CPT BOOTCAMP

COMPUTERIZED PLACEMENT TEST TUTORIAL WRITING SKILLS Heather Delsalle Steven Donahue Miami Dade College North Campus Summer 2005

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Authors Heather Delsalle is co-director of the ESL Writing Resource lab at Miami Dade College, North Campus Steven Donahue is ESL faculty at Miami Dade College, North Campus. CONTENTS 1. PREFACE ………………………………………………. 2. INSTRUCTOR INTRODUCTION …………………… 3. TEST-TAKING SKILLS……………………………… 4. PRE TEST……………………………………………… 5. STRUCTURES…………………………………………. 6. ERRORS………………………………………………… 7. PRACTICE TEST……………………………………… 8. MORE PRACTICE…………………………………….. 9. PARTICIPIALS………………………………………… 10. ANSWERS…………………………………………….. FOOTNOTES …………………………………………….. 1-4 5-6 7-8 9-11 12-17 18-36 37-63 64-85 86-95 96-111 112

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1. PREFACE:
“MOUNT GRAMMAR-IST” Congratulations! You have now advance through your ESL coursework and are getting prepared to take the feared, dreaded, and loathed Computerized Placement Test (CPT). For months, perhaps years, you have been climbing a Mt. Everest of grammar, vocabulary, reading, and other second language skills. Now, you are close to the summit of the mountain. Now is the time to really concentrate and study and bring all your honed skills to bear on the placement test and pass it with flying colors. That is why we produced this CPT BOOTCAMP Manual and CD for you. Then, finally, you will be able to shout, “Eureka!” NEVER A STUPID QUESTION There comes a day of fear and trembling in the life of every teacher when the answers to students' questions do not come so easy. One semester, Maria, a Level 6, Spanish ESL student asked us at the Learning Resource Writing Lab: "How can I turn this statement into a question: "It was a faulty wire that caused the fire”? We hesitated for a moment, afraid that the answer would involve an unproductive session on English linguistics. "Why do you want to know?" We asked. "Because it was on the CPT (Computerized Placement Test) and I failed the test," she said. Thus obliged, we reluctantly went to the blackboard and began to write the sentences: Statement: "It was a faulty wire that caused the fire." Question : "Was it a faulty wire that caused the fire?" Immediately, we were bombarded by questions on this topic and other questions the students remembered, sometimes imperfectly, from the practice and actual CPT administered at Miami Dade College as the protocol for exiting the top-level, Level 6, of English as a Second Language writing. "Can you start a question with 'Was'?" they chorused. Now, we were afraid to answer, but ventured forth anyway. "Yes. You can. This sentence is a rare construction called a 'Cleft'." We visualized the grammar snowball gathering mass as it rolled down the hill. These students lived and breathed English grammar. They were hard core experts. They did not accept just answers. They wanted the reasons behind the answers. "What's ‘Cleave’?" someone asked.

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More trouble. "Cleave means divide into two. Cleave. Cleft. Cleft." "Huh?" they asked. So we explained. Normally, you can have two verbs in a sentence. "John ate and drank at the party." But in a 'Cleft' sentence there is an additional verb: "It was at a party that John ate and drank." So, to turn it into a question, you render it "Was it at a party that John ate and drank." BREAK ON THROUGH TO THE OTHER SIDE ... OF ESL But who cares? Students taking the CPT care because it is one of the structures probed on the test. Moreover, it and other structures are not covered deeply enough in the minimum competencies incorporated by the EAP program at the College. Therefore, teachers should care to teach to these competencies expected to be encountered in college English and not leave 'gaps' in students' competencies. So a hard grammar rain drenches the teacher and astute students alike. Then, as the explanations progressed, it got worse and worse. We were in a Level 6 dilemma: forced to teach to the students who had "Swiss-cheese-like" holes in their prior levels of grammar; compelled to address the needs of desperate students trying to break through to the other side of the ESL program into full-fledged college. So, we developed a shotgun approach for these students. We focused on the holes in the "Swiss cheese" (Grammar), Formal Errors (Boo-Boos), Sentence Skills (Transformations), and Test-Taking Strategies. It has been a process of discovery for us and our students as we sought answers and reasons. So, here are some of the advanced topics covered in a CPT-preparation class:

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2. INSTRUCTOR INTRODUCTION
Be a Student
INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Be a student for a moment. Take this test: "Their is four errors in this sentance. Can you find them?"1(1) Error 1: Error 2: Error 3: THEIR should be IS should be SENTANCE should be THERE USAGE ERROR ARE GRAMMAR ERROR SENTENCE SPELLING ERROR

What is the 4th Error? It is a LOGIC ERROR. __ The 4th Error is the TRUTH proposition of the actual sentence. It is false that there are 4 errors-there are in fact, only 3 errors. ---------------------------------------------------------------In the movie, "Swept Away," Madonna's sailor-boyfriend, tired of being corrected and voicing his frustration with the idiosyncrasies of English, decrees loudly, " From now on, the plural of FISH is FISHES!" ---------------------------------------------------------------QUESTION? What exactly is the link between teaching grammar explicitly in the classroom and the resulting improvement of writing ability by students? ANSWER ... In fact, nearly 100 years of studies have confirmed that there is no “relationship between knowledge of technical grammar and the ability to use English and to interpret the language."2 -------------------------------------------------------------------The goal is then clear. Formal grammar errors have long been considered a result of carelessness on the part of the writer. So, this link becomes a crucial one for ESL students, who must pass standardized tests, such as the Computerized Placement Test (CPT), and succeed in Freshman College English (1101). -------------------------------------------------------------------Mina Shaughnessy said of students' errors or formal errors, " [They are] unintentional and unprofitable intrusions upon the consciousness of the reader."3 _

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In short, the reasons for a student making an error are more important than the error itself. --------------------------------------------------------------The hope is that this CD and accompanying materials will allow students to 'Discover' the reasons motivating their grammar errors. --------------------------------------------------------------ERRORS, is inspired by the Robert J. Connors and Andrea Lunsford's study of college writing errors on over 20,000 essays.4 SENTENCES, is based upon Bateman and Zidonis' study that sentence-combining improves student writing. These are the same skills probed by the CPT.5 ---------------------------------------------------------------

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3. TEST-TAKING SKILLS
High-stakes tests are the ones which can change your life depending on whether or not you pass them. Examples include the CPT, GRE, LSAT, SAT, CLEP, and so on. On a whole, the tests are "Good." That means that they are VALID and measure the skill sets they are supposed to measure, and they are RELIABLE and measure most students well. However, if you wish to do well on a Sentence Skills Test, such as the CPT, here are some suggestions:_ 1. Come to the Testing Center Early. Rushing in to take a high-stakes test at the last moment is not a good idea. Take the test seriously and arrive early enough and well-prepared._ 2. Don't take the test while hungry or thirsty. Make sure you are comfortable to sit through a test that could take well over an hour. _ 3. Meditate, Pray, or use other Confidence Boosters. You can get your psychology in the mood to do better on a test by practicing centering activities._ 4. SAY IT ALOUD Say the sentences aloud and their possible solutions. When you hear a sentence aloud, if it "sounds right" it probably is. Frequently, when it "sounds wrong"--it is wrong._ 5. WRITE IT DOWN If you are allowed to, write down the original problem sentence and the possible solution sentences. Then SAY IT as in Suggestion 4._ 6. READ DIRECTIONS TWICE Be sure that you are not confused or tripped up on Negative Words, which ask you to reverse something. For instance, LIKE might need to be changed to UNLIKE.)_ 7. READ THE PROBLEM TWICE

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Remember that sometimes the presented question or sentence is the correct one and is repeated as one of the choices._ 8. ELIMINATE. Use the Process of Elimination to discard obviously wrong answers. Choose between two potentially close answers to reduce your odds of a right choice to 50-50. _ 9. DON'T GET WEIRD Do not try to make an unfamiliar, odd, or wrong answer right by stretching it. Many times, your first choice or intuition will be the correct answer._ 10. REVIEW BEFOREHAND --Review before hand using this CD, --Know your weak points and work on them. --Ask other students who have successfully passed other high-stakes tests. --Use the library reference desk as a resource for answering your questions._ GOOD LUCK!

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4. PRE TEST

0. Select the best version of the part of the sentence. If you think the original sentence is best, choose that answer. The baby was obviously getting too hot, then Sam did what he could to cool her. A.hot; Sam, trying to do B.hot; Sam, therefore, did C.hot, then Sam did 1. Select the best version of the part of the sentence. If you think the original sentence is best, choose that answer. She hoped to find a new job. One that would let her earn money during the school y A.job. The kind that B.job, one that C.job. One that 2. Select the best version of the part of the sentence. If you think the original sentence is best, choose that answer. Knocked sideways, the statue looked as if it would fall A.The statue, looking knocked sideways, B.Knocked sideways, the statue looked C.he statue was knocked sideways, looked 3. Rewrite the sentence in your head, following the directions given below. Keep in mind that your new sentence should be well written and should have essentially the same meaning as the sentence given you. When you cross the street in the middle of the block, this is an example of jaywalking. A.When you cross the street in the middle of the block, this B.Crossing the street in the middle of the block C.he fact that you cross the street in the middle of the block 4. Select the best version of the part of the sentence. If you think the original sentence is best, choose that answer. To walk, biking, and driving are Pat’s favorite ways of getting around A.To walk, to bike, and also driving B.Walking, biking, and driving C.To walk, biking, and to drive 5. Select the best version of the part of the sentence. If you think the original sentence is best, choose that answer.

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Walking by the corner the other day, a child, I noticed, was watching for the light to change A.there was, I noticed, a child watching B.I noticed a child watching C.a child, I noticed, was watching 6. In his songs, Gordon Lightfoot makes melody and lyrics intricately intertwine. Rewrite, beginning with Melody and lyrics A.does Gordon Lightfoot B.in Gordon Lightfoot’s C.Gordon Lightfoot has 7. It is easy to carry solid objects without spilling them, but the same cannot be said of liquids Rewrite, beginning with Unlike liquids, … A.it is easy to B.solid objects can easily be C.solid objects are easy to be 8. Excited children ran toward the loud music, and they told others about the ice cream truck outside. Rewrite, beginning with Excited children, who had run toward the loud… A.music, they told B.music, told C.music, telling 9. If he had enough strength, Todd would move the boulder. Rewrite, beginning withTodd cannot move the boulder… A.without enough B.because he C.when lacking 10. The band began to play, and then the real party started Rewrite, beginning withThe real party started… A.the band beginning B.after the band began C.and the band began 11. Chris heard no unusual noises when he listened in the park. Rewrite, beginning withListening in the park,… A.no unusual noises could be heard B.Chris heard no unusual noises C.and hearing no unusual noises 12. Select the best version of the part of the sentence. If you think the original sentence is best, choose that answer. Mr. Jones planning to teach a course on pronunciation next fall. A.with a plan B.Plans C.planning

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13. Select the best version of the part of the sentence. If you think the original sentence is best, choose that answer. The teacher listing only four journals on biology A.Listing B.Listed C.with a list 14. Being a female judge, she was often interviewed Rewrite beginning with She was often interviewed A.Being as she was B.Because she was C.On account of she was 15. Copies of the proposed legislative rules were provided by the president of the Senate to the members of the committee Rewrite beginning with The president of the Senate A.to the members of the committee B.provided copies of the proposed C.proposed copies of the rules 16. Having no air conditioning, her house is very hot. Rewrite, beginning with Her house is very hot. A.by it being B.Because it has C.On account of it has 17. The praise of the other soldiers was earned by the young corporal who solved the war crime. Rewrite beginning with Having solved the murder A.Praising of B.Earned the praise C.Earning the praise 18. Select the best version of the part of the sentence. If you think the original sentence is best, choose that answer. According to some scientists, the pollution of our air and water is not so hazardous to our health as is the pollution of our food. A.but the pollution of our food. B.as in the pollution of our food. C.as polluting our food. 19. Modern science has made one notable advance of spiritual nature: it has created a sense of the existence of universal law. Rewrite beginning with By creating A.law, there is one B.… law, modern science C.law, one notable advance

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5. STRUCTURES
Gerunds 1. Gerunds are equivalent to Nouns. "GOING to school is fun." 2. Gerunds take Possessive Pronouns. "HIS having done that upset me." 3. Personal Subjects of Gerunds usually take Possessive apostrophes. "Jane's complaining really bothered the teacher." _

Participles as Modifiers Both Past and Present Participles can be used as modifiers 1. "The EDITED paper was 500 words long." (Past Participle EDITED modifies PAPER) 2. "The Teacher EDITING your paper is young." (Present Participle EDITING modifies TEACHER) _ Absolute Phrases Absolute Phrases modify the basic sentence. They can be formed in two ways: 1. His arms were weak with pain, but John drove the car carefully. --> His arms weak with pain, John drove the car carefully. (HIS ARMS WEAK WITH PAIN modifies main sentence) 2. His arms trembled with pain, but John drove the car carefully. --> His arms trembling with pain, John drove the car carefully.

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(HIS ARMS TREMBLING WITH PAIN modifies main sentence) _ Appositives Appositives position a second noun in opposition or besides another noun. 1. "Paula, an old friend, is a great person." (PAULA is next to the Appositive AN OLD FRIEND) 2. My country, Cuba, is an island. (MY COUNTRY is next to the Appositive CUBA) Note: Appositives are set off with Commas as above._ Past Participles Past Participles are used in one of three ways: A. As ADJECTIVES "John's depleted bank account was closed." ( DEPLETED modifies BANK ACCOUNT) B. As a MAIN VERB with HAVE " The student had decided to drop the course because he was overwhelmed." (DECIDED with HAD makes the Verb Past Perfect) C. As a PASSIVE with BE. "The soccer ball was kicked by Pele." (WAS and the Participle of KICK makes the Verb Passive) _ Present Participles The Present Participle has three uses: A. As a GERUND "The breaking of dishes was vandalism" ( BREAKING modifies DISHES) B. As a MAIN VERB with BE " John said that he was driving over right now" (DRIVING with WAS makes the Verb Progressive or Continuous) C. As an ADJECTIVE. "The temperature rose at an alarming rate" (ALARMING modifies RATE)_ Auxiliary Verbs

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Auxiliary Verbs are Helping Verbs. There are three types: A. BE "I am going" ( AM makes GOING Progressive) B. HAVE " John said that he had called before he drove over yesterday" (HAD makes CALLED Past Perfect and the CALL preceded the DRIVING) C. DO "Do you care?"/"I do care!"/"I don't care." (DO is used for Questions, Emphasis, or Negation)_ Transitive & Intransitive Transitive Verbs take objects. 1. "Pele scored the goal." ( The verb SCORE takes the object GOAL) ONLY Transitive Verbs can be made PASSIVE 2. "The goal was scored by Pele." ( In Passive, the Object is emphasized) Intransitive Verbs cannot take Objects. Intransitive Cannot be made Passive. 3. "The student smiled" (SMILED is an Intransitive verb)_ Subjunctive Subjunctive shows that the writer believes the action is unreal or hypothetical. In Subjunctive, the bare verb is used, without "S". 1. Subjunctive can be preceded by words such as: " I recommend she study more" (not she studies) " I suggest he study more" (not he studies) "I insist John study more" (not John studies) 2. Do not use WAS after IF " If John were a millionaire, he would still teach" (WERE not Was) 3. Subjunctive is used after AS IF or AS THOUGH) "She swims as if she were a fish" (WERE not WAS) "He writes quickly as though he were in a race." (WERE not WAS) 4. Use Subjunctive after THAT when expressing Requirement, Request, Urging, or Recommendation

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" I think it is important that he write more." (WRITE not WRITES)_ Subordination If a sentence begins with a Subordinating Conjunction (Danger Word), it is a Dependent Clause. Danger Words include: After, Because, Although, If, Though, Unless, While, etc.) 1. Always put a comma after a clause beginning with a Danger Word: "Though he may have a high school diploma, he can't read it." (The Comma comes after the Clause beginning with THOUGH) 2. Don't mix Coordinating Conjunctions (FANBOYS) with Danger Words: Wrong: "Because he was sick, so he went to the doctor." Right: "Because he was sick, he went to the doctor." 3. Do not put a comma before a Danger Word if it is not the first word: Wrong: " He went to the doctor, because he was sick" Right: "He went tot the doctor because he was sick"_ Dangling Modifiers When a sentence begins with a Participial Clause, make sure its reference is right after the comma. Wrong: After studying the homework, the teacher gave the students the test. (It is not clear who STUDYING--the teacher or the students) Right: After studying the homework, the students were given a test by the teacher. (Now it is clear that the Students were the ones STUDYING) _ Limiting Modifiers Take care not to change the meaning of a sentence when moving Limiting Modifiers. Limiting Modifiers include: Almost, Even, Just, Nearly, Only, Simply. Example: "The students trusted only him" (Here, the students trust a particular person) Example: "Only the students trusted him" (Here, particular students trusted a person)_ Parallel Words Keep words and Phrases Parallel Wrong: "The teacher was a visionary and liked realism" Right : "The teacher was a visionary and realistic" (both words are adjectives now) Wrong: " Judy loved to skate, swimming, and to jog" Right : " Judy loved skating, swimming, and jogging" (All the words are now -ING words) Right: "Judy love to skate, to swim, and to jog" (All the words are now Infinitives)

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Wrong: " Jim loved breakfast, dinner, and lunch." Right : " Jim love, breakfast, lunch, and dinner." (All the words are in Chronological order now) _ Cleft Sentences Cleft Sentences have a Verb that "Cleaves" or divides the sentence into two parts. Normal: " A faulty wire caused the fire." Cleft : "It was a faulty wire that caused the fire" (Here WAS divides the Sentence into two parts) To change a Cleft Sentence into a Question, begin with WAS not WHAT. "Was it a faulty wire that caused the fire?" A second type of Cleft is called "Pseudo Cleft" Normal: " A faulty wire caused the fire." Pseudo: " What caused the problem was a faulty wire." To change a Pseudo Cleft Sentence into a Question, begin with WAS not WHAT. "Was it a faulty wire that caused the fire?" Note: WHAT Questions can be formed by adding THAT "What was it that caused the fire?" BUT the Cause--Faulty Wire is NOT mentioned._ WHOSE Normally, WHOSE refers to Persons, but can also refer to things. PERSON: "The teacher whose briefcase was stolen is upset." (Here, WHOSE shows who owns the briefcase--the teacher) THING: " The government whose ambassador was kidnapped made a rescue attempt." (Here, WHOSE shows who "owns" the ambassador--the government) THING: " The two planets whose atmospheres are similar include Earth and Venus." (Here, WHOSE shows who "owns" the atmospheres--two planets.)_ Adverbial Modifiers There are three placement guidelines for Adverbial Modifiers 1. Locate directly before a Transitive or Intransitive Verb No : " Joe finished cheerfully his homework" Yes: " Joe cheerfully finished his homework" 2. Locate directly after BE or Helping Verbs No : " Joe frequently was late for class" Yes: " Joe was frequently late for class" 3. Place before Negatives in Inverted Sentences

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No : " I don't frequently study" Yes: " I frequently don't study" _

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6. ERRORS
1. Comma and Introductory Element a. b. c. d. Because of the dry weather, many fires broke out in the Everglades. Because of the dry weather many fires broke out in the Everglades. Because, of the dry weather, many fires broke out in the Everglades. Because of the dry weather many fires, broke out in the Everglades.

2. Comma and Introductory Element a. b. c. d. Many fires broke out in the Everglades, because of the dry weather. Many fires broke out in the Everglades because of the dry weather. Many fires broke out, in the Everglades, because of the dry weather. Many fires, broke out, in the Everglades because of the dry weather.

3. Vague Pronoun Reference. a. b. c. d. Her mother told her that she was going to shop at the mall. Her mother told her, “ I am going to shop at the mall.” Her mother told she that she was going to shop at the mall. Her mother told she that her was going to shop at the mall.

4. Vague Pronoun Reference. a. b. c. d. His father told him that he was going to visit Egypt. His father told him, “You are going to visit Egypt.” His father told he that he was going to visit Egypt. His father told he that him was going to visit Egypt.

[Rule: A noun’s possessive form is the antecedent to a possessive pronoun] 5. Vague Pronoun Reference. a. b. c. d. The teacher’s lottery ticket brought him a fortune. The teacher’s lottery ticket brought he a fortune. The teacher’s lottery ticket brought his fortune. The teacher’s lottery ticket brought he or she a fortune.

6. Vague Pronoun Reference. a. b. c. d. I told my counselor that I planned to drop the writing course, which bothered my parents. My parents were bothered because I told my counselor that I planned to drop the writing course. I told my counselor that I planned to drop the writing course, and it bothered my parents. It bothered my parents that I told my counselor it planned to drop the writing course.

7. Vague Pronoun Reference.

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a. b. c. d.

They say that you can survive a hurricane by being prepared for it. Experts say that one can survive a hurricane by being prepared. They say that one can survive a hurricane by being prepared for it. Experts say that you can survive a hurricane by being prepared for it.

8. Vague Pronoun Reference. a. b. c. d. When the student’s car was stolen, it was expected that it would make it a tough day. It was expected that it would be a hard day after the student’s car was stolen. It would make a hard day of it when the student’s car was stolen. When it was stolen, it was expected that the student’s day would be tough because of it.

9. Vague Pronoun Reference. a. b. c. d. 10. The word donut, which was originally spelled doughnut, is easier to spell. The word donut, that was originally spelled doughnut, is easier to spell. The word donut, whom was originally spelled doughnut, is easier to spell. The word donut, who was originally spelled doughnut, is easier to spell. Comma and Compound Sentence

[Rule: use a comma after coordinating conjunction and independent clauses] a. b. c. d. 11. a. b. c. d. 12. a. b. c. d. 13. Her pet dog ran away and her little cat was left alone. Her pet dog ran away and her little cat, was left alone. Her pet dog ran away, and her little cat was left alone. Her pet dog, ran away, and her little cat was left alone. Comma and Compound Sentence The pet dog ran away, and found a new home. The pet dog ran away and found a new home. The pet dog, ran away, and found a new home. The pet, dog, ran away, and found a new home. Wrong Word I admired the teacher’s patient. I admiration the teacher’s patience. I admired the teacher’s patience. I admiration the teacher’s patient. Comma and non-restrictive.

[ Rule: Use commas to set off non-essential material] a. b. c. d. 14. Some schools test people who are from foreign countries for English proficiency. Some schools test people, who are from foreign countries, for English proficiency. Some schools test, people, who are from foreign countries, for English proficiency. Some schools, test people, who are from foreign countries for English proficiency. Inflected Endings [Nouns/Adverbs/Adjectives/Pronouns/Prepopsitons/Interjections]

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a. b. c. d. 15. a. b. c. d.

The doctor gave the childrens some toys. The doctor gave the childs some toys. The doctors gave the childrens some toys. The doctors gave the children some toys. Inflected Endings I told him that he has to get used to the hot weather down here. I told him that he has to get use to the hot weather down here. I told him that he has get used to the hot weather down here. I told him that he has get use to the hot weather down here.

[Rule: Single-word modal auxiliaries have no s ending in the third-person singular.] 16. a. b. c. d. Inflected Endings The teacher coulds give us a surprise test today. The teacher could be give us a surprise test today. The teacher could give us a surprise test today. The teacher coulds be give us a surprise test today.

[Rule: Obligation is with a form of be followed by supposed to and simple main verb.] 17. a. b. c. d. Inflected Endings I was suppose to give a Powerpoint presentation. I was supposing to give a Powerpoint presentation. I was to suppose to give a Powerpoint presentation. I was supposed to give a Powerpoint presentation.

[ Rule: Use used to to convey past habitual action] 18. a. b. c. d. Inflected Endings I used to live in Miami. I use to live in Miami. I use to lived in Miami. I would to live in Miami.

[Rule: Use uninflected main verb with auxiliary] 19. a. b. c. d. 20. a. b. c. d. 21. a. b. c. d. Inflected Endings Does the language lab closes on Sunday? Do the language lab close on Sunday? Does the language lab close on Sunday? Do the language lab be close on Sunday? Preposition I will meet you on my apartment for breakfast. I will meet you over my apartment for breakfast. I will meet you about my apartment for breakfast. I will meet you in my apartment for breakfast. Comma and Independent Clauses The comet fell in a fiery ball, it burned down half the city. The comet fell in a fiery ball. It burned down half the city. The comet fell in a fiery ball. And burned down half the city. The comet fell in a firey ball it burned down half the city.

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22. a. b. c. d. 23. a. b. c. d. 24. a. b. c. d. 25. a. b. c. d. 26.

Apostrophe The writers pen is mightier than the sword. The writers pen is mightier than the swords. The writer’s pen is mightier than the sword. The writer’s pen is mightier than the sword’s. Tense Shift She went to the library yesterday and reads a book. She went to the library yesterday and will read a book. She went to the library yesterday reading a book. She went to the library yesterday and read a book. Shift (Person, Number, Subject, Voice, Tense, Mood, Direct/Indirect) They enjoy going to the lake where you can swim without clothes. They enjoy going to the lake where we can swim without clothes. They enjoy going to the lake where I can swim without clothes. They enjoy going to the lake where they can swim without clothes. Complete Sentences The car with a CD-player. The car with its CD-player. The car with it’s CD-player. The car is with a CD-player. Tense

(simple past) a. b. c. d. I watch TV yesterday. I watching TV yesterday. I watched TV yesterday. I was watch TV yesterday.

27. Tense (simple future) a. b. c. d. I watching TV tomorrow. I was watching TV tomorrow. I will watch TV tomorrow. I watch TV tomorrow.

28. Tense (simple past) a. b. c. d. I am to watch TV now. I watch TV now. I am watch TV now. I watched now.

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29. Tense (present perfect) a. b. c. d. Since I had watched TV since noon today , I know the top story. Since I watched TV since noon today ,I know the top story. Since I watching TV since noon today , I know the top story. Since I have watched TV since noon today , I know the top story.

30. Tense (present progressive) a. b. c. d. Feyrouz is considering a move to Washington the coming week. Feyrouz considered a move to Washington in the coming week. Feyrouz considers a move to Washington in the coming week. Feyrouz has considered a move to Washington in the coming week.

31. Tense (present perfect progressive) a. Xiaoling has been sat in that chair for the entire morning. b. Xiaoling has been sitting in that chair for the entire morning. c. Xiaoling sat in that chair for the entire morning. d. Xiaoling sits in that chair for the entire morning. 32. Tense (past perfect) a. b. c. d. 33. a. b. c. d. The robber left before the police arrived. The robber had been leaving before the police had been arriving. The robber had left before the police arrived. The robber had left before the police had arrived. Tense (past progressive) Colombus tried to find India when he landed in America. Colombus was trying to find India when he landed in America. Colombus tried to find India when he was landing in America. Colombus had tried to find India when he had landed in America.

