© 2002 Steven Donahue

Pronunciation Manual & CD Professor Steven Donahue Miami-Dade Community College
Spring 2006
This book and CD cover about 100 features of the English Sound System.
“Good Fences make good neighbors.” “What did he say!? Good wrenches make good laborers?”

“Hey, dude. I know a good Accent Reduction Course.”

on

© 2006 Steven Donahue All Rights Reserved
REDUCE YOUR ACCENT! 8 ten steps 9

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© 2002 Steven Donahue
Test Your Pronunciation 9 Identify Accent Interference 10 Master English Consonants 10 Conquer English Vowels 10 Hit the Right Rhythm 10 Step Six: Perfect Your Pitch 10 The Perfect Voice 10 Speak with Confidence 11 Test Your Progress 11 Read Aloud 11 consonants and vowels 11 LISTEN AND SELECT THE THE WORD OR PHRASE YOU HEAR 12 Vowel Inventory 15 Consonant Inventory 16 Circle the word 17 Schonell Reading Test 19 DICTATION PRACTICE 20 CONSONANTS 20 VOWELS 20 AFFIX 21 PLURAL 21 SYLLABLES 21 CAPITAL & APOSTROPHE 22 47 SPELLING RULES 22 47 SPELLING RULES 22 CONSONANT RULES: 22 VOWEL RULES 23 VOWEL RULES: 23 AFFIX RULES 23 AFFIX RULES: 23

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© 2002 Steven Donahue
: PLURAL RULES 23 : PLURAL RULES 23 SYLLABICATION RULES 24 SYLLABICATION RULES: 24 CAPITAL LETTER 24 CAPITAL LETTER & APOSTROPHE RULES 24 Arabic 25 Czech 25 Croatia 25 Farsi 26 French 26 German 26 Ghana 26 Hong Kong 27 Hmong 27 Hungarian 27 India 27 Italy 28 Japanese 28 Korean 28 Nigeria 29 Norway 29 Polish 29 Portuguese 29 Russian 29 Sierra Leone 29 Singapore 30 South Africa 30

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© 2002 Steven Donahue
Spanish 30 Tagalog 30 Thai 31 Turkish 31 Vietnamese 31 Step Three: Master English Consonants 32 CONSONANTS 32 /p/ 32 /b/ 33 /t/ 35 /d/ 37 /k/ 38 /g 40 /T/ 41 /D/ 42 /s 44 /z/ 46 /S/ 47 /Z/ 49 /h/ 50 /y 52 /w 54 /÷/ 55 /f / 57 /v/ 58 /m/ 60 / n/ 62 /l/ 63 Î/ 64 /T/ 65 /D 67 / r 68 /à 70 /?/ 72

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© 2002 Steven Donahue
/Q/ 73 / t/ /n/ /d/ /l/ 74 / t9/ /d/ 75 VOWELS 76 iy 76 /I/ 77 /ey/ 78 EI 83 { 92 /a/ 97 /uw/ 98 /U/ 100 /ow 101 /O/ 103 /ay 104 /aw/ 105 /Oy/ 107 /@/ 108 /@r/ 109 /ö/ 110 STRESS 111 28. ONE SYLLABLE 112 TWO SYLLABLE (STRESS ON FIRST SYLLABLE) 112 TWO SYLLABLE ( STRESS ON SECOND SYLLABLE 113 COMPOUND NOUNS 113 COMPOUND VERBS 114 PRONOUNS 114 NUMBERS 114 NOUN VERB PAIRS 115 POLYSYLLABIC WORDS 115 PHRASAL VERBS 116 ADDED SUFFIX 116 SPECIAL ENDINGS 117 Sentence Stress 117 CONTENT WORDS 118 FUNCTION WORDS 118

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© 2002 Steven Donahue
THOUGHT GROUPS 118 Intonation Patterns in English 119 STATEMENTS 121 WH- QUESTIONS 121 YES-NO QUESTIONS 122 ECHO QUESTIONS 124 COMPARISONS AND CONTRASTS 124 IMPLICIT CONTRASTS 126 NON FINAL INTONATION 127 DISTANT 127 CLOSE 128 SUSPENSE 128 SERIES WITH AND 129 ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS 129 ALTERNATIVES WITH OR 130 DOUBLE YES-NO 130 DIRECT ADDRESS 131 TAG QUESTION REAL 132 TAG QUESTIONS—RHETORICAL 132 FOCUS 133 PERFUNCTORY 134 ENTHUSIASM 135 COAXING 136 IRONY 137 SHOCK 138 SURPRISE 138 APPROVAL 139 PLACE-NAMES 140 NEW INFORMATION 140 MEANING SHIFT 141 SLIDE 141 DETRMINED 142 LINKING 144 Linking and /y/ glides 144 Linking and /w/glides 144 Glottal stop linking--/?/ 145 Linking and /r/ insertion 145

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© 2002 Steven Donahue
Linking and Intervocalic Consonants 146 Linking and Resyllabification 146 Linking and Consonant Elongation 146 Linking and Unreleased 147 DELETION 147 Deletion in Medial Position 148 Deletion in Final Position 148 Deletion and Syncope 149 Deletion of initial syllable 150 Deletion of noninitial /r/ 150 Deletion of Final /v/ 151 Deletion of initial /h/ 151 Deletion and /D/ 151 Assimilation 152 Progressive Assimilation 152 Regressive Assimilation 153 Palatalization Assimilation 154 EPENTHESIS 154 Epenthesis 154 Dissimilation 155 Perfect Pronunciation Through Poetry 156 The New Colossus 156 Cough and Dough 156 THE CHAOS 157 OUGH 160 Teaching Pronunciation with Mother Goose Rhymes 160 Practice of P, T, K 161 Linking 161 Tapped T 162 TH [T] and TH [D] 163 Double Consonants 163 Intonation in a Series 164 Intonation 164 [end] 166

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© 2002 Steven Donahue REDUCE YOUR ACCENT! (in ten steps) By Professor Steven Donahue Introduction Dear Dr. Pronunciation, I’ve fallen in love with a Brazilian man, and we are now engaged. I am returning with him to make introductions to my family that lives in Wisconsin. But I’m afraid that the visit is going to explode in my face because my father is a stuffy English teacher and a pronunciation maven. Yet, Erico, my lover is unable to say even the word “Wisconsin” correctly —it sounds like “Vees-Coe-Sin.” Please give me some emergency advice for his accent and save my wedding day! Tongue-tied in Rio. --Dear Tongue-Tied, Pardon the expression, but your primary accent should be on nurturing your budding relationship by instilling confidence into your lover as he crosses over to another culture. Portuguese, the language of Brazil, happens to not have a W sound, so Erico is probably substituting the U sound—or something in between a U and a V. In addition, Portuguese is very nasal, while American English is not—so he is probably passing over the N sound in the middle of the word. Sit down with him and show him how to make a full W sound. Put your hands on his face so that he says it fully—“Double U” and “Wah Wah Wah” like a baby. Then blind fold him and say these words: Wheel Whale Worse Wet We Womb Veal Vail Verse Vet “V” Voom

Then have him lift his right hand if he hears a W; Left for V. If his score is over 50%--give him a passionate kiss and get on to the altar. ………………………………………… ………………………………………… ……. By taking this course and using this CD you have begun an important learning process—discovering your wonderfully unique accent and voice. Really, the term “Accent Reduction” is not the best. Perhaps it should be called Accent Improvement or Accent Enhancement. After all, there are very successful people with accents in television and movies! Think of some: Salma Hayek, Arnold Shwarznegger, Danny Thomas, Tony Curtis, and Charlie Chan. Most of us know that there are areas of our pronunciation that need improvement. Some of us may have a foreign accent because we speak English as a second language. For native speakers, we may have a US regional accent that marks us in some way in our new location or in the workplace. And for some, due to our social or educational backgrounds, we have giveaway pronunciation markers that identify us. In fact, we know that the moment that we open our mouth to speak, we

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© 2002 Steven Donahue reveal a wealth of information about ourselves: age, gender, educational background, even physical size. Can you reduce your accent? Yes! The art and science of reducing an accent has come along way since the days of Professor Henry Higgins in My Fair Lady and the repetitive practice of phrases such as “It rains mainly in the plain in Spain.” In this Manual and CD, we will discover some fantastic techniques for analyzing and fixing your individual accent. The first step is to analyze your accent. The second step is to take the lessons that are responsive to your particular accent problem. As you read take this course, practice in front of the mirror, with audio cassettes or a video camera, or with a person whose accent you like. Listen to speakers who you admire on the radio or television. Your efforts at becoming a better speaker of English will be rewarded as people remark on how well you enunciate you words and phrases. REDUCE YOUR ACCENT! (in ten steps) 1. Step One: Test Your Pronunciation

2. Step Two: Identify Accent Interference 3. Step Three: Master English Consonants 4. Step Four: Conquer English Vowels 5. Step Five: Hit the Right Rhythm 6. Step Six: Perfect Your Pitch 7. Step Seven: The Perfect Voice 8. Step Eight: Speak with Confidence 9. Step Nine: Test Your Progress 10. Step Ten: Practice—Read Aloud Step One: Test Your Pronunciation The following CD includes a comprehensive pronunciation analysis of your accent patterns. In addition, in the back of this manual is a series of test words and phrases for all the consonants

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© 2002 Steven Donahue and vowels in English. Say them to your teacher or an native speaker of English. Be sure to do all of the exercises in the accompanying CD. Step Two: Identify Accent Interference Now that you have identified some possible areas of concern for you pronunciation patterns, it is time to try and figure out what some of the causes of an accent might be. Make a list of the words in English that you have a problem with. Words like “vegetable,” or “shrimp.” Step Three: Master English Consonants There are about 24 English consonants. The good news is that 16 are the easy ones. They are almost “universal” because similar ones exist in most languages. Make a list of English consonants and divide into two groups: • English Consonants • The easy ones • The hard ones Step Four: Conquer English Vowels In this chapter we cover the 16 vowels present in English. Just like the consonants, some are going to be pretty easy. Others however are going to be challenging. a list of English consonants and divide into two groups: • • • Vowels The easy ones The hard ones 10

Step Five: Hit the Right Rhythm By Rhythm we mean the drum beat that goes on while we are speaking. In the dictionary, Rhythm is indicated by small stress signs ‘. We are going to cover some basic Rhythm patterns of English, which if mastered, will make you a clearer speaker. • Rhythm

Step Six: Perfect Your Pitch Intonation is how the emotional content of a spoken message is carried. If you use no intonation, you will sound like a computer or robot or machine like. No matter how important your message, people will not respond to it because it will seem unimportant, trivial, or boring. • Intonation Step Seven: The Perfect Voice Have you ever been present when someone is speaking publicly, but they do not speak loudly enough? Or have you ever been on the phone with someone who mutters or is incoherent? Voice quality is something that gives an impression of you, as a speaker, to others. • Voice Quality

© 2002 Steven Donahue Step Eight: Speak with Confidence How do you feel if you are called on to speak publicly, even before a small group? Do your hands sweat? Do you feel butterflies in your stomach? Does your mind suddenly go blank? • Speak Confidently practice the exercises in the next chapter, Step Ten. And remember, give yourself some encouragement, you have come a long way to accent improvement! • Progress Test Step Ten: Practice—Read Aloud • Practice the following words in this book and in the accompanying CD and Speech Recognition • Read short passages of books and magazines to feel comfortable with your voice in English.

