look for. Noun. Doors which hold back water like a dam. Noun. A plan to do something. Noun. Tools used for farming. Verbal. To eliminate completely. Transition. But. Noun. Guards. Noun. People who explored the wilderness. Adjective. Very able or skilled with the hands. Noun. A person whose career is fighting. Noun. People of the same country.

Mexico, in 1836, then (1)_____________ to close the (2)_____________. It stopped all American colonization (3)_____________, canceled many of the land grants, put a tariff on farming (4)_____________, and (5)_____________ slavery. (6)_____________, these barriers were raised too late. A call for help ran through the western border of the United States. The (7)_____________ of the frontier answered. Davy Crockett, the noted

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(8)_____________, bear hunter, and backwoods politician; James Bowie, the (9)_____________ wielder of the knife that to this day bears his name; and Sam Houston, (10)_____________ and pioneer, rushed to the aid of their (11)_____________ in Texas.

A portion of the Texan soldiers took their stand in the Alamo, an old Spanish mission in the cottonwood trees in the town of San Antonio. Instead of obeying the order to blow up the mission and retire, they held their ground until they were completely surrounded and cut off from all help. Refusing to surrender, they fought to the bitter end, the last man falling a victim to the sword. Vengeance was swift. Within three months General Houston overwhelmed Santa Ana at the San Jacinto, taking him prisoner of war and putting an end to all hopes for the restoration of Mexican sovereignty over Texas. portion Noun. A part of something. stand Noun. To refuse to move from a place. retire Verbal. To leave a place. cut off Verbal. To have no communication. bitter Adjective. To taste like lemons or limes. victim Noun. A person who is hurt or killed. vengeance Noun. To see revenge or repay in blood. restoration Noun. To reestablish. sovereignty Noun. When a nation is in control of its borders. A (1)_______________of the Texan soldiers took their (2)_______________ in the Alamo, an old Spanish mission in the cottonwood trees in the town of San Antonio. Instead of obeying the order to blow up the mission and (3)_______________, they held their ground until they were completely surrounded and (4)_______________from all help. Refusing to surrender, they fought to the (5)_______________ end, the last man falling a (6)_______________ to the sword. (7)_______________ was swift. Within three months General Houston overwhelmed Santa Ana at the San Jacinto, taking him prisoner of war and putting an end to all hopes for the (8)_______________n of Mexican (9)_______________ over Texas

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A general war ensued. Then, in February, 1848, the Mexicans came to terms, ceding to the victor California, Arizona, New Mexico, and more—a domain greater in extent than the combined areas of France and Germany. As a salve to the wound, the vanquished received fifteen million dollars in cash and the cancellation of many claims held by American citizens. Five years later, through the negotiations of James Gadsden, a further cession of lands along the southern border of Arizona and New Mexico was secured on payment of ten million dollars. ensued terms ceding extent salve vanquished cession secured Verbal. Began. Started. Noun. Conditions. Agreements. Verbal. Giving up or giving away. Noun. How large something is. Noun. Medicine put on a wound. Noun. The people who lose a war. Noun. Giving up. Verbal. Obtained. Gotten.

A general war (1)____________. Then, in February, 1848, the Mexicans came to (2)____________, (3)____________ to the victor California, Arizona, New Mexico, and more—a domain greater in (4)____________ than the combined areas of France and Germany. As a (5)____________ to the wound, the (6)____________ received fifteen million dollars in cash and the cancellation of many claims held by American citizens. Five years later, through the negotiations of James Gadsden, a further (7)____________ of lands along the southern border of Arizona and New Mexico was (8)____________ on payment of ten million dollars.

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American inventors were destroying in a mighty revolution of industry the world of the stagecoach and the tallow candle which Washington and Franklin had inherited little changed from the age of Cæsar. The effects of invention on social and political life, multitudinous and never-ending, form the very warp and woof of American progress from the days of Andrew Jackson to the latest hour.Whitney combined wood and steel into a cotton gin. Fulton and Fitch applied the steam engine to navigation. Stevens and Peter Cooper tried out the "iron horse" on "iron highways." Slater built spinning mills in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Howe attached the needle to the flying wheel. Morse spanned a continent with the telegraph. Cyrus Field linked the markets of the new world with the old along the bed of the Atlantic. McCormick broke the sickle under the reaper. Edison illuminated the nation with the light bulb and permeated the air with sounds of the phonograph. The Wright brothers achieved mechanical flight at Kitty Hawk. Shockley harnessed grains of sand to render the transistor. Armstrong skipped about on the moon. stagecoach Noun. A car pulled by horses. tallow Adjective. The substance used to make candles. Wax. caeser Noun. Roman emperor. effects Noun. What causes an impact or change. multitudinous Adjective. Many sided. Many. warp and woof Noun. A device used to make rugs or clothing by having threads go in different, perpendicular directions. combined Verbal. To add together. applied Verbal. To use something for a purpose. tried out Verbal. Attempted to use. Used. built Verbal. To construct. attached Verbal. To put two things together as one. spanned Verbal. To cross a long space or divide. linked Verbal. To connect two or more things. broke Verbal. To cause something not to work. illuminated Verbal. To light up. permeated Verbal. To fill up the air with sound. harnessed Verbal. To use for something the way a horse is harnessed. skipped Verbal. To walk with joy like a child.

American inventors were destroying in a mighty revolution of industry the world of the (1)__________________ and the (2)__________________ candle which Washington and Franklin had inherited little changed from the age of (3)__________________. The (4)__________________ of invention on social and political life, (5)__________________ and never-ending, form the very (6)__________________ of 119

American progress from the days of Andrew Jackson to the latest hour.Whitney (7)__________________ wood and steel into a cotton gin. Fulton and Fitch (8)__________________ the steam engine to navigation. Stevens and Peter Cooper (9)__________________ the "iron horse" on "iron highways." Slater (10)__________________ spinning mills in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Howe (11)__________________ the needle to the flying wheel. Morse (12)__________________ a continent with the telegraph. Cyrus Field (13)__________________ the markets of the new world with the old along the bed of the Atlantic. McCormick (14)__________________ the sickle under the reaper. Edison (15)__________________ the nation with the light bulb and (16)__________________ the air with sounds of the phonograph. The Wright brothers achieved mechanical flight at Kitty Hawk. Shockley (17)__________________ grains of sand to render the transistor and the bring forth the digital age. Armstrong (18)__________________ about on the moon.

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Events of terrible significance, swiftly following, drove the country like a ship before a gale straight into civil war. The Kansas-Nebraska Bill rent the old parties asunder and called into being the Republican party. All over the country similar meetings were held and political committees were organized. In his inaugural, President Buchanan vaguely hinted that in a forthcoming decision the Supreme Court would settle one of the vital questions of the day. This was a reference to the Dred Scott case then pending. Scott was a slave who had been taken by his master into the upper Louisiana territory, where freedom had been established by the Missouri Compromise, and then carried back into his old state of Missouri. He brought suit for his liberty on the ground that his residence in the free territory made him free. The Supreme Court, however, faced the issue squarely. It held that Scott had not been free anywhere. Besides, the Missouri Compromise violated the Constitution and was null and void. The decision was a triumph for the South. It meant that Congress had no power to abolish slavery in the territories. ship gale rent asunder into being similar inauguaral vaguely forthcoming vital pending established brought. squarely held besides null and void triumph abolish Noun. A sea vessel used as a simile. Noun. A strong wind. Verbal. To rip or tear something in two. Adjective. To split in two or many pieces. Phrase. Created. Adjective. The same kind. Noun. When the president takes office. Adverb. Ambiguous. Not clear. Adverb. Expected soon. Imminent. Noun. Extremely important. Adjective. A court case still not decided. Verbal. Created. Verbal. Bring. To carry. Adverb. Look at something directly. Verbal. It decided. Transition. In addition. Phrase. Not applicable. Of no merit. Noun. A victory Verbal. To eliminate.

Events of terrible significance, swiftly following, drove the country like a (1)________________ before a (2)________________ straight into civil war. The Kansas-Nebraska Bill (3)________________ the old parties (4)________________ and called (5)________________ the Republican party. All over the country (6)________________ meetings were held and political committees were organized. In his (7)________________ , President Buchanan (8)________________ hinted that in a (9)________________ decision the Supreme Court would settle one of the

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(10)________________ questions of the day. This was a reference to the Dred Scott case then (11)________________. Scott was a slave who had been taken by his master into the upper Louisiana territory, where freedom had been (12)________________ by the Missouri Compromise, and then carried back into his old state of Missouri. He (13)________________ suit for his liberty on the ground that his residence in the free territory made him free. The Supreme Court, however, faced the issue (14)________________. It (15)________________ that Scott had not been free anywhere. (16)________________, the Missouri Compromise violated the Constitution and was (17)________________. The decision was a (18)________________ for the South. It meant that Congress had no power to (19)________________ slavery in the territories.