34. Tense (past perfect progressive) a. b. c. d. 35. Before the fire alarm went off, the students had studied the lesson. Before the fire alarm went off, the students had been studying the lesson. Before the fire alarm went off, the students had been study the lesson. Before the fire alarm had gone off, the students had studied the lesson. Tense (future perfect)

a. By the time this class is finished, I will have read the entire book. b. By the time this class finishes, I will read the entire book. c. By the time this class will be finished, I will have read the entire book. d. By the time this class will finish, I will have been reading the entire book. 36. Tense (future progressive)

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a. b. c. d. 37. a. b. c. d. 38. a. b. c. d. 39. a. b. c. d. 40. a. b. c. d. 41. a. b. c. d.

Within five years, most countries around the world will be enter the Internet age. Within five years, most countries around the world will be entering the Internet age. Within five years, most countries around the world will have entering the Internet age. Within five years, most countries around the world will have enter the Internet age. Tense (future perfect progressive) By the time this year is over, I will have studying English for five full years. By the time this year is over, I will have study English for five full years. By the time this year is over, I will study English for five full years. By the time this year is over, I will have been studying English for five full years. Agreement (Subject/Verb) The teacher speak too loudly. The teacher speaks too loudly. The teachers speaks too loudly. The teacher speaking too loudly. Comma in a Series. Getting an “A” in class requires attendance, attention, and participation. Getting an “A” in class requires attendance, attention and participation. Getting an “A” in class requires attendance attention and participation. Getting an “A” in class requires attendance attention, and participation. Pronoun Agreement. The dog growls when he feels threatened. The dog growls when she feels threatened The dog growls when it feels threatened. The dog growls when they feel threatened. Pronoun Agreement Students fill the language lab with sounds when they do their weekly assignments. Students fill the language lab with sounds when it do their weekly assignments Students fill the language lab with sounds when they do they weekly assignments Students fill the language lab with sounds when they do it weekly assignments

[Rule: Singular antecedents joined by and require a plural pronoun] 42. a. b. c. break. d. break. 43. Pronoun Agreement The library and the language lab closed for New Year’s Eve to give its employees a small break. The library and the language lab closed for New Year’s Eve to give they employees a small break. The library and the language lab closed for New Year’s Eve to give his or her employees a small The library and the language lab closed for New Year’s Eve to give their employees a small Pronoun Agreement

[Rule: Singular antecedents joined by and and preceded by each require a singular pronoun] e.

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a. The library and the language lab each closed for New Year’s Eve to give its employees a small break. b. The library and the language lab each closed for New Year’s Eve to give they employees a small break. c. The library and the language lab each closed for New Year’s Eve to give his or her employees a small break. d. The library and the language lab each closed for New Year’s Eve to give their employees a small break. 44. a. b. c. d. Pronoun Agreement My wife and best friend makes his or her best coffee. My wife and best friend makes their best coffee. My wife and best friend make his best coffee. My wife and her best friend make the best coffee.

45. Pronoun Agreement [Rule: Make verb agree with subject closest to it when joined by or] a. b. c. d. Either the crayon or the pencils need their tips sharpened. Either the crayon or the pencil need their tips sharpened. Either the crayon or the pencil need its tips sharpened. Either the crayons or the pencils need its tips sharpened.

46. Pronoun Agreement [Rule: Each and Every remain singular when a compound sentence] a. b. c. d. 47. a. b. c. d. 48. a. b. c. d. 49. a. b. c. d. 50. a. Each problem and obstacle has their individual solution.. Each problem and obstacle has them individual solution.. Each problem and obstacle has there individual solution.. Each problem and obstacle has its individual solution.. Pronoun Agreement Everyone taking this grammar test plans to get their results immediately. Everyone taking this grammar test plans to get his or her results immediately. Everyone taking this grammar test plans to get she or he results immediately. Everyone taking this grammar test plans to get them results immediately. Pronoun Agreement Every student need a number two pencil in their hand. Every student need a number two pencil in his or her hand Every student needs a number two pencil in their hand Every student needs a number two pencil in his or her hand Pronoun Agreement Everyone hopes that they win the lottery. Everyone hopes that he or she wins the lottery. Everyone hope that he or she wins the lottery. Everyone hopes that them win the lottery. Comma and Restrictive People who travel to the United States should visit New York.

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b. c. d. 51. a. b. c. d. 52. a. b. c. d. 53. a. b. c. d. 54. a. b. c. d. 55. a. b. c. d. 56. a. b. c. d. 57. a. b. c. d. 58. a.

People, who travel to the United States, should visit New York. People who travel to the United States, should visit New York. People, who travel, to the United States should visit New York. Sentence Boundaries Bill Gates is the richest man in the world he is a multi-billionaire. Bill Gates is the richest man in the world, he is a multi-billionaire. Bill Gates is the richest man in the world and he is, a multi-billionaire. Bill Gates is the riches man in the world, and he is a multi-billionaire. Modifiers Dipped under hot water, you get the soap bubbles off the dishes. After dipped under hot water, soap bubbles easily come off the dishes. Dipped under hot water, they get the soap bubbles off the dishes. After the dishes are dipped under hot water, soap bubbles easily come off. Its and It’s Its time to give the dog its bone. Its time to give the dog it’s bone. It’s time to give the dog it’s bone. It’s time to give the dog its bone. Quotation Marks The dean said “school has been cancelled.” The dean said, “school has been cancelled.” The dean said ‘ school has been cancelled.’ The dean said, ‘ school has been cancelled.’ Words I’ve proofread paragraph a dozen times. I’ve proofread paragraph dozen times. I’ve proofread the paragraph a dozen times. I’ve proofread the paragraph a dozen. Capitalization. I think that it is important to learn English. I think that it is Important to learn English. I think that it is important to learn english. i think that It is important to learn English. Which/That & Who/Whom My present car which I got from my parents needs urgent repairs. My present car that I got from my parents needs urgent repairs. My present car, which I got from my parents, needs urgent repairs. My present car, that I got from my parents, needs urgent repairs. Which/That & Who/Whom The house, which I want to buy, has a pool.

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b. c. d. 59.

The house, that I want to buy, has a pool. The house that I want to buy has a pool. The house where I want to buy has a pool. Which/That & Who/Whom

a. College teachers go to high schools hoping to enroll students which others have ignored. b. College teachers go to high schools hoping to enroll students who others have ignored. c. College teachers go to high schools hoping to enroll students that others have ignored. d. College teachers go to high schools hoping to enroll students whom others have ignored. 60. a. b. c. d. 61. Which/That & Who/Whom The students wondered whom would be the winner of the contest’s prize. The students wondered which would be the winner of the contest’s prize. The students wondered who would be the winner of the contest’s prize. The students wondered whose would be the winner of the contest’s prize. Idiomatic Word Use

[Below, the previous situation is reversed] a. b. c. d. Now, the shoe is on the other shoe Now, the foot is on the other foot. Now, the shoe is on the other foot. Now, the foot is on the other shoe.

62. Idiomatic Word Use [Below, someone has become angry] a. b. c. d. 63. a. b. c. d. 64. a. b. c. d. 65. a. b. c. d. 66. a. When dad saw the F on my report card, he hit the wall. When dad saw the F on my report card, he hit the ceiling. When dad saw the F on my report card, he hit me. When dad saw the F on my report card, he hit the floor. Idiomatic Word Use I intend on doing my homework regularly. I intend do my homework regularly. I intend to do my homework regularly. I intend doing my homework regularly. Idiomatic Word Use The student is happy to except the scholarship. The student is happy to accept the scholarship. The student is happy to excepted the scholarship. The student is happy to accepted the scholarship. Idiomatic Word Use That teacher gave us alot of homework for the weekend. That teacher gave us a lot of homework for the weekend. That teacher gave us a great deal of homework for the weekend. That teacher gave us a lot a homework for the weekend. Idiomatic Word Use The math problem was debated between the three students.

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b. c. d. 67. a. b. c. d.

The math problem was debated within the three students. The math problem was debated among the three students. The math problem was debated between and among the three students. Idiomatic Word Use The workers concluded that fewer jobs means fewer money for them. The workers concluded that less jobs means fewer money for them. The workers concluded that less jobs means less money for them. The workers concluded that fewer jobs means less money for them.

68. Comma and Subject and Verb a. b. c. d. I , love to see horror movies. I love to see horror movies. I love, to see, horror movies. I , love, to see horror movies.

69. Comma and Subject and Verb a. The students, made a wonderful multimedia project. b. The students made, a wonderful multimedia project. c. The students made a wonderful multimedia project. d. The students made, a wonderful, multimedia project. 70. Apostrophe a. b. c. d. The students paper was sent by email instantly. The students paper’s was sent by email instatantly. The student’s paper was sent by email instantly. The students papers’ was sent by email instantly.

71. Apostrophe a. The cause of the powerfailure was no one’s fault. b. The cause of the powerfailure was no ones fault. c. The cause of the powerfailure’s was no one’s fault. d. The cause of the powerfailure was on ones’ fault. 72. Apostrophe a. Researchers are seeking explanations for children’s creativity. b. Researcher’s are seeking explanations for children’s creativity. c. Researchers’ are seeking explanations for childrens’ creativity. d. Researchers’ are seeking explanations for children’s creativity. 73. Comma and Complex Sentence

a. Steve was always happy on Valentine’s Day because that was his grandfather’s birthday, and the date usually marked the end of winter. b. Steve was always happy on Valentine’s day, because that was his grandfather’s birthday, and the date usually marked the end of winter. c. Steve was always happy on Valentine’s day, because that was his grandfather’s birthday and the date usually marked the end of winter. d. Steve was always happy on Valentine’s day because that was his grandfather’s birthday and the date usually marked the end of winter. 74. Hyphenation

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a. b. c. d. 75. a. b. c. d. 76. a. b. c. d. 77. a. b. c. d. 78. a. b. c. d. 79. a. b. c. d.

I don’t get along too well with my brotherinlaw. I don’t get along too well with my brother in law. I don’t get along too well with my brother in-law. I don’t get along too well with my brother-in-law. Hyphenation The teacher was well-dressed in my opinion. In my opinion, that was a well-dressed teacher. The teacher was dressed-well in my opinion. In my opinion, that was a well dressed teacher. Hyphenation I paid over two hundred and twenty-five dollars for the blazer. I paid over two-hundred and twenty-five dollars for the blazer. I paid over two hundred and twenty five dollars for the blazer. I paid over two-hundred and twenty five dollars for the blazer. Comma and Direct Object. The students ate apples at the county fair. The students ate, apples at the county fair. The students ate, apples, at the county fair. The students , ate, apples at the county fair. Idiomatic Sentence Pattern Stand for this I will not. I will not stand for this. This not stand for this I will. I for this will not stand. Idiomatic Sentence Pattern The reason why is because it gets so hot in the summer. The reason is because it gets so hot in the summer. The reason why is it gets so hot in the summer. The reason it gets so hot in the summer is why.

[ Rule: Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives] 80. Coordinate Adjectives a. b. c. d. The rhythmic pulsating music made the huge restless crowd ecstatic. The rhythmic, pulsating music made the huge restless crowd ecstatic. The rhythmic pulsating music made the huge, restless crowd ecstatic. The rhythmic, pulsating music made the huge, restless crowd ecstatic.

81. Coordinate Adjectives a. b. c. d. 82. a. b. JoHanna was adorned with a silver antique beautiful necklace. JoHanna was adorned with a antique silver beautiful necklace. JoHanna was adorned with a beautiful antique silver necklace. JoHanna was adorned with an antique silver beautiful necklace. Titles The title to the student’s five-paragraph essay was How To Bounce Back. The title to the student’s five-paragraph essay was How To Bounce Back.

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c. d. 83. a. b. c. d. 84. a. b. c. d. 85. a. b. c. d. 86. a. b. c. d. 87. a. b. c. d. 88. a. b. c. d. 89. a. b. c. d. 90.

The title to the student’s five-paragraph essay was “How To Bounce Back.” The title to the student’s five-paragraph essay was ‘How To Bounce Back.’ Sentence Clarity/Mixed I beginned after 26 dec I send the 6 enormes to the bookseller. I beginned after December 26 to send six enormes to the bookseller. I sent six enormes after 26 dec I beginned to the bookseller. I sent six chapters to the bookseller after the twenty-sixth of December. Adjectives and Adverbs. A good computer lab must run smooth and promptly. A well computer lab must run smoothly and promptly. A good computer lab must run smooth and prompt. A good computer lab must run smoothly and promptly. Adjectives and Adverbs The cook felt bad that the food smelled bad because he had cooked badly. The cook felt bad that the food smelled badly because he had cooked bad. The cook felt bad that the food smelled bad because he had cooked badly. The cook felt badly that the food smelled bad because he had cooked bad. Correct Pronoun Case My family consists of two sisters and me. My family consists of two sisters and I. Me family consists of two sisters and me. Me family consists of two sisters and I. Correct Pronoun Case Jose and me went to their party. Jose and me went to them party. Jose and I went to them party. Jose and I went to their party. Correct Pronoun Case The teacher told Jose and I that this test was going to be tough. The teacher told Jose and me that this test was going to be tough. The teacher told I and Jose that this test was going to be tough. The teacher told Jose and me myself that this test was going to be tough. Correct Pronoun Case The ones who will graduate are them and me. The ones who will graduate are them and I. The ones who will graduate are theirselves and me. The ones who will graduate are they and I. Correct Pronoun Case

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a. b. c. d. 91. a. b. c. d. 92. a. b. c. d. 93. a. b. c. d. 94. a. b. c. d. 95. a. b. c. d. 96. a. b. c. d. 97. a. b. c. d. 98.

My brother loved his wife more than I. My brother loved his wife more than me. My brother loved his wife more than myself. My brother loved his wife more than himself. Dashes America’s challenges—better education, less crime, more equality—are still urgent ones. America’s challenges are—better education, less crime, more equality—still urgent ones. America’s challenges—better education, less crime, more equality are still urgent ones. America’s challenges, better education, less crime, more equality—are still urgent ones. An / A I bought book, pencil, and package of paper. I bought a history book, a pencil, and a package of paper. I bought book, a pencil, and a package of paper. I bought an history book, a pencil, and a package of paper. An / A I learned a good English at a interactive Web site. I learned a good English at an interactive Web site. I learned good English at a interactive Web site. I learned good English at an interactive Web site. An / A I bought book today. It was a pronunciation dictionary. I bought an book today. It was the pronunciation dictionary. I bought the book today. It was a pronunciation dictionary. I bought a book today. It was a pronunciation dictionary. The I have a car in the city. However, the car is often in the shop. I have the car in a city. However, a car is often in a shop. I have a car in the city. However, the car is often in shop. I have the car in city. However, the car is often in a shop. The I’ve been in United States for most of a year. I’ve been in the United States for most of a year. I’ve been in United States for most of the year. I’ve been in the United States for most of the year. The The moon rose above a skyline. A moon rose above the skyline. The moon rose above the skyline. A moon rose above a skyline. The

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a. b. c. d. 99. a. b. c. d. 100. a. b. c. d. 101. a. b. c. d. 102. a. b. c. d. 103. a. b. c. d.

The governor wants an alligator to be a state symbol for Florida. The governor wants the alligator to be the state symbol for Florida. A governor wants an alligator to be a state symbol for the Florida. The governor wants the alligator to be the state symbol for the Florida. The A test that I took yesterday gave me an incredible migraine. The test that I took yesterday gave me the incredible migraine. A test that I took yesterday gave me the incredible migraine. The test that I took yesterday gave me an incredible migraine. The Designing good Web sites requires much forethought. The designing good Web sites requires much forethought. The designing of good Web sites requires much forethought. The designing of the good Web sites requires much forethought. The The orchids are the flowers that can grow on the air alone. Orchids are flowers that can grow on air alone. The orchids are flowers that can grow on the air alone. Orchids are the flowers that can grow on air alone. Question Mark How many times have I taken this stupid test. ? How many times have I taken this stupid test? How many times have I taken this stupid test! How many times have I taken this stupid test? The The actors debated what to do next. Quit? Protest? Let the show go on? The actors debated what to do next. Quit Protest? Let the show go on? The actors debated what to do next. Quit. Protest. let the show go on? The actors debated what to do next quit protest let the show go on?

104. Verb Form (Infinitive/Gerund/Participle/Irregular/Mood/Voice [ Rule: Use infinitive after be + complement ] a. b. c. d. The students are eager going to the graduation ceremony. The students are eager be going to the graduation ceremony. The students are eager to go to the graduation ceremony. The students are eager for going to the graduation ceremony.

105. Verb Form [Rule: use infinitive after expression such as the first and the last] a. b. c. The best students are the first to arrive to class and the last to leave. The best students are the first arriving to class and the last leaving. The best students are the first to arrive to class and the last leaving.

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d.

The best students are the first arriving to class and the last to leave.

106. Verb Form [Rule: use unmarked infinitive after feel,hear,have,let,listen to,look at, notice,see,watch] a. b. c. d. I will ask the teacher to let us leave out early. I will ask the teacher to let us to leave early. I will ask the teacher letting us out early. I will ask the teacher for letting us out early.

107. Verb Form [Rule: Use gerund after words such as admit, avoid, enjoy, imagine, mind, quit, suggest, etc.] a. b. c. d. I enjoy to learn advanced English composition. I enjoy learned advanced English composition. I enjoy learning advanced English composition. I enjoy be learning advanced English composition.

108. Verb Form [Rule: Generally use a gerund rather than an infinitive as the subject of a sentence] a. b. c. d. Choose the right college classes is important. To choose the right college classes is an important. Choosing the right college classes is important. To chose the right college classes is important.

109. Verb Form [Rule: Always use a gerund, not an infinitive as the object of a preposition] a. b. c. d. The college is committed to upgrade the computer system. The college is committed upgrade the computer system. The college is committed to upgrading the computer system. The college is committed to be upgrade the computer system.

110. Verb Form [Rule: Use standard form of be in college writing] a. b. c. d. She be working late tonight at the gallery. She be work late tonight at the gallery. She is work late tonight at the gallery. She is working late tonight at the gallery.

111. Verb Form [Rule: Modal auxiliary verbs are always followed by simple form of verb.] a. b. c. d. The student might going to the movies tonight. The student might to go to the movies tonight. The student might go to the movies tonight. The student might be go to the movies tonight.

112. Verb Form [Rule: Subject usually omitted in imperative mood] a. b. c. You be quiet. Be quiet! You quiet!

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d.

Quiet, you!

113. Verb Form [Rule: For wishes use subjunctive were not was] a. b. c. d. If I were the president, I would feed the poor people of the world. If I was the president, I will feed the poor people of the world. If I were the president, I will feed the poor people of the world. If I was the president, I would feed the poor people of the world.

114. Verb Form [Rule: Use passive when doer of action unknown or unimportant] a. b. c. d. The student’s car was being stolen in the afternoon. The student’s car was stole in the afternoon. The student’s car was stoled in the afternoon. The student’s car was stolen in the afternoon.

115. Verb Form [Rule: Use correct form of irregular verbs] a. b. c. d. When the sun rose, he had already risen. When the sun rose, he had already rose. When the sun rises, he had already risen. When the sun risen, he rose.

116. Verb Form [Rule: simple form of lie with modal could] a. b. c. d. 117. a. b. c. d. 118. a. b. c. d. 119. a. b. c. d. 120. With three days off, I could lay on the beach all day. With three days off, I could lie on the beach all day. With three days off, I could laid on the beach all day. With three days off, I could laying on the beach all day. Transition First, it’s a hot day. It’s very humid. Last, the air conditioner is broken. It’s a hot day. Second, it’s very humid. Last, the air conditioner is broken. First, it’s a hot day. Second, it’s very humid. Last, the air conditioner is broken. It’s a hot day. It’s very humid. The air conditioner is broken. Quotation Marks Who said, “ All’s fair in love and war? Who said. ‘ All’s fair in love and war?’ Who said , “ All’s fair in love and war?’ Who said, “All’s fair in love and war?” Semicolon and Parentheses My favorite film; (The Godfather), is better than There’s Something About Mary. My favorite film, (The Godfather), is better than There’s Something About Mary. My favorite film (The Godfather), is better than There’s Something About Mary. My favorite film-- (The Godfather), is better than There’s Something About Mary. That

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a. b. c. d. 121. a. b. c. d. 122.

The house, I buy will have a swimming pool. The house, that I buy will have a swimming pool. The house, which I buy will have a swimming pool. The house that I buy will have a swimming pool. Comma and Et cetera. I went to many Web sites such as Yahoo!, Dogpile, Direct Hit etc. I went to many Web sites such as Yahoo!, Dogpile, Direct Hit et cetera. I went to many Web sites such as Yahoo!, Dogpile, Direct Hit, etc. I went to many Web sites such as Yahoo!, Dogpile, Direct Hit and so forth. Semicolon

[Rule: Use semicolon optionally before coordinating conjunctions with independent clauses that contain commas] a. Because the bookstore lacked texts, the students could not buy needed materials and some teachers became frustrated. b. Because the bookstore lacked texts, the students could not buy needed materials; and some teachers became frustrated. c. Because the bookstore lacked texts, the students could not buy needed materials: and some teachers became frustrated. d. Because the bookstore lacked texts, the students could not buy needed materials-- and some teachers became frustrated. 123. Semicolon [Rule: Use semicolon when transitional expressions connect independent clauses] a. The college bookstore remained closed, nevertheless, students managed to find the needed texts. b. The college bookstore remained closed nevertheless, students managed to find the needed texts. c. The college bookstore remained closed; nevertheless; students managed to find the needed texts. d. The college bookstore remained closed; nevertheless, students managed to find the needed texts. 124. Semicolon

a. Once opened, the language lab will have three types of materials: video, audio, and computer animation. b. Once opened; the language lab will have three types of materials; video, audio, and computer animation. c. Once opened, the language lab will have three types of materials; video, audio, and computer animation. d. Once opened: the language lab will have three types of materials: video, audio, and computer animation. 125. a. b. c. d. 126. Repetition The teacher she said that the test it would be on Monday. The teacher she said that the test would be on Monday. The teacher said that the test would be on Monday. The teacher she said that the test the test would be on Monday. Repetition

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a. b. c. d. 127. a. b. c. d.

The storeclerk said that he likes flowers as much as I like flowers. The storeclerk said that he likes flowers as much as I do like flowers. The storeclerk said that he likes flowers as much as I do. The storeclerek said that he likes flowers as much as I like. Gerund Modifier Eating in the school cafeteria can be an incredible adventure. Eaten in the school cafeteria can be an incredible adventure. Eat in the school cafeteria can be an incredible adventure. Eating the school cafeteria can be an incredible adventure.

128. Gerund Modifier [Rule: Use possessive case before gerunds] a. b. c. d. 129. a. b. c. d. I concluded that the man was drunk when I noticed him staggering. I concluded that the man was drunk when I noticed his staggering. I concluded that the man was drunk when I noticed him stagger. I concluded that the man was drunk when I noticed his stagger. Negation The visiting students did not have no money. The visiting students never did have no money. The visiting students did not have any money. The visiting students never did have none money.

130 . Apostrophe and Contractions a. b. c. d. 131 Its an important day, so lets all behave properly. It’s an important day, so lets all behave properly. Its an important day, so let’s all behave properly. It’s an important day, so let’s all behave properly. Colon

a. If you really want to be an A student, remember three key words; attendance, homework, participation. b. If you really want to be an A student, remember three key words: attendance, homework, participation. c. If you really want to be an A student, remember three key words, attendance, homework, participation. d. If you really want to be an A student, remember three key words attendance, homework, participation. 132. a. b. c. d. Colon The students bought: books, pencils, and paper. The students bought ; books, pencils, and paper. The students bought books, pencils, and paper. The students bought books: pencils: and paper.

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133. a. b. c. d. 134. a. b. c. d. 135. a. b. c. d.

Parallelism The students had tried complaints, screaming, and even shouting. The students had tried complaining, screams, and shouts. The students had tried complaints, screams, and shouting. The students had tried complaining, screaming, and shouting. Parallelism Truth and being honest are virtues that go together. Being truthful and honest are virtues that go together. Truth and honesty are virtues that go together. Truthful and honesty are virtues that go together. Parallelism Avoiding the language lab for too long not only can lead to frustration but also to failure. Avoiding the language lab for too long not only can lead to frustration but to failure also. Avoiding the language lab for too long can not only lead to frustration but also to failure. Avoiding the language lab for too long can only not lead to frustration also but to failure.

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7. PRACTICE TEST
Durkheim and the Development of Sociology 1 Sociology is defined as the study of human groups. In the broadest sense, sociology is concerned with understanding patterns of human relationships, their causes and their effects. Unlike psychology, sociology does not attempt to explain the behavior of a particular individual under certain circumstances. Rather, sociology focuses on social trends or other influences that affect whole groups or categories of people. Thus, while a psychologist might counsel an individual who feels worthless after retiring from a long and successful career, a sociologist would be more likely to examine societal attitudes that may contribute to the loss of self-esteem experienced by many retired persons in our society. 2 The emphasis that sociology places on human groups rather than individuals stems directly from the work of Emile Durkheim, a pioneering sociologist of the nineteenth century. Durkheim likened the nature of a social group to bronze, a unique metal that is formed when the metals tin, copper, and lead are melted and mixed together. Durkheim noted that bronze is much harder than any of its component metals. In the same way, he reasoned, the characteristics of a social group viewed as a whole cannot be determined simply by examining the characteristics of its individual members. Nor can individuals be understood strictly in terms of the individuals themselves; when people come together as members of a particular group, the group exerts considerable pressure on the individual to conform to what it considers acceptable ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving. 3 Besides developing a theoretical foundation for the study of social groups, Durkheim also conducted research designed to corroborate his theoretical work. Using landmark research methods, Durkheim collected and analyzed data from a number of countries that kept records on suicides. He wanted to show that social environment may have a profound effect even on those behaviors we consider most personal. The results of his study showed that suicide rates do indeed vary according to specific social characteristics. For example, Durkheim found that members of religions with strong prohibitions against suicide are less likely to commit suicide than are members of religious groups with weaker prohibitions. He also found a lower incidence of suicide among married persons than among persons who were single or divorced. Taken together, the findings of Durkheim's study provided convincing evidence that social groups do indeed exert pressures that control or regulate the behavior of individuals, including deeply personal behaviors. 4 Durkheim's rigorous research methods captured the attention of sociologists around the world, and were perhaps even more important to the future development of sociology than any specific research results could be. Within a short time, his specific approach to formulating and testing social theory became a model that guided the work of nearly all sociologists. This assured Emile Durkheim a lasting place as one of the key figures in the history of sociology. 1. Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the selection? A. Both the social group theory and the scientific research methods developed by Durkheim have contributed much to the field of sociology. B. Durkheim believed that individual members of a group strongly influence the group's ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving. C. The research study conducted by Durkheim provided strong evidence that suicide rates vary among members of different social groups. D. Through his research, Durkheim made great strides in distinguishing sociology from psychology. 2. The writer's main purpose in writing this selection is to: A. outline the steps Durkheim followed in conducting his research study. B. describe the ways in which Durkheim's work has influenced sociology. C. persuade the reader that social groups control most of the behaviors of their individual members. D. explain the differences between sociology and psychology.