Step Nine: Test Your Progress

Now it’s time to see how far we have come. Take the following tests again. Do not check the answers in the back beforehand. Compare your results from the first test. I am sure that if you have followed the preceding chapters you will find dramatic improvement. If you still need to improve some area, go back and practice those units. Also continue to Vowels i ɪ e æ ɑ ɒ ɔ ʊ u ʌ 3 ə eɪ Keyword key pit pet pat hard pot raw put coo hut cur bay Transcribed ki pɪt pet pæt hɑd pɒt rɔ pʊt ku hʌt k3 beɪ 11

Step One: Test Your Pronunciation The chart below covers all of the consonants and vowels in English. For really a really accurate description of the words, a special alphabet called the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is used. Consonants Keyword Transcribed p pea pi b t d k g f v Ɵ ð s z ʃ bee toe doe cap get fat vet thin then sack zoo ship bi təʊ dəʊ kæp get fæt vet Ɵɪn ðen sæk zu ʃɪp

about/mother əbaʊt/mʌðə

© 2002 Steven Donahue aɪ ɔɪ əʊ aʊ ɪə eə ʊə buy boy go cow peer pair poor baɪ bɔɪ gəʊ kaʊ pɪə peə pʊə ʒ h m n ŋ l r j w ʧ ʤ LISTEN AND SELECT THE THE WORD OR PHRASE YOU HEAR: measure hide man no sing lie red year wet chin judge 21. load 22. lock A 23. i 24. pit 25. knit 26. mitt 27. sit 28. ill 29. bill 30. fill 31. will 32. hill 33. did A 34. b 35. base 36. berry 37. boat 38. bolt 39. best 40. beer 41. bent 42. bat 43. ban 44. curb A meʒə haɪd mæn nəʊ sɪŋ laɪ red jɪə wet ʧɪn DeD road rock B e pet net met set L bell fell well hell deal B v vase very vote volt vest veer vent vat van curve B

A 1. i: 2. eat 3. neat 4. beat 5. seat 6. eel 7. heel 8. green 9. teen 10. reach 11. sheep A 12. l 13. light 14. lice 15. lot 16. low 17. long 18. lead 19. led 20. lung

B i it knit bit sit ill hill grin tin rich ship B r right rice rot row wrong read red rung

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© 2002 Steven Donahue 45. e 46. bet 47. met 48. set 49. Ben 50. Ken 51. den 52. bed 53. head 54. said 55. leg A 56. h 57. hall 58. honey 59. heat 60. hold 61. hollow 62. hear 63. hit 64. hill 65. hell 66. hat A 67. ae 68. cat 69. hat 70. pat 71. rat 72. cap 73. map 74. mass 75. math 76. band 77. lack A 78. s 79. sink 80. sank 81. sing 82. some 83. sick 84. sin ae bat mat sat ban can Dan bad had sad lag B f fall funny feet fold follow fear fit fill fell fat B a cot hot pot rot cop mop moss moth bond lock B th think thank thing thumb thick thin

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© 2002 Steven Donahue

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© 2002 Steven Donahue 85. use 86. mass 87. pass 88. worse A 89. ou 90. so 91. low 92. hole 93. bowl 94. coal 95. wrote 96. note 97. boat 98. coat 99. coast A 100.z/d 101.bays 102.sues 103.breeze 104.close 105.Z 106.den 107.dare 108.Dan 109.die A 110.o 111.cob 112.rob 113.sob 114.cop 115.pop 116.dock 117.lock 118.stock 119.not 120.won A 121.sh 122.ship 123.sheet youth math path worth B au/a: saw law hall ball call rot not bought caught cost B th bathe soothe breathe clothe thee then there than thy B u cub rub sub cup pup duck luck stuck nut one B s sip seat 124.she 125.shed 126.shelf 127.shell 128.shingle 129.shit 130.show 131.leash 132.fished sea,see said self sell single sit sew lease fist

Test 2: Pronounce these words and phrases while a native speaker of English or your teacher listens and marks your mistakes. Vowel Inventory [ i ] 1. We see people and speak to bees. [ I ] 2. Juan sit. [ ey ] 3. to pray. It hit the mitt a bit and made Obey and pay is a great way

[ E ] 4. They led the dead leopard to the egg. [ { ] 5. a crash. [ a ] 6. spa. [ aI ] eye. 7. The trash made a splash and Father had a massage at the Try a diamond in your How does an owl sit on

[ aw ] 8. a bough?

[ @ ] 9. The balloon on the sofa is from Africa. 15

© 2002 Steven Donahue

[ @r ] 10. That person went early to church. [ OI ] oyster. [ O ] ball. [ ow ] toe? 11. The boy found oil in the

[ T ] 11. She has thin youthful teeth. [D ] 12. This father can bathe.

[ s ] 13. See the thirsty mice. 12. You ought to draw the 13. Do you own your old [Z ] 16. The gendarme had the usual cortege. She threw the shampoo in [tS ] 17. Choose a mixture each. 18. Jane is at a fragile age. 19. Did he have a mishap? [ dZ ] [ h ] Consonant Inventory [ z ] 14. Zen is not lazy jazz.

[ S ] 15. Shout to the ocean a wish.

[u ] 14. the zoo. [U ] bush.

15. I mistook the book in the

[l ] [ r ]

1. A little old lady. 2. Robert borrowed a car.

[ y ] 20. The groom said yes in the churchyard. [ w ] sweep? 21. Which witch is going to

[p ] 3. The pet was chirping on the rope. [b ] rib. [t ] hurt. [d ] hard. [k ] [ g ] [f ] roof. [v ] 4. He bit the robber on the

[ m ] 22. Mom had a bamboo stem. [ n ] gun. [Î ] 23. Nancy gave money for a 24. That’s a strong song.

5. The teen was bitter and 6. The dean was sudden and 7. Keep the walker in Texas.

PLURALS Place your papers, pens and books on the desks. PAST TENSE The teacher watched the students, answered a question, and laughed. INTONATION

8. Don’t give yoga to a dog. 9. Phone the surfer on the 10. Vanish forever and live.

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© 2002 Steven Donahue What time is it? Is it raining? His English is better than mine. We have pens, pencils, and paper. COMMENTS: A TEAR SORE RAT DEER JEER CAR TEA HIGH BUY A ARM R B CHAIR CHORE RASH TEAR CHEER TAR TEAM HIDE BIKE HAY FARM CAR C TEASE SUM OUT DIE JOKE CORE TIE SEE SEW E EEL ART SHARE SELL SORE EYE APE HALL HIT HEAD SOUP LOW D CHEESE CHUM OUCH TIE CHOKE TORE TIDE SEAT SOAP HE FEEL CART AIR L FOUR TIE TAPE TALL FIT SHED HOOP SEW

Test 3: Circle the word you hear while a native speaker of English or your teacher says them aloud.

1 STOPS VS AFFRICATES SIWI 2 FRICATIVES VS AFFRICATES SIWI STOPS VS FRICATIVES 3 AFFRICATES SFWF VOICED VS VOICELESS ALVEOLAR 4 STOPS SIWI /D/VS/T/ VOICED VS VOICELESS 5 AFFRICATES SIWI VOICELESS VELARS VS 6 ALVEOLARS SIWI:/K/VS/T/ 7 FINAL CONSONANT INCLUSION 8 FINAL CONSONANT INCLUSION 9 FINAL CONSONANT INCLUSION 1 0 INITIAL GLOTTAL INCLUSION: /H/ 11 INITIAL FRICATIVE INCLUSION: /F/ 1 2 INITIAL VELAR INCLUSION: /K/ 1 3 INIT CONSONANT INCLUSION 'SH' 1 4 INIT CONSONANT INCLUSION /S/ 1 5 FRICATIVE CONTRASTS SORT 1 6 INITIAL ALVEOLAR INCLUSION /T/ 1 7 INITIAL CONSONANT INCLUSION 1 GLOTTAL FRIC VS 8 ALVEOLARSTOPSIWI/H/VS/T/ 1 GLOTTAL VS LABIO-DENTAL 9 FRICATIVESIWI:/H/VS/F/ 2 GLOTTAL VS PALATO-ALVEOLAR 0 FRICATIVESIWI 2 GLOTTAL VS ALVEOLAR 1 FRICATIVESIWI:/H/VS/S/ 2 LIQUID VS FRICATIVE SIWI/L/VS/S/

SHOWER HOUR SEAL FORT IN US HOP HAT HALL SAUCE LINE 17 EEL SHORT TIN BUS TOP FAT SHAWL HORSE SIGN

© 2002 Steven Donahue 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9 3 0 3 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 6 3 7 3 8 3 9 4 0 4 1 4 2 4 3 4 4