The following year the interest of the whole country was drawn to a series of debates held in Illinois by Lincoln and Douglas, both candidates for the United States Senate. In the course of his campaign Lincoln had uttered his trenchant saying that "a house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free." Farmers deserted their plows, smiths their forges, and housewives their baking to hear "Honest Abe" and "the Little Giant." Douglas won the election to the Senate, but Lincoln, lifted into national fame by the debates, beat him in the campaign for President two years later. was drawn series candidates course trenchant endure deserted forges baking lifted into beat Verbal. Brought into. Noun. A sequence. Noun. Those running for public office. Noun. The path or route. Noun. Keen. Penetrating. Astute. Verbal. Stand. Keep alive. Verbal. To leave. Noun. Used to make metal utensils like horse shoes. Noun. To cook food in an oven. Verbal. Elevated. Made famous. Verbal. To win.

The following year the interest of the whole country (1)_________________ to a (2)_________________ of debates held in Illinois by Lincoln and Douglas, both (3)_________________ for the United States Senate. In the (4)_________________ of 122

his campaign Lincoln had uttered his (5)_________________ saying that "a house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot (6)_________________ permanently half slave and half free." Farmers (7)_________________ their plows, smiths their (8)_________________, and housewives their (9)_________________ to hear "Honest Abe" and "the Little Giant." Douglas won the election to the Senate, but Lincoln, (10)_________________ national fame by the debates, (11)_________________ him in the campaign for President two years later.

Assistance to runaway slaves, always more or less common in the North, was by this time organized into a system. Regular routes, known as "underground railways," were laid out across the free states into Canada, and trusted friends of freedom maintained "underground stations" where fugitives were concealed in the daytime between their long night journeys. Funds were raised and secret agents sent into the South to help negroes to flee. One negro woman, Harriet Tubman, "the Moses of her people," with headquarters at Philadelphia, is accredited with nineteen invasions into slave territory and the emancipation of three hundred negroes. runaway underground railroads laid out trusted fugitives secret agents to flee the moses of her people invasions emancipation Adjective. Slaves who leave their masters. Noun. A network of people who helped runaway slaves make it to freedom. Verbal. Created. Created a network. Adjective. People who you can put confidence in. Noun. People on the run from the law. Noun. Spies. Verbal. To escape. Noun Phrase. A metaphor. Noun. To go into enemy territory. Noun. Freedom

Assistance to (1)__________________ slaves, always more or less common in the North, was by this time organized into a system. Regular routes, known as "(2)__________________," were (3)__________________ across the free states into Canada, and (4)__________________ friends of freedom maintained "underground stations" where (5)__________________ were concealed in the daytime between their long night journeys. Funds were raised and (6)__________________ sent into the South 123

to help negroes (7)__________________. One negro woman, Harriet Tubman, "(8)__________________," with headquarters at Philadelphia, is accredited with nineteen (9)__________________ into slave territory and the (10)__________________ of three hundred negroes.

From thrilling stories of adventure along the underground railways came some of the scenes and themes of the novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe, "Uncle Tom's Cabin." It was published two years after the Compromise of 1850. Her stirring tale set forth the worst features of slavery in vivid word pictures that caught and held the attention of millions of readers. It was quickly dramatized and played in every city and town throughout the North. thrilling Adjective. Very exciting. underground. Adjective. Secret or beneath the ground. themes Noun. The central points. published. Verbal. To write a book. stirring Adjective. To be very exciting. set forth Verbal. To describe. vivid Adjective. Like a picture. Vibrant. dramatized Verbal. Put on the stage. From (1)________________ stories of adventure along the (2)________________ railways came some of the scenes and (3)________________ of the novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe, "Uncle Tom's Cabin." It was (4)________________ two years after the Compromise of 1850. Her (5)________________ tale (6)________________ the worst features of slavery in (7)________________ word pictures that caught and held the attention of millions of readers. It was quickly (8)________________ and played in every city and town throughout the North.

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To the abolitionists the line of argument pursued by Lincoln, including his proposal to leave slavery untouched in the states where it existed, was wholly unsatisfactory. One of them, a grim and resolute man, inflamed by a hatred for slavery in itself, turned from agitation to violence. "These men are all talk; what is needed is action—action!" So spoke John Brown of New York. During the sanguinary struggle in Kansas he hurried to the frontier, gun and dagger in hand, to help drive slave owners from the free soil of the West. There he committed deeds of such daring and cruelty that he was outlawed and a price put upon his head. abolitionists Noun. People opposed to slavery. untouched Adjective. Not to touch. Not to change. wholly Adjective. Totally. Complete. grim Adjective. To happy. Serious. inflamed Verbal. On fire. Excited. agitation Noun. To make a lot of talk. sanguinary Adjective. Bloody. dagger. Noun. A knife. drive Verbal. To force to move. committed Verbal. Did. Conducted. daring Adjective. Outrageous and brave. outlawed Adjective. Outside the law. A criminal. price Noun. A bounty paid for someone wanted dead or alive. To the (1)____________________ the line of argument pursued by Lincoln, including his proposal to leave slavery (2)____________________ in the states where it existed, was (3)____________________ unsatisfactory. One of them, a (4)____________________ and resolute man, (5)____________________ by a hatred for slavery in itself, turned from (6)____________________ to violence. "These men are all talk; what is needed is action—action!" So spoke John Brown of New York. During the (7)____________________ struggle in Kansas he hurried to the frontier, gun and (8)____________________ in hand, to help (9)____________________ slave owners from the free soil of the West. There he (10)____________________ deeds of such (11)____________________ and cruelty that he was (12)____________________ and a (13)____________________ put upon his head.

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To seal forever the proclamation of emancipation, and to extend freedom to the whole country, Congress, in January, 1865, on the urgent recommendation of Lincoln, transmitted to the states the thirteenth amendment, abolishing slavery throughout the United States. By the end of 1865 the amendment was ratified. The house was not divided against itself; it did not fall; it was all free. ARTICLE XIII SECTION 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. SECTION 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation seal proclamation urgent transmitted abolishing throughout ratified involuntary jurisdiction enforce Verbal. To close. Noun. A formal document. Adjective. Very important. Verbal. To send. Verbal. Bringing to an end. Helper. Entirely. In all parts. Verbal. Voted for. Adjective. Without a person’s will. Noun. A judicial area. Verbal. To have power to make a law obeyed.

To (1)______________ forever the (2)______________

of emancipation, and to

extend freedom to the whole country, Congress, in January, 1865, on the (3)______________ recommendation of Lincoln, (4)______________ to the states the thirteenth amendment, (5)______________ slavery (6)______________ the United States. By the end of 1865 the amendment was (7)______________. The house was not divided against itself; it did not fall; it was all free. ARTICLE XIII

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SECTION 1. Neither slavery nor (8)______________

servitude, except as a

punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their (9)______________. SECTION 2. Congress shall have power to (10)______________ appropriate legislation this article by

Three more territories now remained out of the Union: Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arizona. Oklahoma, long an Indian reservation, had been opened for settlement to white men in 1889. The rush upon the fertile lands of this region, the last in the history of America, was marked by all the frenzy of the final, desperate chance. At a signal from a bugle an army of men with families in wagons, men and women on horseback and on foot, burst into the territory. During the first night a city of tents was raised at Guthrie and Oklahoma City. In ten days wooden houses rose on the plains. In a single year there were schools, churches, business blocks, and newspapers. Within fifteen years there was a population of more than half a million. territories Noun. Areas that are not yet states. reservation Noun. Areas where Indians are kept. settlement Noun. When territories are populated by pioneers. rush Noun. With lots of speed and frenzy. last Adjective. The final marked Verbal. Exhibited. Shown. desperate Adjective. A do or die situation. bugle Noun. A horn used in the Army. burst Verbal. To break like a balloon does. city of tents Noun phrase. Many tents that seem like a city. wooden houses Noun phrase. Houses made of wood. newspapers Noun. Daily or weekly papers people read for news. of more than Helper. It means in excess of 500,000 Three more (1)_______________ now remained out of the Union: Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arizona. Oklahoma, long an Indian (2)_______________, had been opened for (3)_______________ to white men in 1889. The (4)_______________ upon the fertile lands of this region, the (5)_______________ in the history of America, was (6)_______________ by all the frenzy of the final, (7)_______________ chance. At a

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signal from a (8)_______________ an army of men with families in wagons, men and women on horseback and on foot, (9)_______________ into the territory. During the first night a (10)_______________ was raised at Guthrie and Oklahoma City. In ten days (11)_______________ rose on the plains. In a single year there were schools, churches, business blocks, and (12)_______________. Within fifteen years there was a population (13)_______________ half a million.