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3. According to the selection, how do sociologists and psychologists differ? A. Sociologists are more concerned with explaining behavior than are psychologists. B. Psychologists focus more on individuals than do sociologists. C. Sociologists spend more time helping people solve their problems than do psychologists. D. Psychologists are more interested in understanding patterns of human relationships than are sociologists. 4. In comparing social groups to bronze, Durkheim wished to illustrate the idea that: A. a social group has characteristics that differ from those of its individual members. B. social groups are made up of three major component parts acting together. C. each social group is a unique entity that is unlike any other social group. D. social groups are extremely difficult to break apart once they have been formed. 5. Which of the following lists of topics best organizes the information in the selection? A. —Psychology vs. sociology —Sociology likened to bronze —Durkheim's suicide research —Durkheim's influence in distinguishing sociology from psychology B. —Sociology before Durkheim —Durkheim's early work —Durkheim's later work —Durkheim's influence on sociology C. —The focus of contemporary sociology —Durkheim's contributions to sociological theory —Durkheim's contributions to sociological research methods D. —Sociology as the study of human groups —Sociology in Durkheim's time —Sociology since Durkheim 6. Which of the following best defines the word model as it is used in the last paragraph of the selection? A. one of two or more alternative styles B. an artist's subject C. a small copy of an object D. a plan to be imitated Read the selection adapted from The Joy Luck Club by Amy Tan. Then answer the six questions that follow. The Joy Luck Club 1 My mother started the San Francisco version of the Joy Luck Club in 1949, two years before I was born. This was the year my mother and father left China with one stiff leather trunk filled only with fancy silk dresses. There was no time to pack anything else, my mother had explained to my father after they boarded the boat. Still his hands swam frantically between the slippery silks, looking for his cotton shirts and wool pants. 2 When they arrived in San Francisco, my father made her hide those shiny clothes. She wore the same brown-checked Chinese dress until the Refugee Welcome Society gave her two hand-me-down dresses, all too large in sizes for American women. The society was composed of a group of white-haired American missionary ladies from the First Chinese Baptist Church. And because of their gifts, my parents could not refuse their invitation to join the church. Nor could they ignore the old ladies' practical advice to improve their English through Bible study class on Wednesday nights and, later, through choir practice on Saturday mornings. This was how my parents met the Hsus, the Jongs, and the St. Clairs. My mother could sense that the women of these families also had unspeakable tragedies they had left behind in China and hopes they couldn't begin to express in their fragile English. Or at least, my mother recognized the numbness in these women's faces. And she saw how quickly their eyes moved when she told them her idea for the Joy Luck Club. 3 Joy Luck was an idea my mother remembered from the days of her first marriage in Kweilin, before the Japanese came. That's why I think of Joy Luck as her Kweilin story. It was the story she would always tell

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me when she was bored, when there was nothing to do, when every bowl had been washed and the Formica table had been wiped down twice, when my father sat reading the newspaper and smoking one Pall Mall cigarette after another, a warning not to disturb him. This is when my mother would take out a box of old ski sweaters sent to us by unseen relatives from Vancouver. She would snip the bottom of a sweater and pull out a kinky thread of yarn, anchoring it to a piece of cardboard. And as she began to roll with one sweeping rhythm, she would start her story. Over the years, she told me the same story, except for the ending, which grew darker, casting long shadows into her life, and eventually into mine. . . . 4 "I thought up Joy Luck on a summer night that was so hot even the moths fainted to the ground, their wings were so heavy with the damp heat. Every place was so crowded there was no room for fresh air. Unbearable smells from the sewers rose up to my second-story window and the stink had nowhere else to go but into my nose. At all hours of the night and day, I heard screaming sounds. I didn't know if it was a peasant slitting the throat of a runaway pig or an officer beating a half-dead peasant for lying in his way on the sidewalk. I didn't go to the window to find out. What use would it have been? And that's when I thought I needed something to do to help me move. 5 "My idea was to have a gathering of four women, one for each corner of my mah jong table. I knew which women I wanted to ask. They were all young like me, with wishful faces. . . . 6 "Each week one of us would host a party to raise money and to raise our spirits. The hostess had to serve special dyansyin foods to bring good fortune of all kinds—dumplings shaped like silver money ingots, long rice noodles for long life, boiled peanuts for conceiving sons, and of course, many good-luck oranges for a plentiful, sweet life. . . . 7 "We decided to hold parties and pretend each week had become the new year. Each week we could forget past wrongs done to us. We weren't allowed to think a bad thought. We feasted, we laughed, we played games, lost and won, we told the best stories. And each week, we could hope to be lucky. That hope was our only joy. And that's how we came to call our little parties Joy Luck." 7. Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of paragraph 7 of the selection? A. Joy Luck Club members were generally incapable of facing reality. B. The weekly Joy Luck Club parties included an abundance of food and participation in games and storytelling. C. The women went to the Joy Luck Club parties in the hopes of winning prizes that would make their lives easier. D. Joy Luck parties were designed as happy events to help the women temporarily forget past sorrows and losses. 8. In paragraph 2, the author most likely uses phrases such as "unspeakable tragedies" and "hopes they couldn't begin to express in their fragile English" for what purpose? A. to show how much these women needed to improve their English B. to suggest the depth of the women's sorrow and desperation C. to underscore the women's good fortune in having emigrated from China D. to imply that the narrator's mother felt superior to these women 9. Which of the following is a valid conclusion based on the information in paragraph 4 of the selection? A. Frustration over her oppressive surroundings led the narrator's mother to conceive of the Joy Luck Club. B. The narrator's mother didn't go to the window to see what was going on outside because she was ill and unable to move. C. The heat and the unbearable smells from the sewers caused the narrator's mother to imagine terrible sounds and sights. D. Joy Luck was conceived by the narrator's mother simply as a means of generating income to escape her unpleasant living conditions. 10. Which of the following statements from the selection is presented as an opinion rather than a fact? A. She saw how quickly their eyes moved when she told them her idea for the Joy Luck Club. B. It was the story she would always tell me when she was bored, when there was nothing to do.

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C. Unbearable smells from the sewers rose up to my second-story window and the stink had nowhere else to go but into my nose. D. Each week we would forget past wrongs done to us. 11. Which of the following best summarizes the main points of the selection? A. The narrator's mother was living in a small town in China where she was quite unhappy. The weather was too hot and the streets were noisy and unsafe. To make herself feel better, she asked some friends to join a club that she invented so that she could have company. B. The narrator's parents arrived in San Francisco from China in 1949. They brought very few belongings, but were helped by the kind women at the First Chinese Baptist Church. Eventually, the wife made friends with some of the other women in the church. The women later decided to form a social club. C. The narrator's mother had had a very unhappy life. She and her husband did not always get along, and she had often been lonely. Sometimes, when she had nothing else to do, she would tell stories to her daughter about places she had lived and people she had known. D. The narrator's parents arrived in the United States with only a few of their most precious belongings. The narrator's mother met some friends and formed a club similar to one she had started in China. This club was designed to help the women forget the sorrows of their past and present and to have hope for the future. 12. In paragraph 3 of this selection, the author writes, "Over the years, she told me the same story, except for the ending, which grew darker, casting long shadows into her life." In this context, what does the author mean by casting long shadows into her life? A. making her feel as if she was unaware of the past B. affecting her life with painful memories from many years ago C. confusing her with vague memories of her youth D. hiding her memories of unpleasant events Read the passage below. Then answer the questions that follow. The Production of a Television Commercial 1 Everything in today's world is going faster and faster, and television commercials are no exception. At the start of the television age the standard commercial lasted 60 seconds, but most of today's commercials are only half that length and many are even shorter. The 15-second commercial, introduced a few years ago as a way to cut skyrocketing advertising costs, may soon be the most common in the United States. (Our television-watching counterparts in Japan and Europe are already being treated to 7½-second minicommercials!) 2 What stands behind the message that blips onto and off of our television screens before we have time to get to the kitchen and back? Months of planning; hundreds of interviews with potential users of the product; hours of writing; dozens of actors, directors, and technicians; days of filming; and hundreds of thousands of dollars in payments to the television networks that will run the ad. 3 Take for example a recent commercial for a certain brand of cough drops. The manufacturer of the cough drops spent four months trying to think of a way to boost sales. After several surveys of cough drop users, the company decided to market a strawberry-flavored lozenge. Further surveys identified the typical users of the strawberry-flavored cough drop as persons between the ages of 15 and 30. This information was important in planning the content and style of the commercial (fast-paced and upbeat, with colorful graphics and lively music) and in determining when to air it (during situation comedies, prime-time dramas, and music specials). 4 The creative team at the advertising agency that handled the cough drop company's account then took over. After hours of discussion and writing, they came up with six scripts, from which the client chose two. One involved a young woman pulling a strawberry out of a box of cough drops. The outline, or storyboard, for the commercial looked deceptively simple: four sketches and a few lines of 'voice-over.' Yet these few words and images (just enough to fill 15 seconds) had been carefully selected to convey crucial information about the product: its effectiveness in suppressing coughs and soothing sore throats, the absence of sugar, and its strawberry flavor. 5 Turning this carefully calculated script into an effective commercial involved finding just the right actor: a young woman who would be attractive to the target audience and who could make her positive response to the cough drops look convincing. Forty-two actors were auditioned; one was chosen.

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6 The actor wasn't the only element of the commercial that had to go through an audition. More than a hundred outfits were inspected before one was chosen for her to wear, and hundreds of strawberries had to be sorted through. 7 The filming began at 9:30 one morning. "All" the actor had to do was to open a box of cough drops, pull out a strawberry and munch on it. Yet her movements and facial expressions had to be just right, and achieving that perfection took three hours and 72 shootings, or 'takes.' 8 Even then—shooting completed—the job was far from done. Thousands of feet of film had to be reduced to a compact 45 feet of finished commercial. Using million-dollar, computerized equipment, the producer, writer, and art director selected the best two takes and mixed images and sound to produce a polished final product. The result? A simple, effortless-looking little film that shows none of the tremendous effort that went into producing it, but which should justify all of that time, creativity, and expense by boosting cough drop sales. 13. Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the selection? A. Although most television commercials look simple and straightforward, they typically take a great deal of time, effort, and money to produce. B. Because the development of television commercials involves so many steps, commercials are among the most difficult and complex types of film to produce. C. The major factors in developing a successful television commercial are good planning of style and content and careful selection of actors. D. A reduction in the average length of television commercials has made their development more complex and costly than it used to be. 14. At the end of the first paragraph, the writer includes a parenthetical remark about the 7½-second minicommercials currently seen in Japan and Europe. The writer most likely includes this information to help readers understand that: A. the United States has fallen behind its Japanese and European competitors in some important areas of development. B. television commercials seen in the United States may well become even shorter than they are at present. C. television commercials in other parts of the world use even more advanced technology than that used in the United States. D. the quality of a television commercial is not necessarily related to its length. 15. According to information included in the selection, which of the following occurs first in the development of a television commercial? A. developing alternative scripts B. determining the general style of the commercial C. selecting an actor or actors D. identifying the commercial's target audience 16. Which of the following is the best assessment of the writer's credibility? A. The approving tone of the selection and the author's thinly disguised enthusiasm for television commercials raise serious questions about his or her credibility. B. Although readers are unable to assess the representativeness of the case study discussed in the selection, the considerable amount of factual detail presented inspires faith in the writer's credibility. C. The writer's credibility is questionable because the selection devotes more attention to actors than to the technical personnel involved in making a commercial. D. Although the selection provides useful information about the procedures involved in producing a television commercial, the writer's credibility is weakened by a failure to say more about the costs. 17. Which of the following sets of topics would best organize the information in the selection? A. I. Television commercials around the world II. Cough drop commercials as an example of television commercials in the United States B. I. Recent trends in television commercials II. Steps in making a television commercial

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C. I. The role of networks and manufacturers in the production of television commercials II. Professional personnel required for developing television commercials D. I. Characteristics of television commercials II. Goals of television commercials 18. Which of the following best defines the word storyboard as it is used in paragraph 4 of the selection? A. a written description of a film's setting and characters B. an enlarged script placed so that actors can read the words as they perform C. a sequence of pictures and text illustrating the major segments of a film D. the scenery used as a backdrop for the main action in a film Read the selection adapted from Child Development by Neil J. Salkind and Sueann Robinson Ambron. Then answer the six questions that follow. Children's Fears 1 Children's fears come and go, but most children experience similar types of fears at approximately the same age. For toddlers, the worst fears are often associated with separation and change. Toddlers want their own mommy, daddy, spoon, chair, and bed. They are profoundly conservative little people. The most daring toddlers feel content if they can hold onto what they already know. Yet, children's fears are a useful index of their development. Fear of strangers appears to be a consequence of their first specific attachment, and its ending is a sign that they have acquired a more inclusive schema of faces and people in general. A child who is afraid of cats but not of rabbits evidently can differentiate one small animal from another. Fear of a particular person implies recognition of that person. 2 Just as children learn to fear things, they can learn what not to fear. As long as fears do not become too intense, a child's natural impulse to explore and discover things will be of help. Parents can be of assistance, both in overcoming fears and in preventing their development. They can prepare a child through play, stories, and happy prognostications for dealing with new situations that might be overwhelming; give prompt and unstinted comfort after a frightening experience or a bad dream; provide a night-light if the child is afraid of the dark; and devise ways in which a child can be gently and gradually—not abruptly— encouraged to take another look at feared objects and situations. Avoidance of the feared object reinforces the fear, and the fear becomes increasingly intense. Children's fears should be taken seriously, never ridiculed or dismissed as silly or babyish. Often, if the caregiver can get the child to explain exactly what it is that is so frightening, the child can be reassured. The one thing not to do is force children into confronting a feared situation before they are ready to do so. 3 Almost all children are afraid of something and, as with adults, these fears are often well-grounded. If we are in an open field during a thunderstorm, we probably have good reason to be afraid of lightning. 4 But occasionally fear of something gets out of control and becomes a phobia. A phobia is an irrational fear of something. A child may be afraid of the dark and hesitate to go up the stairs alone at night. But when the child refuses to remain in a place where there is no light, such as the movies or his or her bedroom, the fear is taking too great a toll on the child's development. 5 There are many different ways that phobias are treated in children. One of these techniques, commonly referred to as contact desensitization, is a behavioral technique designed to eliminate unnatural fears. The basic premise of the technique is that any fear is learned, and that anything that is learned can be unlearned. If a child is overly sensitive to something like water, for example, the gradual introduction of the feared object coupled with a pleasant experience can help reduce the strength of the fear, making it more manageable. 6 This exact technique was used in one study with fifty snake-avoidant children ranging in age from three to nine years. To see which technique was most effective, the fifty children were divided into five groups: A. Members of the "contact desensitization group" were told about snakes and how to approach them, were encouraged by an adult to approach a snake, were given praise when they tried, and watched one adult hold the snake. B. The "contact desensitization without touch group" received all that group A did, but no one touched the snake. C. The "verbal input plus modeling group" received verbal input and modeling (when the adult touched the snake). D. The "verbal input only" received only verbal assurances from the adult. E. Finally, one group of children received no treatment and, hence, was called the "no treatment group."

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7 The researchers used something called the Behavior Avoidance Test to see if there was a reduction in avoidance of the snake. Here, an adult reads a series of instructions to each child, asking him or her to do things such as approach the snake, pet it, pick it up, and hold it. The instructions go from little contact with the snake to increasing contact. This way the researchers can see which group of children has the most contact. 8 The results showed that 82 percent of the children in the contact desensitization group reduced their fear of snakes. Children in the other groups also reduced their fear, but not as dramatically. 9 Fears are something we all have to live with. When they get out of hand, a technique like the one we described here can be very useful in assisting a child through a difficult experience. 19. Which of the following details best supports the authors' point that children can be helped to overcome fears? A. Fear of strangers usually ends when a child develops a more inclusive schema of faces and people. B. Children should never be forced to confront a feared situation before they are ready to do so. C. A child can sometimes be reassured after a caregiver has encouraged the child to explain the fear. D. Many of children's fears are well-grounded and reasonable. 20. In paragraph 1, the sentence "The most daring toddlers feel content if they can hold onto what they already know" can best be described as having which of the following effects on the reader? A. It focuses the reader's attention on the wide variety of children's fears. B. It informs the reader of a specific type of fear. C. It helps the reader understand children's fears from an adult perspective. D. It allows the reader to decide how best to handle children's fears. 21. Based on the information presented in this selection, a child can best be helped to overcome a fear of riding an escalator by: A. talking with an adult about why riding an escalator is frightening. B. watching an adult ride an escalator, being encouraged to try it, and being praised if he or she does. C. being allowed to avoid escalators until the fear has diminished naturally. D. watching an adult ride an escalator and receiving verbal assurances from the adult that it is safe. 22. Which of the following details from the passage is least relevant to the authors' main topic? A. Parents can help prevent the development of fears in their child. B. Just as children learn to fear things, they can learn what not to fear. C. A child's fears should be taken seriously; they should not be ridiculed. D. In one study of children's fears, fifty children were divided into five groups. 23. Which three main topics would best help outline the information in this selection? A. I. Universality of children's fears II. Helping children overcome fears III. Children's phobias and their treatment B. I. Types of fears in children II. Treatment of fears in children III. Comparison of fears in children and adults C. I. Normal fears experienced by toddlers II. Normal fears experienced by older children III. Phobias experienced by children D. I. Children's fears of people II. Children's fears of situations III. Contact desensitization as a treatment for phobias 24. What is the meaning of the word index as it is used in paragraph 1 of this selection? A. an indicator or measurement of something B. a list or catalog of information C. an object used to point or indicate D. a relation or ratio of one quantity to another

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Read the selection adapted from "The Language We Know" (1987) by Simon J. Ortiz. Then answer the six questions that follow. Writing as a Native American 1 My writing in my late teens and early adulthood was fashioned after the U.S. short stories and poetry taught in the high schools of the 1940s and 1950s, but by the 1960s, after I had gone to college and dropped out and served in the military, I began to develop topics and themes from my Native American background. The experience in my village of Deetziyamah and Acoma Pueblo was readily accessible. I had grown up within the oral tradition of speech, social and religious ritual, elders' counsel and advice, countless and endless stories, everyday events, and the visual art that was symbolically representative of life all around. My mother was a potter of the well-known Acoma clayware, a traditional art form that had been passed to her from her mother and the generations of mothers before. My father carved figures from wood and did beadwork. This was not unusual, as Native American people know; there was always some kind of artistic endeavor that people set themselves to, although they did not necessarily articulate it as "Art" in the sense of Western civilization. One lived and expressed an artful life, whether it was in ceremonial singing and dancing, architecture, painting, speaking, or in the way one's social-cultural life was structured. When I turned my attention to my own heritage, I did so because this was my identity, the substance of who I was, and I wanted to write about what that meant. My desire was to write about the integrity and dignity of a Native American identity, and at the same time I wanted to look at what this was within the context of an America that had too often denied its Native American heritage. 2 To a great extent my writing has a natural political-cultural bent simply because I was nurtured intellectually and emotionally within an atmosphere of Native American resistance. . . . The Acoma Pueblo, despite losing much of their land and surrounded by a foreign civilization, have not lost sight of their native heritage. This is the factual case with most other Native American peoples, and the clear explanation for this has been the fight-back we have found it necessary to wage. At times, in the past, it was outright armed struggle . . . ; currently, it is often in the legal arena, and it is in the field of literature. In 1981, when I was invited to the White House for an event celebrating American poets and poetry, I did not immediately accept the invitation. I questioned myself about the possibility that I was merely being exploited as an Indian, and I hedged against accepting. But then I recalled the elders going among our people in the poor days of the 1950s, asking for donations—a dollar here and there, a sheep, perhaps a piece of pottery—in order to finance a trip to the nation's capital. They were to make another countless appeal on behalf of our people, to demand justice, to reclaim lost land even though there was only spare hope they would be successful. I went to the White House realizing that I was to do no less than they and those who had fought in the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, and I read my poems and sang songs that were later described as "guttural" by a Washington, D.C., newspaper. I suppose it is more or less understandable why such a view of Native American literature is held by many, and it is also clear why there should be a political stand taken in my writing and those of my sister and brother Native American writers. 3 The 1960s and afterward have been an invigorating and liberating period for Native American people. It has been only a little more than twenty years since Native American writers began to write and publish extensively, but we are writing and publishing more and more; we can only go forward. We come from an ageless, continuing oral tradition that informs us of our values, concepts, and notions as native people, and it is amazing how much of this tradition is ingrained so deeply in our contemporary writing, considering the brutal efforts of cultural repression that was not long ago outright U.S. policy. We were not to speak our languages, practice our spiritual beliefs, or accept the values of our past generations; and we were discouraged from pressing for our natural rights as Native American human beings. In spite of the fact that there is to some extent the same repression today, we persist and insist in living, believing, hoping, loving, speaking, and writing as Native Americans. 25. Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of paragraph 1 of this selection? A. The artful nature of Native American life compels the author to explore and write about that heritage. B. Art is an important part of Native American life and should be a part of everyone's existence. C. The author remembers his childhood, especially his parents and the elders in his community, in a very positive way.

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D. A desire to return to traditional Native American values led the author to write about Native American issues. 26. The effect of the quoted word "guttural" as the author uses it in the second paragraph of the selection is to: A. convey the sound of the Acoma Pueblo language to readers who are unfamiliar with it. B. emphasize the dramatic effect on the White House audience of the author's reading of his poems and performance of traditional Pueblo songs. C. describe most accurately how the author felt about his White House reading of his poems. D. communicate the newspaper's lack of understanding and respect for the author's presentation. 27. Which of the following caused the author to change his mind about declining his invitation to the White House? A. He realized that he had not been invited to the event as a representative of Native Americans. B. He remembered the sacrifices that his ancestors had made for the privilege of going there, even if only to be ignored. C. He was eager to read his poetry to an audience of other poets and literary critics. D. He wanted his writing and the writing of other Native American men and women to take on a more political tone. 28. Which of the following assumptions most influenced the author's main argument in this selection? A. Literature can be a powerful tool for asserting the cultural values and political rights of ethnic groups. B. The artistic traditions of Native American peoples are similar to those of European cultures. C. All writings produced by Native Americans express, either directly or indirectly, a political position. D. The major responsibility of Native American writers is to celebrate and preserve the cultural traditions of their people. 29. Which of the following topic lists best summarizes the main points of the selection? A. —Arts of Native American family —Invitation to White House —Brotherhood of Native American writers B. —Native American background as topic for writing —Importance of attending White House poetry event —Vitality of contemporary Native American writing C. —Native American writing —Achievements of ancestors —Future of Native Americans D. —Writing in 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s —Involvement of Native Americans in many forms of art —Writing about Native American heritage 30. What is the meaning of the word spare as it is used in paragraph 2 of the selection? A. frugal B. extra C. meager D. free Read the passage below. Then answer the questions that follow. Bacteria Farming 1 Most people consider bacteria dangerous. After all, these microorganisms cause a host of serious human diseases, including tuberculosis, typhoid fever, pneumonia, and food poisoning. In fact, however, only a small percentage of bacteria cause diseases, while many bacteria are actually beneficial to humans. For example, doctors use bacteria to produce vaccines and other medicines. Bacteria are also critical to many

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industrial processes, from fermenting wine to recycling wastes, and scientists use bacteria to study many of the biological processes common to all living things. 2 With such a wide variety of economic and scientific applications, it is no surprise that several laboratories around the United States grow and sell bacteria as a crop. These laboratories use specialized farming techniques to produce one of the nation's most valuable biological commodities. 3 Like plants, bacteria have specific growth requirements. In particular, they need a place to grow and they need a supply of nutrients. Bacteria may be cultivated in containers ranging from small test tubes to giant steel tanks. The organisms are placed in a container along with a nutritionally balanced liquid or jelly, called a culture medium, which provides vitamins, minerals, and fluids to the growing bacteria. The growth container and culture medium must be kept at a constant temperature that is appropriate for the type of bacteria being cultivated. Most bacteria used in medicine and industry grow best between 20° and 45°C. 4 In a closed container, bacteria exhibit a definite growth pattern. The figure shows a typical bacterial growth curve. All bacteria follow this pattern, a fact that is very important to anyone who wants to cultivate them in large numbers.

5 When bacteria are first placed in a growth container, they must adapt to their new environment, and growth is slow while they are making this adjustment. This period is called the "start phase" of the bacterial growth cycle. At the end of this phase, as the bacteria become accustomed to their new living conditions, they begin to grow and reproduce rapidly. During the second phase, called the "log phase," a population explosion occurs. In a large tank, millions of new bacteria may be produced every hour during this phase. Eventually, however, the bacterial population reaches the maximum size possible, given the limitations of the growth container. At this point, the bacteria enter the "stationary growth phase," during which they continue to reproduce, but at a slower rate. After a time, the bacteria use up their supply of nutrients and their wastes accumulate in the growth container. The final period in the growth cycle, called the "death phase," occurs when the bacteria begin to die faster than they reproduce. 6 People who grow bacteria for science and industry take advantage of this unique growth cycle. Bacteria are harvested during the "stationary growth phase," yielding a good crop of usable organisms. By carefully monitoring the growth pattern, bacteria farmers can also decide when to add more nutrients to the culture medium or to transfer the bacteria to new growth containers. In this way, they can prevent large losses during the "death phase." By applying a knowledge of the growth requirements and patterns of bacteria, these modern day agriculturalists are able to help everyone derive the maximum benefit from these versatile organisms. 31. Which of the following statements from the selection best expresses the main idea of the first paragraph? A. Most people consider bacteria dangerous. B. Only a small percentage of bacteria cause diseases, while many bacteria are actually beneficial to humans.