LIQUIDS VS GLIDES SIWI/R/VS/W/ FRICATIVES VS GLIDES SIWI/F/VS/W/ FRICATIVES VS GLIDES SIWI/V/VS/W/ PALATO-ALVEOLAR FRICATIVE VS AFFRICATESSFWF PALATO-ALVEOLAR FRICATIVE VS AFFRICATESSIWI LIQUIDS VS ALVEOLARS SIWI:/L/VS/D/ NASALS VS LIQUIDS SIWI/N/VS/L/ LABIO-DENTAL FRICATIVES VS STOPSSIWI:/F/VS/D/ ALVEOLAR VS PALATO-ALVEOLAR FRICATIVESSIWI ALVEOLAR VS LABIO-DENTAL FRICATIVESSIWI:/S/VS/F/ ALVEOLAR VS LABIO-DENTAL FRICATIVESSIWI:/S/VS/F/ /N/ VS 'SH' SIWI /W/ VS /L/ SIWI /W/ VS /L/ SIWI ALVEOLAR VS PALATO-ALVEOLAR FRICATIVESSIWI /N/ VS /S/ SIWI /N/ VS 'NG' SFWF 'TH' VS /F/ SIWI /V/ VS /B/ SIWI /L/ VS /J/ SIWI /P/ VS /SP/ PIE /S/ VS /SL/ LEAP

ONE FEEL VEST MASH SHOPS LOTS KNEAD FILE SUIT SOLD SUN GNAW WOK WHY SIGN GNAW RON THIN VASE LAWN SPY SLEEP 18

RUN WHEEL WEST MATCH CHOPS DOTS LEAD DIAL SHOOT FOLD FUN SHORE LOCK LIE SHINE SAW WRONG FIN BARS YAWN PEACH LIP

WIG FIG VEIL DISH SHOES LOG NIP FISH SOCK SAUCE SEED KNEE WINE WAKE SEW NINE PIN THAW VEST LOU SPEECH SLIP

RIG WIG WHALE DITCH CHOOSE DOG LIP DISH SHOCK FORCE FEED SHE LINE LAKE SHOW SIGN PING FOUR BEST YOU POT LOW

© 2002 Steven Donahue 4 5 4 6 4 7 4 8 4 9 5 0 5 1 5 2 5 3 5 4 5 5 5 6 5 7 5 8 5 9 6 0 6 1

/S/ VS /SK/ SAILS /S/ VS /ST/ SICK /T/ VS /ST/ SIWI /T/ VS /ST/ SFWF /W/ VS /SW/ /K/ VS /SK/ /N/ VS /SN/ /M/ VS /SM/ /L/ CLUSTERS /R/ VS /TR/ /R/ CLUSTERS /SK/ VS /ST/ /K/ VS /G/ SIWI /D/ VS /T/ SFWF /K/ VS /G/ SFWF /P/ VS /B/ SFWF VOICING SFWF

SCALES STICK TAKE BEAT WING KEY NAIL MOG LIP RASH RAT SCOOP CAP CORD PECK CUP PEACH

SIP SACK STAKE BEAST SWING SKI SNAIL SMOG FLIP TRASH BRAT STOOP GAP

SKIP STACK TALK BERT WEEP CAT KNEES MASH LAP RAY RED

SEE SEAL STORK BURST SWEEP SCAT SNEEZE SMASH CLAP TRAY BREAD

SCHOOL STOOL GATE KATE BIRD BUG NIB VAN

CAUGHT BERT PEG CUB BEACH BUCK NIP FAN

Test 4: Say these words aloud while a native speaker of English or your teacher circles the incorrect pronuciations. Calculate your reading age afterwards. Schonell Reading Test Directions: Read the words left to right.
TREE BOOK LITTLE SCHOOL MILK SIT EGG FROG

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© 2002 Steven Donahue
PLAYING CLOCK THINK DREAM THIRSTY POSTAGE CEILING ATTRACTIVE SMOLDER DISEASED AUDIENCE CHOIR SIEGE COLONEL CLASSIFICATION CONSCIENCE ANTIQUE SCINTILLATE TERRESTRIAL STATISTICS EVANGELICAL PREFERENTIAL METAMORPHOSIS BUN TRAIN SUMMER DOWNSTAIRS CROWD ISLAND APPEARED IMAGINE APPLAUD UNIVERSITY SITUATED INTERCEDE RECENT SOLOIST GENUINE HEROIC SUSCEPTIBLE SATIRICAL BELLIGERENT MISCELLANEOUS GROTESQUE HOMONYM SOMNAMBULIST FLOWER LIGHT PEOPLE BISCUIT SANDWICH SAUCER GNOME NEPHEW DISPOSAL ORCHESTRA PHYSICS FASCINATE PLAUSIBLE SYSTEMATIC INSTITUTION PNEUMONIA ENIGMA SABRE ADAMANT PROCRASTINATE INERADICABLE FICTITIOUS BIBLIOGRAPHY ROAD PICTURE SOMETHING SHEPHERD BEGINNING ANGEL CANARY GRADUALLY NOURISHED KNOWLEDGE CAMPAIGN FORFEIT PROPHECY SLOVENLY PIVOT PRELIMINARY OBLIVION BEGUILE SEPULCHER TYRANNICAL JUDICATURE RESCIND IDIOSYNCRASY

DICTATION PRACTICE Reading age = ( (Number of words correct) / 10 ) + 5 CONSONANTS 1. Quiet 2. Chance 3. Icing 4. Icy 5. Germ 6. Giant 7. Gym 8. Ball 9. Off 10. Miss 11. Pack 12. Peck 13. Pick 14. Pock 15. Puck 16. Badge 17. Ledge 18. Ridge 19. Lodge 20. Fudge 21. Zoo 22. Excess 23. Happy 24. Ship 25. She 26. Wish 27. Friendship 28. Nation 29. Mansion 30. Facial 31. Session 32. Tension 33. Vision VOWELS 34. Paper

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© 2002 Steven Donahue 35. Begin 36. Open 37. Unit 38. Find 39. Old 40. Family 41. Bicycle 42. Piano 43. Baby 44. By 45. Final 46. Guy 47. Play 48. Works 49. Receipt 50. Veil 51. Neither 52. Foreign 53. Sovereign 54. Seized 55. Counterfeited 56. Leisure 57. Either 58. Weird 59. Heifer 60. Protein 61. Height 62. Feisty 63. Stein 64. Weir 65. Seismograph 66. Sheik 67. Kaleidoscope 68. Geiger counter 69. Time 70. Have 71. Value 72. Chance 73. Charge 74. Table 75. Are 76. Horse AFFIX 77. Almost 78. Until 79. Careful 80. Warmed 81. Baked 82. Graded 83. Cried 84. Crying 85. Safety 86. Shameless 87. Movement 88. Wisdom 89. Truly 90. Ninth 91. Timing 92. Hopping 93. Admitted 94. Reference 95. Conference 96. Unnecessary 97. Dissolve 98. Misspell PLURAL 99. Boys 100.Cages 101.Horses 102.Foxes 103.Bushes 104.Bosses 105.Monkeys 106.Puppies 107.Patios 108.Heroes 109.Pianos 110.Beliefs 111.Wolves 112.Wives 113.Cuts 114.Raises 115.Dresses 116.Fixes 117.Fizzes 118.Catches 119.Pushes 120.Plays 121.Carries 122.Goes SYLLABLES 123.Boat

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© 2002 Steven Donahue 124.Good 125.Knelt 126.Shotgun 127.Sunset 128.Airplane 129.Happy 130.Perhaps 131.Machine 132.Elephant 133.Rerun 134.Softness 135.Crying 136.Clever 137.Lemon 138.Robin 139.Music 140.Polite 141.Paper 142.Diet 143.Cruel 144.Disobey 145.Alive 146.Uniform 147.Turtle 148.Cable 149.Thistle CAPITAL & APOSTROPHE 150.Bill 151.New York 152.Sunday 153.July 154.Independence Day 155.It’s 156.She’s 157.Can’t 158.Boy’s 159.Boys’

47 SPELLING RULES: CONSONANT RULES: 1. The letter q is always followed by the letter u, and we say "kw." [quiet] 2. /c/ before e, i or y says ‘s.' [chance, icing, icy] 3. /g/ before e, i or y may say ‘j.' [germ, giant, gym] 4. We often double l, f and s following a single vowel at the end of a one-syllable word. [ball, off, miss] 5. Two-letter ‘k' (ck) is used only after a single vowel which says short ‘a' - ‘e' - ‘i' - ‘o' ‘u' [pack, peck, pick, pock, puck] 6. Three-letter j (dge) is used only after a single vowel which says short ‘a' - ‘e' - ‘i' - ‘o' ‘u' [badge, ledge, ridge, lodge, fudge] 7. The letter z, never s, is used to say ‘z' at the beginning of a base word. [zoo] 8. The letter s never follows x. 9. Double consonants within words of more than one syllable should both be sounded for spelling. [hap py] 10. s-h is used to say ‘sh' at the beginning of a word, at the end of a syllable, but not at the beginning of most syllables after the first one except for the ending ship. [she, wish, friendship] 11. t-i, s-i, and c-i are used to say ‘sh' at the beginning of any syllable after the first one. [nation, mansion, facial] 12. s-i is used to say ‘sh' when the syllable before it [session] or the base word ends in an -s [tense/tension]; s-i can say its voiced ‘zh' sound when s is between two vowels. [vision]