In 1923 the Monroe Doctorine celebrated its hundreth anniversary. Monroe had announced to the world that he would regard "any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety." When John Hay, Secretary of State, heard that an American citizen, Perdicaris, had been seized by Raisuli, a Moroccan bandit, in 1904, he wired his brusque message: "We want Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead." This was but an echo of Commodore Decatur's equally characteristic answer, "Not a minute," given nearly a hundred years before to the pirates of Algiers begging for time to consider whether they would cease preying upon American merchantmen. By 2001, President Bush, invoking a Western poster for bandits, was even more direct about American policy regarding Usama Bin Laden, “Wanted. Dead or Alive.” celebrated announced regard heard seized brusque echo Verbal. Like a party. Verbal. To make public. Verbal. To consider something. Verbal. To listen to. Verbal. To capture or kidnap. Adjective. Rude or a short reply. Noun. When sound reflects and repeats.

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characteristic pirates

Adjective. Fitting of the person speaking it. Noun. Sea going bandits who loot and plunder ships on the sea. Helper. If Verbal. To attack weaker people. Adjective. To the point. Blunt.

whether preying direct

In 1923 the Monroe Doctorine (1)_________________ its hundreth anniversary. Monroe had (2)_________________ to the world that he would (3)_________________ "any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety." When John Hay, Secretary of State, (4)_________________ (5)_________________ but the an that an American citizen, Perdicaris, had been by Raisuli, a Moroccan bandit, in 1904, he wired his of Algiers Commodore begging for Decatur's time to equally consider

(6)_________________ message: "We want Perdicaris alive or Raisuli dead." This was (7)_________________ of (8)_________________ answer, "Not a minute," given nearly a hundred years before to (9)_________________ (10)_________________ they would cease (11)_________________ upon American

merchantmen. By 2001, President Bush, invoking a Western poster for bandits, was even more (12)_________________ about American policy regarding Usama Bin Laden, “Wanted. Dead or Alive.”

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The Department of State was busy with negotiations which resulted in the purchase of Alaska from Russia. The treaty of cession, signed on March 30, 1867, added to the United States a domain of nearly six hundred thousand square miles, a territory larger than Texas and nearly three-fourths the size of the Louisiana purchase. Though it was a distant colony separated from our continental domain by a thousand miles of water, no question of "imperialism" or "colonization foreign to American doctrines" seems to have been raised at the time. The treaty was ratified promptly by the Senate. The purchase price, $7,200,000, was voted by the House of Representatives. Secretary of State Seward, who formulated the treaty, rejoiced, as he afterwards said, that he had kept Alaska out of the hands of England. busy purchase cessession added domain territory three-fourths though have been raised ratified voted formulated rejoiced out of the hands of Adjective. Engaged. Tied up Noun. To buy Noun. To give up land. Verbal. To enlarge. Noun. A large area. Noun. An unsettled state. Adjective. 3/4 Subordination. Even. Despite the fact. Verbal. A question not asked. Verbal. Voted upon. Verbal. When votes or ballots are tallied. Verbal. Thought of. Created. Verbal. To be very happy. Phrase. To keep away from someone else.

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The Department of State was (1)_______________________ with negotiations which resulted in the (2)_______________________ of Alaska from Russia. The treaty of (3)_______________________, signed on March 30, 1867, (4)_______________________ to the United States a (5)_______________________ of nearly six hundred thousand square miles, a (6)_______________________ larger than Texas and nearly (7)_______________________ the size of the Louisiana purchase. (8)_______________________ it was a distant colony separated from our continental domain by a thousand miles of water, no question of "imperialism" or "colonization foreign to American doctrines" seems to (9)_______________________ at the time. The treaty was (10)_______________________ promptly by the Senate. The purchase price, $7,200,000, was (11)_______________________ by the House of Representatives. the treaty, Secretary of State Seward, who (12)_______________________ (14)_______________________ of England.

(13)_______________________, as he afterwards said, that he had kept Alaska

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In 1893, a revolution headed by Americans, broke out, ending in the overthrow of the native Hawaiian government, the abolition of the primitive monarchy, and the retirement of Queen Liliuokalani to private life. This crisis, a repetition of the Texas affair in a smaller theater, was immediately followed by a demand from the new Hawaiian government for annexation to the United States. Congress by a joint resolution, passed on July 6, 1898, annexed the islands to the United States and later conferred upon them the ordinary territorial form of government. headed overthrow abolition primitive retirement Verbal. Led. Instigated by. Noun. When a government is deposed. Noun. To completely eliminate something. Adjective. Not modern. Unsophisticated. Noun. To stop working and leave public life. Adjective. As opposed to public. Noun. A problem that needs to be solved. Noun. A area of conflict like a stage. Noun. When one country takes over another one. Adjective. When the House and Senate vote on the same matter. Verbal. To add a country. Addition of. Verbal. Gave to.

private crisis theater annexation

joint

annexed conferred upon

In 1893, a revolution (1)________________ by Americans, broke out, ending in the (2)________________ of the native Hawaiian government, the (3)________________ of the (4)________________ monarchy, and the (5)________________ of Queen 132

Liliuokalani to (6)________________ life. This (7)________________, a repetition of the Texas affair in a smaller (8)________________, was immediately followed by a demand from the new Hawaiian government for (9)________________ to the United States. Congress by a (10)________________ (11)________________ the islands to resolution, passed on July 6, 1898, the United States and later

(12)________________ them the ordinary territorial form of government.

.

America had become a world power. Alaska was purchased from Russia. A Samoan island was brought under the flag The Hawaiian islands were annexed. The Monroe

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Doctrine was applied with vigor in the dispute between Venezuela and Great Britain. Assistance was given to the Cubans in their revolutionary struggle against Spain and thus there was precipitated a war which ended in the annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines. President Roosevelt proceeded to negotiate with the government at Bogota a treaty authorizing the United States to cut a canal through its territory in Panama. The treaty was easily framed, but it was rejected by the Colombian senate. "You could no more make an agreement with the Colombian rulers," Roosevelt exclaimed, "than you could nail jelly to a wall.". On November 3, 1903, Panama renounced its allegiance to Colombia and three days later the United States recognized its independence.The same issue was involved in a controversy over Santo Domingo which arose in 1904. The Dominican republic, like Venezuela, was heavily in debt, and certain European countries declared that, unless the United States undertook to look after the finances of the embarrassed debtor, they would resort to armed coercion. In 1907, to effect a treaty arrangement Roosevelt placed Dominican finances under American supervision. power purchased brought under annexed vigor assistance precipitated annexation proceeded cut framed rejected exlaimed renounced recognized controversey arose undertook coercion placed America had become a world from Noun. When a country has strength. Verbal. To buy. Verbal. To make under control. Verbal. Formally taken over. Noun. With lots of energy. Noun. Help Verbal. To bring about. Rain is called precipitation. Noun. When a country is added to another. Verbal. To take the first steps. Verbal. To make a division. Verbal. To outline the parameters. To describe the outlines. Verbal. To say no to something. To not accept. Verbal. To say something, usually with surprise. Verbal. To formally break an agreement. Verbal. To accept. To acknowledge. Noun. A dispute. A disagreement. A problem. Verbal. Came to the forefront. Became an issue. Verbal. To take responsibility for. Assume. Noun. Use of force and not argument to win a dispute. Verbal. Put under. Took control of. (1)______________________. Russia. A Samoan Alaska island was was 134

(2)______________________

(3)______________________the

flag

The

Hawaiian

islands

were

(4)______________________. The Monroe Doctrine was applied with vigor in the dispute between Venezuela and Great Britain. (5)______________________ was given to the Cubans in their revolutionary struggle against Spain and thus there was (6)______________________ a war which ended in the (7)______________________ of Puerto Rico and the Philippines. President Roosevelt (8)______________________ to negotiate with the government at Bogota a treaty authorizing the United States to (9)______________________a canal through its territory in Panama. The treaty was easily (10)______________________, but it was (11)______________________ by the Colombian senate. "You could no more make an agreement with the Colombian rulers," Roosevelt (12)______________________, "than you could nail jelly to a wall.". On November 3, 1903, Panama (13)______________________ its allegiance to Colombia and three days later the United States (14)______________________ its independence.The same issue was involved in a (15)______________________ over Santo Domingo which (16)______________________ in 1904. The Dominican republic, like Venezuela, was heavily in debt, and certain European countries declared that, unless the United States (17)______________________ to look after the finances of the embarrassed debtor, they would resort to armed (18)______________________. In 1907, to effect a treaty arrangement Roosevelt (19)______________________ Dominican finances under American supervision.