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C. These microorganisms cause a host of serious human diseases. D. Bacteria are critical to many industrial processes, from fermenting wine to recycling wastes, and scientists use bacteria to study many of the biological processes common to all living things. 32. The writer's main purpose in this selection is to: A. explain how bacteria are cultivated. B. identify harmful and beneficial forms of bacteria. C. compare methods of growing bacteria. D. demonstrate the beneficial uses of bacteria. 33. According to information presented in the selection, which of the following would most likely hasten the "death phase" of the bacterial growth cycle? A. transferring the bacterial population to a smaller growth container B. neglecting to monitor growth during the "start phase" of growth cycle C. increasing the amount of liquids in the culture medium D. failing to make adjustments in the temperature of the culture medium 34. Ideas presented in the selection are most influenced by which of the following assumptions? A. Bacteria farming is more useful and profitable than most other types of farming. B. All organisms exhibit similar growth rates. C. The greatest strides in medicine and industry have come about through the use of bacteria. D. Scientific knowledge often has important commercial applications. 35. According to the graph, a bacterial population begins to decrease in size after approximately how many hours of incubation? A. 6 B. 12 C. 24 D. 36 36. Which of the following best defines the word yielding as it is used in the last paragraph? A. surrendering B. producing C. giving up D. granting Read the passage below. Then answer the questions that follow. The Road to Civil Rights 1 The period immediately following the Civil War was a time of great hope for Black Americans. It was also a time of momentous constitutional change, as the nation sought to extend those liberties enshrined in the Bill of Rights to all Americans, Black and White. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery, the Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed all citizens equal protection of the laws, and the Fifteenth Amendment declared that no one could be denied the right to vote "on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." In subsequent decades, however, it became all too apparent, at least to Blacks and an unfortunately small number of concerned White Americans, that the promises contained in these amendments were not being honored. By century's end, racial segregation was still an inescapable fact of American social life, in the North as well as the South. At the same time, most southern states had adopted devices such as the poll tax, literacy test, and White primary to strip Blacks of their right to vote. 2 The struggle to close the gap between constitutional promise and social reality would pass through two important stages. In the first stage, organizations such as the NAACP worked through the courts to restore the meaning of the Reconstruction-era amendments. These efforts culminated in the 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, which outlawed segregation in public schools. The decision also stated that separate facilities were inherently unequal, thus providing a legal basis for subsequent suits to desegregate other kinds of public accommodations. 3 As it turned out, the principles enunciated in the Brown decision were more easily stated than enforced. Court orders to desegregate public schools often encountered massive resistance. Seeing this, Blacks and

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their supporters began to adopt new tactics. As they did, the struggle for Black rights entered its second stage, a stage that would be characterized by direct action rather than legal challenges, and would be played out in the streets rather than the courts. In turning to civil disobedience, leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr. made it possible for all victims of racial injustice to take action in a way that was direct and forceful, but also peaceable. And through the power of their moral example, they soon won widespread support for their cause. In response to these developments, Congress took steps to restore the full meaning of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments by passing the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. 4 The enactment of these measures by no means marked the end of the civil rights movement. There was still much to be done. Yet the passage of these acts nevertheless had far-reaching significance. The acts not only helped correct social inequities that had persisted far too long, they also showed that the Constitution means something, however long it may sometimes take to give substance to that meaning. This is no small matter in a nation of laws. 37. Which of the following statements from the selection best expresses the main idea of the first paragraph? A. The period immediately following the Civil War was a time of great hope for Black Americans. B. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery, the Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed all citizens equal protection of the laws, and the Fifteenth Amendment declared that no one could be denied the right to vote "on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." C. In subsequent decades, it became all too apparent that the promises contained in the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments were not being honored. D. Most southern states had adopted devices such as the poll tax, literacy test, and White primary to strip Blacks of their right to vote. 38. The content of paragraph 3 indicates the writer's belief that: A. the first stage of the civil rights movement was a failure. B. Supreme Court decisions have less influence on United States society than Congressional actions. C. social movements are able to influence the political process. D. the costs of civil disobedience sometimes outweigh its benefits. 39. According to the selection, many communities refused to enforce the Brown decision. Blacks and their supporters tried to overcome this problem by: A. demanding that Congress pass additional civil rights legislation. B. engaging in nonviolent direct action. C. selecting new leaders for the civil rights movement. D. requesting the assistance of the Supreme Court. 40. Which of the following assumptions most influenced the views expressed by the writer in this selection? A. Nations that profess a belief in the rule of law should ensure that all laws are observed. B. Social injustice can be eliminated most effectively through amendments to the Constitution. C. As a rule, people must be forcibly compelled to respect the rights of others. D. Without forceful leaders, social movements are unlikely to gain broad support. 41. Which of the following statements best summarizes the information presented in the selection? A. After the Civil War, the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments were adopted to protect and extend the rights of Black Americans. By century's end, however, racial segregation was still an inescapable fact of American social life. It would remain so until the 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, which called for the full desegregation of all kinds of public accommodations. B. During the past century, there have been significant changes in the leadership of the civil rights movement. Organizations such as the NAACP spearheaded the initial phase of the struggle for Black rights. As legal action gave way to direct action, however, leadership came primarily from individuals like Martin Luther King, Jr. C. Adopted immediately after the Civil War, the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery, the Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed Blacks equal protection of the laws, and the Fifteenth Amendment gave

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Blacks the right to vote. Blacks and their supporters have long struggled to give meaning to these amendments. D. Efforts by Black Americans and their supporters to close the gap between the constitutional promises of the Reconstruction-era amendments and the realities of American social life passed through two important stages. The first stage, which focused on legal action, culminated in the Brown decision of 1954. This stage was followed by a direct action phase that resulted in the passage of the civil rights acts of the sixties. 42. Which of the following best defines the word culminated as it is used in paragraph 2 of the selection? A. initiated a lengthy process B. completed the initial phase of a project C. began a period of decline D. reached the highest point of achievement

1The parking situation on this campus is truly outrageous. 2Sure, for full-time students who live on campus, convenient parking isn't a big deal. 3But by now everyone—except, evidently, those responsible for campus parking—must know that there are a lot of us commuter students who struggle to balance a job, a family, and academics. 4We are not the ones you see strolling leisurely from dormitory to class to dining hall to student hangout. 5Nothing in our lives is leisurely: we race from job to classroom to the library to the daycare center to the grocery store and finally, exhaustedly, back home. 6We commuter students don't have time to park our cars in lots that require us to walk a mile to get to the nearest classroom building or the library. 7Sure, it's nice to look at all those neat lawns and walk along those pretty paths and not see any ugly cars anywhere. 8But wake up! 9We're here to get an education, not to fritter away our time in some kind of ecological never-never land. 10I say forget the lawns and build a couple of convenient parking lots for we harried commuters! -------------------------------------------------------------------------------43. Which of the following sentences, if added between Parts 3 and 4 of the first paragraph, would be most consistent with the writer's purpose and intended audience? We commuter students don't drive to campus just because it's nice to have a car around in case we want to go shopping or to the movies. Even a cursory survey of the situation should be sufficient to reveal the significant burdens that such a demanding life style must place on the average commuter student. One must accept the statistically verifiable fact that, as a group, commuter students take more difficult courses than students who live on campus. I am aware that commuter students cannot and should not request special treatment from campus officials. 44. Which one of the following changes is needed in the second paragraph? Part 6: Change "nearest" to "nearer." Part 7: Change "it's" to "its." Part 9: Change "our" to "their." Part 10: Change "we" to "us."

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Read the passage below, written in the style of a student essay. Then answer the questions that follow.

Note: An error in paragraph organization has been purposely included in the second paragraph. 1Measuring public opinion has unfortunately become a growth industry in the United States. 2As each major election approaches, newspaper readers and television viewers are swamped with trivial data from the latest polls. 3Indeed, public opinion polls have proven a valuable addition to the political process in the twentieth-century United States. 4With a minimum of research, the average citizen can find out what percentage of Americans on any given day think candidate X is trustworthy, loyal, and kind to animals. 5Is it all really necessary? 6Do we need to know such things in order to vote intelligently? 7Plainly, we do not. 8If not conducting public opinion polls, what should the media be doing? 9To be sure, this may not be the best way to make friends. 10Rather than counting heads, newspaper and television networks ought to spend more time analyzing a candidate's positions on the issues. 11And when these positions are so lacking in substance as to make such analysis impossible, the media should inform their audiences of the fact. 12It would, however, be a real service to the voting public. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------45. Which of the following changes would help focus attention on the main idea of the first paragraph? Delete Part 3. Delete the phrase "with a minimum of research" from Part 4. Change Part 6 from an interrogative to a declarative sentence by dropping the word "Do." Change Part 7 from the plural to the singular, as in "Plainly, I do not." 46. Which of the following should be used in place of the underlined word in Part 4 of the first paragraph? thinking will think thinks should think 47. Which of the following changes would make the sequence of ideas in the second paragraph clearer? Reverse the order of Parts 8 and 9. Place Part 9 after Part 11. Reverse the order of Parts 10 and 11. Delete Part 12. Read the passage below, written in the style of an education textbook. Then answer the questions that follow.

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1Current methods of foreign language teaching often aim for more than mastery of vocabulary and grammar. 2A new topic called "pragmatics" has been added to the curriculum. 3Researchers have observed that every language community has different rules not only about how to construct meaningful sentences, but about when, where, and how to say them—and when to remain silent. 4_______________________________________________ 5And as a result, more students than ever before are learning to look for cues to appropriate behavior when speaking a foreign tongue. 6For example, how do individuals know when it is their turn to speak in a conversation? 7Every language community has specific signals involving body gestures, shifts in tone of voice, and other subtle cues that indicate when a speaker is ready to let someone else have a turn talking. 8What is the proper way to greet people? 9Every culture has it's rules about who should greet whom first and which verbal and physical form of greeting is appropriate for different circumstances. 10The proper greeting usually depends on such factors as the speakers' gender, status, type of relationship between the speakers, and relative age of the speakers. 11Such questions were largely ignored in traditional foreign language teaching. 12This may explain why until recently students could study a language for years and yet have great difficulty using it for real-life communication. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------48. Which of the following sentences, used in place of the blank line labeled Part 4, would best fit the writer's pattern of development in the first paragraph? Simply remaining silent is, in fact, often the best way to understand what another person is really trying to say. Consequently, many teachers now instruct their students in the pragmatics, or practical applications, of correct vocabulary and grammar. Another topic of great interest to researchers today is the difference between adults' and young children's approaches to language learning. Of course, pragmatics is of less concern to students whose primary aim is to learn to read, rather than to speak, another language. 49. Which of the numbered parts should be revised to reduce its unnecessary repetition? Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 10 50. Which of the following changes is needed in the second paragraph? Part 6: Change "their" to "they're." Part 7: Change "specific" to "specifically." Part 8: Change "proper" to "properly." Part 9: Change "it's" to "its." Read the passage below, written in the style of a student essay. Then answer the questions that follow.

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1A good book is like a good friend. 2It may not be affection at first sight, but after about page thirty, or the third time you get together with your new acquaintance, you know whether or not to pursue the relationship. 3When you've finished the book. 4You can feel that your life is suddenly richer. 5As you go about your business, you find yourself pondering and reliving certain of its parts, just as your daily life keeps triggering thoughts about something peculiarly wise or amusing your new friend has said. 6One of the greatest pleasures derived from a good book—as from a good friend—is the way in which it grows with you through the years. 7You happen to pick it up and read it again, after barely surviving yet another mid-life crisis, and you are delighted and comforted that there are still some things in life you can count on. 8You are delighted—and downright amazed—that this same old book has somehow magically been transformed. 9How can it be that it suddenly speaks to you of new things, things you didn't see there before, things that happen to be exactly relevant to what's on your mind and in your heart right now, just like a best friend? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------51. Which of the following parts of the first paragraph is a nonstandard sentence? Part 1 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 52. Which of the following sentences, if added between Parts 7 and 8 of the second paragraph, would be most consistent with the writer's purpose and intended audience? I rarely read the same book more than once, though; I think that is a waste of time. Within that realm of fictional escapism, you extract solace and intellectual gratification. That, of course, is not true of the books that you are forced to read for most college literature courses. You are comforted by the fact that your friend still has all of the same wonderful qualities that captured your affection when you first met. Read the passage below, written in the style of a college history textbook. Then answer the questions that follow.

1For more than two hundred years, the proper role of government in American society has been a topic of intense political discussion. 2Long, long ago, the main outlines of the debate were shaped by the conflicting views of Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. 3As a spokesman for the northeastern banking and commercial interests, Hamilton believed the federal government should make every effort to promote economic growth. 4Accordingly, he proposed the enactment of high tariffs on imports to protect new industries, the creation of a national bank to provide large loans for government and business enterprises, and the construction of roadways and lighthouses to stimulate trade. 5The passage of these and related measures, Hamilton believed would enable the United States to realize its destiny as a great industrial nation. 6But not all Americans shared Hamilton's vision. 7People from the plantations and farms of the South and West hoped to preserve a quiet agricultural world of independent landowners. 8They believed that the creation of an urban, industrial society would diminish their political influence. 9They also believed that a

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federal government with Hamiltonian powers would threaten their individual liberties. 10It was for these people that Jefferson spoke. 11In doing so, he initiated a debate that in some respects still continues today. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------53. Which of the following sentences, if added between Parts 6 and 7 of the second paragraph, would be most consistent with the writer's purpose and intended audience? Some folks knew better than to jump on Hamilton's bandwagon, which was sure to face a bumpy road once the country really got going. On the contrary, many people living in the United States, including Thomas Jefferson, did not want their new nation to become heavily industrialized. How anybody could fail to see the fact that Hamilton clearly had the best plan for the future of this country is totally beyond me. Rather, there were those who viewed the Federalist geopolitical and economic strategy as a movement toward tyrannical despotism and away from democratic ideology. 54. Which of the underlined words in the first paragraph should be replaced by more precise or appropriate words? proper role Long, long ago economic growth high tariffs 55. Which of the following changes is needed in the first paragraph? Part 2: Place a colon after the word "by." Part 3: Change "As" to "Like." Part 4: Move "Accordingly" after the word "enactment." Part 5: Place a comma after the phrase "Hamilton believed." Read the passage below, written in the style of a sociology textbook. Then answer the questions that follow.

Note: An error in paragraph organization has been purposely included in the first paragraph. 1Historians and lawyers have much in common. 2One shared characteristic is the kinds of tasks they are required to perform. 3For example, a major task of both lawyers and historians is collecting evidence to construct and support an argument. 4For instance, sources such as tax records, interviews, and photographs are as much tools of the historian's craft as they are of the lawyer's. 5In addition, lawyers and historians sometimes even use similar kinds of sources in their work. 6And, like lawyers, historians too have their adversaries. 7Academics who object to the views of one of their peers can argue just as forcefully as rival counsel in a legal proceeding. 8This, however, brings us to a major difference between lawyers and historians. 9Where lawyers are most often called upon to defend a person or institution, historians must defend a point of view, an interpretation of the past that is seldom shaped by the facts alone. 10Historians have debated for years whether Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidency was one of relative unawareness or great subtlety. 11This explains why historical

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controversies are less easily resolved than legal disputes. 12In a legal dispute, establishing the facts generally led to a final decision; in history, a "final interpretation" is a rarity. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------56. Which of the following changes would make the sequence of ideas in the first paragraph clearer? Delete Part 1. Reverse the order of Parts 1 and 2. Delete Part 3. Reverse the order of Parts 4 and 5. 57. Which of the following editorial changes would help focus attention on the main idea of the second paragraph? Delete Part 8. Reverse the order of Parts 8 and 9. Delete Part 10. Add a sentence after Part 11 describing the major steps involved in deciding a legal dispute. 58. Which one of the following changes is needed in the second paragraph? Part 8: Change "between" to "among." Part 9: Change "where" to "when." Part 11: Change "less" to "least." Part 12: Change "led" to "leads." Read the passage below, written in the style of a college history textbook. Then answer the questions that follow.

1Recent scientific evidence has shed new light on the disappearance of the Minoan civilization, which flourished on Crete and other islands of the eastern Mediterranean for nearly a thousand years before it was abruptly and utterly destroyed around 1450 B.C. 2The Minoans were among the first peoples to build ships that could sail across the Mediterranean Sea, and they traded with islands as far away as Sicily. 3The largest island in the Mediterranean, Sicily has been a trade center for thousands of years. 4Excavations in Crete have revealed well-built roads, terraced gardens, and palaces many stories high equipped with running water and adorned by elegant frescoes depicting the playful and carefree life the Minoans enjoyed. 5These frescoes show women exercising independence and equality with men, something entirely unheard of in the rest of the ancient world. 6The disappearance of the Minoans and their culture was long considered an unsolvable mystery, but recent geological evidence indicates that it was caused by a volcanic eruption on the Minoan island of Thera (now called Santorini) about 70 miles from Crete. 7__________________________________________________ 8In addition, the explosion sent tidal waves 150 feet high sweeping across the other Minoan islands at speeds of up to 300 miles per hour. 9If there were any survivors left in the ruins of the great Minoan palaces, they had to leave their island homes because the volcano covered the islands with thick layers of ash that probably made them uninhabitable.

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-------------------------------------------------------------------------------59. Which of the following numbered parts is LEAST relevant to the main idea of the first paragraph? Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 60. Which of the following sentences, if used in place of the blank line labeled Part 7, would best develop the main idea of the second paragraph? Geologists estimate that the massive eruption obliterated 50 square miles of land on Thera. Another intriguing Minoan mystery is the practice of bull vaulting, known to us only from ancient wall paintings. Accurately predicting volcanic eruptions must have been as difficult then as it is today. The science of geology is becoming an increasingly reliable source of historical information. Read the passage below, written in the style of a college economics textbook. Then answer the questions that follow.

1As federal budget deficits have grown in recent years, there have been increasing calls for a constitutional amendment that would require Congress to balance the budget each year. 2Congress has added only 26 amendments to the Constitution since it was ratified in 1788. 3Supporters of the amendment contend that federal spending is now out of control. 4They further insist that there is little likelihood that the budget will be balanced at any point in the foreseeable future. 5These people argue that legislators invariably find it easier to spend money than raise taxes; they say that Congress will continue to spend unchecked unless it is pressured to do otherwise. 6If something is not done soon, they warn, such uncontrolled spending will do serious long-term damage to the economy. 7Although no one defends huge budget deficits, many economists believe that a balanced budget amendment would create more problems than it would solve. 8For example, such an amendment would prevent Congress from creating jobs or reducing taxes in response to an economic slowdown. 9The result might be a depression comparable to the Great Depression of the 1930s. 10These are seriously concerns, and they should be given careful consideration by anyone who believes that a balanced budget amendment is a cure-all for the nation's current economic woes. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------61. Which of the sentences, if added between Parts 9 and 10 of the second paragraph, would be most consistent with the writer's purpose and intended audience? Does that sound like a very smart idea? Some question the fiscal wisdom of instituting a macroeconomic policy that reduces the national debt but negates federal social responsibility. Personally, I think a balanced budget amendment would really help this country by forcing Congress to get its act together. Other economists worry that a balanced budget amendment would prompt Congress to shift responsibility for public service programs to state and local governments that lack the money to pay for them.

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62. Which of the following numbered parts draws attention away from the main idea of the first paragraph? Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 63. Which of the following changes is needed in the above passage? Part 5: Change "than" to "then." Part 6: Change "soon" to "sooner." Part 7: Change "Although" to "Because." Part 10: Change "seriously" to "serious." Read the passage below, written in the style of a sociology textbook. Then answer the questions that follow.

1Population growth trends in developed countries have passed through several phases. 2Before about 1850, birth rates and death rates were both high. 3The large number of births and deaths that occurred each year tended more or less to cancel each other out, so that populations remained fairly constant or exhibited relatively low growth rates. 4This began to change after 1850, when industrialization led to a substantial rise in living standards for the general population and advances in medical science markedly reduced the number of deaths caused by infectious diseases. 5The rapid decline in death rates that resulted was accompanied by a much slower decline in birth rates. 6Thus, far exceeding the number of people who died each year, developed countries grew increasingly populous. 7By 1950, ___________________________, population growth rates in the developed countries again dropped off substantially. 8The main reason was the continuing decline in birth rates, which occurred gradually as the role of children in the family changed and parents began deciding to have fewer offspring. 9________________, in the decades since 1950, birth rates and death rates have both been low. 10This has resulted once again in populations that are growing only slowly or not at all. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------64. Which words or phrases would, if inserted in order into the blanks in the third paragraph, help the reader understand the logical sequence of the writer's ideas? as a result; Furthermore for example; On the other hand however; Consequently in conclusion; Yet 65. Which of the following parts of the passage displays nonstandard placement of a modifier? Part 1 Part 2

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Part 5 Part 6 Read the passage below, written in the style of a college writing textbook for first-year students. Then answer the questions that follow.

1Beginning writers often have a hard time setting an appropriate length for their paragraphs. 2And they generally have an even harder time locating a reference source that offers reasonable advice about how to deal with this problem. 3Composition textbooks are often distressingly vague when they discuss this topic. 4One might learn, for example, that paragraphs should not be too short because one- or two-sentence paragraphs make a composition disjointed and difficult to follow. 5At the same time, they should not be too long: lengthy paragraphs can be dense and confusing to the reader. 6The truth is that there are no hard-and-fast rules for determining how long paragraphs should be. 7Actually, this is just as well because rules usually restrict creative impulses, not only in writing, but also in other artistic areas. 8There are, however, two general principles that writers should keep in mind. 9The first is that the main purpose of a paragraph is to develop an idea. 10The second is that writing is broke into units such as paragraphs to help readers understand the writer's message. 11All decisions about paragraph length should reflect both of these concerns. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------66. Which of the following sentences, if added between Parts 3 and 4 of the first paragraph, would be most consistent with the writer's purpose and intended audience? If you ask me, those books aren't even worth the trouble it takes to read them. These books can be very useful, however, when a writer is looking for information on subjects other than paragraph length. In these texts, sections on paragraph structure tend to concentrate on what to avoid rather than what to do. These tomes are rife with rambling, ambiguous theoretical discourse that fails to provide any constructive counsel. 67. Which of the following editorial changes would help focus attention on the main idea of the second paragraph? Delete Part 7. Combine Parts 8 and 9 by changing the period after "mind" to a comma. Add a clause to Part 9 giving some examples of ideas that might be presented in a paragraph. Delete Part 11. 68. Which of the following parts of the passage displays nonstandard use of a verb form? Part 1 Part 4 Part 6 Part 10

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Read the passage below, written in the style of a college communication textbook. Then answer the questions that follow.

1"Are we going to support this development project, or are we going to let this town become a howling wilderness?" 2Of course, this is a rhetorical question—no answer is really expected. 3It is also a fallacious question, based on a false assumption. 4Clearly, the speaker is attempting to persuade people not by logic, but by deceit. 5This and similar rhetorical tricks are known as "informal fallacies." 6The informal fallacies that public speakers sometimes employ to sway an audience include such techniques as making appeals to emotions (arousing feelings of anger, for example), special pleading (presenting only one side of a question), and making faulty analogies (treating two things as essentially similar even though they have significant differences). 7Although most informal fallacies are designed to cloud the issue being discussed, some can also be used to place an opponent on the defensive. 8___________________________________________________________________ 9The use of fallacious arguments may sometimes be effective, but it is never honest. 10Informal fallacies have no place in reasoned discussion. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------69. Which of the following sentences, if added between Parts 3 and 4 of the first paragraph, would be most consistent with the writer's purpose and intended audience? Despite the speaker's implication, a town would not be reduced to "a howling wilderness" by its failure to support a development project. I bet a lot of readers think that most towns would be better off if they had more "howling wilderness" and less development anyway. How could a speaker think anybody would fall for such a crazy argument? It's pretty obvious that the creator of that "howling wilderness" sentence was just trying to pull a fast one on us. 70. Which of the following sentences, if used in place of the blank line labeled Part 8, would best support the main idea of the second paragraph? Newspaper editorials make use of many different rhetorical and persuasive devices, including informal fallacies. It is no easy task, for example, to respond convincingly to the question, "Why do you think you're the only important person in this room?" The increased use of informal fallacies in writing and speaking reflects the fact that most people no longer believe that "honesty is the best policy." But public speakers do not always intend to persuade; speakers may also address an audience to inform, explain, demonstrate, or entertain. Read the passage below, written in the style of a popular magazine. Then answer the questions that follow.

1The two halves of the human body generally work together so well that it may be surprising to learn that they are controlled by two separate centers of consciousness, the right and left sides of the brain. 2Just like the outside of the body, the brain is symmetrical, comprising two identical halves, each half, or hemisphere,

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controls the movement, sensation, hearing, and vision of the opposite side of the body. 3Thus the left hemisphere of the brain controls the right side of the body; the right hemisphere controls the left side. 4The two sides of the brain have different specialties. 5The left side controls speech and other communication involving words and numbers, as well as the process of reasoning. 6______________________________________________________________________ 7The hemispheres are connected by a special nerve bridge that allows information to pass rapidly between the two sides of the brain. 8This is what enables the two hemispheres to coordinate their activities and function as a single unit. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------71. Which of the following sentences, used in place of the blank lines labeled Part 6, would best fit the writer's pattern of development in the second paragraph? The right side controls the perception of patterns, the ability to recognize people and places, and the process of imagination or visualization. This is by far the more interesting side of the brain, which may explain why it has been more extensively studied than the right side. The right-left division within the brain was not widely recognized before the twentieth century. Some scientists believe that this fact may cause left-handed people to be better in artistic areas, while righthanders have stronger verbal skills. 72. Which of the following parts of the passage is a nonstandard sentence? Part 1 Part 2 Part 4 Part 8 Read the passage below, written in the style of a popular magazine. Then answer the questions that follow.

1Too many people are afraid to take on woodworking projects because they think they are not qualified to do their own carpentry. 2But the fact is that anybody can successfully complete projects such as hanging doors or building bookshelves. 3Woodworking is difficult only if you do it by the "trial and error" method. 4If you take time to organize your work, you can do your own woodworking and achieve professional results. 5The best woodworkers know that each project must be planned carefully. 6Before you buy a nail or cut a board, you must analyze your project and define the work that needs to be done. 7Then you should develop a written plan for the job. 8_______________________________________________________________ 9There are many fine do-it-yourself handbooks available that can guide you as you design your project. 10You should also talk to the salespeople at your lumber and hardware stores; they can often provide advice that will save you both time and money. 11Once you have finished your plans and your planning is complete, you can use your completed plan to begin the final construction phase. 12Follow your plan exactly; don't try to improvise as you go along. 13If you have planned well, you will quickly discover how easy and rewarding it can be to do your own carpentry.

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-------------------------------------------------------------------------------73. Which of the following sentences, if added between Parts 2 and 3 of the first paragraph, would be most consistent with the writer's purpose and intended audience? Let's face it: if I can be a woodworker, so can you. Keep in mind, however, that you shouldn't force somebody to try woodworking if they really don't want to do it. No one should panic at the thought of nailing down a few loose boards or building a new magazine rack. For a novice suddenly cast into the world of joists, sills, and sashes, confidence is a primary asset. 74. Which of the following sentences, used in place of the blank line labeled Part 8, would best support the main idea of the second paragraph? Unlike metalworking, woodworking can be done with fairly few expensive tools and relatively little specialized training. Professional carpenters and architects usually have extensive drafting training and regularly use technical drawing techniques in their work. Some personal computers have highly sophisticated graphics capabilities that enable you to inspect a design from all possible angles. Draw detailed sketches showing all necessary measurements and make a list of the materials you will need (including their costs). 75. Which of the numbered parts should be revised to reduce its unnecessary repetition? Part 1 Part 6 Part 7 Part 11 Read the passage below, written in the style of a natural history article. Then answer the questions that follow.