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© 2002 Steven Donahue

VOWEL RULES: 13. Vowels a, e, o, u usually say long ‘a' - ‘e' - ‘o' - ‘u' at the end of a syllable. [pa per, be gin, o pen, u nit] 14. Vowels i and o may say long ‘i' and ‘o' when followed by two consonants. [find, old] 15. Vowels i and y may say ‘i' at the end of a syllable [fam i ly, bi cy cle], but usually say ‘i' or ‘e' [pi an o, ba by, by, fi nal] 16. Vowel y, not i, is used at the end of English words. [by, guy] 17. Base words do not end with the letter a saying long ‘a' (except for the article a); a-y is used most often. [play] 18. o-r may say ‘er' when w comes before the o-r. [works] 19. We use ei after c [receipt], if we say long a [veil], and in some exceptions. [neither, foreign, sovereign, seized, counterfeit, forfeited, leisure, either, weird, heifer, protein, height, feisty, stein, weir, seismograph, sheik, kaleidoscope, Geiger counter, etc.] This is not an exhaustive list of exceptions. 20. Silent final e's: A 1. Silent final e lets the vowel say its name. [time] B 2. English words do not end with v or u. [have, value] C 3. Silent final e lets c and g say their second sounds. [chance, charge] D 4. English syllables must have a written vowel. [ta ble] E 5. e [none of the above, e.g., are, horse] AFFIX RULES: 21. All, till and full are usually written with one l when added to another syllable. [almost, until, careful] 22. The past tense ending e-d says ‘d' or ‘t' after words that do not end with d or t [warmed, baked]; otherwise e-d forms a second syllable. [grad ed] 23. Final y is changed to i before a suffix that does not begin with i. [cry, cried, cry ing] 24. When adding a consonant suffix, silent final e words usually keep the e [safe ty, shame less, move ment], but not always. [wis dom, tru ly, ninth] 25. When adding a vowel suffix, silent final e words are written without the e. [time, timing] 26. When adding a vowel suffix to a one-syllable word ending with one short vowel and one consonant [hop], double the final consonant. [hopping] 27.When adding a vowel suffix to a two-syllable word ending with one short vowel and one consonant, double the final consonant if the accent is on the last syllable [admit´, admitted] unless the suffix throws the accent back to the first syllable. [refer3, referred, ref´ er ence; confer´, conferred, con´ fer ence] 28. When prefixes dis, mis and un are added to root words beginning with the same letter with which the prefix ends, this letter will be doubled. [unnecessary, dissolve, misspell] : PLURAL RULES

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© 2002 Steven Donahue 29. The plural of most nouns is formed by adding s. [boys, cages, horses] 30. Nouns ending with the sounds of s, x, z, ch, sh or 'j' form their plurals by adding e-s. [fox es, bush es, boss es] 31. Nouns ending in y after a vowel form their plurals by adding s. [mon key/mon keys] 32. Nouns ending in y after a consonant form their plurals by changing y to i and adding e-s. [pup py/pup pies] 33. Nouns ending in o after a vowel form their plurals by adding s. [pa ti o / pa ti os] 34. Nouns ending in o after a consonant usually form their plurals by adding e-s [he ro/he roes] B except some musical terms. [pi an o/pi an os] 35. Most nouns ending in f and f-e form their plurals by adding s [belief / beliefs]; some change f to v and add e-s. [wolf /wolves, wife /wives] 35a. Most verbs form their third person, present, singular as if they were nouns becoming plurals. [cuts, raises, dresses, fixes, fizzes, catches, pushes, plays, carries, goes] SYLLABICATION RULES: 36. A one-syllable word is never divided. [boat, good, knelt] 37. A compound word is divided between the words that make the compound word. [shot gun, sun set, air plane] 38. Divide between two consonants [hap py, per haps] unless the consonants form a digraph and are sounded together. [ma chine, e le phant] 39. When a word has an affix, it is divided between the root and the affix. [re run, soft ness, cry ing] 40. When a single consonant comes between two vowels, it is usually divided after the consonant if the first vowel is short. [clev er, lem on, rob in] 41. When a single consonant comes between two vowels or vowel sounds, it is usually divided before the consonant if the first vowel is long. [mu sic, po lite, pa per] 42. Divide between two vowels when they are sounded separately. [di et, cru el] 43. Vowels that are sounded alone form their own syllable. [dis o bey, a live, u ni form] 44. When a word ends in l-e preceded by a consonant, divide before the consonant. [tur tle, ca ble, this tle] CAPITAL LETTER & APOSTROPHE RULES: 45. Capitalize words which are the individual names or titles of people, of places, of books, of days and months, etc. [Bill, Chief Sitting Bull, New York, Amazon River, Call of the Wild, Sunday, June] 46. An apostrophe takes the place of missing letters in a contraction. [it is/it's; she is/she's; cannot/can't] 47. An apostrophe shows ownership or possession [Mary's coat, boys' coats], but is never used with any possessive pronouns. [my, mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs, its, whose]

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© 2002 Steven Donahue

Step Two: Identify Accent Interference. Find your first language below and see the types of language interference common for it.

Arabic
1. 1 . The R is formed in the front of the mouth, and it is trilled or rolled. 2. The aspirated P as in put does not exist. The sound will resemble a B sound. Paper > baber. 3. The TH sound does not exist in Arabic. 4. Voiceless initial TH will be replaced with S. thin > sin. 5. Voiced initial TH will be replaced with Z or D. that > zat or dat. 6. The aspirated T will sound more like D. too > doo. 7. CH does not exist. It is replaced by SH. cheep > sheep. 8. There is no hard G as in go. The G is always soft as in gentle. 9. The short vowel sounds can cause difficulties for the ESL learner.

Czech
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. W is replaced with a V sound. want > vant Y, when used as a vowel, is a long "E" sound. symbol > seembol J is a Y sound. January > Yanuary The TH sound does not exist. Voiceless initial TH becomes T. think > tink Voiced initial Th becomes D. these > dese Voiceless final TH becomes F, S, or T. with > %if, @s, or wit Voiced middle TH becomes D. mother > modder Final G is replaced by K. pig > pik

10. Final D is replaced by T. bad > bat

Chinese
1 . Consonant clusters are rare in Chinese. Since English has many of them, this can create pronunciation problems for the ESL student. 2. The TH sound does not exist. 3. Voiceless TH will be replaced by T or F. think > tink or fink 4. Voiced TH will be replaced by D or V. that > dat or vat 5 . The L and R sounds are difficult to produce since students cannot distinguish the difference between the two sounds. Some will always use "R" for both sounds, while others will always use "L." glass > grass or grass > glass blew > brew or brew > blew 6. In the initial position a sound resembling L will usually replace an R. road > load 7. Chinese has no Z sound. It is replaced with SH or S. zip > ship or sip

Croatia
1 . Voiced and voiceless TH do not exist. Students will tend to pronounce these sounds as D or T. both > bod or hot; these > dese or tese

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© 2002 Steven Donahue 2. The short English vowel sounds are very difficult. Generally, the student tends not to hear the slight variations in these sounds. 3. The letter R is rolled. 4. The letter W does not exist. It is replaced by V or F. want > vant or fant 5. In many cases V > B, C > S, and X > H. vat > bat; cold > sold; Texas > Tehas

Farsi
1. Farsi lacks some of the letters/sounds that occur in the English alphabet. They include 0, Q, U, W, and X. This can cause much difficulty in pronunciation. 2. Initial voiceless Th becomes T or S. think > tink or sink 3. The sound W is replaced by V. want > vant 4. Final D becomes T. bad > bat 5. Initial G may be replaced by C. goat > coat 6. Short vowels will be difficult.

French
1. The Th sound does not occur in French. a. Voiceless initial TH becomes S. think > sink b. Voiced initial TH becomes Z. them > zem 2. The CH sound does not occur in French. It is replaced with SH. cheek > sheek 3 . The sound of J as in "jeep" does not occur in French. It has the sound of "rouge". 4. The R sound is difficult. Many French speakers substitute the R made at the back of the throat - a "growled" sound. Some will substitute the trilled R. 5. ING as in "ring" does not occur. Ring may become fin. 6. Final S is not pronounced, and final T after a vowel is also not pronounced. 7. P, T, and K are not aspirated. They sound more like B, D, and G respectively. cap > cab; bat > bad; back > bag

German
1. Voiceless initial TH will usually be replaced by S. think > sink 2. Voiced initial TH will usually be replaced by Z. that > zat 3. W has the sound of V in German. want > vant 4. The letter S is difficult for Germans. 5. S before a vowel becomes Z. so > zo 6. S followed by P, T, or L becomes SH. spell > shpell; step > shtep; sleep > shleep 7. When B, D, or G occur at the end of an English word, the ESL student will usually use P, T, or K respectively. cab > cap; bad > bat; bag > back 8. The R sound can be difficult. In German, the R is made at the back of the throat and has a "growled" sound.

Ghana
1. /?/ is sometimes pronounced /a/ as in "cupboard" for instance; consonants clusters might be dropped after long vowels, e.g.: "past" pronounced almost the same way as "pass" 2. Use of plural morpheme with uncountable nouns, e.g.:" many damages"

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© 2002 Steven Donahue 3. Semantic extension, e.g.: " sorry" to express one's compassion to other people, e.g.: Sorry for your daughter's misfortune. 4. Local borrowing: "chewing stick" for a fresh twig chewed for cleaning the teeth; "herbalist" for traditional doctor, especially those endowed with magical power , "high life" for a special Ghanaian dance and music in the then newly independent Ghanaian society. Today, coping with modern technology, a cell-phone is called in Ghana: "I'm-on-the-way!"

Hong Kong
1. Voiceless TH will be replaced by T or F. think > tink or fink, 2. Voiced TH will be replaced by D or V. that > dat or vat 3. L and R sounds are difficult to pronounce, students cannot distinguish the difference between the two sounds. Some will always use "R" for both sounds, while others will always use "L." glass > grass or grass > glass blew > brew or brew > blew; in the initial position a sound resembling L will usually replace an R. road > load 4. Chinese has no Z sound; it is replaced with SH or S. zip > ship or sip 5. Words and phrases from Chinese: dim sum (snacks served in Chinese restaurants), gweilo ("ghost person", a European man) 6. Loan translations from Chinese: dragon boat(a long canoe-like boat raced at festivals) 7. Terms from other languages: amah (Portuguese: a maid) 8. local uses of general words: triad (a secret criminal society)

Hmong
1. Initial B and P have the same sound. bad > bad; pad > bad 2. The TH sound causes difficulty. 3.. Initial voiceless TH becomes T. think > tink 4.. Initial voiced TH becomes D. that > dat 5. The sound of T in the middle of a word will become D. better > bedder 6. The consonants P, T, and K in the final position are replaced with B, D, and G respectively, and become voiced. hip > bib; hit > hid; sick > sig

Hungarian
1. Some Hungarian vowel sounds have no English equivalents. 2. There is no sound for W in Hungarian. It is replaced with a V sound. want > vant 3. The letter J has a Y sound. January > Yanuary 4. The TH sound causes difficulty in Hungarian. 5. Voiceless initial TH becomes S or T. think > sink or tink 6. Voiced initial TH becomes Z or D. that > zat or dat 7. The letter R is trilled or rolled.