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On September 30, 1918, President Wilson, who, two years before, had opposed federal action and endorsed suffrage by state adoption only, went before Congress and urged the passage of the suffrage amendment to the Constitution. On August 28, 1920, the thirty-sixth state, Tennessee, approved the amendment, making three-fourths of the states as required by the Constitution. Thus woman suffrage became the law of the land. A new political democracy had been created. The epoch of responsible citizenship opened ARTICLE XIX The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of sex. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. who opposed endorsed adoption urged suffrage three-fourths thus had been created epoch abridged sex Relative. Subject Verbal. To be against. Verbal. Supported. Voiced support for. Noun. When each state makes it a law. Verbal. Endorsed. Pushed. Noun. Ability to vote. Adjective. ¾. Or about 36 states. Transition. So. As a consequence. Verbal. Past perfect. Was made. Noun. A long period. Indefinite. Verbal. Can not be undone. Can not be changed. Noun. Gender.

On September 30, 1918, President Wilson, (1)_______________, two years before, had (2)_______________ federal action and (3)_______________ suffrage by state (4)_______________ only, went before Congress and (5)_______________ the passage of the (6)_______________ amendment to the Constitution. On August 28, 1920, the thirty-sixth state, Tennessee, approved the amendment, making (7)_______________ of the states as required by the Constitution. (8)_______________ woman suffrage became the law of the land. A new political democracy (9)_______________. The (10)_______________ of responsible citizenship opened ARTICLE XIX The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or (11)_______________ (12)_______________. by the United States or any State on account of

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The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Santo Domingo was transformed into a protectorate under President Wilson. In 1914 dissensions in the republic led to the landing of American marines to "supervise" the elections. For all practical purposes, it seemed, the sovereignty of Santo Domingo had been transferred to the United States.In the neighboring republic of Haiti, a similar state of affairs existed. In the summer of 1915 a revolution broke out there—one of a long series beginning in 1804—and American marines were landed to restore order. Elections were held under the supervision of American officers, and a treaty was drawn up placing the management of Haitian finances and the local constabulary under American authority. In line with American policy in the West Indian waters was the purchase in 1917 of the Danish Islands just off the coast of Puerto Rico, and the Stars and Stripes were raised over St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and numerous minor islands scattered about in the neighborhood. On the mainland American power was strengthened by the establishment of a protectorate over Nicaragua in 1916. transformed dissensions sovereignty been transferred affairs restore management Verbal. To change radically. Noun. Verbal and/or physical fighting. Noun. When a country runs its own affairs. Verbal. Handed over. Noun. Conditions. Verbal. To bring back to an original state. Noun. The day to day running of the business of a country. Noun. The police forces.

constabulary

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stars and stripes. raised minor scattered strengthend protectorate

Phrase. Metaphor for the American flag. Verbal. To put up. Adjective. Small or tiny. Verbal. Spread around. Verbal. To make strong. Noun. When one country formally protects another in every way.

Santo Domingo was (1)____________________ into a protectorate under President Wilson. In 1914 (2)____________________ in the republic led to the landing of American marines to "supervise" the elections. For all practical purposes, it seemed, the (3)____________________ of Santo Domingo had (4)____________________ to the United States.In the neighboring republic of Haiti, a similar state of (5)____________________ (6)____________________ existed. In the summer of 1915 a revolution broke out order. Elections were held under the supervision of

there—one of a long series beginning in 1804—and American marines were landed to American officers, and a treaty was drawn up placing the (7)____________________ of Haitian finances and the local (8)____________________ under American authority. In line with American policy in the West Indian waters was the purchase in 1917 of the Danish Islands just off the coast of Puerto Rico, and the (9)____________________ were (10)____________________ (11)____________________ over St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and numerous islands (12)____________________ about in the

neighborhood. On the mainland American power was (13)____________________ by the establishment of a (14)____________________ over Nicaragua in 1916.

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President Wilson called upon Congress to answer the German menace. The reply of Congress on April 6, 1917 was a resolution, passed with only a few dissenting votes, declaring the existence of a state of war with Germany. Austria-Hungary at once severed diplomatic relations with the United States. In the fifty-second month, the World War, involving nearly every civilized nation on the globe, was brought to a close. More than 75,000 American soldiers and sailors had given their lives. More than 250,000 had been wounded or were missing or in German prison camps. called upon Verbal. Forally ask. menace Noun. Something dangerous and threatening. resolution Noun. Formal act of Congress dissenting Noun. Those who disagree state of war Noun. Formal act of war by Congress severed Verbal. Cut off. Stopped. nearly Adverb. Almost all. globe Noun. The entire planet. All nations. brought Verbal. Bring. had given Verbal. Gave up. been wounded Verbal. Hurt, injured, or maimed. President Wilson (1)________________ Congress to answer the German (2)________________. The reply of Congress on April 6, 1917 was a (3)________________, passed with only a few (4)________________ votes, declaring the existence of a (5)________________ with Germany. Austria-Hungary at once (6)________________ diplomatic relations with the United States. In the fifty-second month, the World War, involving (7)________________ every civilized nation on the (8)________________, was (9)________________ to a close. More than 75,000 American soldiers and sailors (10)________________ their lives. More than 250,000 had (11)________________ or were missing or in German prison camps.

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American prosperity came to a screeching halt with the onset of the Great Depression. The Great Depression began in 1929 and continued until the 1940s. A great many banks and businesses failed and millions of Americans went jobless. A combination of drought and erosion led to the Dust Bowl which mercilessly parched Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Texas and caused internal migrations as described in the novel The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt appealed on the radio in a series of “Fireside Chats,” to calm the Americans and explain his New Deal. The New Deal involved massive government projects to put the jobless back to work and included Social Security, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the Works Progress Administration. screeching onset until great many jobless drought erosion. parched described appealed calm massive Adverb. Very sudden. Like hitting the brakes on a car. Noun. The beginning Preposition. Lasted as long as. Adjective. A lot. A preporderance Noun. Those without employement Noun. Condition of no rain. Noun. When wind or water remove the soil. Verbal. To be very thirsty or dry. Verbal. To explain with words. Verbal. To try and convince others. Verbal. To try and make people less excited. Adjective. Huge. Enormous.

American prosperity came to a (1)_______________ halt with the (2)_______________ of the Great Depression. The Great Depression began in 1929 and continued (3)_______________ the 1940s. A (4)_______________ banks and businesses failed

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and millions of Americans went (5)_______________. A combination of (6)_______________ and (7)_______________ led to the Dust Bowl which mercilessly (8)_______________ Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Texas and caused internal migrations (9)_______________ in the novel The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (10)_______________ on the radio in a series of “Fireside Chats,” to (11)_______________ the Americans and explain his New Deal. The New Deal involved (12)_______________ government projects to put the jobless back to work and included Social Security, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the Works Progress Administration.

With the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7, 1941 the United States entered World War II. On December 8, 1941 President Roosevelt declared that the attack would be a “Date which will live in infamy.” The United States, fearing that Americans of Japanese descent might cooperate in an invasion of the mainland, over 100,000 Japanese were removed to relocation camps. Germany surrendered in May 1945. After the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Japanese capitulated in September of 1945. Attack Noun. To fight another person or country. Entered Verbal. To go into. Infamy Noun. Something disgraceful. Fearing Adjective. To be afraid or scared. Relocation Adjectives. Temporary prisons. Surrendered Verbal. To give up a war. Lose. Dropped Verbal. To make fall down. Capitulated Verbal. To utterly give up. Surrender totally.

With the Japanese (1)______________ on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7, 1941 the United States (2)______________ World War II. On December 8, 1941 President Roosevelt declared that the attack would be a “Date which will live in (3)______________.” The United States, (4)______________ that Americans of Japanese descent might cooperate in an invasion of the mainland, over 100,000 Japanese 141

were removed to (5)______________ camps. Germany (6)______________ in May 1945. After the United States (7)______________ atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Japanese (8)______________ in September of 1945.