1Along with alligators and crocodiles, turtles are among the world's most oldest reptiles—the last survivors of the age of the dinosaurs, when giant reptiles of all kinds dominated the earth. 2Yet today, after 200 million years of existence, some species of turtle are in danger of extinction. 3In particular danger is the green turtle, a sea turtle found in temperate oceans throughout the world. 4Although they are not commonly eaten in North America, green turtles are prized as a delicacy elsewhere, and they are hunted extensively. 5These turtles are at a distinct disadvantage in the hunt because of one unfortunate trait: they must come ashore to lay their eggs. 6Once on land, the female turtle is easy prey. 7Her buried clutch of eggs are also vulnerable—to find the eggs, a hunter need only follow the mother's unmistakable tracks up the beach. 8Fortunately, countries around the world have taken steps to protect green turtles by restricting turtle hunting or banning it altogether. 9 , conservationists have begun efforts to restore turtles to areas where they have been nearly wiped out. 10 , eggs are collected and transported to beaches where they were once found in abundance. 11 , they are placed in a nest that is

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fenced in and carefully guarded until the newly-hatched babies are able to scramble to the relative safety of the ocean. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------76. Which words or phrases would, if inserted in order into the blanks in the third paragraph, help the reader understand the sequence of the writer's ideas? Nevertheless; Moreover; In other words In addition; First; Next Eventually; Furthermore; As a result By contrast; However; Still 77. Which of the following should be used in place of the underlined word in Part 7 of the second paragraph? were will be is was 78. Which of the following changes is needed in the above passage? Part 1: Delete the word "most." Part 2: Change the phrase "Yet today" to "Although today." Part 4: Change "commonly" to "common." Part 5: Put quotation marks around the phrase, "they must come ashore to lay their eggs." Read the passage below, written in the style of a college fine arts article. Then answer the questions that follow.

Note: An error in paragraph organization has been purposely included in the second paragraph. 1Martha Graham's innovative dancing and choreography have had a profound influence on the development of modern dance in America. 2Her concept of dance as an expression of the inner self led to the creation of a highly athletic disciplined, and passionate dance technique. 3Graham was born in 1893. 4Her professional dancing career began when, as a teenager, she trained and performed with the Denishawn dance company, where she remained for seven years. 5Her use of violent movement and discordant music in those original works was disturbing to many people, and her creations were not well received at first. 6The company's traditional emphasis on grace and lyricism, however, was ultimately too confining for her, and in the mid-1920s she began to choreograph, or design, her own dances. 7She pursued her own course, however, and during the 1940s created some of her most acclaimed works, including Letter to the World, based on the life of poet Emily Dickinson, and the joyous Appalachian Spring, for which Aaron Copland composed the score. 8Although Graham spent years struggling against the disapproval of audiences who disliked and ridiculed her work, the power and substance of her unique vision proved in the end to be undeniable. 9Martha

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Graham's technique has long since been recognized as a truly monumental contribution to the art of modern dance. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------79. Which of the following changes would make the sequence of ideas in the second paragraph clearer? Reverse the order of Parts 3 and 4. Place Part 7 before Part 3. Reverse the order of Parts 5 and 6. Delete Part 7. 80. Which of the following changes is needed in the above passage? Part 1: Add a comma after "choreography." Part 2: Add a comma after "athletic." Part 8: Replace the comma after "work" with a semicolon. Part 9: Change "recognized" to "recognizing." Read the passage below, written in the style of a student essay. Then answer the questions that follow.

1Why do we remember some things, but forget others? 2That question has puzzled scientists for years. 3Recently, however, psychologists have discovered some of the answers about how the human memory functions. 4Psychologists believe that the human memory has three distinct parts. 5The first part, called the sensory memory, stores information for one second or less. 6One function of the sensory memory is to hold the image of your surroundings so that you don't forget where you are each time you blink. 7The second part of the memory, short-term memory, holds information for up to one minute. 8The third and most permanent part of the memory is the long-term memory. 9Once information enters long-term memory, it may be retained for the rest of a person's life. 10Recent research indicates that how often we use a piece of information determines which type of memory will be used to store it. 11Some computer memories also have sorting systems that arrange information according to how frequently it is used. 12Data that we need for a brief time, such as a telephone number we call only once, will probably be stored in short-term memory and then discarded. 13But information we use repeatedly, such as the name of a close friend, is more likely to be held in longterm memory. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------81. Which of the following sentences, if added between Parts 7 and 8 of the second paragraph, would be most consistent with the writer's purpose and intended audience? The intrinsic differences between the sensory and the short-term memories are apparent at both the biological and psychological levels. I guess that's why a lot of people have a hard time keeping track of little things that they only need to remember for a minute.

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Information such as new telephone numbers or addresses may be stored in this part of the memory. Don't you think it's kind of neat how the brain keeps everything organized that way? 82. Which of the following editorial changes would help focus attention on the main idea of the passage? Add a clause to Part 3 naming some psychologists who have done research on the human memory. Rephrase Part 5 so that it reads, "The sensory memory, which stores information for one second or less, is the first part." Reverse the order of Parts 4 and 5. Delete Part 11.

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8. MORE PRACTICE
POTPOURII
1. The student was now counting on his father's being able to loan him money for college tuition. Use Possessive before Proper Name or Personal Pronoun that precedes a Gerund. Personal pronouns such as(Joe, sister, brother, father, mother, etc.) 2. I don't like his coming to school late every single day. Use Possessive before Proper Name or Personal Pronoun that precedes a Gerund. Personal pronouns such as(Joe, sister, brother, father, mother, etc.) 3. Judy's speaking at the wrong moment kept getting her in trouble at school. Use Possessive before Proper Name or Personal Pronoun that precedes a Gerund. Personal pronouns such as(Joe, sister, brother, father, mother, etc.) 4. The teachers told a long story about the campus building being sold. Do not use "Building's" with the possessive apostrophe because when a noun is Non-Personal (not Joe, father, sister, etc.) the possessive is usually not used. 5. The apples smell was very offensive to most of the students. Do not use "Apple's" with the possessive apostrophe because when a noun is Non-Personal (not Joe, father, sister, etc.) and/or Plural, the possessive is usually not used. 6. The pack of dogs straying into the neighbor's yard was a growing problem. Plural nouns do not take the apostrophe before a Gerund. But "Neighbor" takes the apostrophe to show ownership of the "Yard." 7. The pack of dogs straying into the neighbors' yards was a growing problem. Plural nouns do not take the apostrophe before a Gerund. But "Neighbors" takes the apostrophe to show ownership of the "Yards." 8. The neighbor's honking of his car horn drove the students crazy. Use Possessive before Proper Name or Personal Pronoun that precedes a Gerund. Personal pronouns such as(Joe, sister, brother, father, mother, etc.) 9. The neighbors honking of their car horn drove the students crazy. Plural nouns do not take the apostrophe before a Gerund. 10. I have nothing against anyone's being a new student. Indefinite pronouns can take a possessive apostrophe before a gerund, but not always.

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11. The student said that we need to focus on a cure for something having gone wrong we the registration system at the college. Indefinite pronouns can take a possessive apostrophe before a gerund, but not always. Here, "Something's" would be very awkward. 12. His complaining really annoyed his college professors teaching methods. Personal pronouns in the initial position are in possessive case before a gerund. 13. My calling my mother on the cell phone really annoyed his college professors teaching methods. Personal pronouns in the initial position are in possessive case before a gerund. 14. His being so handsome was the secret of his success at college. Personal pronouns in the initial position are in possessive case before a gerund. 15. It was a faulty chip that caused problems on the professor's computer. This is called a "Cleft" construction where the verb divides or "cleaves" the sentence. To turn this into a question, begin with "Was" as in "Was it a faulty chip that caused problems on the professor's computer?" or "What was it that caused a problem on the professor's computer?" 16. What caused the problem was a faulty chip on the professor's computer. This is called a "Pseudo Cleft" construction. "Pseudo" means false. "Cleft" construction where the verb divides or "cleaves" the sentence. To turn this into a question, begin with "Was" as in "Was it a faulty chip that caused problems on the professor's computer?" or "What was it that caused a problem on the professor's computer?" 17. Looking at the teacher, I remember well the first time Joe sat in an English language classroom, and now he is the instructor. This is OK. It would be a "Dangling Participle" if the sentence were something like: " Looking at the teacher, he is now the instructor, but I remember well the first time Joe sat in an English language classroom." Keep the subject close the an introductory participle. 18. Being a good student who studies many hours per week, you could assume that I get straight As. This is Wrong. It begins with a participle "Being" but the closest pronoun "You" is not the person sitting in class. So, "I" is too far from the participle, so it is ambiguous. 19. Now demolished, I recall the first time I bought my lovely car. This is Wrong. The "Participle" 'demolished' is close to the pronoun "I" , but "car" is demolished not, "I". Remember that Participles act as Adjectives as in "Fishing Rod" i.e. the Rod for Fishing. 20. By giving his son the chance to get a car, he's not tempted to buy a dangerous motorcycle.

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This is not clear because the Gerund (remember that gerunds are nouns that can act as subjects to sentences) "Giving" seems to be saying something about "He" or the Son, but the Giving is being done by the Father. So it is ambiguous. To fix it, it should be " By giving his son the chance to get a car, Sam knows his son will not be tempted to buy a dangerous motorcycle." 21. Watching my mother do dishes by hand for decades, the answer to her problems was to buy an automatic dishwasher for Mother's Day. Again, "Watching" seems to be linked to "The Answer". It should be ..."our answer to her problem was to buy an automatic dishwasher for Mother's Day." 22. Yesterday after doing my homework, the teacher was still not satisfied. Who did the homework? Because teacher is so close to Doing, it seems like he or she did the homework. It should be re-worded to"Yesterday after doing my homework, I found that the teacher was still not satisfied." 23. Going to the school library, one can find an excellent selection of books. This sentence is OK. To invert it "For an excellent selection of books, one can go to the school library." or better "For finding an excellent selection of books, one can go to the school library." 28. Picking up my books, the library seemed the only place to go. Is the libray "picking" up the books? No. So it should be "To me the library seemed the only place to go" to avoid the dangling participle problem. 29. There were books whose words she could not yet understand in English. Yes. You can use "Whose" for inanimate objects and not just people, so the original sentence is best.

READING PRINCIPLES

1.

WHAT IS THE TOPIC AND STATED MAIN IDEA OF THESE PASSAGES? (ONE)

Raising a multilingual child is becoming a sizzling, national and international trend. Antonio Banderas and Melanie Griffith are raising their new daughter with two languages. Celine Dion and husband Rene Angelis’s child Rene Charles is being raised to speak French and English. Woody Allen and radio personality Don Imus bring their children to a bilingual baby center in New York.

(TWO)

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Most parents don’t know where to begin to teach children another language. The Bilingual Object Box is one of the easiest ways to build up a foreign vocabulary along side of your child. It’s fun, it’s organized, and it goes away when the lesson is complete. The box can be an ordinary shoe, plastic box, cloth bag, or even a hat such as a sombrero. Do not choose too large of a box, but one that can be handled easily and taken out and put away. Avoid putting too many objects in one box because it will become confusing. Rather, try to have a box with no more that 20 objects.

2.

WHAT IS THE IMPLIED MAIN IDEA OF THESE PASSAGES? (ONE)

But the biological “language clock” is ticking away. Research overwhelming suggests that a second language is best acquired within several ‘critical periods’ or windows of opportunity that largely end at puberty. Infants are genetically pre-programmed to learn multiple languages, and acquire language even within the womb: but by age five, the “learning windows” close for them to easily pick up additional languages. While earlier exposure is better, it is never too late for children to learn language, and even minimal exposure to a second language can positively re-emerge in a child’s language studies in later years.

(TWO) Parents can provide key input to children, even if they do not speak the language fluently. At a recent bilingual activity, one identical twin in a pretty cornflower blue dress quietly clung to her mother, but her sister was the language extrovert. During a Spanish game, the extrovert reached for a multi-colored nylon parachute and said toma (give me). As the children danced under the billowing, twirling parachute, the teacher asked Donde esta azul? (where is the blue?). The English speaking mother whispered the answer in the ear of the quiet twin who broke away and ran under the blue panel of parachute. She proudly peeped out azul!, in flawless Spanish.

3.

IDENTIFY AND LIST THE SUPPORTING DETAILS IN THIS PARAGRAPH.

Choosing a baby’s name for your child’s bilingual future can be both a momentous decision and a joyful experience. A well-chosen bilingual name can provide a lifetime of anecdote and pleasure. There are many considerations, including the ‘pronounce-ability’ of the name by people around the world, since certain sounds may be difficult for some language groups to pronounce. For example, the “TH” sound in Anthony would be challenging for most languages, since it is unique to English and Greek. Parents might choose to pronounce it as “AnTony” to make it more universal. Or the puff of air that accompanies the “P” sound in names such as “Pat” can sound like “Bat” coming out of mouths that do not produce air with the “P” sound. Certain arrangements of consonants are very difficult to pronounce. For instance, “Peggy Babcock” is one of the most difficult tongue twisters in English—so imagine it as a name to be said in other countries!

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4.

WHAT WRITING PATTERN ARE THESE TWO PASSAGES? (SOME PATTERNS MAY BE MIXED) (ONE)

That night during my dreams, I re-experienced the language class. I awoke around 3:00 in the morning with the German words repeating in my mind, “ Das Pferdchen fribt ken Stroh . . . hopp, hopp, hopp, ho!”. I had no idea what the words meant. In the dream I saw Britto, the German teacher, playing with a small stuffed horse and dog, moving them in a circle. It seemed that the conversation was going on for some time in my sleeping head—all in German, a language I definitely don’t know: Das Pferdchen fribt ken Stroh . . . hopp, hopp, hopp, ho!— The pony ate the straw and hopped away.

(TWO)

The teacher begins by clucking like a chicken to cue the students in that a new routine is about to begin. The target song is played on cassette or CD. An object box is brought out with plastic chicken eggs that serve as seed-filled shakers. Each child is given one or two eggs. Little yellow toy chicks are brought out. For Spanish, the children sing the Los Pollitos song and shake the egg shakers in rhythm. LOS POLLITOS Dialog: Hand motions for the song: "cuando tienen hambre" (rub your stomach) "cuando tienen frío" (cross your arms and shiver) "la gallina busca el maíz y trigo" (move your head up and down) "les da comida" (extend your open hand) "y les presta abrigo" (hug yourself) "Bajo sus dos alas acurrucaditos" (hug your neighbor) "duermen los pollitos" (put your head in your hands and close your eyes) Notes: This rhyme may be found in Los Pollitos Dicen, The Baby Chicks Sing, by Nancy Abraham and Jill Syverson-Stork. Los pollitos dicen "pío, pío, pío", cuando tienen hambre, cuando tienen frío. La gallina busca el maíz y el trigo, les da su comida, y les presta abrigo. Bajo sus dos alas acurrucaditos hasta el otro día duermen los pollitos. Baby chicks say "pio, pio, pio," when they are hungry. when they are cold. The hen looks for wheat and corn, she gives them their food, And she keeps them warm. Under her two wings tucked in and snuggled tight until the next day they sleep all through the night

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5.

WHAT IS THE AUTHOR’S POINT OF VIEW AND TONE IN THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE? (ONE)

A “veteran” of raising a bilingual child, Andrea Couch says, “ It’s important to expose children to foreign words and phrases so they can develop an ear for languages.” Her three-year old daughter, Brooke, has taken the French, German, and Spanish immersion courses at a Bilingual Babies program in Florida. Brooke playfully bursts into seasonally appropriate foreign phrases such as “Joyeuse SaintValentin” and “Feliz de San Valentin” (Happy St. Valentin’s) while coloring hearts.

(TWO) Good news in any language! Raising a bilingual child is doable, even for monolingual parents. YOUR CHILD CAN BE BILINGUAL is chock full of hands-on materials— “recipes” for language learning activities from the womb to kindergarten, hints on garnering bilingual resources, and tools on how to develop a personalized program for your offspring.

6.

DO THE FOLLOWING PASSAGES REPRESENT MOSTLY OPINION OR FACT? WHY? (ONE)

Noting New York-born superstar Jennifer Lopez’s Spanish is not exactly stellar, and that she does not face the tough linguistic hurdles authentic Latin talent like Hayek encounters, Salma says, "Jennifer Lopez doesn't have an accent. She grew up in New York speaking English, not Spanish. Her success is very important because she represents a different culture, but it doesn't help me. The biggest obstacle for Latino actors in Hollywood is the voice and the accent. In the nine years I've been in Hollywood, it's never been about how I look. The moment I open my mouth, the problems begin. Speaking English is the toughest thing I have to do every day of my life in Hollywood."

(TWO) “There may be tears,” says Ann Benson, director and creator of Bilingual Babies where toddlers who can barely speak are introduced to a foreign language, “ But there will mostly be incredible moments when the dam breaks and children spontaneously spout out in an authentic, new language.” At Musical Beginnings of Fort Lauderdale, Florida in the Bilingual Babies program, many children already know that tres oso means Three Bears in Spanish, danken is thanks in German, and pomme translates to apple in French.

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JOB ENGLISH
1. What is the THESIS statement? The perfect pronunciation class should not end at the four walls of the classroom or the end of the semester exam. Students should take with them lessons on the sound patterns of English, which will last a lifetime and have real world improvements on their ability to communicate. A core criterion for effectively communicating is the ability to come across well during an oral interview for a job—and success gauged by getting the position. A.The perfect pronunciation class should not end at the four walls of the classroom or the end of the semester exam. B.A core criterion for effectively communicating is the ability to come across well during an oral interview for a job—and success gauged by getting the position. C.Students should take with them lessons on the sound patterns of English, which will last a lifetime and have real world improvements on their ability to communicate. 2. Who wrote the book? “Before 1976, there were no papers on teaching English as a Second Language to guest workers trying to function on the job,” notes Allene Grognet, director of the Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) Sunbelt Office in Sarasota, Florida. The first real-world text to address the issue of employment oriented English was Industrial English, by Tom Jopp in the 1970s. A.Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) Sunbelt Office in Sarasota, Florida B.Tom Jopp C.Allene Grognet 3. Which statement is true? Industrial English was developed to address the influx of foreign workers into the Great Britain. Similar ESL worker influxes hit the United States with the fall of Saigon in 1975 when over 200,000 refugees were airlifted from Southeast Asia. Subsequent waves of refugees brought over the Hmong, who did not even have a written language—presenting tremendous challenges for ESL teachers. Grognet says, “Basically, teachers through up their hands and said, ‘What are we going to do?’” A.Industrial English was developed to address the influx of foreign due to the fall of Saigon. B.Industrial English was developed to address the influx of foreign workers into the Great Britain. C.Industrial English was developed to address the influx of foreign workers into the United States. 4. Which statement is true? What the education community did to address these issues was to adapt the British Notional Functional Syllabus or NTS. The NTS is distinguished by its attention to "functions" as the organizing elements of English language. It is focused strongly and exclusively on the pragmatic purposes to which we put language.

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A.NFS stands for Notional Functional Syllabus B.NTS stands for Notional Syllabus C.NFS stands for Notational Functional Syllabus 5. Does the speaker feel that these words are not important? While a syllabus may also contain English for Academic Purposes, the hallmark of the NTS is real-world content, as Grognet explains, “ The enabling words such as ‘twist’, ‘stir’, ‘pour’ can be crucial for understanding. Pouring acid and pouring milk are radically different. But if you don’t know the word ‘pour’, you’re in trouble.” A.Somewhat. B.No. C.Yes. 6. What does the word CAPSTONE mean? As a capstone activity for English as a Second Language pronunciation classes, having students record an oral resume of their top qualifications can provide feedback about enunciation weak points in the context of using real language. The focus can be on consonants, vowels, volume, key words, or a combination of these aspects of the effective speech. A.Pop Quiz B.Final Exam C.Midterm Exam 7. Which skill is NOT included in keeping a job? In 1990, the Secretary of Labor appointed a commission to determine the skills our young people need to succeed in the world of work. Allene Grognet, the only linguist to sit on the commission, says that the report identified key areas for getting and keeping a job in America. She notes, “Workers must be able to follow a schedule or know how much cleaner to mix with water to clean a room, read a manual, interpret and relay telephone messages, or report on the status of a machine.” A.Relay Messages B.Use the Internet C.Keep a schedule 8. What does the word BANTER connote? Perhaps even more important is the small talk and banter in the workplace. Grognet says, “ On a basic level, knowledge of ‘safety language,’ is important. But so is the small talk, ‘ How was the baseball game?’ ‘Where are you going on vacation?’ and other such exchanges, if absent, lead to total isolation.” A.The importance of planning yearly vacations. B.Friendly workplace conversationss C.Being nice to the boss just so you can keep the job 9. Whose words define the American Dream? In The Success Ethic, Education, and the American Dream, Joseph L. DeVitis and

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John Rich note that James Truslow Adams first articulated the rise of the American dream in 1931. Adams used these words: “that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for every man, with opportunity for each according to his ability or achievement.” A.John Rich B.James Truslow Adams C.Joseph L. DeVitis 10. James Bond is mentioned because____? Students can be helped to verbally reach for that dream by incorporating real-world situations that adult ESL students will encounter can make a pronunciation class last a lifetime for the learner. Even, learning how to say the consonants and vowels of one’s name should be part of every pronunciation class. Or as James Bond says in the movies. “I’m Bond. James Bond.” A.It is the funny or humorous conclusion to the article. B.It is an example of how to effectively say one's name. C.It is a poor example of how to effectively say one's name. 11. Pick the best definition for ________________: (this means the duties you can perform) A.Expertise B.Experience C.Team work and Team Player 12. Pick the best definition for ________________: ( this means that you love to do a certain job) A.Passion B.Expertise C.Punctual or Timely 13. Pick the best definition for ________________: ( this means you are fluent in two language. Trilingual is three languages) A.Bilingual B.Passion C.Professional and Thorough 14. Pick the best definition for ________________: ( This means you are always on time for appointments) A.Punctual or Timely B.Bilingual C.Patience 15. Pick the best definition for ________________: (this means you will work different shifts) A.Flexible B.Punctual or Timely C.Passion

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16. Pick the best definition for ________________: (this means you have compassion or care about other human beings) A.Experience B.Flexible C.Heart 17. Pick the best definition for ________________: ( this means you do a job from A to Z”) A.Expertise B.Heart C.Flexible 18. Pick the best definition for ________________: (this means you do all the work on time) A.Heart B.Professional and Thorough C.Expertise 19. Pick the best definition for ________________: (this means that you do not rush things. Remember after “BE” you say I am Patient. After “HAVE” you say I have Patience.) A.Patience B. Efficient C.Bilingual 20. Pick the best definition for ________________: (this means you get along with others on the job) A.Team work and Team Player B.Patience C. Efficient 21. Pick the best definition for ________________: (this means you can do several things at once, well) A.Multitask B.Team work and Team Player C.Experience

CLINTON'S NEW MILLENNIUM REMARKS
Two thousand years ago, the calendar that turns at midnight began with the birth of a child on straw in a stable, with a single shining star in the sky. It attracted no notice at the time. Today, as we meet in this international center, though all the world is now a part of this millennial calendar change, we must recognize that for more than half the world, because they are not Christians, the number 2000 has less significance. For Muslims, this is the year 1420. For Hindus, it is 1921. For Buddhists, it is 2543. Mayans honor the year 5119. And the Hebrew calendar marks this year as 5760.

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1. Who does “child on a straw in stable refer to?” ____ I said at the opening of my remarks that 2,000 years ago those of us who were Christians believed the new era began with a bright light in the sky. You should all know that when darkness falls tonight for the very last time in this millennium the brightest light in the sky will be the constellation Orion. From December to April, it is the only star system visible from every inhabited point on Earth. 2. What is the central point of this paragraph? a. b. c. The millennium is celebrated mainly by Christians Orion is the brightest constellation. The bright constellation is a unifying symbol for humankind.

Scientists tell us that the light from one of those stars began its journey here almost exactly 1,000 years ago. In the time it took the light from Orion to reach the Earth, Leif Eriksson sailed, Gutenberg printed, Galileo dared, Shakespeare wrote, Elizabeth ruled, Mozart composed, Jefferson drafted, Bolivar liberated, Lincoln preserved, Einstein dreamed, Ataturk built, Roosevelt led, Gandhi preached, Mother Teresa healed, Mandela triumphed. A pretty good space of traveling light. 3. How is the above paragraph structured? a. b. c. In spatial order In chronological order In random order

READING TERMS

1. Choose the Best Answer Intended Audience means_____ Note: a. The specific audiences that author's have in mind when they read b. The general audiences that author's have when they write c. The specific audiences that author's have in mind when they write 2. Choose the Best Answer Author's Bias means_____ Note: a. The specific audiences that author's have in mind when they write b. The author's reason for reading. c. The side of an issue that the author favors 3. Choose the Best Answer

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Straightforward means ____ Note: a. Caring deeply about an issue or person b. Expecting the worst c. Free from ambiguity 4. Choose the Best Answer Positive means _____ Note: a. Wrathful or filled with anger. b. Free from ambiguity c. In favor of 5. Choose the Best Answer Nostalgic means_______ Note: a. Thinking it is not real b. Bittersweet longing for things. c. Humorously sarcastic or mocking 6. Choose the Best Answer Supportive means ____ Note: a. In favor of b. Assistance c. Bittersweet longing for things. 7. Choose the Best Answer Which terms go with PERSUADE Note: a. This is the procedure for … b. Remember that … c. Only an uninformed person would believe that 8. Choose the Best Answer Disapproving means_____ Note: a. Showing respect for the rights of others b. Passing unfavorable judgment upon. c. Showing respect for the rights of others 9. Choose the Best Answer Which terms go with INSTRUCT Note:

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a. Be sure you know … b. The funny thing about … c. You must do the following … 10. Choose the Best Answer What is Critical Reading? Note: a. Knowing who the intended audience is as you read b. Knowing the side of an issue that the author favors. c. Going beyond basic comprehension to gain insights as you read. 11. Choose the Best Answer Mocking means_______ Note: a. In favor of b. Passing unfavorable judgment upon. c. Treating with scorn or contempt. 12. Choose the Best Answer Indifferent means____ Note: a. Wary, careful, and not wanting to take chances. b. Not allowing difference of opinion c. Appearing to have no preference or concern 13. Choose the Best Answer Critical means _____ Note: a. Showing warmth of feeling or zeal b. Inclined to criticize or find fault. c. Assistance 14. Choose the Best Answer Pessimistic means _____ Note: a. Giving oneself an undue degree of importance. Haughty. b. Appearing to have no preference or concern c. Expecting the worst 15. Choose the Best Answer Enthusiastic means ____ Note: a. Expressing agreement

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b. Reluctant to believe c. Showing excitement 16. Choose the Best Answer Tone means______ Note: a. The side of an issue that the author favors b. The manner of writing that reveals the author's attitude. c. The general audiences that author's have when they write 17. Choose the Best Answer Optimistic means ______ Note: a. Having oppostie feelings or attitudes at the same tome b. Showing warmth of feeling or zeal c. Expecting the best 18. Choose the Best Answer Self-pitying means _____ Note: a. Intended to cause harm. b. Feeling sorry for oneself c. Expressing agreement 19. Choose the Best Answer Satire means_________ Note: a. A contrast between apparent meaning and intended meaning. b. A cutting remark that conveys ridicule c. Writing that can ridicule or expose human foolishness 20. Choose the Best Answer Evasive means_____ Note: a. Pity b. Giving oneself an undue degree of importance. Haughty. c. Intentionally vague or ambiguous 21. Choose the Best Answer Intolerant means____ Note: a. Intentionally vague or ambiguous b. Caring deeply about an issue or person c. Not allowing difference of opinion

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22. Choose the Best Answer Malicious means_______ Note: a. Resisting authority or intentionally contemptuous b. Inclined to criticize or find fault. c. Intended to cause harm. 23. Choose the Best Answer Urgent means _______ Note: a. Appearing to have no preference or concern b. To expose human folly c. Instantly important. 24. Choose the Best Answer Concerned means_______ Note: a. Stately or ceremonious b. Caring deeply about an issue or person c. Stately or ceremonious 25. Choose the Best Answer What is Critical Reading? Note: a. Knowing the side of an issue that the author favors. b. Going beyond basic comprehension to gain insights as you read. c. Knowing who the intended audience is as you read 26. Choose the Best Answer Grim means_______ Note: a. Passing unfavorable judgment upon. b. Stern or fearsome c. Speaking in a definite and confident manner. 27. Choose the Best Answer What is meant by purpose? Note: a. The author's reason for reading. b. The author's reason for writing c. Knowing the side of an issue that the author favors.