India
1. Voiced and voiceless TH becomes T. three > tree; think > tink 2. The sound P is replaced by B. pig > big 3. The sound W becomes V. want > vant 4. The sound CH becomes SH. cheep > sheep 5. Final consonants are often omitted, especially the G from NG. doing > doin

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© 2002 Steven Donahue 6. Short vowel sounds cause much difficulty, since the ESL student does not hear the slight variations. 7. The consonants F, Q, V, X, and Z do not exist as separate characters in the Hindi alphabet. 8. Indian English is rhotic, /r/ being pronounced in all positions 9. weak vowels are pronounced as full vowels in such words as photography and student 10. word stress is used primarily for emphasis and suffixes are stressed 11. voiced and voiceless TH becomes T: three > tree; think > tink 12. Voiced and voiceless TH becomes T. three > tree; think > tink 13. the sound P is replaced by B. pig > big 14. the sound W becomes V. want > vant 15. CH becomes SH. cheep > sheep 16. Final consonants are often omitted, especially the G from NG. doing > doin 17. Distinct kinds of pronunciation lead to different kinds of IndE: Bengalis using /b/ for /v/, making bowel and vowel homophones. 18. Interrogative constructions without subject/auxiliary inversion: What you would like to buy? 19. One used rather than the indefinite article: He gave me one book. 20. Stative verbs given progressive forms: She is having two books. 21. reduplication used for emphasis and to indicate a distributive meaning: He bought some small small things. 22. yes and no as question tags: He is coming, yes? 23. isn't it? as a generalized question tag: They are coming tomorrow, isn't it? 24. reflexive pronouns and only used for emphasis: They live like that only.

Italy
1. /?/+/g/ instead of /?/ in words like sing. 2. TH, which is often pronounced /t/. 3. Schwa insertion after a /t/ in word-final position that gives an Italian’s English a very peculiar accent.

Japanese
1. The letter C may be pronounced as SH. cent > shent 2. The sound W is replaced by V. want > vant 3. Initial V becomes B. vine > bine 4. The TH sound does not occur in Japanese. 5. Initial voiceless TH becomes S. think > sink 6. Initial voiced TH becomes D. these > dese 7. Final TH becomes S. with > wis 8. The L sound is usually replaced by an R type sound. led > red

Korean
1. The TH sound does not occur in Korean. 2. Initial TH becomes D. think > dink; that > dat 3. Final voiceless TH is replaced with S. with > wis 4. Final voiced TH becomes D. smooth > smood 5. The sound L is usually replaced with an R sound. led > red 28

© 2002 Steven Donahue 6. The sound B becomes V. bat > vat 7. The J sound becomes a Z sound. jeep > zeep 8. The H or WH sounds become an F sound. held > feld; white > fight

Nigeria
1. Long vowels or diphthongs are shorter.(e.g.: car /kar/ instead of /ka:r/). 2. Local words (borrowings: e.g. "Na wa!" An interjection used to express positive feelings. Its meaning depends strongly on context of use and speaker's intonation; e.g.: Na wa for you, that you got that scholarship!) 3. Some initial English expression which went through semantic extension; e.g.: How far or how bodi? (from the human body!) to mean How are you/ How are you feeling?

Norway
1. /z/, which does not exist in Norwegian. For this reason, some Norwegians have difficulties pronouncing words with voiced s and use unvoiced s. 2. Long o is normally pronounced /u:/ in Norwegian, while long u becomes /y:/. “Pool” might be heard like /py:l/ in a Norwegians English.

Polish
1. In the initial position, the letter J will always sound like a Y. January > Yanuary 2. There is no TH sound in Polish. 3. Initial voiceless TH can become T or F. three > tree or free 4. Initial voiced TH usually becomes D. that > dat 5. Final TH can be replaced by S or T. with > wis or wit 6. The letter W becomes V, want > vant

Portuguese
1. CH will sound like SH. cheep > sheep 2. The letter H is never pronounced. 3. Since Portuguese has many nasal sounds, this may cause the ESL student some problems in pronunciation.

Russian
1. English short vowel sounds are very difficult. 2. There is no TH sound in Russian. 3. Voiceless initial TH becomes S. think > sink 4. Voiced initial TH becomes Z. that > zat 5. Voiceless final TH becomes F, S, Z, or T. with > wif, wis, wiz, wit 6. Middle TH becomes Z. father > fazer 7. There is no W sound in Russian. It is replaced by the V sound. want > vant 8. The letter R is rolled or "growled" at the back of the throat. 9. A hard G sound replaces the letter H in foreign words. Ohio > Ogio

Sierra Leone
1. Long and short vowels: e.g.: words like lean, speak, east, beast are all produced with the same sound /i/, as well as the pairs sleep-slip, beatbit; " 2. "Past" is rather pronounced /pass/.

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© 2002 Steven Donahue 3. /? / is realised in various ways, mostly as the sound is written: e.g.: as [o] in "mother", as [u] in "us", "but", "bus" 4. Ends of word are hardly produced: "old" as /o:l/, find as /fain/. 5. The personal pronoun "yu" for you; e.g.: Yu no fo se(as for meaning: you know). A typical Krio expression is: Aw di wok? (How is it going?)

Singapore
1. Equal stress on all syllables 2. Intonation has many short tone groups-there is no contrastive stress 3. final consonants are often unreleased, resulting in glottal stops /hi/ for hit 4. final consonant clusters are generally reduced to one spoken consonant: 'juss' for just, 'slep'/'sle' for slept 5. vowels in words like 'take', 'so' and 'dare' are often monophthongs 6. Tendency to omit articles 7. The present-tense inflection -s/ 8. The plural inflection -s/ 9. The past-tense inflection -ed,-t/ 10. Word Order: You have pen or not?/I got three sister./She come from China. 11. 'Already' is used as a marker of completive aspect 12. 'Use to' occurs as a marker of habitual aspect: She use to go to the market. (She goes to the market.) 13. 'Would' is used for future events 14. Direct/indirect objects are preposed: This book we don't have. 15. There is a preference for 'also' over 'too' 16. Chinese particles, such as lah and aa, are a common means of conveying emphasis and emotion: You wait me, aa? (Will you wait for me?) 17. Words borrowed from regional languages: makan (food).-non-English interjections: ay yaah! (suggest exasperation), che! (express irritation or regret)

South Africa
1. Tendency to raise vowels such as "a, e, ä" so as to get /de'de/ for daddy. 2. Stress of /r/ in clusters such as /kr, gr,tr, dr/

Spanish
1. There are no voiceless consonant blends beginning with "S"; consequently, an "e" sound will precede these blends. street > estreet, school > eschool 2. There is no SH sound. It becomes CH. shoe > choe 3. The letters R and RR are formed in the front of the mouth and are trilled. 4. The letter H has no sound. The letter J always carries the H sound as does G before the vowels E or I. 5. The sound TH exists in Spanish, but the letters TH are never used together. D will have the TH sound wherever possible in a Spanish sentence. In Spanish, Z and C (before E or I ) carry the sound TH. 6. In many cases V will sound like a soft B sound. have> hab

Tagalog
1. The letter V has a B sound. vest > best; vat > bat

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© 2002 Steven Donahue 2. The letter J has a Y sound. jam > yam 3. S and Z have the S sound. zip > sip; zebra > sebra 4. All words ending in TAIN have the same sound as the ending of the word "maintain." fountain > fountain 5. The TH sound is difficult. 6. Voiceless initial TH sounds like T. think > tink 7. Voiced initial TH sounds like D. these > dese 8. Final TH sounds like T. tooth > toot 9. The letter F has a P sound. fan > pan

Thai
1. Voiced final consonants in English are omitted. 2. Multiple final consonant clusters are impossible. 3. Voiceless consonant blends at the beginning of English words are difficult. ESL students will tend to voice them. stop > sadop; spend > sabend 4. The TH sound does not exist in the Thai language. 5. Voiceless initial TH becomes T. three > tree 6. Voiced initial TH becomes D. that > dat 7. Voiceless final TH becomes T. with > wit 8. The letter V has a W sound. visit > wisit 9. The letters R and L are interchanged because they sound the same. free > flee; fly > fry 10. CH sounds like SH. cheep > sheep

Turkish
1. There are no initial consonant clusters in Turkish. 1. Insert a vowel before or after the S. store > istore or sitore 2. The TH sound does not occur in Turkish. 3. Voiceless initial TH becomes S or T. thin > sin or tin 4. Voiced TH becomes Z or D. that > zat or dat 3. The letters V and W are confusing. V is especially difficult to produce before vowels. 4. W is replaced by oo as in noon. white > ooite 5. Words ending in B, D, or G will be substituted with P, T, or K respectively. nab > nap; lid > lit; pig > pik 6. Where P, T, or K occur in the middle of a word, B, D, or G will be substituted. dipper > dibber; butter > budder; bicker > bigger

Vietnamese
1. Pronunciation may be choppy for ESL students because the English language has so many words of more than one syllable. 2. The TH sound is difficult. 3. Voiceless initial TH can become T or S. think > tink or sink 4. Voiced initial TH can become Z. that > zat 5. CH has the Sh sound. cheep > sheep 6. The L can have the sound of R. load > road 7. The letter D is confusing. It may be replaced by J, Y, or Z. dig > zig; jig > yig or zig 31

© 2002 Steven Donahue

Step Three: Master English Consonants CONSONANTS 1. /p/ This consonant is a voiceless stop. DIRECTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. Relax lower jaw Let tip of tongue rest behind lower teeth Close lips firmly against each other so as to stop air from leaving mouth Quickly release build up of pressure.