The conclusion of WWI did not usher in world peace. Disagreements between the United States and the Soviet Union led to a prolonged nonviolent state of hostility called the Cold War. In 1950, the United States sent troops to South Korea to repel communists in North Korea, and over 50,000 Americans lost their lives in the conflict. In the late 1950s and 1960s, Presidents Dwight Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy sent increasing amounts of American troops to South Vietnam to foil communist plans. In 1962 a confrontation broke out between the USSR and the United States over Russian military missles on Cuban soil. President Kennedy defused the situation with a naval embargo of Cuba. Under President Johnson half a million American troops were engaged in the continuing battle in Vietnam. Later, during President Nixon’s tenure in office, a peace treaty was negotiated, and communists took over the entire penninsula in 1975. Over 50,000 Americans lost their lives in this bloody conflict and their names are commemorated on a large memorial, the Vietnam Memorial, in Washington, D.C. usher in Verbal. Bring in. Bring about. Cause hostility Noun. Not friendly. troops Noun. Army forces repel Verbal. To push or fight back. lost their lives Phrased. Died. increasing Adverb. More and more foil Verbal. To frustrate or stop. confrontation Noun. A controversy or fight. soil Noun. The land of a country. Its earth. defused Verbal. To stop. Like to stop a bomb from blowing up. embargo Noun. When one country forcibly stops another from trading. continuing Adjective. Going on and on. tenure Noun. Period of being in an office. negotiated Verbal. Talks aimed at bring peace. peninsula Noun. Land surrounded by water on three sides. bloody Adjective. Full of blood. Costly in human lives. commemorated Verbal. Dedicated. A memorial of something.

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The conclusion of WWI did not (1)_______________ world peace. Disagreements between the United States and the Soviet Union led to a prolonged nonviolent state of (2)_______________ called the Cold War. In 1950, the United States sent (3)_______________ to South Korea to (4)_______________ communists in North Korea, and over 50,000 Americans (5)_______________ in the conflict. In the late 1950s and 1960s, Presidents Dwight Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy sent (6)_______________ amounts of American troops to South Vietnam to (7)_______________ communist plans. In 1962 a (8)_______________ broke out between the USSR and the United States over Russian military missles on Cuban (9)_______________. President Kennedy (10)_______________ the situation with a naval (11)_______________ of Cuba. Under President Johnson half a million American troops were engaged in the (12)_______________ battle in Vietnam. Later, during President Nixon’s (13)_______________ in office, a peace treaty was (14)_______________, and communists took over the entire (15)_______________ in 1975. Over 50,000 Americans lost their lives in this (16)_______________ conflict and their names are (17)_______________ on a large memorial, the Vietnam Memorial, in Washington, D.C.

One common belief is that America was originally peopled by wanderers from Northeast Asia about 20,000 years ago. The first American immigrants, beginning more than 20,000 years ago, were intercontinental wanderers: hunters and their families following animal herds from Asia to America, across a land bridge where the Bering Strait is today between Russia and Alaska. Around the year 1000, a small number of Vikings arrived.When Spain's Christopher Columbus "discovered" the New World in 143

1492, about 1.5 million Native Americans lived in what is now the continental United States. 102 English colonists (later referred to as the "Pilgrims") set sail in 1620 on the Mayflower. They landed in Plymouth, Massachusetts. This is generally considered by many to be the "start" of planned European migration! common originally peopled wanderers intercontinental following herds land bridge around vikings 1.5 million native Adjective. Many people believe. Adverb. At the beginning. Verbal. To inhabit. Noun. People that travel from one place to another. Adjective. Between continents. Verbal. To go after. Pursue. Noun. Groups of animals. Noun. A bridge formed when water levels drop. Transition. Near the time. Noun. People from Sweden and Norway Adjective. 1,500,000 Adjective. Proper name for original Americans.

Between 1840 and 1860, the United States received its first great wave of immigrants. In Europe as a whole, famine, poor harvests, rising populations, and political unrest caused an estimated 5 million people to leave their homelands each year. Over twenty years, that was about 100 million newcomers.In Ireland, a blight attacked the potato crop, and upwards of 750,000 people starved to death. Therefore, many of the survivors emigrated. In one year alone, 1847, the number of Irish immigrants to the United States reached 118,120. Today there are about 39 million Americans of Irish descent. Wave Famine Unrest Caused Homelands Noun. A metaphor like an ocean wave. Noun. Lack of food. Noun. Political turmoil. Verbal. To make. Noun. Native lands.

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Over Newcomers Blight Upwards Therefore Survivors In one year alone Descent

Transition. In excess. Noun. New arrivals. Noun. A plant disease Helper. More than. Transition. So. Noun. Those left alive. Transitional phrase. Noun. A person’s ethnic origin.

During the late 19th century, so many people were entering the United States that the government operated a special port of entry on Ellis Island in the harbor of New York

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City. Between 1892, when it opened, and 1954, when it closed, Ellis Island was the doorway to America for 12 million people. It is now preserved as part of Statue of Liberty National Monument. The Statue of Liberty, which was a gift from France to the people of America in 1886, stands on an island in New York harbor, near Ellis Island. The statue became many immigrants' first sight of their homeland-to-be. These inspiring words by the poet Emma Lazarus are etched on a plaque at Liberty's base: "Give me your tired, your poor, / Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, / The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. / Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me, / I lift my lamp beside the golden door!" During Operated Harbor 12 million Which Stands Sight Homeland-to-be Etched Huddled Yearing Wretched Refuse Teeming Tempest-tossed Golden door . Transition. Verbal. Maintained Noun. A place where ships enter and depart. Adjective. Relative. Verb. To be upright. Noun. View. Noun phrase. Future home. Verb. Carved in metal or stone. Adjective. When people are too close together. Verbal. Wanting. Desiring. Hoping. Adjective. Very poor. Destitute. Noun. Human garbage. Unwanted. Adjective. Overcrowded. Adjective. A difficult ocean journey with storms. Noun. The door to opportunity and the American dream.

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Archimedies is said to have shouted “Eureka!” when he suddenly awoke to the idea that the volume of an object can be measured by the water it displaces in water. So excited, he flew down the street stark naked. His neighbors heard him shout in Greek “I havd found it!” It was really a major discovery because by putting gold in water its genuiness could now be proven. Thus, Archimedes slayed the idea that “All that glitters or shines is not gold.”

Archimedies is (1)_____________ to have shouted “Eureka!” when he suddenly (2)_____________ to the idea that the volume of an object can (3)_____________ measured by the water it displaces in water. So excited, he (4)_____________ down the street stark naked. His neighbors (5)_____________ him shout in Greek “I havd (6)_____________ it!” It was really a major discovery because by (7)_____________ gold in water its genuiness could now be (8)_____________. Thus, Archimedes (9)_____________ the idea that “All that glitters or (10)_____________ is not gold.” Said Awoke Be Flew Heard Found. Putting Proved Irregular Verb. Say. Said. Said. Saying Irregular Verb. Awake. Awoke. Awoke. Awaking. Irregular Verb. Be /Was/Were/Am/Is/ Being/Been Irregular Verb. Fly. Flew. Flown. Flying. Irregular Verb. Hear. Heard. Heard. Hearing. Irregular Verb. Find. Found. Found. Finding. Irregular Verb. Put Put. Put. Putting. Irregular Verb. Prove Proved. Proven.

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Proving Slay Shine Irregular Verb. Slay. Slayed. Slain. Slaying. Irregular Verb. Shine. Shone. Shone. Shining.

The Big Bang is an astronomical theory that scientists have sought to explain the origins of the entire universe. According to this theory, the universe began as a single, infinitely dense point. Some unknown event drove this point to explode in all directions. At first, elementary particles were thrown outward. Later, these particles became visible light. The light which was flung outward formed elementary particles. This light, in turn, spun the galaxies, including our Milky Way galaxy that our earth is located in today and those billions of stars have lit up the night sky for billions of years. While the rising and setting of the sun lighten our days. Scientists think the original event occurred 20 billion years ago, but do not know if the the universe is shrinking or continuing to thrust out into infinity.

The Big Bang is an astronomical theory that scientists have (1)________________ to explain the origins of the entire universe. According to this theory, the universe (1)________________ as a single, infinitely dense point. Some (2)________________ event (3)________________ this point to explode in all directions. At first, elementary particles were (4)________________ outward. Later, these particles (5)________________ visible light. The light which was (6)________________ outward formed elementary particles. This light, in turn, (7)________________ the galaxies, including our Milky Way galaxy that our earth is located in today and those billions of stars have (8)________________ up the night sky for billions of years. While the (9)________________ and (10)________________ of the sun lighten our days.