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28. Choose the Best Answer Defiant means____ Note: a. Showing support b. Resisting authority or intentionally contemptuous c. Pity 29. Choose the Best Answer Point of View means ______ Note: a. The author's reason for writing b. The author's reason for reading. c. The author's position on an issue 30. Choose the Best Answer Remorseful means _____ Note: a. Not allowing difference of opinion b. Feeling regret c. Feeling sorry for oneself 31. Choose the Best Answer Arrogant means_____ Note: a. Making cutting remarks to show scorn b. Giving oneself an undue degree of importance. Haughty. c. Treating with scorn or contempt. 32. Choose the Best Answer Ironic means____ Note: a. Willing to give in on some matters. b. Humorously sarcastic or mocking c. Intended to cause harm. 33. Choose the Best Answer Sentimental means____ Note: a. Treating with scorn or contempt. b. Expecting the worst c. Based on emotions not reason 34. Choose the Best Answer Irreverent means ______

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Note: a. Inclined to criticize or find fault. b. Instantly important. c. Not showing respect 35. Choose the Best Answer Skeptical means_____ Note: a. Expecting the best b. Reluctant to believe c. Bittersweet longing for things. 36. Choose the Best Answer Compassionate means___ Note: a. Stern or fearsome b. Sympathetic or merciful c. Reluctant to believe 37. Choose the Best Answer Solemn means _____ Note: a. Expecting the best b. Characterized by sharpness, severity, or cruelty. c. Stately or ceremonious 38. Choose the Best Answer Which terms go with INFORM Note: a. The only intelligent choice, then, is b. The important point is … c. Follow these directions 39. Choose the Best Answer Impassioned means____ Note: a. Characterized by sharpness, severity, or cruelty. b. Not showing respect c. Showing warmth of feeling or zeal 40. Choose the Best Answer Amused means_____ Note:

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a. In favor of b. Willing to give in on some matters. c. Feeling entertained or occupied in a pleasant manner 41. Choose the Best Answer Bitter means______ Note: a. Thinking it is not real b. Characterized by sharpness, severity, or cruelty. c. Feeling sorry for oneself 42. Choose the Best Answer Sarcasm means _____ Note: a. Writing that can ridicule or expose human foolishness b. A contrast between apparent meaning and intended meaning. c. A cutting remark that conveys ridicule 43. Choose the Best Answer Encouraging means____ Note: a. Feeling entertained or occupied in a pleasant manner b. Showing support c. Resisting authority or intentionally contemptuous 44. Choose the Best Answer Approving means_____ Note: a. Wary, careful, and not wanting to take chances. b. Feeling regret c. Expressing agreement 45. Choose the Best Answer Ambivalent means_____ Note: a. Wrathful or filled with anger. b. Having opposite feelings or attitudes at the same tome c. Expecting the worst 46. Choose the Best Answer Which terms go with ENTERTAIN Note: a. Those who understand the issue will certainly agree b. These instructions tell how to …

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c. You'll never believe what happened to me when I … 47. Choose the Best Answer Authoritative means_____ Note: a. To expose human folly b. To expose human folly c. Speaking in a definite and confident manner. 48. Choose the Best Answer Sarcastic means_______ Note: a. Feeling regret b. Making cutting remarks to show scorn c. Humorously sarcastic or mocking 49. Choose the Best Answer Disbelieving means_____ Note: a. Showing excitement b. Thinking it is not real c. Instantly important. 50. Choose the Best Answer Satirical means _____ Note: a. Not showing respect b. To expose human folly c. Feeling entertained or occupied in a pleasant manner 51. Choose the Best Answer Sympathetic means ____ Note: a. Based on emotions not reason b. Pity c. Feeling regret 52. Choose the Best Answer Irony means_______ Note: a. A cutting remark that conveys ridicule b. Writing that can ridicule or expose human foolishness c. A contrast between apparent meaning and intended meaning.

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53. Choose the Best Answer Tolerant means _______ Note: a. Making cutting remarks to show scorn b. Showing respect for the rights of others c. Assistance 54. Choose the Best Answer Conciliatory means_____ Note: a. Free from ambiguity b. Speaking in a definite and confident manner. c. Willing to give in on some matters. 55. Choose the Best Answer Indignant means______ Note: a. Making cutting remarks to show scorn b. Wrathful or filled with anger. c. Sympathetic or merciful 56. Choose the Best Answer Cautious means_____ Note: a. Based on emotions not reason b. Sympathetic or merciful c. Wary, careful, and not wanting to take chances.

THE BLUE HOTEL

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Stephen Crane (1899) Summary: A short story about a Swedish immigrant who unintentionally provokes a senseless tragedy in a frontier Nebraska hotel. The question of responsibility raises the issue of prejudice. The Palace Hotel at Fort Romper was painted a light blue, a shade that is on the legs of a kind of heron, causing the bird to declare its position against any background. The Palace Hotel, then, was always screaming and howling in a way that made the dazzling winter landscape of Nebraska seem only a gray swamp-like hush. It stood alone on the prairie, and when the snow was falling the town two hundred yards away was not visible. But when the traveler alighted at the railway station he was obliged to pass the Palace Hotel before he could come upon the company of low wooden houses which composed Fort Romper, and it was not to be thought that any traveler could pass the Palace Hotel without looking at it. Pat Scully, the proprietor, had proved himself a master of strategy when he chose his paints. It is true that on clear days, when the great trans-continental trains, long lines of swaying boxcars, swept through Fort Romper, passengers were overcome at the sight, and the cult that knows the brown-reds and the subdivisions of the dark greens of the East expressed shame, pity, horror, in a laugh. But to the citizens of this prairie town, and to the people who would naturally stop there, Pat Scully had performed a feat. With this opulence and splendor, these creeds, classes, egotisms, that streamed through Romper on the rails day after day, they had no color in common. As if the displayed delights of such a blue hotel were not sufficiently enticing, it was Scully's habit to go every morning and evening to meet the leisurely trains that stopped at Romper and work his seductions upon any man that he might see wavering, luggage in hand.

Directions: Read the first word in each line. Draw a circle around the other word or words in the line that means about the same as the first word. 1 2 3 4 5 6 shade howling prairie delights splendor heron ditch wailing frozen lake beaches beauty poisonous snake color trapping swamp clubs fruit ridge window carrying forest joys age stone tray finding grassy plain riddles location wading bird

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7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

landscape shame obliged wavering dazzling swaying overcome pity swept proprietor rails through opulence feat

prince disgrace mended unsure loyal looking become old pain looked around student tracks below work mistake

scenery purpose hoped shallow bright chasing produce sympathy missed owner songs away garden skillful act

office material required poor guilty singing make helpless size tripped friend clouds within nest injury

music anger yelled necessary afraid rocking remember appearance passed through visitor hills near luxury long story

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9. PARTICIPIALS
PARTICIPIAL MODIFIERS
• PARTICIPLES: These are –ING or –ED or -EN forms of the Verb not used as Full Verbs (Holding, Dropped, Eaten) Example:

• “The student holding the book is John”
Subject Participle Verb

Participial Phrases can modify Nouns. Here, HOLDING modifies STUDENT Note: A Phrase with a PARTICIPLE is called a PARTICIPIAL PHRASE (Note Spelling) Click on Arrow to Continue

PARTICIPIAL MODIFIERS
• • PRESENT PARTICIPLE: This –ING form of the Verb is the most common. Examples:

• “Winning, Seeing, Eating, Dancing”
Note: Participles with Auxiliary Verbs in front of them become full verbs.

•“are Winning, is Seeing, are Eating, is Dancing”

Auxiliaries Click on Arrow to Continue

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PARTICIPIAL MODIFIERS
• • OBJECT: Like Prepositional Phrases, Participial Modifiers take Objects Example:

• “The student carrying the book.”
Subject Participle Object

The NOUN following the Participle is the Object of the Participle

Click on Arrow to Continue

PARTICIPIAL MODIFIERS
• MODIFICATION: If a Participial Phrase follows a noun, it modifies that noun Example:

• “The man flying the plane.”
Subject = Noun Participle Object

FLYING modifies MAN. It does NOT modify PLANE

Click on Arrow to Continue

PARTICIPIAL MODIFIERS
• BEGINNING PARTICIPIALS: Like Prepositional Phrases, Participial can be at the beginning of a sentence. Example:

“Carrying the book, the student looked happy.”
Participle Subject

The Participle CARRYING modifies THE STUDENT Note: When you begin with a Participle, use a comma After its Phrase Click on Arrow to Continue

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PARTICIPIAL MODIFIERS
• ENDING PARTICIPIALS: Like Prepositional Phrases, Participial can be at the end of a sentence. Example:

“The teacher left, wearing his new suit.”
Subject Participle

The Participle WEARING modifies THE TEACHER Note: When you end with a Participle, use a comma before its Phrase Click on Arrow to Continue

PARTICIPIAL MODIFIERS
• PAST PARTICIPLE: These –ED or -EN or other form of the Verb also are used as Participial Modifiers. Examples:

• “Defeated, Eaten, Danced, Felt”
Note: Participles with Auxiliary Verbs in front of them become full verbs.

•“are Defeated, is Eaten, have Danced, has Felt”

Auxiliaries Click on Arrow to Continue

PARTICIPIAL MODIFIERS
• • MODIFICATION: Past Participles can be used to modify. Example:

“Exhausted by the trip, the teacher slept all night.”

Participle

Subject = Noun

EXHAUSTED modifies THE TEACHER It does NOT modify TRIP

Click on Arrow to Continue

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PARTICIPIAL MODIFIERS
• With Prepositional Phrases: Participles can be combined with Prepositional Phrases to modify. Example:

“Waiting for the email, the student listened to the radio.”

Participle

Prepositional Phrase

WAITING FOR THE MAIL contains the Prepositional Phrase FOR THE MAIL and together they modify THE STUDENT Click on Arrow to Continue

PARTICIPIAL MODIFIERS
• • In the Middle: Participles may occur in the middle of a sentence. Example:

“The teacher
Subject = Noun

,

seeing the problem

, decided to help.”

Participle SEEING … Modifies TEACHER But it is not used to identify TEACHER It answers the question “Which Teacher?” So the Participial Phrase is set off by Commas

Click on Arrow to Continue

PARTICIPIAL MODIFIERS
• NON-ESSENTIAL* TEST: Participles may occur in the middle of a sentence. If they can be set off with commas, they are Non-Essential or Extra. Example:

“The teacher

,

seeing the problem

, decided to help.”

Test: 1.Remove the Participial Phrase 2. Read the remaining Sentence “The teacher decided to help” Here the Participial Phrase is not Essential to the meaning of the sentence, so it is Set Off with Commas •*Non-Essential is sometimes called “Non-Restrictive”

Click on Arrow to Continue

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PARTICIPIAL MODIFIERS
• ESSENTIAL TEST*: Participles may occur in the middle of a sentence. If they have no commas, they are Essential or Required. Example:

“The teacher wearing the suit is Steven.”
Test: 1.Remove the Participial Phrase 2. Read the remaining Sentence “The teacher is Steven” Here the Participial Phrase is Essential to the meaning of the sentence, so it is NOT Set Off with Commas. * Essential is sometimes called “Restrictive”

Click on Arrow to Continue

PARTICIPIAL MODIFIERS
• NON-ESSENTIAL TEST: Participles may occur at the end of a sentence. If they can be set off with commas, they are Non-Essential or Extra. Example:

“The student turned suddenly, reaching for the book.”
Test: 1.Remove the Participial Phrase 2. Read the remaining Sentence “The student turned suddenly.” Here the Participial Phrase is not Essential to the meaning of the sentence, so it is Set Off with a Comma.

Click on Arrow to Continue

PARTICIPIAL MODIFIERS
• ESSENTIAL TEST: Participles may occur at the end of a sentence. If they have no commas, they are Essential or Required. Example:

“I waved to the student writing the paper.”
Test: 1.Remove the Participial Phrase 2. Read the remaining Sentence “I waved to the student” Here the Participial Phrase is Essential to the meaning of the sentence, so it is NOT Set Off with Commas. It answers the question “which student?”

Click on Arrow to Continue

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Review of Participles, Appositives, Absolutes, Relatives.
1. Use two participles to make one sentence. The student shook. The student was disturbed. The student proved to be a poor test-taker. a. Shook and disturb, the student proved to be a poor test-taker. b. Shaking and disturbed, the student proved to be a poor test-taker. c. Shook and disturbed, the student proved to be a poor test-taker. 2. Here, the participle is clear and ambiguous or Dangling The injured pilot limped away from the airplane accident. The sympathetic air traffic controllers cheered the injured pilot. a. Limping away from the airplane accident, the sympathetic air traffic controllers cheered the injured pilot. b. Limping away from the airplane accident, the injured pilot was cheered by the sympathetic air traffic controllers. c. Limping away from the airplane accident injured the pilot who was cheered by the sympathetic air traffic controllers. 3. Replace the BE verb Jose was the temporary district manager for the company. a. Jose behaved as the temporary district manager for the company. b. Jose acted as the temporary district manager for the company. c. Jose acting as the temporary district manager for the company. 4. Form a sentence that uses the correct punctuation to express these thoughts: The parents and teachers decided against history books. Some history books ignore the accomplishments of Hispanics. a. The parents and teachers decided against history books, which ignore the accomplishments of Hispanics. b. The parents and teachers decided against history books; which ignore the accomplishments of Hispanics. c. The parents and teachers decided against history books which ignore the accomplishments of Hispanics. 5. Construct a relative clause that follows a preposition such as To, For, Of, With, By, or In. The main crisis of the movie Titanic was the sinking of the ship. In the movie Titanic love is equated with making the ultimate sacrifice--dying. a. The main crisis of the movie Titanic, in that love is equated with making the ultimate sacrifice--dying, was the sinking of the ship. b. The main crisis of the movie Titanic, in which love is equated with making the ultimate sacrifice--dying, was the sinking of the ship. c. The main crisis of the movie Titanic, in whose love is equated with making the ultimate sacrifice--dying, was the sinking of the ship.

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6. Recast the sentence with a relative, so the focus on the use of natural remedies. Chiropractors are usually distrusted by medical doctors. Chiropractors treat illnesses with natural remedies instead of drugs. a. Chiropractors--who are usually distrusted by medical doctors--treat illnesses with natural remedies instead of drugs. b. Chiropractors--who treat illnesses with natural remedies instead of drugs--are usually distrusted by medical doctors. c. Chiropractors--whose are usually distrusted by medical doctors--treat illnesses with natural remedies instead of drugs. 7. Here, the participle is unclear and ambiguous or Dangling The injured pilot limped away from the airplane accident. The sympathetic air traffic controllers cheered the injured pilot. a. Limping away from the airplane accident injured the pilot who was cheered by the sympathetic air traffic controllers. b. Limping away from the airplane accident, the sympathetic air traffic controllers cheered the injured pilot. c. Limping away from the airplane accident, the injured pilot was cheered by the sympathetic air traffic controllers. 8. Form a relative clause beginning with an expression such as: Many of, Some of, None of, Several of, or All of. The refugee poets tried to use words to convey emotion using strange punctuation. Many of the poets lived and worked in Miami. a. The refugee poets, much of whom lived and worked in Miami, tried to use words to convey emotion using strange punctuation. b. The refugee poets, of whom lived and worked in Miami, tried to use words to convey emotion using strange punctuation. c. The refugee poets, many of whom lived and worked in Miami, tried to use words to convey emotion using strange punctuation. 9. Make into one sentence using a relative: which, that, who, whom, whose Christopher Columbus did not receive formal training in navigating by compass. His voyages made him the most famous seafarer in the world. a. Christopher Columbus, whom voyages made him the most famous seafarer in history, did not receive formal training in navigating by compass. b. Christopher Columbus whose voyages made him the most famous seafarer in history did not receive formal training in navigating by compass. c. Christopher Columbus, whose voyages made him the most famous seafarer in history, did not receive formal training in navigating by compass. 10. Use two participles to make one sentence. The accident victim fell to the street following the collision. He was stunned. He was reeling.

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a. Stunned and reeling the accident victim fell to the street following the collision. b. Stunned and reeling the accident victim falling to the street following the collision. c. Stunned and reeling, the accident victim fell to the street following the collision. 11. Here the participle makes a comment on the main action at the end. Jean looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap. Jean kept an eye on his professor. a. Jean, keeping an eye on his professor, looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap. b. Jean, looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap, keeping an eye on his professor, c. Jean, looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap, keeping an eye on his professor, 12. Form a sentence that uses the correct punctuation to express these thoughts: The parents and teachers decided against history books. All history books ignore the accomplishments of Hispanics. a. The parents and teachers decided against history books which ignore the accomplishments of Hispanics. b. The parents and teachers decided against history books; which ignore the accomplishments of Hispanics. c. The parents and teachers decided against history books, which ignore the accomplishments of Hispanics. 13. Make into one sentence using a relative: which, that, who, whom, whose Aborigines developed a boomerang device. The boomerang device almost always returned to the thrower. a. Aborigines developed a boomerang device whose almost always returned to the thrower. b. Aborigines developed a boomerang device it almost always returned to the thrower. c. Aborigines developed a boomerang device that almost always returned to the thrower. 14. Replace the BE verb Felix was a computer programmer who created neat utilities. a. Felix , a computer programmer, was created neat utilities. b. Felix , the computer programmer, was created neat utilities. c. Felix , a computer programmer, created neat utilities. 15. Construct a relative clause that follows a preposition such as To, For, Of, With, By, or In. The president had already escaped a score of previous assassination attempts. The anthrax-laden letter was intended for the president. a. Th president for who the anthrax-laden letter was intended had already escaped a score of previous assassination attempts. b. Th president for whom the anthrax-laden letter was intended had already escaped a score of previous assassination attempts. c. Th president for which the anthrax-laden letter was intended had already escaped a score of previous assassination attempts.

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16. Here, the main action of the sentence is interrupted, and the reader pauses twice. Jean looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap. Jean kept an eye on his professor. a. Keeping an eye on his professor, Jean looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap. b. Jean, keeping an eye on his professor, looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap. c. Jean, looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap, keeping an eye on his professor, 17. Make into one sentence using a relative: which, that, who, whom, whose Some public speakers often begin sentences with "You Know" rather than using a pause. The public speakers are nervous. a. Some public speakers whose are nervous often begin sentences with "You Know" rather than using a pause. b. Some public speakers who are nervous often begin sentences with "You Know" rather than using a pause. c. Some public speakers are nervous often begin sentences with "You Know" rather than using a pause. 18. Recast the sentence with a relative, so the focus on the distrust of medical doctors. Chiropractors are usually distrusted by medical doctors. Chiropractors treat illnesses with natural remedies instead of drugs. a. Chiropractors--whose are usually distrusted by medical doctors--treat illnesses with natural remedies instead of drugs. b. Chiropractors--who treat illnesses with natural remedies instead of drugs--are usually distrusted by medical doctors. c. Chiropractors--who are usually distrusted by medical doctors--treat illnesses with natural remedies instead of drugs. 19. Here, the participle phrase captures the reader's attention right away. Jean looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap. Jean kept an eye on his professor. a. Jean, keeping an eye on his professor, looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap. b. Keeping an eye on his professor, Jean looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap. c. Jean, looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap, keeping an eye on his professor, 20. Make into one sentence using a relative: which, that, who, whom, whose The ESL students had received double digit CPT scores. The college honored the students with a festive picnic. a. The ESL students whose the college honored with a festive picnic had received double digit CPT scores. b. The ESL students who the college honored with a festive picnic had received double digit CPT scores. c. The ESL students whom the college honored with a festive picnic had received double digit CPT scores. 21. Replace the BE verb The pianist was a famous person who entertained millions of people during the course of her career.

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a. The famous pianist has been entertaining millions of people during the course of her career. b. The famous pianist entertained millions of people during the course of her career. c. The famous pianist entertaining millions of people during the course of her career. ----------------------PLEASE FIX THESE DANGLING PARTICIPLES.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Having finished the assignment, the TV was turned on. After reading the original study, the article remains unconvincing. Relieved of your responsibilities at your job, your home should be a place to relax. The experiment was a failure, not having studied the lab manual carefully. The mystery has been solved after ten years of the missing portrait. Having arrived late for practice, a written excuse was needed. Without knowing his name, it was difficult to introduce him. To improve his results, the experiment was done again.

[#end#]

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10. ANSWERS
ANSWERS TO PRETEST Explanation for #0 hot; Sam, therefore, did Explanation for #1 job, one that Explanation for #2 Knocked sideways, the statue looked Explanation for #3 Crossing the street in the middle of the block Explanation for #4 Walking, biking, and driving Explanation for #5 I noticed a child watching Explanation for #6 in Gordon Lightfoot’s Explanation for #7 solid objects can easily be Explanation for #8 music, told Explanation for #9 because he Explanation for #10 after the band began Explanation for #11 Chris heard no unusual noises Explanation for #12 Plans Explanation for #13 Listed Explanation for #14 Because she was Explanation for #15 provided copies of the proposed Explanation for #16 Because it has Explanation for #17 Earned the praise Explanation for #18 as in the pollution of our food. Explanation for #19 … law, modern science 1. Comma and Introductory Element a. Because of the dry weather, many fires broke out in the Everglades.* b. Because of the dry weather many fires broke out in the Everglades. c. Because, of the dry weather, many fires broke out in the Everglades. d. Because of the dry weather many fires, broke out in the Everglades. 2. Comma and Introductory Element a. Many fires broke out in the Everglades, because of the dry weather. b. Many fires broke out in the Everglades because of the dry weather. * c. Many fires broke out, in the Everglades, because of the dry weather. d. Many fires, broke out, in the Everglades because of the dry weather. 3. Vague Pronoun Reference. a. Her mother told her that she was going to shop at the mall. b. Her mother told her, . I am going to shop at the mall.. * c. Her mother told she that she was going to shop at the mall. d. Her mother told she that her was going to shop at the mall. 4. Vague Pronoun Reference. a. His father told him that he was going to visit Egypt. b. His father told him, .You are going to visit Egypt.. * c. His father told he that he was going to visit Egypt. d. His father told he that him was going to visit Egypt. [Rule: A noun.s possessive form is the antecedent to a possessive pronoun] 5. Vague Pronoun Reference. a. The teacher.s lottery ticket brought him a fortune. b. The teacher.s lottery ticket brought he a fortune. c. The teacher.s lottery ticket brought his fortune. * d. The teacher.s lottery ticket brought he or she a fortune. 6. Vague Pronoun Reference. a. I told my counselor that I planned to drop the writing course, which bothered my parents. b. My parents were bothered because I told my counselor that I planned to drop the writing course. * c. I told my counselor that I planned to drop the writing course, and it bothered my parents. d. It bothered my parents that I told my counselor it planned to drop the writing course. 7. Vague Pronoun Reference. 2 a. They say that you can survive a hurricane by being prepared for it. b. Experts say that one can survive a hurricane by being prepared.* c. They say that one can survive a hurricane by being prepared for it. d. Experts say that you can survive a hurricane by being prepared for it. 8. Vague Pronoun Reference. a. When the student.s car was stolen, it was expected that it would make it a tough day. b. It was expected that it would be a hard day after the student.s car was stolen.* c. It would make a hard day of it when the student.s car was stolen. d. When it was stolen, it was expected that the student.s day would be tough because of it. 9. Vague Pronoun Reference.