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© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS WORD pea reaper peep pit lippy rip poise opal cowpoke PHONETIC SPELLING p}iy riyp@r p}iyp p}It lIpiy rIp p}Oyz owp}@l kawpowk

COMPARISONS /p/ pea reaper peep pit lippy rip poise opal cowpoke Phonetic p}iy riyp@r p}iyp p}It lIpiy rIp p}Oyz owp}@l kawpowk 2. /b/ /b/ bee Reba plebe bit Libby rib boys global cowboy Phonetic biy riyb@ pliyb bIt lIbiy rIb bOyz glowb@l kawbOy

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© 2002 Steven Donahue This consonant is a voiced stop. DIRECTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Relax lower jaw Let tip of tongue rest behind lower teeth Close lips firmly against each other so as to stop air from leaving mouth Quickly release build up of pressure Vibrate vocal chords

WORDS WORD bee Reba plebe bit Libby 34 PHONETIC SPELLING biy riyb@ pliyb bIt lIbiy

© 2002 Steven Donahue rib boys global cowboy COMPARISONS /p/ pea reaper peep pit lippy rip poise opal cowpoke Phonetic p}iy riyp@r p}iyp p}It lIpiy rIp p}Oyz owp}@l kawpowk /b/ bee Reba plebe bit Libby rib boys global cowboy Phonetic biy riyb@ pliyb bIt lIbiy rIb bOyz glowb@l kawbOy rIb bOyz glowb@l kawbOy

3. This consonant is a voiceless stop. DIRECTIONS:

/t/

1. Relax lower jaw 2. Let tip press firmly against upper gum ridge, behind the front teeth. 3. Quickly drop the tongue as the air is expelled.

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© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS WORD teen till tents heating bitter renting beat sit set COMPARISONS /t/ teen till tents heating bitter renting beat sit set Phonetic tiyn tIl tEnts hiytIÎ bIt@r rEntIÎ biyt sIt sEt /d/ dean dill dents heeding bidder rending bead Sid said Phonetic diyn dIl dEnts hiydIÎ bId@r rEndIÎ biyd sId sEd PHONETIC SPELLING tiyn tIl tEnts hiytIÎ bIt@r rEntIÎ biyt sIt sEt

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© 2002 Steven Donahue

63. This consonant is a voiced stop. DIRECTIONS:

/d/

1. Relax lower jaw 2. Let tip press firmly against upper gum ridge, behind the front teeth. 3. Quickly drop the tongue as the air is expelled. 4. Vibrate vocal chords.

WORDS WORD dean 37 PHONETIC SPELLING diyn

© 2002 Steven Donahue dill dents heeding bidder rending bead Sid said COMPARISONS /t/ teen till tents heating bitter renting beat sit set 64. /k/ Phonetic tiyn tIl tEnts hiytIÎ bIt@r rEntIÎ biyt sIt sEt /d/ dean dill dents heeding bidder rending bead Sid said Phonetic diyn dIl dEnts hiydIÎ bId@r rEndIÎ biyd sId sEd dIl dEnts hiydIÎ bId@r rEndIÎ biyd sId sEd

This consonant is a voiceless stop. DIRECTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Relax lower jaw Rest tongue lightly behind lower teeth Raise the back of the tongue toward the soft palate Stop the air flow Quickly drop the tongue as the air is expelled

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© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS WORD keys Meeker leek kilt wrecker back curl buck cod COMPARISONS /k/ keys Meeker Phonetic kiyz mIk@r 39 /g/ geezer meagre Phonetic giyz@r miyg@r PHONETIC SPELLING kiyz mIk@r liyk kIlt wrEk@r b{k k@rl b@k kad

© 2002 Steven Donahue leek kilt wrecker back curl buck cod liyk kIlt wrEk@r b{k k@rl b@k kad league guilt reggae bag girl bug God liyg gIlt rEgey b{g g@rl b@g gad

65.

/g/

This consonant is a voiced stop. DIRECTIONS: 1. Relax the lower jaw 2. Open the mouth slightly. 3. Raise the back of the tongue towards the roof of the mouth 4. Stop the air stream 5. Quickly drop the tongue and release the air. 6. Vibrate the vocal chords.

WORDS WORD geezer meagre league guilt reggae bag 40 PHONETIC SPELLING giyz@r miyg@r liyg gIlt rEgey b{g

© 2002 Steven Donahue girl bug God COMPARISONS /k/ keys Meeker leek kilt wrecker back curl buck cod 66. /T/ Phonetic kiyz mIk@r liyk kIlt wrEk@r b{k k@rl b@k kad /g/ geezer meagre league guilt reggae bag girl bug God Phonetic giyz@r miyg@r liyg gIlt rEgey b{g g@rl b@g gad g@rl b@g gad

This consonant is a voiceless interdental fricative. DIRECTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. Relax lower jaw Let tip of tongue rest between the upper and lower teeth. Keep the tongue in contact with the upper molars. Direct air over the tongue and under the top teeth.

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© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS WORD theme arithmetic pith thatch catheter bath thigh oath’s thousand COMPARISONS /T/ theme arithmetic teeth thatch catheter bath thigh oath’s thousand Phonetic Tiym @rITm@tIk tiyT T{T k{T@t@r b{T Tay owTs TowZ@nd /D/ thee rhythm teethe that gather bathe thy oaths thou Phonetic Diy rIDIm tiyD D{t g{D@r beyD Day owDz Daw PHONETIC SPELLING Tiym @rITm@tIk pIT T{T k{T@t@r b{T Tay owTs TowZ@nd

67.

/D/

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© 2002 Steven Donahue

This consonant is a voiced interdental fricative. DIRECTIONS: 1. Relax lower jaw 2. Let tip of tongue rest between the upper and lower teeth. 3. Keep the tongue in contact with the upper molars. 4. Direct air over the tongue and under the top teeth. 5. Vibrate the vocal chords.

WORDS WORD bee Reba plebe bit Libby 43 PHONETIC SPELLING biy riyb@ pliyb bIt lIbiy

© 2002 Steven Donahue rib boys global cowboy COMPARISONS /p/ pea reaper peep pit lippy rip poise opal cowpoke Phonetic p}iy riyp@r p}iyp p}It lIpiy rIp p}Oyz owp}@l kawpowk /b/ bee Reba plebe bit Libby rib boys global cowboy Phonetic biy riyb@ pliyb bIt lIbiy rIb bOyz glowb@l kawbOy rIb bOyz glowb@l kawbOy

68.

/s/

This consonant is a voiceless sibilant. DIRECTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Keep the teeth close together Make the body of the tongue grooved Let the tip of the tongue be free and pointing toward the gum ridge. Sides of tongue may or may not touch sides of upper teeth. Do not vibrate vocal chords.

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© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS WORD see policing obese Sioux Macy rejoice moose bets sinks COMPARISONS /s/ see policing obese Phonetic siy p@liycIÎ owbiys /z/ Z pleasing bees Phonetic ziy pliyzIÎ biyz PHONETIC SPELLING siy p@liycIÎ owbiys suw meysiy r@DOyc muws bEts sI Îks

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© 2002 Steven Donahue Sioux Macy rejoice moose bets sinks suw meysiy r@DOyc muws bEts sI Îks zoo mazey joys moos beds sings zuw meyziy jOyz muwz bEdz sIÎz

69.

/z/

This consonant is a voiced stop. DIRECTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Keep the teeth close together Make the body of the tongue grooved Let the tip of the tongue be free and pointing toward the gum ridge. Sides of tongue may or may not touch sides of upper teeth. Vibrate vocal chords.

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© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS WORD Z pleasing bees zoo mazey joys moos beds sings COMPARISONS /z/ Z pleasing bees zoo mazey joys moos beds sings 70. /S/ Phonetic ziy pliyzIÎ biyz zuw meyziy jOyz muwz bEdz sIÎz /s/ see policing obese Sioux Macy rejoice moose bets sinks Phonetic siy p@liycIÎ owbiys suw meysiy r@DOyc muws bEts sI Îks PHONETIC SPELLING ziy pliyzIÎ biyz zuw meyziy jOyz muwz bEdz sIÎz

This consonant is a voiceless palato-alevolar fricative continuant. DIRECTIONS:

47

© 2002 Steven Donahue 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Relax lower jaw Raise tip and blade of tongue to gum ridge without touching it Touch sides of tongue to upper teeth. Arch front of tongue Direct breath over tip of tongue in a narrow stream Keep lips neutral Do not vibrate vocal chords.

WORDS WORD she shut shrew ocean Russia tissue essential racial fashion COMPARISONS 48 PHONETIC SPELLING Siy S@t Sruw owS@n r@S@ tISuw @sEnS@l reyS@l f{S@n

© 2002 Steven Donahue

/S/ she shut shrew ocean Russia tissue essential racial fashion 71. /Z/

Phonetic Siy S@t Sruw owS@n r@S@ tISuw @sEnS@l reyS@l f{S@n

/Z/ genre Zsa Zsa gendarme leisure vision regime prestige camouflage beige

Phonetic Zanrey ZaZa Zandarm liyZUr viyZ@n r@Ziym pr@stiyZ k{m@flaZ beyZ

This consonant is a voiced patato-alevolar fricative continuant. DIRECTIONS: 1. Relax lower jaw 2. Raise tip and blade of tongue to gum ridge without touching it 3. Touch sides of tongue to upper teeth. 4. Arch front of tongue 5. Direct breath over tip of tongue in a narrow stream 6. Keep lips neutral 7. Vibrate vocal chords.

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© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS WORD genre Zsa Zsa gendarme leisure vision regime prestige camouflage beige COMPARISONS /S/ she shut shrew ocean Russia tissue essential racial fashion 72. /h/ Phonetic Siy S@t Sruw owS@n r@S@ tISuw @sEnS@l reyS@l f{S@n /Z/ genre Zsa Zsa gendarme leisure vision regime prestige camouflage beige Phonetic Zanrey ZaZa Zandarm liyZUr viyZ@n r@Ziym pr@stiyZ k{m@flaZ beyZ PHONETIC SPELLING Zanrey ZaZa Zandarm liyZUr viyZ@n r@Ziym pr@stiyZ k{m@flaZ beyZ

This consonant is a voiceless glottal fricative consonant

50

© 2002 Steven Donahue DIRECTIONS 1. relax lower jaw 2. rest tongue behind lower teeth 3. emit a puff of air through mouth.