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Scientists think the original event occurred 20 billion years ago, but do not know if the the universe is (11)________________ or continuing to (12)________________ out into infinity. Is Sought Began Unknown Drove Became Thrown Flung Spun Lit Rising Setting Shrink Thrust Irregular verb. Be, Am, Is, Are, Was, Were, Being, Been Irregular verb. Seek. Sought. Sought. Seeking. Irregular verb. Begin. Began. Begun. Beginning. Irregular verb. Know. Knew. Known. Knowing. Irregular verb. Drive. Drove. Driven. Driving. Irregular verb. Become. Became. Become. Becoming. Irregular Verb. Throw. Threw. Thrown. Throwing. Irregular Verb. Fling. Flung. Flung. Flinging. Irregular Verb. Spin. Spun. Spun. Spinning Irregular Verb. Lit. Lit. Lit. Lighted. Irregular Verb. Rise. Rose. Risen. Rising Irregular Verb. Set. Set. Set. Setting Irregular Verb. Shrink. Shrunk. Shrunk. Shrinking Irregular Verb. Thrust. Thrust. Thrust. Thrusting.

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In astronomy, a Black Hole is an object so massive that no light can leave it, including light.Black Holes absorb all light that falls upon them. Black Holes are thought to arise from the death of massive stars. Many science fiction writers dream of trips to Black Holes where all kinds of strange things happen to the voyagers. In some of their books, sometimes time itself unwinds. In others, they cut a shortcut through the universe and end up in a new one.

In astronomy, a Black Hole (1)_______________ an object so massive that no light can (2)_______________ it, including light.Black Holes absorb all light that (3)_______________ upon them. Black Holes are (4)_______________ to (5)_______________ from the death of massive stars. Many science fiction writers (6)_______________ of trips to Black Holes where all kinds of strange things happen to the voyagers. In some of their books, sometimes time itself (7)_______________. In others, they (8)_______________ a shortcut through the universe and end up in a new one. Is Leave Fall Dream Unwind Cut Irregular Verb. Is, Be, Being, Was, Were, Am. Irregular Verb. Leave. Left. Left. Leaving Irregular Verb. Fall. Fell. Fallen. Falling. Irregular Verb. Dream. Dreamt. Dreamt. Dreaming. Irregular Verb. Unwind. Unwound. Unwound. Unwinding. Irregular Verb. Cut. Cut. Cut. Cutting.

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Einstein was a physicist born in Germany in 1879. He found the formula for relativity, written as E = MC2. This scientific leap led to the building of the atomic bomb. Einstein later rang a dire warning about the spread of nuclear weapons. He stood for their halt. While he was a scientist, he also held that “God does not play dice with the universe.”

Einstein was a physicist born in Germany in 1879. He (1)______________ the formula for relativity, (2)______________ as E = MC2. This scientific (3)______________ (4)______________ to the (5)______________ of the atomic bomb. Einstein later (6)______________ a dire warning about the (7)______________ of nuclear weapons. He (8)______________ for their halt. While he (9)______________ a scientist, he also (10)______________ that “God does not play dice with the universe.” Was Found Written Leap Led Building rang spread Stood Was Irregular Verb. Am, Is, Are, Was, Were, Be, Being Irregular Verb. Find. Found. Found. Finding Irregular Verb. Write. Wrote. Written. Writing. Irregular Verb. Leap. Leapt. Leapt. Leaping. Irregular Verb. Lead. Led. Led. Leading. Irregular Verb. Build. Built. Built. Building. Irregular Verb. Ring. Rang. Rung. Ringing Irregular Verb. Spread. Spread. Spread. Spreading. Irregular Verb. Stand. Stood. Stood. Standing. Irregular Verb. Am, Is, Are, Was, Were,

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Be, Being Held Irregular verb. Hold. Held. Held. Holding

Isaac Newton, an English scientist and mathematician, shook the world with his finding that proved that an apple falling from a tree which he beheld was being pulled by an unseen force known as gravity. Newton also drew up a branch of mathematics known as the Calculus. His observations gave rise to a theory of the universe broadcast as the Clockwork Universe. Isaac Newton, an English scientist and mathematician, (1)_________________ the world with his (2)_________________ that (3)_________________ that an apple (4)_________________ from a tree which he (5)_________________ was being pulled by an (6)_________________ force (7)_________________ as gravity. Newton also (8)_________________ a branch of mathematics known as the Calculus. His observations (9)_________________ (10)_________________ to a theory of the universe (11)_________________ as the Clockwork Universe.

Shook Finding. Proved Falling

Irregular Verb. Shake. Shook. Shaken. Shaking. Irregular Verb. Find. Found. Found. Finding. Irregular Verb. Prove Proved Proven Proving Irregular Verb. Fall. Fell. Fallen. Falling.

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Beheld Was being Unseen Known Drew up Gave Rise Broadcast

Irregular Verb. Behold. Beheld. Beheld. Beholding. Irregular Verb. Am/Is/Are/Be/Was/Were/Being Irregular Verb. See. Saw. Seen. Seeing Irregular Verb. Know. Knew. Known. Knowing. Irregular Verb. Draw up. Drew up. Drawn up. Drawing up. Irregular verb. Give Gave Given Giving Irregular Verb. Rise. Rose. Risen. Rising Irregular Verb. Broadcast. Broadcast. Broadcast. Broadcasting.

The earth was sown simultaneous with the solar system. Materials that were strewn over from the formation of the sun eventually formed the nine planets,numerous moons, and asteroids we now see in the sky. At first, the earth was kept molten and extremely hot. Oceans then covered the face of the earth and life began to take hold. Single celled algae fossils are found about 3.5 billion years ago. Then, about 570 million years ago, creeping animals with skeletons made their appearance. After a mass extinction caused by a massive asteroid striking the earth and killing 80% of life, modern life began about 65 million years ago.However, humans have only been thriving for a few million years. We been blest to fuel our lives with the scattered and swollen remains of these extinct dinosaurs which have swept across the eaons to give us petroleum. The earth was (1)______________ simultaneous with the solar system. Materials that were (2)______________ over from the formation of the sun eventually formed the nine

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planets,numerous moons, and asteroids we now (3)______________ in the sky. At first, the earth was (4)______________ molten and extremely hot. Oceans then covered the face of the earth and life began to (5)______________. Single celled algae fossils are (6)______________ about 3.5 billion years ago. Then, about 570 million years ago, (7)______________ animals with skeletons made their appearance. After a mass extinction caused by a massive asteroid (8)______________ the earth and killing 80% of life, modern life (9)______________ about 65 million years ago.However, humans have only been thriving for a few million years. We been (10)______________ to fuel our lives with the scattered and (11)______________ remains of these extinct dinosaurs which have (12)______________ across the eaons to (13)______________ us petroleum. Sown Strewn Kept See Take Hold Found Creeping Striking Began Thriving Blest Swell Irregular Verb. Sow. Sown. Sown. Sowing Irregular Verb. Strew. Strew. Strewn. Strewing. Irreglar verb. Keep. Kept. Kept. Keeping Irregular verb. See. Saw. Seen. Seeing Irregular verb. Take. Took. Taken. Taking. Irregular verb. Hold. Held. Held. Holding Irregular verb. Find. Found. Found. Finding. Irregular verb. Creep. Crept. Crept. Creeping Irregular verb. Strike. Struck. Struck. Striking. Irregular verb. Begin. Began. Begun. Beginning. Irregular verb. Thrive Irregular verb. Bless. Blest. Blest. Blessing Irregular Verb. Swell. Swelled. Swollen. Swelling.

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Swept

Irregular verb. Sweep. Swept. Swept. Sweeping

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

awake "- Awake, -- Stop Sleeping; " AWAKE awoke be - be -- have the quality of being; BE was been begin - begin -- take the first step or steps in carrying out an action; beginning come "- come, move toward " COME came come coming cut - cut -- separate CUT cut cut cutting do "- make, do -- engage in; " DO did done drive - drive1 -- operate or control a vehicle; DRIVE drove eat - eat -- take in solid food; EAT ate eaten eating fly "- fly, wing -- travel through the air " FLY flew go "- travel, go, -- change location " GO went gone

awoken awaking being BEGIN began begun

doing driven flown going

driving flying

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2

have "- have, -- have or possess, " HAVE had have having hear - hear -- perceive (sound) via the auditory sense HEAR heard heard hearing make "- make, do -- engage in; " MAKE made made making run "- run -- move fast by using one's feet, " RUN ran ran running say "- state, -- express in words; " SAY said said saying see - see -- perceive by sight or have the power to perceive by sight; SEE saw seen seeing send "- send1, direct -- cause to go somewhere; " SEND sent sent sending sing - sing1 -- deliver by singing; SING sang sang singing sit "- sit, -- be seated " SIT sat sat sitting sleep "- sleep, kip, slumber, -- be asleep " SLEEP slept slept sleeping swing "- swing -- move in a curve or arc, usually with the intent of hitting; " SWING swung swung swinging teach "- teach, learn, instruct -- impart skills or knowledge to; " TEACH taught taught teaching tell "- state, say, - express in words; " TELL told told telling write "- write, compose " WRITE wrote written writing beat "- beat, vanquish -- come out better in a competition, race, or conflict; " BEAT beat beaten beating become "- become, get -- enter or assume a certain state or condition; " BECOME became became becoming bring "- bring, convey, -- take something or somebody with oneself somewhere; " BRING brought brought bringing