ANSWERS TO ERRORS

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a. The word donut, which was originally spelled doughnut, is easier to spell. * b. The word donut, that was originally spelled doughnut, is easier to spell. c. The word donut, whom was originally spelled doughnut, is easier to spell. d. The word donut, who was originally spelled doughnut, is easier to spell. 10. Comma and Compound Sentence [Rule: use a comma after coordinating conjunction and independent clauses] a. Her pet dog ran away and her little cat was left alone. b. Her pet dog ran away and her little cat, was left alone. c. Her pet dog ran away, and her little cat was left alone.* d. Her pet dog, ran away, and her little cat was left alone. 11. Comma and Compound Sentence a. The pet dog ran away, and found a new home. b. The pet dog ran away and found a new home. * c. The pet dog, ran away, and found a new home. d. The pet, dog, ran away, and found a new home. 12. Wrong Word a. I admired the teacher.s patient. b. I admiration the teacher.s patience. c. I admired the teacher.s patience. * d. I admiration the teacher.s patient. 13. Comma and non-restrictive. [ Rule: Use commas to set off non-essential material] a. Some schools test people who are from foreign countries for English proficiency. b. Some schools test people, who are from foreign countries, for English proficiency. * c. Some schools test, people, who are from foreign countries, for English proficiency. d. Some schools, test people, who are from foreign countries for English proficiency. 14. Inflected Endings [Nouns/Adverbs/Adjectives/Pronouns/Prepopsitons/Interjecti ons] 3 a. The doctor gave the childrens some toys. b. The doctor gave the childs some toys. c. The doctors gave the childrens some toys. d. The doctors gave the children some toys. * 15. Inflected Endings a. I told him that he has to get used to the hot weather down here. * b. I told him that he has to get use to the hot weather down here. c. I told him that he has get used to the hot weather down here. d. I told him that he has get use to the hot weather down here. [Rule: Single-word modal auxiliaries have no s ending in the third-person singular.] 16. Inflected Endings a. The teacher coulds give us a surprise test today. b. The teacher could be give us a surprise test today. c. The teacher could give us a surprise test today. * d. The teacher coulds be give us a surprise test today. [Rule: Obligation is with a form of be followed by supposed to and simple main verb.] 17. Inflected Endings a. I was suppose to give a Powerpoint presentation. b. I was supposing to give a Powerpoint presentation. c. I was to suppose to give a Powerpoint presentation. d. I was supposed to give a Powerpoint presentation.* [ Rule: Use used to to convey past habitual action] 18. Inflected Endings a. I used to live in Miami.* b. I use to live in Miami. c. I use to lived in Miami.

d. I would to live in Miami. [Rule: Use uninflected main verb with auxiliary] 19. Inflected Endings a. Does the language lab closes on Sunday? b. Do the language lab close on Sunday? * c. Does the language lab close on Sunday? d. Do the language lab be close on Sunday? 20. Preposition a. I will meet you on my apartment for breakfast. b. I will meet you over my apartment for breakfast. c. I will meet you about my apartment for breakfast. d. I will meet you in my apartment for breakfast.* 21. Comma and Independent Clauses a. The comet fell in a fiery ball, it burned down half the city. b. The comet fell in a fiery ball. It burned down half the city. * c. The comet fell in a fiery ball. And burned down half the city. d. The comet fell in a firey ball it burned down half the city. 4 22. Apostrophe a. The writers pen is mightier than the sword. b. The writers pen is mightier than the swords. c. The writer.s pen is mightier than the sword. * d. The writer.s pen is mightier than the sword.s. 23. Tense Shift a. She went to the library yesterday and reads a book. b. She went to the library yesterday and will read a book. c. She went to the library yesterday reading a book. d. She went to the library yesterday and read a book. * 24. Shift (Person, Number, Subject, Voice, Tense, Mood, Direct/Indirect) a. They enjoy going to the lake where you can swim without clothes. b. They enjoy going to the lake where we can swim without clothes. c. They enjoy going to the lake where I can swim without clothes. d. They enjoy going to the lake where they can swim without clothes.* 25. Complete Sentences a. The car with a CD-player. b. The car with its CD-player. c. The car with it.s CD-player. d. The car is with a CD-player.* 26. Tense (simple past) a. I watch TV yesterday. b. I watching TV yesterday. c. I watched TV yesterday.* d. I was watch TV yesterday. 27. Tense (simple future) a. I watching TV tomorrow. b. I was watching TV tomorrow. c. I will watch TV tomorrow.* d. I watch TV tomorrow. 28. Tense (simple past) a. I am to watch TV now. b. I watch TV now.* c. I am watch TV now. d. I watched now. 5 29. Tense (present perfect) a. Since I had watched TV since noon today , I know the top story. b. Since I watched TV since noon today ,I know the top story.

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c. Since I watching TV since noon today , I know the top story. d. Since I have watched TV since noon today , I know the top story.* 30. Tense (present progressive) a. Feyrouz is considering a move to Washington the coming week.* b. Feyrouz considered a move to Washington in the coming week. c. Feyrouz considers a move to Washington in the coming week. d. Feyrouz has considered a move to Washington in the coming week. 31. Tense (present perfect progressive) a. Xiaoling has been sat in that chair for the entire morning. b. Xiaoling has been sitting in that chair for the entire morning.* c. Xiaoling sat in that chair for the entire morning. d. Xiaoling sits in that chair for the entire morning. 32. Tense (past perfect) a. The robber left before the police arrived. b. The robber had been leaving before the police had been arriving. c. The robber had left before the police arrived.* d. The robber had left before the police had arrived. 33. Tense (past progressive) a. Colombus tried to find India when he landed in America. b. Colombus was trying to find India when he landed in America. * c. Colombus tried to find India when he was landing in America. d. Colombus had tried to find India when he had landed in America. 34. Tense (past perfect progressive) a. Before the fire alarm went off, the students had studied the lesson. b. Before the fire alarm went off, the students had been studying the lesson.* c. Before the fire alarm went off, the students had been study the lesson. d. Before the fire alarm had gone off, the students had studied the lesson. 35. Tense (future perfect) a. By the time this class is finished, I will have read the entire book.* b. By the time this class finishes, I will read the entire book. c. By the time this class will be finished, I will have read the entire book. d. By the time this class will finish, I will have been reading the entire book. 36. Tense (future progressive) 6 a. Within five years, most countries around the world will be enter the Internet age. b. Within five years, most countries around the world will be entering the Internet age. c. Within five years, most countries around the world will have entering the Internet age. d. Within five years, most countries around the world will have enter the Internet age. 37. Tense (future perfect progressive) a. By the time this year is over, I will have studying English for five full years. b. By the time this year is over, I will have study English for five full years.

c. By the time this year is over, I will study English for five full years. d. By the time this year is over, I will have been studying English for five full years. 38. Agreement (Subject/Verb) a. The teacher speak too loudly. b. The teacher speaks too loudly. c. The teachers speaks too loudly.* d. The teacher speaking too loudly. 39. Comma in a Series. a. Getting an .A. in class requires attendance, attention, and participation.* b. Getting an .A. in class requires attendance, attention and participation. c. Getting an .A. in class requires attendance attention and participation. d. Getting an .A. in class requires attendance attention, and participation. 40. Pronoun Agreement. a. The dog growls when he feels threatened. b. The dog growls when she feels threatened c. The dog growls when it feels threatened.* d. The dog growls when they feel threatened. 41. Pronoun Agreement a. Students fill the language lab with sounds when they do their weekly assignments.* b. Students fill the language lab with sounds when it do their weekly assignments c. Students fill the language lab with sounds when they do they weekly assignments d. Students fill the language lab with sounds when they do it weekly assignments [Rule: Singular antecedents joined by and require a plural pronoun] 42. Pronoun Agreement a. The library and the language lab closed for New Year.s Eve to give its employees a small break. b. The library and the language lab closed for New Year.s Eve to give they employees a small break. c. The library and the language lab closed for New Year.s Eve to give his or her employees a small break. d. The library and the language lab closed for New Year.s Eve to give their employees a small break. * 43. Pronoun Agreement [Rule: Singular antecedents joined by and and preceded by each require a singular pronoun] e. 7 a. The library and the language lab each closed for New Year.s Eve to give its employees a small break.* b. The library and the language lab each closed for New Year.s Eve to give they employees a small break. c. The library and the language lab each closed for New Year.s Eve to give his or her employees a small break. d. The library and the language lab each closed for New Year.s Eve to give their employees a small break. 44. Pronoun Agreement a. My wife and best friend makes his or her best coffee. b. My wife and best friend makes their best coffee. c. My wife and best friend make his best coffee. d. My wife and her best friend make the best coffee.* 45. Pronoun Agreement [Rule: Make verb agree with subject closest to it when joined by or]

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a. Either the crayon or the pencils need their tips sharpened. * b. Either the crayon or the pencil need their tips sharpened. c. Either the crayon or the pencil need its tips sharpened. d. Either the crayons or the pencils need its tips sharpened. 46. Pronoun Agreement [Rule: Each and Every remain singular when a compound sentence] a. Each problem and obstacle has their individual solution.. b. Each problem and obstacle has them individual solution.. c. Each problem and obstacle has there individual solution.. d. Each problem and obstacle has its individual solution..* 47. Pronoun Agreement a. Everyone taking this grammar test plans to get their results immediately. b. Everyone taking this grammar test plans to get his or her results immediately. * c. Everyone taking this grammar test plans to get she or he results immediately. d. Everyone taking this grammar test plans to get them results immediately. 48. Pronoun Agreement a. Every student need a number two pencil in their hand. b. Every student need a number two pencil in his or her hand c. Every student needs a number two pencil in their hand d. Every student needs a number two pencil in his or her hand * 49. Pronoun Agreement a. Everyone hopes that they win the lottery. b. Everyone hopes that he or she wins the lottery. * c. Everyone hope that he or she wins the lottery. d. Everyone hopes that them win the lottery. 50. Comma and Restrictive a. People who travel to the United States should visit New York. * 8 b. People, who travel to the United States, should visit New York. c. People who travel to the United States, should visit New York. d. People, who travel, to the United States should visit New York. 51. Sentence Boundaries a. Bill Gates is the richest man in the world he is a multibillionaire. b. Bill Gates is the richest man in the world, he is a multibillionaire. c. Bill Gates is the richest man in the world and he is, a multi-billionaire. d. Bill Gates is the riches man in the world, and he is a multibillionaire.* 52. Modifiers a. Dipped under hot water, you get the soap bubbles off the dishes. b. After dipped under hot water, soap bubbles easily come off the dishes. c. Dipped under hot water, they get the soap bubbles off the dishes. d. After the dishes are dipped under hot water, soap bubbles easily come off.* 53. Its and It.s a. Its time to give the dog its bone. b. Its time to give the dog it.s bone. c. It.s time to give the dog it.s bone. d. It.s time to give the dog its bone.* 54. Quotation Marks a. The dean said .school has been cancelled.. b. The dean said, .school has been cancelled..* c. The dean said . school has been cancelled.. d. The dean said, . school has been cancelled.. 55. Words

a. I.ve proofread paragraph a dozen times. b. I.ve proofread paragraph dozen times. c. I.ve proofread the paragraph a dozen times.* d. I.ve proofread the paragraph a dozen. 56. Capitalization. a. I think that it is important to learn English. b. I think that it is Important to learn English.* c. I think that it is important to learn english. d. i think that It is important to learn English. 57. Which/That & Who/Whom a. My present car which I got from my parents needs urgent repairs. b. My present car that I got from my parents needs urgent repairs. c. My present car, which I got from my parents, needs urgent repairs.* d. My present car, that I got from my parents, needs urgent repairs. 58. Which/That & Who/Whom a. The house, which I want to buy, has a pool. 9 b. The house, that I want to buy, has a pool. c. The house that I want to buy has a pool.* d. The house where I want to buy has a pool. 59. Which/That & Who/Whom a. College teachers go to high schools hoping to enroll students which others have ignored. b. College teachers go to high schools hoping to enroll students who others have ignored.* c. College teachers go to high schools hoping to enroll students that others have ignored. d. College teachers go to high schools hoping to enroll students whom others have ignored. 60. Which/That & Who/Whom a. The students wondered whom would be the winner of the contest.s prize. b. The students wondered which would be the winner of the contest.s prize. c. The students wondered who would be the winner of the contest.s prize.* d. The students wondered whose would be the winner of the contest.s prize. 61. Idiomatic Word Use [Below, the previous situation is reversed] a. Now, the shoe is on the other shoe b. Now, the foot is on the other foot. c. Now, the shoe is on the other foot.* d. Now, the foot is on the other shoe. 62. Idiomatic Word Use [Below, someone has become angry] a. When dad saw the F on my report card, he hit the wall. b. When dad saw the F on my report card, he hit the ceiling.* c. When dad saw the F on my report card, he hit me. d. When dad saw the F on my report card, he hit the floor. 63. Idiomatic Word Use a. I intend on doing my homework regularly.* b. I intend do my homework regularly. c. I intend to do my homework regularly. d. I intend doing my homework regularly. 64. Idiomatic Word Use a. The student is happy to except the scholarship. b. The student is happy to accept the scholarship.* c. The student is happy to excepted the scholarship. d. The student is happy to accepted the scholarship. 65. Idiomatic Word Use a. That teacher gave us alot of homework for the weekend. b. That teacher gave us a lot of homework for the weekend. c. That teacher gave us a great deal of homework for the weekend.*

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d. That teacher gave us a lot a homework for the weekend. 66. Idiomatic Word Use a. The math problem was debated between the three students. 10 b. The math problem was debated within the three students. c. The math problem was debated among the three students.* d. The math problem was debated between and among the three students. 67. Idiomatic Word Use a. The workers concluded that fewer jobs means fewer money for them. b. The workers concluded that less jobs means fewer money for them. c. The workers concluded that less jobs means less money for them. d. The workers concluded that fewer jobs means less money for them.* 68. Comma and Subject and Verb a. I , love to see horror movies. b. I love to see horror movies.* c. I love, to see, horror movies. d. I , love, to see horror movies. 69. Comma and Subject and Verb a. The students, made a wonderful multimedia project. b. The students made, a wonderful multimedia project. c. The students made a wonderful multimedia project.* d. The students made, a wonderful, multimedia project. 70. Apostrophe a. The students paper was sent by email instantly. b. The students paper.s was sent by email instatantly. c. The student.s paper was sent by email instantly.* d. The students papers. was sent by email instantly. 71. Apostrophe a. The cause of the powerfailure was no one.s fault.* b. The cause of the powerfailure was no ones fault. c. The cause of the powerfailure.s was no one.s fault. d. The cause of the powerfailure was on ones. fault. 72. Apostrophe a. Researchers are seeking explanations for children.s creativity.* b. Researcher.s are seeking explanations for children.s creativity. c. Researchers. are seeking explanations for childrens. creativity. d. Researchers. are seeking explanations for children.s creativity. 73. Comma and Complex Sentence a. Steve was always happy on Valentine.s Day because that was his grandfather.s birthday, and the date usually marked the end of winter. * b. Steve was always happy on Valentine.s day, because that was his grandfather.s birthday, and the date usually marked the end of winter. c. Steve was always happy on Valentine.s day, because that was his grandfather.s birthday and the date usually marked the end of winter. d. Steve was always happy on Valentine.s day because that was his grandfather.s birthday and the date usually marked the end of winter. 74. Hyphenation 11 a. I don.t get along too well with my brotherinlaw. b. I don.t get along too well with my brother in law. c. I don.t get along too well with my brother in-law. d. I don.t get along too well with my brother-in-law.* 75. Hyphenation a. The teacher was well-dressed in my opinion. b. In my opinion, that was a well-dressed teacher. c. The teacher was dressed-well in my opinion. d. In my opinion, that was a well dressed teacher. *

76. Hyphenation a. I paid over two hundred and twenty-five dollars for the blazer.* b. I paid over two-hundred and twenty-five dollars for the blazer. c. I paid over two hundred and twenty five dollars for the blazer. d. I paid over two-hundred and twenty five dollars for the blazer. 77. Comma and Direct Object. a. The students ate apples at the county fair.* b. The students ate, apples at the county fair. c. The students ate, apples, at the county fair. d. The students , ate, apples at the county fair. 78. Idiomatic Sentence Pattern a. Stand for this I will not. b. I will not stand for this.* c. This not stand for this I will. d. I for this will not stand. 79. Idiomatic Sentence Pattern a. The reason why is because it gets so hot in the summer. b. The reason is because it gets so hot in the summer.* c. The reason why is it gets so hot in the summer. d. The reason it gets so hot in the summer is why. [ Rule: Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives] 80. Coordinate Adjectives a. The rhythmic pulsating music made the huge restless crowd ecstatic. b. The rhythmic, pulsating music made the huge restless crowd ecstatic. c. The rhythmic pulsating music made the huge, restless crowd ecstatic. d. The rhythmic, pulsating music made the huge, restless crowd ecstatic.* 81. Coordinate Adjectives a. JoHanna was adorned with a silver antique beautiful necklace. b. JoHanna was adorned with a antique silver beautiful necklace. c. JoHanna was adorned with a beautiful antique silver necklace.* d. JoHanna was adorned with an antique silver beautiful necklace. 82. Titles a. The title to the student.s five-paragraph essay was How To Bounce Back. b. The title to the student.s five-paragraph essay was How To Bounce Back. 12 c. The title to the student.s five-paragraph essay was .How To Bounce Back..* d. The title to the student.s five-paragraph essay was .How To Bounce Back.. 83. Sentence Clarity/Mixed a. I beginned after 26 dec I send the 6 enormes to the bookseller. b. I beginned after December 26 to send six enormes to the bookseller. c. I sent six enormes after 26 dec I beginned to the bookseller. d. I sent six chapters to the bookseller after the twenty-sixth of December.* 84. Adjectives and Adverbs. a. A good computer lab must run smooth and promptly. b. A well computer lab must run smoothly and promptly. c. A good computer lab must run smooth and prompt. d. A good computer lab must run smoothly and promptly.* 85. Adjectives and Adverbs a. The cook felt bad that the food smelled bad because he had cooked badly.

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b. The cook felt bad that the food smelled badly because he had cooked bad. c. The cook felt bad that the food smelled bad because he had cooked badly.* d. The cook felt badly that the food smelled bad because he had cooked bad. 86. Correct Pronoun Case a. My family consists of two sisters and me. b. My family consists of two sisters and I.* c. Me family consists of two sisters and me. d. Me family consists of two sisters and I. 87. Correct Pronoun Case a. Jose and me went to their party. b. Jose and me went to them party. c. Jose and I went to them party. d. Jose and I went to their party.* 88. Correct Pronoun Case a. The teacher told Jose and I that this test was going to be tough. b. The teacher told Jose and me that this test was going to be tough.* c. The teacher told I and Jose that this test was going to be tough. d. The teacher told Jose and me myself that this test was going to be tough. 89. Correct Pronoun Case a. The ones who will graduate are them and me. b. The ones who will graduate are them and I. c. The ones who will graduate are theirselves and me. d. The ones who will graduate are they and I.* 90. Correct Pronoun Case 13 a. My brother loved his wife more than I. b. My brother loved his wife more than me.* c. My brother loved his wife more than myself. d. My brother loved his wife more than himself. 91. Dashes a. America.s challenges.better education, less crime, more equality.are still urgent ones.* b. America.s challenges are.better education, less crime, more equality.still urgent ones. c. America.s challenges.better education, less crime, more equality are still urgent ones. d. America.s challenges, better education, less crime, more equality.are still urgent ones. 92. An / A a. I bought book, pencil, and package of paper. b. I bought a history book, a pencil, and a package of paper.* c. I bought book, a pencil, and a package of paper. d. I bought an history book, a pencil, and a package of paper. 93. An / A a. I learned a good English at a interactive Web site. b. I learned a good English at an interactive Web site. c. I learned good English at a interactive Web site. d. I learned good English at an interactive Web site.* 94. An / A a. I bought book today. It was a pronunciation dictionary. b. I bought an book today. It was the pronunciation dictionary. c. I bought the book today. It was a pronunciation dictionary. d. I bought a book today. It was a pronunciation dictionary.* 95. The a. I have a car in the city. However, the car is often in the shop.* b. I have the car in a city. However, a car is often in a shop. c. I have a car in the city. However, the car is often in shop. d. I have the car in city. However, the car is often in a shop. 96. The a. I.ve been in United States for most of a year. b. I.ve been in the United States for most of a year.

c. I.ve been in United States for most of the year.* d. I.ve been in the United States for most of the year. 97. The a. The moon rose above a skyline. b. A moon rose above the skyline. c. The moon rose above the skyline.* d. A moon rose above a skyline. 98. The 14 a. The governor wants an alligator to be a state symbol for Florida. b. The governor wants the alligator to be the state symbol for Florida.* c. A governor wants an alligator to be a state symbol for the Florida. d. The governor wants the alligator to be the state symbol for the Florida. 99. The a. A test that I took yesterday gave me an incredible migraine. b. The test that I took yesterday gave me the incredible migraine. c. A test that I took yesterday gave me the incredible migraine. d. The test that I took yesterday gave me an incredible migraine.* 100. The a. Designing good Web sites requires much forethought.* b. The designing good Web sites requires much forethought. c. The designing of good Web sites requires much forethought. d. The designing of the good Web sites requires much forethought. 101. The a. The orchids are the flowers that can grow on the air alone. b. Orchids are flowers that can grow on air alone.* c. The orchids are flowers that can grow on the air alone. d. Orchids are the flowers that can grow on air alone. 102. Question Mark a. How many times have I taken this stupid test. b. ? How many times have I taken this stupid test? c. How many times have I taken this stupid test! d. How many times have I taken this stupid test?* 103. The a. The actors debated what to do next. Quit? Protest? Let the show go on?* b. The actors debated what to do next. Quit Protest? Let the show go on? c. The actors debated what to do next. Quit. Protest. let the show go on? d. The actors debated what to do next quit protest let the show go on? 104. Verb Form (Infinitive/Gerund/Participle/Irregular/Mood/Voice [ Rule: Use infinitive after be + complement ] a. The students are eager going to the graduation ceremony. b. The students are eager be going to the graduation ceremony. c. The students are eager to go to the graduation ceremony.* d. The students are eager for going to the graduation ceremony. 105. Verb Form [Rule: use infinitive after expression such as the first and the last] a. The best students are the first to arrive to class and the last to leave.* b. The best students are the first arriving to class and the last leaving. c. The best students are the first to arrive to class and the last leaving.

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15 d. The best students are the first arriving to class and the last to leave. 106. Verb Form [Rule: use unmarked infinitive after feel,hear,have,let,listen to,look at, notice,see,watch] a. I will ask the teacher to let us leave out early.* b. I will ask the teacher to let us to leave early. c. I will ask the teacher letting us out early. d. I will ask the teacher for letting us out early. 107. Verb Form [Rule: Use gerund after words such as admit, avoid, enjoy, imagine, mind, quit, suggest, etc.] a. I enjoy to learn advanced English composition. b. I enjoy learned advanced English composition. c. I enjoy learning advanced English composition.* d. I enjoy be learning advanced English composition. 108. Verb Form [Rule: Generally use a gerund rather than an infinitive as the subject of a sentence] a. Choose the right college classes is important. b. To choose the right college classes is an important. c. Choosing the right college classes is important.* d. To chose the right college classes is important. 109. Verb Form [Rule: Always use a gerund, not an infinitive as the object of a preposition] a. The college is committed to upgrade the computer system. b. The college is committed upgrade the computer system. c. The college is committed to upgrading the computer system.* d. The college is committed to be upgrade the computer system. 110. Verb Form [Rule: Use standard form of be in college writing] a. She be working late tonight at the gallery. b. She be work late tonight at the gallery. c. She is work late tonight at the gallery. d. She is working late tonight at the gallery.* 111. Verb Form [Rule: Modal auxiliary verbs are always followed by simple form of verb.] a. The student might going to the movies tonight. b. The student might to go to the movies tonight. c. The student might go to the movies tonight.* d. The student might be go to the movies tonight. 112. Verb Form [Rule: Subject usually omitted in imperative mood] a. You be quiet. b. Be quiet!* c. You quiet! 16 d. Quiet, you! 113. Verb Form [Rule: For wishes use subjunctive were not was] a. If I were the president, I would feed the poor people of the world.* b. If I was the president, I will feed the poor people of the world. c. If I were the president, I will feed the poor people of the world. d. If I was the president, I would feed the poor people of the world. 114. Verb Form [Rule: Use passive when doer of action unknown or unimportant] a. The student.s car was being stolen in the afternoon. b. The student.s car was stole in the afternoon. c. The student.s car was stoled in the afternoon. d. The student.s car was stolen in the afternoon.*

115. Verb Form [Rule: Use correct form of irregular verbs] a. When the sun rose, he had already risen.* b. When the sun rose, he had already rose. c. When the sun rises, he had already risen. d. When the sun risen, he rose. 116. Verb Form [Rule: simple form of lie with modal could] a. With three days off, I could lay on the beach all day. b. With three days off, I could lie on the beach all day.* c. With three days off, I could laid on the beach all day. d. With three days off, I could laying on the beach all day. 117. Transition a. First, it.s a hot day. It.s very humid. Last, the air conditioner is broken. b. It.s a hot day. Second, it.s very humid. Last, the air conditioner is broken.* c. First, it.s a hot day. Second, it.s very humid. Last, the air conditioner is broken. d. It.s a hot day. It.s very humid. The air conditioner is broken. 118. Quotation Marks a. Who said, . All.s fair in love and war? b. Who said. . All.s fair in love and war?. c. Who said , . All.s fair in love and war?. d. Who said, .All.s fair in love and war?.* 119. Semicolon and Parentheses a. My favorite film; (The Godfather), is better than There.s Something About Mary. b. My favorite film, (The Godfather), is better than There.s Something About Mary. c. My favorite film (The Godfather), is better than There.s Something About Mary.* d. My favorite film-- (The Godfather), is better than There.s Something About Mary. 120. That 17 a. The house, I buy will have a swimming pool. b. The house, that I buy will have a swimming pool. c. The house, which I buy will have a swimming pool. d. The house that I buy will have a swimming pool.* 121. Comma and Et cetera. a. I went to many Web sites such as Yahoo!, Dogpile, Direct Hit etc. b. I went to many Web sites such as Yahoo!, Dogpile, Direct Hit et cetera. c. I went to many Web sites such as Yahoo!, Dogpile, Direct Hit, etc. d. I went to many Web sites such as Yahoo!, Dogpile, Direct Hit and so forth. 122. Semicolon [Rule: Use semicolon optionally before coordinating conjunctions with independent clauses that contain commas] a. Because the bookstore lacked texts, the students could not buy needed materials and some teachers became frustrated. b. Because the bookstore lacked texts, the students could not buy needed materials; and some teachers became frustrated.* c. Because the bookstore lacked texts, the students could not buy needed materials: and some teachers became frustrated. d. Because the bookstore lacked texts, the students could not buy needed materials-- and some teachers became frustrated. 123. Semicolon [Rule: Use semicolon when transitional expressions connect independent clauses]

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a. The college bookstore remained closed, nevertheless, students managed to find the needed texts. b. The college bookstore remained closed nevertheless, students managed to find the needed texts. c. The college bookstore remained closed; nevertheless; students managed to find the needed texts. d. The college bookstore remained closed; nevertheless, students managed to find the needed texts. 124. Semicolon a. Once opened, the language lab will have three types of materials: video, audio, and computer animation.* b. Once opened; the language lab will have three types of materials; video, audio, and computer animation. c. Once opened, the language lab will have three types of materials; video, audio, and computer animation. d. Once opened: the language lab will have three types of materials: video, audio, and computer animation. 125. Repetition a. The teacher she said that the test it would be on Monday. b. The teacher she said that the test would be on Monday. c. The teacher said that the test would be on Monday.* d. The teacher she said that the test the test would be on Monday. 126. Repetition 18 a. The storeclerk said that he likes flowers as much as I like flowers. b. The storeclerk said that he likes flowers as much as I do like flowers. c. The storeclerk said that he likes flowers as much as I do.* d. The storeclerek said that he likes flowers as much as I like. 127. Gerund Modifier a. Eating in the school cafeteria can be an incredible adventure.* b. Eaten in the school cafeteria can be an incredible adventure. c. Eat in the school cafeteria can be an incredible adventure. d. Eating the school cafeteria can be an incredible adventure. 128. Gerund Modifier [Rule: Use possessive case before gerunds] a. I concluded that the man was drunk when I noticed him staggering. b. I concluded that the man was drunk when I noticed his staggering.* c. I concluded that the man was drunk when I noticed him stagger. d. I concluded that the man was drunk when I noticed his stagger. 129. Negation a. The visiting students did not have no money. b. The visiting students never did have no money. c. The visiting students did not have any money.* d. The visiting students never did have none money. 130 . Apostrophe and Contractions a. Its an important day, so lets all behave properly. b. It.s an important day, so lets all behave properly. c. Its an important day, so let.s all behave properly. d. It.s an important day, so let.s all behave properly.* 131 Colon a. If you really want to be an A student, remember three key words; attendance, homework, participation. b. If you really want to be an A student, remember three key words: attendance, homework, participation.*

c. If you really want to be an A student, remember three key words, attendance, homework, participation. d. If you really want to be an A student, remember three key words attendance, homework, participation. 132. Colon a. The students bought: books, pencils, and paper. b. The students bought ; books, pencils, and paper. c. The students bought books, pencils, and paper.* d. The students bought books: pencils: and paper. 19 133. Parallelism a. The students had tried complaints, screaming, and even shouting. b. The students had tried complaining, screams, and shouts. c. The students had tried complaints, screams, and shouting. d. The students had tried complaining, screaming, and shouting.* 134. Parallelism a. Truth and being honest are virtues that go together. b. Being truthful and honest are virtues that go together. c. Truth and honesty are virtues that go together.* d. Truthful and honesty are virtues that go together. 135. Parallelism a. Avoiding the language lab for too long not only can lead to frustration but also to failure. b. Avoiding the language lab for too long not only can lead to frustration but to failure also. c. Avoiding the language lab for too long can not only lead to frustration but also to failure.* d. Avoiding the language lab for too long can only not lead to frustration also but to failure. [#end#] ANSWERS TO READING PORTION

1. A 2. B 3. B 4. A 5. C 6. D 7. D 8. B 9. A 10. C 11. D 12. B 13. A 14. B 15. D 16. B 17. B 18. C 19. C 20. C 21. B 22. D 23. A 24. A 43. A 44. D

25. A 26. D 27. B 28. A 29. B 30. C 31. B 32. A 33. A 34. D 35. C 36. B 37. C 38. C 39. B 40. A 41. D 42. D

67. A 68. D

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45. A 46. C 47. B 48. B 49. D 50. D 51. B 52. D 53. B 54. B 55. D 56. D 57. C 58. D 59. C 60. A 61. D 62. B 63. D 64. C 65. D 66. C

69. A 70. B 71. A 72. B 73. C 74. D 75. D 76. B 77. C 78. A 79. C 80. B 81. C 82. D

8.