WORDS WORD he heavy hurry height huge whore Houston humid who PHONETIC SPELLING hiy hEviy h@riy hayt huwD hOr hyust@n hYumId huw

/h/ hair

Phonetic heyr 51

No “H” air

Phonetic eyr

© 2002 Steven Donahue heart hear hand inhibit prohibit historic hart hiyr h{nd InhIb@t prowhIb@t hIstOrIk art ear and inhibition prohibition prehistoric art iyr {nd In@bIS@n prow@bIS@n priyIstOrIk

73.

/y/

This consonant is a voiced palatal consonant glide. DIRECTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. Let lower jaw hang relaxed rest tip of tongue behind lower teeth. Arch front of tongue toward hard palate. As sound is produced, quickly drop tongue down.

52

© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS WORD yes yet yell yam you young yowl reuinion Dracula COMPARISONS PHONETIC SPELLING yEs yEt yEl y{m yuw y@® yawl riyuwny@n dr{kyul@

/y/ yes yet yell yam you young yowl reuinion Dracula

Phonetic yEs yEt yEl y{m yuw y@® yawl riyuwny@n dr{kyul@

/D/ jest jet gel jam Jew junk jowl rejuvenate tragic

Phonetic DEst DEt Del D{m Duw D@Îk wl r@Duwv@ne yt tr{DIk

53

© 2002 Steven Donahue 74. /w/

This consonant is a voiced bilabial consonant glide. DIRECTIONS: 1. Relax the lower jaw 2. Rest tongue behind lower teeth 3. Round lips 4. Arch back of tongue as for vowel sound /uw/ 5. Lips move to shape of following vowel (always followed by a vowel in English) 6. Vibrate vocal chords

WORDS WORD weed witch wig wit wither weather 54 PHONETIC SPELLING wiyd wIT wiyg wIt wID@r wED@r

© 2002 Steven Donahue wet wealth wend COMPARISONS w we’ll witch wit women worse weed wet why wile Phonetic wiyl wIT wIt wIm@n w@rs wiyd wEt way wayl ÷ wheel which whit whim when wheat whet whine while wEt wElT wEnd Phonetic ÷iyl ÷IT ÷It ÷Im ÷En ÷iyt ÷Et ÷ayn ÷ayl v veal vale vim vim verse Vedic vet vine vile Phonetic viyl veyl vIm vIm v@rs viydIk vEt vayn vayl

75.

/÷/

This consonant is a voiceless bilabial consonant glide.. DIRECTIONS: 1. 2. 4. 5. 6. Relax the lower jaw Rest tongue behind lower teeth Round lips Arch back of tongue as for vowel sound /uw/ Lips move to shape of following vowel (always followed by a vowel in English)

55

© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS WORD wheel which whit whim when wheat whet whine while COMPARISONS w Phonetic ÷ Phonetic v Phonetic PHONETIC SPELLING ÷iyl ÷IT ÷It ÷Im ÷En ÷iyt ÷Et ÷ayn ÷ayl

56

© 2002 Steven Donahue we’ll witch wit women worse weed wet why wile wiyl wIT wIt wIm@n w@rs wiyd wEt way wayl wheel which whit whim when wheat whet whine while ÷iyl ÷IT ÷It ÷Im ÷En ÷iyt ÷Et ÷ayn ÷ayl veal vale vim vim verse Vedic vet vine vile viyl veyl vIm vIm v@rs viydIk vEt vayn vayl

76.

/f /

This consonant is a voiceless labio-dental fricative continuant. DIRECTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. Let lower jaw hang relaxed. Touch tongue to back of lower teeth. Press lower lip to edges of upper lip. Force out air between teeth and lower lip.

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© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS WORD fees beefy sheaf fervor perfume fane focal fear fire us COMPARISONS f Phonetic fee fiy fat f{t fast f{st few fyuw coffee cafiy loaf lowf scarf skarf Sheaffer Sef@r woeful wowf@l v vee vat vast view covey loave carve shaver oval PHONETIC SPELLING fiyz biyfI Siyf f@rv@r p@rfyum feyn fowk@l fI@r fayr@s Phonetic viy v{t v{st vyuw k@viy lowv karv Seyv@r owv@l p pea pat past pew copy lope carp shaper opal Phonetic piy p{t p{st pyuw kapiy lowp karp Seyp@r owp@l

77.

/v/

This consonant is a voiced labio-dental fricative continuant.

58

© 2002 Steven Donahue DIRECTIONS: 1. Let lower jaw hang relaxed. 2. Touch tongue to back of lower teeth. 3. Press lower lip to edges of upper lip. 4. Force out air between teeth and lower lip. 5. Vibrate vocal chords.

WORDS WORD vee van voo vie veer have civility Venus strive PHONETIC SPELLING viy v{n vuw vay vI@r h{v s@vIl@tiy viyn@s strayv

59

© 2002 Steven Donahue COMPARISONS f fee fan few do fie fear half affinity feed us strife Phonetic fiy f{n fyuwduw fay fI@r h{f @fIn@tiy fiyd@s strayf v vee van voodoo vie veer have civility Venus strive Phonetic viy v{n vuwduw vay vI@r h{v s@vIl@tiy viyn@s strayv b bee ban boohoo buy beer rehab ability bean us tribe Phonetic biy b{n buwhuw bay bI@r riyh{b @bIl@tiy biyn@s trayb

78.

/m/

This consonant is a voiced bilabial nasal continuant consonant. DIRECTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Bring lips together gently. Relax lower jaw Relax tongue on floor of mouth Lower the soft palate Resonate through the nasal passage

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© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS

/m/ me match mud moo maul mob

Phonetic miy m{T m@d muw ma@l mab

/b/ bee batch bud boo bawl bob

Phonetic biy b{T b@d buw bawl bab

61

© 2002 Steven Donahue jamming cam tum D{mIÎ{ k{m t@m jabbing cab tub j{bIÎ k{b t@b

79.

/ n/

This consonant is a voiced alveolar continuant consonant sound. DIRECTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. Let lower jaw be relaxed. Relax and lower soft palate Touch tip of tongue to gum ridge Resonate vibrated breath through nasal passage

WORDS WORD nil nub neigh no runner raining seen den pane PHONETIC SPELLING nIl n@b ney now r@n@r reynIÎ siyn dEn peyn

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© 2002 Steven Donahue COMPARISONS /n/ nil nub neigh no runner raining seen den pane Phonetic nIl n@b ney now r@n@r reynIÎ siyn dEn peyn /d/ dill dub day doe rudder raiding seed dead paid Phonetic dIl d@b dey dow r@d@r reydIÎ siyd dEd peyd

80.

/l/

This consonant is a voiced alveolar lateral continuant. DIRECTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Relax the jaw Open the mouth Broaden the tongue Put the tip of the tongue on the gum ridge Let air pass over sides of tongue.

WORDS WORD lap 63 PHONETIC SPELLING l{p

© 2002 Steven Donahue leap lick loquacious low silly relish valley foliage COMPARISONS /l/ late cloud glue lime alive play blush fly glass Phonetic leyt klawd gluw laim @layv pley bl@S flay gl{s /r / rate crowd grew rhyme arrive pray brush fry grass Phonetic reyt krawd gruw raym @raiv prey br@S fray gr{s liyp lIk lowkweyS@s low sIliy rElIS v{liy fOylID

81.

/Î/

This consonant is a voiced velar nasal continuant. DIRECTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. Let lower jaw hang relaxed Lower soft palate Raise back of tongue as for sounds /k/ and /g/ Maintain contact while air resonates through nasal cavity

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© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS WORD English ping bing clung tongue length shrink precincts banks COMPARISONS /Î/ English ping bing clung tongue length shrink precincts banks 82. /T/ Phonetic IîlIS pIÎ bIÎ kl@Î t@Î leyÎT SrIÎk priysIÎks b{Îks /n/ nil nub neigh no runner raining seen den pane Phonetic nIl n@b ney now r@n@r reynIÎ siyn dEn peyn PHONETIC SPELLING IîlIS pIÎ bIÎ kl@Î t@Î leyÎT SrIÎk priysIÎks b{Îks

This consonant is a voiceless affricate. 65

© 2002 Steven Donahue

DIRECTIONS: 1. Let the lower jaw hang relaxed 2. Have the upper and lower teeth almost touch 3. Blend a quick /t/ sound followed by /S/ 4. Arch front of tongue 5. Direct breath over tip of tongue in a narrow stream 6. Protrude the lips slightly 7. Do not vibrate vocal chords.

WORDS WORD each rich wretch catch birch much blotch aitch PHONETIC SPELLING iyT rIT wrET k{T b@rT m@T blaT eyT

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© 2002 Steven Donahue coach COMPARISONS / T/ each rich wretch catch birch much blotch aitch coach 83. /D/ Phonetic iyT rIT wrET k{T b@rT m@T blaT eyT kowT /D/ siege ridge dredge cadge Burge smudge lodge age cogent Phonetic siyD rID drED c{D b@rD sm@D laD eyD kowD@nt kowT

This consonant is a voiced affricate. DIRECTIONS: 1. Let the lower jaw hang relaxed 2. Have the upper and lower teeth almost touch 3. Blend a quick /t/ sound followed by /S/ 4. Arch front of tongue 5. Direct breath over tip of tongue in a narrow stream 6. Protrude the lips slightly 7. Vibrate vocal chords.

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© 2002 Steven Donahue

WORDS WORD siege ridge dredge cadge Burge smudge lodge age cogent COMPARISONS /T/ each rich wretch catch birch much blotch aitch coach Phonetic iyT rIT wrET k{T b@rT m@T blaT eyT kowT / r/ /D/ siege ridge dredge cadge Burge smudge lodge age cogent Phonetic siyD rID drED c{D b@rD sm@D laD eyD kowD@nt PHONETIC SPELLING siyD rID drED c{D b@rD sm@D laD eyD kowD@nt

84.
DIRECTIONS:

" This consonant is a voiced post-alveolar fricative continuant.