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2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

build "- construct, build, make13 -- make by combining materials and parts; " BUILD built built building catch "- catch -- discover or come upon accidentally, " CATCH caught caught catching choose "- choose, , select, -- pick out,; " CHOOSE chose chosen choosing drink "- drink, imbibe -- take in liquids; "DRINK drank drunk drinking get "- get, acquire -- come into the possession " GET got gotten getting give "- give -- cause to have, in the abstract sense or physical sense; " GIVE gave given giving hit - hit -- cause to move by striking; HIT hit hit hitting hold "- hold, throw, have, -- organize or be responsible for; " HOLD held held holding know "- know, -- be aware of a fact " KNOW knew known knowing leave "- leave, -- go away from a place; "LEAVE left left leaving meet "- meet, ran_into1, encounter, see -- come together; "MEET met met meeting pay "- pay -- give money, usually in exchange for goods or services; " PAY paid paid paying put "- put, set -- put into a certain place or abstract location; " PUT put put putting read - read -- interpret something that is written or printed; READ read read reading ring "- ring, peal1 -- sound loudly and sonorously; " RING rang rung ringing saw - saw -- cut with a saw; SAW sawed sawn sawing sell - sell -- exchange or deliver for money or its equivalent; SELL sold sold selling shut "- close, shut -- move so that an opening or passage is obstructed; " SHUT shut shut shutting speak "- talk, speak, utter, -- express in speech; " SPEAK spoke spoken speaking spend "- spend, pass -- pass (time) in a specific way; " SPEND spent spent spending stand "- stand, -- be standing; be upright; " STAND stood stand standing stick "- lodge, wedge1, stick2, deposit -- fix, force, or implant; " STICK stuck stuck sticking stink - Stink -- Be Extremely Bad; Smell Bad. STINK stank stunk stinking sweep "- brush, sweep -- sweep across or over; " SWEEP swept swept sweeping swim - swim -- travel through water; SWIM swam swum swimming take - take4 -- carry out; TAKE took taken taking think - think1 conceive -- judge or regard; look upon; judge; THINK thought thought thinking throw - throw -- project through the air; THROW threw thrown throwing understand - understand -- know and comprehend the nature or meaning of; UNDERSTAND understood understood understanding wake "- wake -- be awake, be alert, be there " WAKE woke woken waking arise "- originate, grow -- come into existence; take on form or shape; " ARISE arose arisen arising bend "- bend, flex -- form a curve; " BEND bent bent bending bet "- bet, wager -- maintain with or as if with a bet; " BET bet bet betting bleed "- bleed, hemorrhage -- lose blood from one's body " BLEED bled bled bleeding break "- interrupt, break3 -- terminate; " BREAK broke broken breaking cost "- cost, be9 -- be priced at; " COST cost cost costing draw "- pull, force1 -- cause to move along the ground by pulling; " DRAW drew drawn drawing dream "- dream, -- have a daydream; indulge in a fantasy " DREAM dreamt dreamt dreaming fall - fall3 -- descend in free fall under the influence of gravity; FALL fell fallen falling

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3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

feed - feed4 -- provide as food; FEED fed fed feeding feel "- feel, experience -- undergo an emotional sensation; " FEEL felt felt feeling fight "- fight, struggle -- be engaged in a fight; carry on a fight; " FIGHT fought fought fighting find "- find2, encounter -- come upon, as if by accident; meet with; " FIND found found finding forgive - forgive -- stop blaming or grant forgiveness; FORGIVE forgave forgiven forgiving hide "- hide, conceal1 -- prevent from being seen or discovered; " HIDE hid hidden hiding hurt "- ache, smart, hurt -- be the source of pain " HURT hurt hurt hurting keep "- keep, maintain, hold -- keep in a certain state, position, or activity; e.g., " KEEP kept kept keeping lay "- put, set, lay1 -- put into a certain place or abstract location; " LAY laid laid laying lead "- lead1, conduct1, guide -- take somebody somewhere; " LEAD led led leading light "- light, illume, illumine, illuminate3 -- make lighter or brighter; " LIGHT lit lit lighting lost - Opposite Of Found Or Find LOST lost lost losing mean "- mean1, intend -- mean or intend to express or convey; " MEAN meant meant meaning rise "- rise, lift3, arise4, come_up3, uprise1 -- move upward; " RISE rose risen rising set "- put, set, position, lay1 -- put into a certain place or abstract location; " SET set set setting shine "- reflect, shine1 -- be bright by reflecting or casting light; " SHINE shone shone shining speed "- rush, _ -- step on it; " SPEED sped sped speeding spin "- spin1, -- revolve quickly and repeatedly around one's own axis; " SPIN spun spun spinning spread "- spread, distribute1 -- distribute or disperse widely; " SPREAD spread spread spreading steal - steal -- take without the owner's consent; STEAL stole stole stealing strike "- hit1, -- hit against; come into sudden contact with; " STRIKE struck stricken striking string "- string2, thread1, draw14 -- thread on or as if on a string; " STRING strung strung stringing upset - upset -- disturb the balance or stability of; UPSET upset upset upsetting wear "- wear, -- be dressed in; "WEAR wore worn wearing bite "- bite, -- to grip, cut off, or tear with or as if with the teeth or jaws; " BITE bit bitten biting blow - blow -- exhale hard; BLOW blew blown blewing burn "- burn2, fire1, burn_down2 -- destroy by fire; " BURN burnt burnt burning deal "- cover1, -- deal with verbally or in some form of artistic expression; "DEAL dealt dealt dealing dig "- dig, delve, -- turn up, loosen, or remove earth; " DIG dug dug digging dive "- dive, plunge1, plunk -- drop steeply; " DIVE dove dived diving forget "- forget1, bury -- dismiss from the mind; stop remembering; " FORGET forgot forgotten forgetting freeze - freeze -- change to ice; FREEZE froze frozen freezing hang - hang3 -- be suspended or hanging; FREEZE hung hung hanging kneel - kneel -- rest one's weight on one's knees; KNEEL knelt knelt kneeling leap "- jump, leap, bound1, spring1 -- move forward by leaps and bounds; " LEAP leapt leapt leaping

157

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

let "- let, allow, permit -- make it possible " LET let let letting lie - lie -- be located or situated somewhere; occupy a certain position LIE lay lain lying lie -Not tell the truth. LIE(2) lied lied lying mistake "- mistake2, misidentify -- identify incorrectly; " MISTAKE mistook mistaken mistaking mow "- mow, cut_down1 -- cut with a blade or mower; " MOW mowed mown mowing prove "- prove, -- be shown or be found to be; " PROVE proved proven proving redo "- remake, refashion1, redo -- make new; " REDO redid redone redoing repay "- refund, return, repay -- pay back; " REPAY repaid repaid repaying rewrite - rewrite -- write differently; alter the writing of; REWRITE rewrote rewritten rewriting sew "- sew, run_up1, stitch -- fasten by sewing; do needlework " SEW sewed sewn sewing shake "- shake, agitate1 -- move or cause to move back and forth; " SHAKE shook shaken shaking shrink "- shrivel, , shrink2, wither -- wither, especially with a loss of moisture; " SHRINK shrank shrank shrinking slid - To Move Over A Surface. Children Slid On The Slide. SLID slid slid sliding split "- divide, split3, -- separate into parts or portions; " SPLIT split split splitting sting "- bite, sting2, burn -- cause a sharp or stinging pain or discomfort; " STING stung stung stinging tear "- tear, rupture, snap1, bust2 -- separate or cause to separate abruptly; "TEAR tore torn tearing undo "- undo -- cancel, annul, or reverse an action or its effect; " UNDO undid undone undoing unwind "- unwind6, unroll -- reverse the winding or twisting of; " UNWIND unwound unwound unwinding wed "- marry wed, conjoin -- take in marriage " WED wedded wedded wedding weep "- cry, weep -- shed tears because of sadness, rage, or pain; " WEEP wept wept weeping bless - bless -- give a benediction to; BLESS blest blest blessing creep "- crawl, creep -- move slowly; " CREEP crept crept creeping fit "- suit5, -- be agreeable or acceptable to; " FIT fitted fitted fitting forbid "- forbid, prohibit, -- command against; " FORBID forbade forbidden forbidding forecast "- forecast, calculate1 -- predict in advance " FORECAST forecast forecast forecasting grind "- crunch, -- press or grind with a crunching noise " GRIND ground ground grinding knit - knit -- make (textiles) by knitting; KNIT knit knit knitting lend "- lend1, -- bestow a quality on; " LEND lent lent lending mislead "- mislead, -- lead someone in the wrong direction or give someone wrong directions; " MISLEAD misled misled misleading mispell - Not Spell Correctly. MISPELL mispelled mispelled mispelling misunderstand - misconstrue1 -- interpret in the wrong way; MISUNDERSTAND misunderstood misunderstood misunderstanding outbid - outbid1 -- bid over an opponent's OUTBID outbid outbid outbidding outdo - surpass outperform -- be or do something to a greater degree; OUTDO outdid outdone outdoing oversee "- oversee, supervise, superintend, manage1 -- watch and direct; " OVERSEE oversaw overseenoverseeing overthrow "- overthrow, -- cause the downfall of; of rulers; " OVERTHROW overthrew overthrown overthrowing