WHAT IS THE IMPLIED MAIN IDEA OF THESE PASSAGES? (ONE)

But the biological “language clock” is ticking away. Research overwhelming suggests that a second language is best acquired within several ‘critical periods’ or windows of opportunity that largely end at puberty. Infants are genetically pre-programmed to learn multiple languages, and acquire language even within the womb: but by age five, the “learning windows” close for them to easily pick up additional languages. While earlier exposure is better, it is never too late for children to learn language, and even minimal exposure to a second language can positively reemerge in a child’s language studies in later years. THE IMPLIED MAIN IDEA IS THAT PARENTS SHOULD INTRODUCE A SECOND LANGUAGE TO CHILDREN AT AN EARLY AGE WHILE THE WINDOW OF OPPORTUNITY IS OPEN.

ANSWERS TO READING PRINCIPLES

7.

WHAT IS THE TOPIC AND STATED MAIN IDEA OF THESE PASSAGES? (ONE)

(TWO) Parents can provide key input to children, even if they do not speak the language fluently. At a recent bilingual activity, one identical twin in a pretty cornflower blue dress quietly clung to her mother, but her sister was the language extrovert. During a Spanish game, the extrovert reached for a multi-colored nylon parachute and said toma (give me). As the children danced under the billowing, twirling parachute, the teacher asked Donde esta azul? (where is the blue?). The English speaking mother whispered the answer in the ear of the quiet twin who broke away and ran under the blue panel of parachute. She proudly peeped out azul!, in flawless Spanish. THE IMPLIED MAIN IDEA IS THAT CHILDREN ABSORB LANGUAGE WITHOUT FORMAL METHODS.

Raising a multilingual child is becoming a sizzling, national and international trend. Antonio Banderas and Melanie Griffith are raising their new daughter with two languages. Celine Dion and husband Rene Angelis’s child Rene Charles is being raised to speak French and English. Woody Allen and radio personality Don Imus bring their children to a bilingual baby center in New York.

THE TOPIC IS RAISING A MULTILINGUAL CHILD. THE STATED MAIN IDEA IS THAT IT IS NOW A POPULAR TREND.

(TWO) Most parents don’t know where to begin to teach children another language. The Bilingual Object Box is one of the easiest ways to build up a foreign vocabulary along side of your child. It’s fun, it’s organized, and it goes away when the lesson is complete. The box can be an ordinary shoe, plastic box, cloth bag, or even a hat such as a sombrero. Do not choose too large of a box, but one that can be handled easily and taken out and put away. Avoid putting too many objects in one box because it will become confusing. Rather, try to have a box with no more that 20 objects.

9.

IDENTIFY AND LIST THE SUPPORTING DETAILS IN THIS PARAGRAPH.

THE TOPIC IS USING A BILINGUAL OBJECT BOX. THE STATED MAIN IDEA IS THAT THIS IS THE WAY TO TEACH CHILDREN A SECOND LANGUAGE.

Choosing a baby’s name for your child’s bilingual future can be both a momentous decision and a joyful experience. A well-chosen bilingual name can provide a lifetime of anecdote and pleasure. There are many considerations, including the ‘pronounce-ability’ of the name by people around the world, since certain sounds may be difficult for some language groups to pronounce. For example, the “TH” sound in Anthony would be challenging for most languages, since it is unique to English and Greek. Parents might choose to pronounce it as “AnTony” to make it more universal. Or the puff of air that accompanies the “P” sound in names such as “Pat” can sound like “Bat” coming

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out of mouths that do not produce air with the “P” sound. Certain arrangements of consonants are very difficult to pronounce. For instance, “Peggy Babcock” is one of the most difficult tongue twisters in English—so imagine it as a name to be said in other countries!

Hand motions for the song: "cuando tienen hambre" (rub your stomach) "cuando tienen frío" (cross your arms and shiver) "la gallina busca el maíz y trigo" (move your head up and down) "les da comida" (extend your open hand) "y les presta abrigo" (hug yourself) "Bajo sus dos alas acurrucaditos" (hug your neighbor) "duermen los pollitos" (put your head in your hands and close your eyes) Notes: This rhyme may be found in Los Pollitos Dicen, The Baby Chicks Sing, by Nancy Abraham and Jill SyversonStork. Baby chicks say "pio, pio, pio," when they are hungry. when they are cold. The hen looks for wheat and corn, she gives them their food, And she keeps them warm. Under her two wings tucked in and snuggled tight until the next day they sleep all through the night THIS IS A PROCESS OR HOW-TO TYPE OF ESSAY OR PARAGRAPH.

SUPPORTING DETAILS INCLUDE: • BE CAREFUL OF THE TH SOUND • WATCH OUT FOR THE P SOUND • WATCH OUT FOR DIFFICULT COMBINATIONS OF SOUND.

Los pollitos dicen "pío, pío, pío", cuando tienen hambre, cuando tienen frío. La gallina busca el maíz y el trigo, les da su comida, y les presta abrigo. 10. WHAT WRITING PATTERN ARE THESE alas Bajo sus dos TWO PASSAGES? (SOME PATTERNS acurrucaditos MAY BE MIXED) hasta el otro día duermen los pollitos. (ONE) That night during my dreams, I re-experienced the language class. I awoke around 3:00 in the morning with the German words repeating in my mind, “ Das Pferdchen fribt ken Stroh . . . hopp, hopp, hopp, ho!”. I had no idea what the words meant. In the dream I saw Britto, the German teacher, playing with a small stuffed horse and dog, moving them in a circle. It seemed that the conversation was going on for some time in my sleeping head—all in German, a language I definitely don’t know: Das Pferdchen fribt ken Stroh . . . hopp, hopp, hopp, ho!— The pony ate the straw and hopped away. THIS IS A NARRATIVE. BUT IS BOLSTERED BY EXAMPLES.

11. WHAT IS THE AUTHOR’S POINT OF VIEW AND TONE IN THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE? (ONE) A “veteran” of raising a bilingual child, Andrea Couch says, “ It’s important to expose children to foreign words and phrases so they can develop an ear for languages.” Her three-year old daughter, Brooke, has taken the French, German, and Spanish immersion courses at a Bilingual Babies program in Florida. Brooke playfully bursts into seasonally appropriate foreign phrases such as “Joyeuse Saint-Valentin” and “Feliz de San Valentin” (Happy St. Valentin’s) while coloring hearts.

(TWO)

The teacher begins by clucking like a chicken to cue the students in that a new routine is about to begin. The target song is played on cassette or CD. An object box is brought out with plastic chicken eggs that serve as seed-filled shakers. Each child is given one or two eggs. Little yellow toy chicks are brought out. For Spanish, the children sing the Los Pollitos song and shake the egg shakers in rhythm.

LOS POLLITOS Dialog:

THE AUTHOR’S POINT OF VIEW IS SUPPORTIVE OF EXPOSING CHILDREN TO THE SOUNDS OF AS MANY FOREIGN LANGUAGES AS POSSIBLE AT AN EARLY AGE.

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(TWO) Good news in any language! Raising a bilingual child is doable, even for monolingual parents. YOUR CHILD CAN BE BILINGUAL is chock full of hands-on materials— “recipes” for language learning activities from the womb to kindergarten, hints on garnering bilingual resources, and tools on how to develop a personalized program for your offspring.

THIS IS FACT SINCE BENSON CITES EXAMPLES OF ACTUAL CHILDREN LANGUAGE OUTPUT.

ANSWERS TO JOB ENGLISH Explanation for #0 A core criterion for effectively communicating is the ability to come across well during an oral interview for a job—and success gauged by getting the position. Explanation for #1 Tom Jopp Explanation for #2 Industrial English was developed to address the influx of foreign workers into the Great Britain.

THE POINT OF VIEW IS ONE OF ENTHUSIASM. THE AUTHOR IS MAKING A SALE’S PITCH TO PROMOTE BILINGUAL LANGUAGE LEARNING.

12. DO THE FOLLOWING PASSAGES REPRESENT MOSTLY OPINION OR FACT? WHY? (ONE) Noting New York-born superstar Jennifer Lopez’s Spanish is not exactly stellar, and that she does not face the tough linguistic hurdles authentic Latin talent like Hayek encounters, Salma says, "Jennifer Lopez doesn't have an accent. She grew up in New York speaking English, not Spanish. Her success is very important because she represents a different culture, but it doesn't help me. The biggest obstacle for Latino actors in Hollywood is the voice and the accent. In the nine years I've been in Hollywood, it's never been about how I look. The moment I open my mouth, the problems begin. Speaking English is the toughest thing I have to do every day of my life in Hollywood." THIS IS MOSTLY OPINION. WHILE IT IS TRUE THAT JENNIFER LOPEZ GREW UP IN THE BRONX AS AN ENGLISH SPEAKER, HAYAK HAS INTERPRETED HER BACKGROUND IN ORDER TO CONTRAST IT WITH HER MEXICAN ROOTS.

Explanation for #3 NTS stands for Notional Syllabus Explanation for #4 No. Explanation for #5 Final Exam Explanation for #6 Use the Internet Explanation for #7 Friendly workplace conversations Explanation for #8 James Truslow Adams Explanation for #9 It is an example of how to effectively say one's name. Explanation for #10 Experience Explanation for #11 Expertise Explanation for #12 Passion

(TWO) “There may be tears,” says Ann Benson, director and creator of Bilingual Babies where toddlers who can barely speak are introduced to a foreign language, “ But there will mostly be incredible moments when the dam breaks and children spontaneously spout out in an authentic, new language.” At Musical Beginnings of Fort Lauderdale, Florida in the Bilingual Babies program, many children already know that tres oso means Three Bears in Spanish, danken is thanks in German, and pomme translates to apple in French.

Explanation for #13 Bilingual Explanation for #14 Punctual or Timely Explanation for #15 Flexible Explanation for #16 Heart Explanation for #17 Professional and Thorough

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Explanation for #18 Efficient Explanation for #19 Patience Explanation for #20 Team work and Team Player CLINTON’S REMARKS ANSWERS

Answers 10. (b) Going beyond basic comprehension to gain insights as you read. = What is Critical Reading? = Note: Answers 11. (b) Treating with scorn or contempt. = Mocking means_______ = Note: Answers 12. (c) Appearing to have no preference or concern = Indifferent means____ = Note: Answers 13. (b) Inclined to criticize or find fault. = Critical means _____ = Note: Answers 14. (b) Expecting the worst = Pessimistic means _____ = Note: Answers 15. (c) Showing excitement = Enthusiastic means ____ = Note: Answers 16. (b) The manner of writing that reveals the author's attitude. = Tone means______ = Note: Answers 17. (b) Expecting the best = Optimistic means ______ = Note: Answers 18. (c) Feeling sorry for oneself = Self-pitying means _____ = Note: Answers 19. (c) Writing that can ridicule or expose human foolishness = Satire means_________ = Note: Answers 20. (b) Intentionally vague or ambiguous = Evasive means_____ = Note: Answers 21. (b) Not allowing difference of opinion = Intolerant means____ = Note: Answers 22. (c) Intended to cause harm. = Malicious means_______ = Note: Answers 23. (b) Instantly important. = Urgent means _______ = Note: Answers 24. (b) Caring deeply about an issue or person = Concerned means_______ = Note: Answers 25. (c) Going beyond basic comprehension to gain insights as you read. = What is Critical Reading? = Note: Answers 26. (b) Stern or fearsome = Grim means_______ = Note: Answers 27. (b) The author's reason for writing = What is meant by purpose? = Note:

Who does “child on a straw in stable refer to?” ____ 1. To Jesus Christ. 2. What is the central point of this paragraph? The bright constellation is a unifying symbol for humankind.

3. How is the above paragraph structured? In chronological order—this is an excellent example of parallel structures.

READING TERM ANSWERS 1. (c) The specific audiences that author's have in mind when they write = Intended Audience means_____ = Note: Answers 2. (b) The side of an issue that the author favors = Author's Bias means_____ = Note: Answers 3. (b) Free from ambiguity = Straightforward means ____ = Note: Answers 4. (c) In favor of = Positive means _____ = Note: Answers 5. (c) Bittersweet longing for things. = Nostalgic means_______ = Note: Answers 6. (c) Assistance = Supportive means ____ = Note: Answers 7. (b) Only an uninformed person would believe that = Which terms go with PERSUADE = Note: Answers 8. (b) Passing unfavorable judgment upon. = Disapproving means_____ = Note: Answers 9. (b) You must do the following … = Which terms go with INSTRUCT = Note:

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Answers 28. (b) Resisting authority or intentionally contemptuous = Defiant means____ = Note: Answers 29. (c) The author's position on an issue = Point of View means ______ = Note: Answers 30. (c) Feeling regret = Remorseful means _____ = Note: Answers 31. (c) Giving oneself an undue degree of importance. Haughty. = Arrogant means_____ = Note: Answers 32. (c) Humorously sarcastic or mocking = Ironic means____ = Note: Answers 33. (c) Based on emotions not reason = Sentimental means____ = Note: Answers 34. (c) Not showing respect = Irreverent means ______ = Note: Answers 35. (b) Reluctant to believe = Skeptical means_____ = Note: Answers 36. (b) Sympathetic or merciful = Compassionate means___ = Note: Answers 37. (c) Stately or ceremonious = Solemn means _____ = Note: Answers 38. (c) The important point is … = Which terms go with INFORM = Note: Answers 39. (c) Showing warmth of feeling or zeal = Impassioned means____ = Note: Answers 40. (c) Feeling entertained or occupied in a pleasant manner = Amused means_____ = Note: Answers 41. (b) Characterized by sharpness, severity, or cruelty. = Bitter means______ = Note: Answers 42. (c) A cutting remark that conveys ridicule = Sarcasm means _____ = Note: Answers 43. (c) Showing support = Encouraging means____ = Note: Answers 44. (b) Expressing agreement = Approving means_____ = Note: Answers 45. (b) Having oppostie feelings or attitudes at the same tome = Ambivalent means_____ = Note: Answers

46. (b) You'll never believe what happened to me when I … = Which terms go with ENTERTAIN = Note: Answers 47. (b) Speaking in a definite and confident manner. = Authoritative means_____ = Note: Answers 48. (b) Making cutting remarks to show scorn = Sarcastic means_______ = Note: Answers 49. (b) Thinking it is not real = Disbelieving means_____ = Note: Answers 50. (c) To expose human folly = Satirical means _____ = Note: Answers 51. (b) Pity = Sympathetic means ____ = Note: Answers 52. (b) A contrast between apparent meaning and intended meaning. = Irony means_______ = Note: Answers 53. (c) Showing respect for the rights of others = Tolerant means _______ = Note: Answers 54. (c) Willing to give in on some matters. = Conciliatory means_____ = Note: Answers 55. (b) Wrathful or filled with anger. = Indignant means______ = Note: Answers 56. (c) Wary, careful, and not wanting to take chances. = Cautious means_____ = Note:

ANSWERS TO BLUE HOTEL Directions: Read the first word in each line. Draw a circle around the other word or words in the line that means about the same as the first word. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 shade howling prairie delights splendor heron landscape ditch wailing* frozen lake beaches beauty* poisonous snake prince color* trapping swamp clubs fruit ridge scenery*

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8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

shame obliged wavering dazzling swaying overcome pity swept proprietor rails through opulence feat

disgrace* mended unsure* loyal looking become old pain looked around student tracks* below work mistake

purpose material anger 4. Form a sentence that uses the correct punctuation to hoped required* yelled express these thoughts: The parents and teachers decided against history books. shallow poor necessary Some history books ignore the accomplishments of Hispanics. bright* guilty afraid singing rocking* a.chasing The parents and teachers decided against history books, which ignore the accomplishments of Hispanics. * make helpless* remember b.produce The parents and teachers decided against history books; which ignore the accomplishments of Hispanics. sympathy* size appearance c. The parents and teachers decided against history books which ignore the accomplishments of Hispanics. missed tripped passed through* friend visitor 5.owner* a relative clause that follows a preposition such Construct as To, For, Of, With, By, or In. songs clouds The main crisis of the movie Titanic was the sinking of the hills ship. In the movie Titanic love is equated with making the away within* near ultimate sacrifice--dying. garden nest luxury* a. The main crisis of the movie Titanic, in that love is skillful act* making the ultimate sacrifice--dying, was the story injury long equated with sinking of the ship. b. The main crisis of the movie Titanic, in which love is equated with making the ultimate sacrifice--dying, was the sinking of the ship. * c. The main crisis of the movie Titanic, in whose love is equated with making the ultimate sacrifice--dying, was the sinking of the ship.

ANSWERS TO PARTICIPLE TEST 1. Use two participles to make one sentence. The student shook. The student was disturbed. The student proved to be a poor test-taker. a. Shook and disturb, the student proved to be a poor testtaker. b. Shaking and disturbed, the student proved to be a poor test-taker.* c. Shook and disturbed, the student proved to be a poor testtaker. 2. Here, the participle is clear and ambiguous or Dangling The injured pilot limped away from the airplane accident. The sympathetic air traffic controllers cheered the injured pilot. a. Limping away from the airplane accident, the sympathetic air traffic controllers cheered the injured pilot. b. Limping away from the airplane accident, the injured pilot was cheered by the sympathetic air traffic controllers. * c. Limping away from the airplane accident injured the pilot who was cheered by the sympathetic air traffic controllers. 3. Replace the BE verb Jose was the temporary district manager for the company. a. Jose behaved as the temporary district manager for the company. b. Jose acted as the temporary district manager for the company. * c. Jose acting as the temporary district manager for the company.

6. Recast the sentence with a relative, so the focus on the use of natural remedies. Chiropractors are usually distrusted by medical doctors. Chiropractors treat illnesses with natural remedies instead of drugs. a. Chiropractors--who are usually distrusted by medical doctors--treat illnesses with natural remedies instead of drugs. b. Chiropractors--who treat illnesses with natural remedies instead of drugs--are usually distrusted by medical doctors. * c. Chiropractors--whose are usually distrusted by medical doctors--treat illnesses with natural remedies instead of drugs. 7. Here, the participle is unclear and ambiguous or Dangling The injured pilot limped away from the airplane accident. The sympathetic air traffic controllers cheered the injured pilot. a. Limping away from the airplane accident injured the pilot who was cheered by the sympathetic air traffic controllers. b. Limping away from the airplane accident, the sympathetic air traffic controllers cheered the injured pilot. c. Limping away from the airplane accident, the injured pilot was cheered by the sympathetic air traffic controllers. * 8. Form a relative clause beginning with an expression such as: Many of, Some of, None of, Several of, or All of.

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The refugee poets tried to use words to convey emotion using strange punctuation. Many of the poets lived and worked in Miami. a. The refugee poets, much of whom lived and worked in Miami, tried to use words to convey emotion using strange punctuation. b. The refugee poets, of whom lived and worked in Miami, tried to use words to convey emotion using strange punctuation. c. The refugee poets, many of whom lived and worked in Miami, tried to use words to convey emotion using strange punctuation. * 9. Make into one sentence using a relative: which, that, who, whom, whose Christopher Columbus did not receive formal training in navigating by compass. His voyages made him the most famous seafarer in the world. a. Christopher Columbus, whom voyages made him the most famous seafarer in history, did not receive formal training in navigating by compass. b. Christopher Columbus whose voyages made him the most famous seafarer in history did not receive formal training in navigating by compass. c. Christopher Columbus, whose voyages made him the most famous seafarer in history, did not receive formal training in navigating by compass. * 10. Use two participles to make one sentence. The accident victim fell to the street following the collision. He was stunned. He was reeling. a. Stunned and reeling the accident victim fell to the street following the collision. b. Stunned and reeling the accident victim falling to the street following the collision. c. Stunned and reeling, the accident victim fell to the street following the collision. * 11. Here the participle makes a comment on the main action at the end. Jean looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap. Jean kept an eye on his professor. a. Jean, keeping an eye on his professor, looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap. b. Jean, looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap, keeping an eye on his professor* c. Jean, looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap, keep an eye on his professor, 12. Form a sentence that uses the correct punctuation to express these thoughts: The parents and teachers decided against history books. All history books ignore the accomplishments of Hispanics. a. The parents and teachers decided against history books which ignore the accomplishments of Hispanics.

b. The parents and teachers decided against history books; which ignore the accomplishments of Hispanics. c. The parents and teachers decided against history books, which ignore the accomplishments of Hispanics. * 13. Make into one sentence using a relative: which, that, who, whom, whose Aborigines developed a boomerang device. The boomerang device almost always returned to the thrower. a. Aborigines developed a boomerang device whose almost always returned to the thrower. b. Aborigines developed a boomerang device it almost always returned to the thrower. c. Aborigines developed a boomerang device that almost always returned to the thrower. * 14. Replace the BE verb Felix was a computer programmer who created neat utilities. a. Felix , a computer programmer, was created neat utilities. b. Felix , the computer programmer, was created neat utilities. c. Felix , a computer programmer, created neat utilities. * 15. Construct a relative clause that follows a preposition such as To, For, Of, With, By, or In. The president had already escaped a score of previous assassination attempts. The anthrax-laden letter was intended for the president. a. The president for who the anthrax-laden letter was intended had already escaped a score of previous assassination attempts. b. The president for whom the anthrax-laden letter was intended had already escaped a score of previous assassination attempts. * c. The president for which the anthrax-laden letter was intended had already escaped a score of previous assassination attempts. 16. Here, the main action of the sentence is interrupted, and the reader pauses twice. Jean looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap. Jean kept an eye on his professor. a. Keeping an eye on his professor, Jean looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap. b. Jean, keeping an eye on his professor, looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap. * c. Jean, looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap, keeping an eye on his professor, 17. Make into one sentence using a relative: which, that, who, whom, whose Some public speakers often begin sentences with "You Know" rather than using a pause. The public speakers are nervous.

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a. Some public speakers whose are nervous often begin sentences with "You Know" rather than using a pause. b. Some public speakers who are nervous often begin sentences with "You Know" rather than using a pause. * c. Some public speakers are nervous often begin sentences with "You Know" rather than using a pause. 18. Recast the sentence with a relative, so the focus on the distrust of medical doctors. Chiropractors are usually distrusted by medical doctors. Chiropractors treat illnesses with natural remedies instead of drugs.

a. The famous pianist has been entertaining millions of people during the course of her career. b. The famous pianist entertained millions of people during the course of her career. * c. The famous pianist entertaining millions of people during the course of her career.

ANSWERS TO PARTICIPLE PRACTICE a. Chiropractors--whose are usually distrusted by medical doctors--treat illnesses with natural remedies instead of drugs. b. Chiropractors--who treat illnesses with natural remedies instead of drugs--are usually distrusted by medical doctors. c. Chiropractors--who are usually distrusted by medical doctors--treat illnesses with natural remedies instead of drugs. * 19. Here, the participle phrase captures the reader's attention right away. Jean looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap. Jean kept an eye on his professor. a. Jean, keeping an eye on his professor, looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap. b. Keeping an eye on his professor, Jean looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap. * c. Jean, looked at the bilingual dictionary hidden in his lap, keeping an eye on his professor, 20. Make into one sentence using a relative: which, that, who, whom, whose The ESL students had received double digit CPT scores. The college honored the students with a festive picnic. a. The ESL students whose the college honored with a festive picnic had received double digit CPT scores. b. The ESL students who the college honored with a festive picnic had received double digit CPT scores. c. The ESL students whom the college honored with a festive picnic had received double digit CPT scores. * 21. Replace the BE verb The pianist was a famous person who entertained millions of people during the course of her career. Having finished the assignment, I turned the TV on. After reading the original study, I was not convinced by the article. Relieved of your responsibilities at your job, you should be able to relax at home. The experiment was a failure, not having studied the lab manual carefully.--> Not having studied the lab manual carefully, I failed at the experiment. The mystery has been solved after ten years of the missing portrait.--> John solved the mystery of the missing portrait after ten years. Having arrived late for practice, a written excuse was needed.--> Having arrived late for the practice, Joe needed a written excuse. Without knowing his name, it was difficult to introduce him.-> Without knowing his name, I had difficulty introducing him.

To improve his results, the experiment was done again.--> To improve his results, he remade the experiment.

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1

(1) "Metamagical Themas," Scientific American, 235, No.[1981],22-32.

2 (2) "The Place of Grammar in Elementary Curriculum," Hoyt, Teachers College Record, 7 [1906], 483484. 3 (3) Shaughnessy, Mina P. ERRORS AND EXPECTATIONS: A GUIDE FOR THE TEACHING OF WRITING. New York: Oxford UP, 1977. 4 (4) Robert J. Connors and Adrea Lunsford. "Frequency of Formal Errors in Current College Writing or Ma and Pa Kettle Do Research." From College Composition and Communication, December 1988. 5 (5) Bateman and Zidonis. Sentence-Combining: Improving Student Writing Without Formal Grammar Instruction. (Urbana, Ill. : NCTE, 1971)_

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