158

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

overun - Go Faster Or To Go Over Budget Or To Conquer OVERUN overan overun overunning rebuild "- rebuild, reconstruct -- build again; " REBUILD rebuilt rebuilt rebuilding rid "- rid, -- relieve from; " RID rid rid ridding sink "- sink1, -- fall or drop to a lower place or level; " SINK sank sunk sinking slit "- slit1, slice1 -- make a clean cut through; "SLIT slit slit slitting sow "- sow, sough, seed1 -- place (seeds) in or on the ground for future growth; " SOW sowed sown sowing spit "- spit, spew1, spue1 -- expel or eject (saliva or phlegm or sputum) from the mouth; " SPIT spat spat spitting spring "- jump, leap, spring1 -- move forward by leaps and bounds; " SPRINGsprang sprang springing stride - stride -- walk with long steps; STRIDE strode stridden striding swear "- curse, cuss, -- utter obscenities or profanities; " SWEAR swore sworn swearing undertake - undertake enter upon an activity or enterprise UNDERTAKE undertook undertaken undertaking uphold "- continue, -- keep or maintain in unaltered condition " UPHOLD upheld upheld upholding weave "- weave, interweave -- interlace by or as it by weaving " WEAVE wove woven weaving wet - wet -- cause to become wet; WET wet wet wetting win - win -- be the winner in a contest or competition; be victorious; WIN won won winning withdraw - withdraw -- pull back or move away or backward; WITHDRAW withdrew withdrawn withdrewing wring "- contort, deform2, distort, wring1 -- twist and press out of shape " WRING wrung wrung wringing bear - bear1 -- have; BEAR bore borne bearing behold - behold see with attention; BEHOLD beheld beheld beholding beseech "- bid2, , conjure3 -- ask for or request earnestly; " BESEECH besought besought beseeching bid "- offer1, bid, tender2 -- propose a payment; " BID bid bid bidding bind "- adhere bond, bind6, stick, stick_to3 -- stick to firmly; " BIND bound bound binding breed "- engender, breed, spawn -- call forth " BREED bred bred breeding broadcast "- air1, send3, -- broadcast over the airwaves, as in radio or television; " BROADCAST broadcast broadcast broadcasting browbeat "- strong-arm, bully, browbeat, bullyrag, hector, -- be bossy towards; " BROWBEAT browbeat browbeat browbeating burst "- burst, split1, break_open1 -- break open or apart suddenly; " BURST burst burst bursting cast "- project3, cast2, contrive2, throw2 -- put or send forth; " CAST cast cast casting cleave "- cleave, -- separate or cut " CLEAVE clove cloven cleaving cling "- cling, -- come or be in close contact with; " CLING clung clung clinging countersink "- set, countersink -- a nail or screw below the surface " COUNTERSINK countersank countersunk countersinking dwell "- brood, dwell -- think moodily or anxiously about something " DWELL dwelt dwelt dwelling flee "- flee, _flight -- run away quickly; " FLEE fled fled fleeing fling - fling -- throw with force or recklessness; FLING flung flung flinging forseek - Stop Looking For Something. Give Up. FORSEEK forsook forsaken forsaking

159

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

gird "- arm fortify, gird -- prepare oneself for a military confrontation; " GIRD girt girt girding overcome "- overcome3, defeat -- win a victory over; " OVERCOME overcame overcome overcoming overdo "- overdo, exaggerate -- do something to an excessive degree; " OVERDO overdid overdone overdoing overhang - overhang1 -- project over OVERHANG overhung overhung overhanging overhear "- catch, overhear -- hear, usually without the knowledge of the speakers; " OVERHEAR overheard overheard overhearing override "- overrule, overturn, override, overthrow, reverse " OVERRIDE overrid overrid overriding plead - plead -- appeal or request earnestly; PLEAD pled pled pleading relay - relay -- pass along; RELAY relaid relain relaying rend "- rend, rip -- tear or be torn violently; " REND rent rent rending seek - seek -- try to get or reach; SEEK sought sought seeking shed "- shed1, -- get rid of; " SHED shed shed shedding slay "- murder, -- kill intentionally and with premeditation; " SLAY slew slain slaying sling "- sling, catapult1 -- hurl as if with a sling " SLING slung slung slinging slink - slink -- walk stealthily; SLINK slunk slunk slinking strew "- Strew, Straw -- Spread By Scattering" STREW strewed strewn strewing strive - endeavor strive -- attempt by employing effort; STRIVE strove striven striving swell "- swell2 -- increase in size, magnitude, number, or intensity; " SWELL swelled swollen swelling thrust - thrust -- push forcefully; THRUST thrust thrust thrusting tread "- step1, tread1 -- put down or press the foot, place the foot; " TREAD trod trodden trodding undergo - experience undergo -- of mental or physical states or experiences; UNDERGO underwent undergone undergoing withold - Keep Back Money Or Emotions From Someone WITHOLD witheld witheld witholding withstand "- defy, withstand, hold8, hold_up2 -- resist or confront with resistance; " WITHSTAND withstood withstand withstanding

160

"(1)______________, I wish the Bald Eagle had not been (2)______________ the Representative of our Country. He is a bird of bad (3)______________ Character. He does not get his living (4)______________ . You may have seen him (5)______________ on some dead tree near the River, where, too lazy to fish for himself, he watches the labor of the Fishing Hawk; and when that (6)______________ bird has at length taken a fish, and is (7)______________ it to his (8)______________ for the support of his mate and young ones, the Bald Eagle (9)______________ him and takes it from him.

for my own part chosen moral honestly perched diligent bearing nest pursues

Transition Verbal. Adjective. Knowing right from wrong Adverb. To be truthful Verbal. The way a bird sits on a tree branch Adjective. Hard working. Persistent Verbal. Carrying. Noun. The house of a bird Verbal. To chase something or someone.

"With all this injustice, […]he is generally poor and often very lousy. Besides he is a rank coward: The little King Bird, not bigger than a sparrow, attacks him boldly and

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drives him out of the district. He is therefore by no means a proper emblem for the brave and honest Cincinnati of America who have driven all the King birds from our Country . "(1)_________________, […]he is generally poor and often very (2)_______________. Besides he is a (3)_______________ coward: The little King Bird, not bigger than a (4)_______________, attacks him boldly and drives him out of the (5)_______________. He is (6)_______________ by no (7)_______________ a proper (8)_______________ for the brave and honest (9)_______________ of America who have driven all the King birds from our Country .

with all this injustice lousy rank sparrow district therefore means emblem cincinnati

Subordinating Phrase. Noun. Very bad. Adjective. Total. Noun. A small brown bird Noun. Area Transition. So Noun. No matter. No way. Noun. Symbol, like a flag. Noun. Famous Roman leader.

"I am on this account not displeased that the figure is not known as a Bald Eagle, but looks more like a turkey. For in truth, the turkey is in comparison a much more respectable bird, and a true original Native of America . He is besides, though a little vain and silly, a bird of courage, and would not hesitate to attack a Grenadier of the British Guards who should presume to invade his farm yard with a red coat on." 162

"I am (1)__________________ not displeased that the figure is not known as a Bald Eagle, but looks more like a turkey. (2)__________________, the turkey is in comparison a (3)__________________ respectable bird, and a true original Native of America . (4)__________________, though a little (5)__________________ and silly, a bird of courage, and would not (6)__________________ to attack a Grenadier of the British Guards who (7)__________________ to invade his farm yard with a red coat on."

on this account for in truth much more he is besides vain hesitate should presume

Transition. For these reasons. Transition. As a matter of fact. Adjective/Adverb. Greater. Transition. In addition. Noun. A person who loves themselves. Verbal. Would not pause or wait. Verbal. Would dare to.

ARGUMENT
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