68

© 2002 Steven Donahue METHOD I 1. Relax the jaw 2. Place tongue behind tongue ridge 3. Curl tip backwards METHOD II 1. Relax the jaw 2. Bunch back of tongue

69

WORDS WORD rate crowd grew rhyme arrive pray brush fry grass COMPARISONS /l/ late cloud glue lime alive play blush fly glass Phonetic leyt klawd gluw laim @layv pley bl@S flay gl{s /r/ rate crowd grew rhyme arrive pray brush fry grass Phonetic reyt krawd gruw raym @raiv prey br@S fray gr{s PHONETIC SPELLING reyt krawd gruw raym @raiv prey br@S fray gr{s

85.

/à /

This consonant is a voiced lateral continuant. It is called “dark l”. When /l/ follows a vowel, as in ball /baà/, the tongue has more contact with the upper teeth and has a different characteristic than intial /l/. DIRECTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Relax the jaw Open the mouth Broaden the tongue Put the tip of the tongue on the gum ridge slide the sides of the tongue back along the upper teeth. Let air pass over sides of tongue.

WORDS WORD eel meal we’ll he’ll ill pill Jill hell curl COMPARISONS /l / leaf leash lilly Phonetic liyf liyS lIliy /à/ eel meal we’ll Phonetic iyà miyà wiyà PHONETIC SPELLING iyà miyà wiyà hiyà Ià pIà D Ià hEà k@rà

little lisp lit limn lend ladle 86. /?/ This consonant is a glottal stop.

lit@à lIsp lIt lIm lEnd leyd@l

he’ll ill pill Jill hell curl

hiyà Ià pIà D Ià hEà k@rà

DIRECTIONS: 1. Tighten vocal cords 2. Close the glottis 3. Cut off the flow of air for an instant.

WORDS WORD oh oh! (dismay) kitten button uh-oh (trouble) sudden bidden uh-uh (no) PHONETIC SPELLING o?o kiy?@n b@?n ?@?ow s@?dn bI?dn ?@?@

COMPARISONS /?/ kitten button sudden bidden Phonetic kiy?@n b@?n s@?dn bI?dn /t/,/d/ kitten button sudden bidden Phonetic kIt@n b@t@n s@d@n bIdEn

87.

/Q/

This consonant is a flap or a tap.. DIRECTIONS: 1. Briefly touch the gum ridge with the tongue.

WORDS WORD data city party dirty catty ladder butter PHONETIC SPELLING deyQ@ cIQiy parQiy d@rQiy k{Qiy l{Q@r b@Q@r

COMPARISONS /?/ dirty catty ladder butter Phonetic d@rQiy k{Qiy l{Q@r b@Q@r /t/,/d/ dirty catty ladder butter Phonetic d@rtiy k{tiy l{d@r b@t@r

88.

/ t/ /n/ /d/ /l/

These consonants are syllabic consonants. They function as a syllable without an accompanying vowel. They occur when a syllable ends in /t/,/d/,/n/, or/l/ and the next syllable is unstressed and contains an /l/ or /n/. DIRECTIONS: 1. Bring tongue in contact with gum ridge 2. Force the tongue to remain in contact 3. Make the following /l/ or /n/ sound.

" "

" "

. WORDS WORD little sudden saddle cotton kettle tunnel PHONETIC SPELLING lItl s@dn s{dl katn kEQl t@nl

shouldn’t

SUdnt

COMPARISONS /?/ kitten button sudden bidden Phonetic kiy?@n b@?n s@?dn bI?dn /t/,/d/ kitten button sudden bidden Phonetic kIt@n b@t@n s@d@n bIdEn

89. / t9/ /d/ These consonants are dentalized consonants. They are formed when /t/ or /d/ are produced with the tongue resting on the back of the front upper teeth rather than on the alveolar ridge (gum ridge).

9 9

WORD teen till tents heating bitter renting beat sit set

PHONETIC SPELLING tiyn tIl tEnts hiytIÎ bIt@r rEntIÎ biyt sIt sEt

WORD dean dill dents heeding bidder rending bead Sid said

PHONETIC SPELLING diyn dIl dEnts hiydIÎ bId@r rEndIÎ biyd sId sEd

Vowels

VOWELS Vowels are produced by the continual vibration of the vocal cords. The air is allowed to escape the mouth without interruption. 44. /iy/ This is the highest front vowel in English. DIRECTIONS 1. Press the sides of the tongue against the upper bicuspid (two-pointed) teeth and the roof of the mouth. 2. You may press the tip of the tongue against the cutting edge of the lower front teeth. 3. The upper and lower teeth almost touch. 4. The lips spread, almost in a tight smile. 5. Air escapes between the narrow opening of the tongue and front teeth. 6. The muscle under your jaw is somewhat tight.

COMPARISON /iy/ deed teams keen green glean clean demeaned leave bean Phonetic diyd tiymz kiyn griyn gliyn kliyn d@miyn @d liyv biyn / I/ did Tim’s kin grin glint din mint live (v) been Phonetic dId tImz kIn grIn glInt dIn mInt lIv bIn

45. /I/

This vowel is just below /i/ on the vowel chart. DIRECTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. Drop the jaw and relax it slightly. Relax the pressure of the tongue against the upper bicuspids. The forced smile of the /i/ vowel is relaxed. The muscle under the jaw is somewhat lax.

/i/ reap antique peep creep feast reef Pete eat keen

Phoneti c riyp antiyk piyp kriyp fiyst riyf piyt iyt kiyn

/I/ rip tick pip crypt miss fist bit mint din 46

Phoneti c rIp tIk pIp krIpt mIs fIst bIt mInt dIn /ey/

/ey/ ace eight bay gay save fail laid inane hay

Phoneti c eys yet bey gey seyv feyl leyd Ineyn hey

Down and back of /I/ is the vowel /ey/. This vowel is really a diphthong and is its diphthongization is greatest in final position, when followed by a voiced consonant, or when pronounced with a slide at the end of an intonation unit. DIRECTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The jaw drops a little more than in /I/ The sides of the tongue press slightly against the upper bicuspids. The mouth opens just a little wider The lips are open and relaxed At the end of this vowel, the tongue moves upward toward /iy/

COMPARE

/ey/ ate rain pray great gauge cliché ballet

Phoneti c yet reyn prey greyt geyD klISey baley

/E/ tech pep fest left pet bet effort

Phonetic tEk pEp fEst lEft pEt bEt Ef2t

/{/ grand gland Dan ban bat lavish crass

Phonetic gr{nd gl{nd d{n b{n b{t l{v@S kr{s

matinee blame

m{tIney bleym

kettle pest

kEt@l pEst

cat attack

c{t @t{k

Caesar's/ scissors Scenically/ cynically Cervices/ services Forefeet/ forfeit Liter/ litter lever /liver Parsees/ passes Reason/ risen re-sole/ rissole Streaked/ strict Treacle/ trickle Tureen/ Turin.

antique/antic antiques/antics Aries/eyries artiste/artist artistes/artists axes/axes B's/biz bailee/bailey bailees/baileys bargees/barges bases/bases bases/basses beach/bitch beached/bitched beaches/bitches beaching/bitching bead/bid beading/bidding beads/bids beaker/bicker beakers/bickers bean/bin beans/bins beat/bit beaten/bitten

beats/bits beater/bitter beaters/bitters beech/bitch beef/biff beefed/biffed beefing/biffing beefs/biffs been/bin bees/biz beet/bit beets/bits beta/bitter betas/bitters bleats/blitz bleep/blip bleeps/blips bootee/booty breaches/breeches bream/brim Caesars/scissors cc/sissy ceased/cyst ceases/cissies cede/Sid

Celia/sillier cervices/services cheap/chip cheat/chit cheats/chits cheek/chick cheeks/chicks cheep/chip cheeped/chipped cheeping/chipping cheeps/chips crease/Chris/ clique/click/ cliques/clicks/ colleen/Colin/ creak/crick creaked/cricked creaking/cricking creaks/cricks crease/Chris creek/crick creeks/cricks Deal/dill deal/dill dean/din

deans/dins decoy/decoy decoys/decoys deed/did deem/dim deemed/dimmed deeming/dimming deems/dims deep/dip deeper/dipper deeps/dips defect/defect defects/defects defile/defile defiles/defiles defuse/diffuse defused/diffused dilettanti/dilettante/ draftee/draughty DTs/ditties E's/is e'en/in e'en/inn each/itch ease/is eat/it eats/its eats/it's eel/ill eels/ills ellipses/ellipsis/ feast/fist feasts/fists feat/fit feats/fits feel/Phil feel/fill feeling/filling feelings/fillings feels/fills fees/fizz feet/fit field/filled fleet/flit fleeting/flitting fleets/flits

forefeet/forfeit foresees/forces freely/frilly frees/frizz freezes/frizzes freezing/frizzing freesia/frizzier freeze/frizz frieze/frizz gelatine/gelatin/ Gene/djinn gene/djinn genes/djinns Gene/gin gene/gin genes/gins glebe/glib greased/grist greed/grid green/grin greens/grins greet/grit greeted/gritted greeting/gritting greets/grits grippe/grip/ grippes/grips guarantee/guaranty guarantees/guaranties he'd/hid he'll/hill he's/his heal/hill heals/hills heap/hip heaps/hips heat/hit heater/hitter heats/hits heating/hitting heed/hid heel/hill heels/hills jean/djinn jeans/djinns Jean/djinn

jean/gin jeans/gins Jean/gin jeep/gyp/ jeeps/gyps/ keel/kill keeled/killed keeling/killing keels/kills keen/kin keep/kip keeper/kipper keepers/kippers keeping/kipping keeps/kips Keith/kith keyed/kid kneel/nil lead/lid leads/lids leafed/lift leak/lick leaked/licked leaking/licking leaks/licks lean/Lynn leap/lip leaped/lipped leaps/lips leas/Liz leased/list least/list leave/live leaves/lives leaving/living leavings/livings Leeds/lids leek/lick leeks/licks lees/Liz lever/liver levers/livers lied/lit litre/litter litres/litters leas/Liz

mead/mid meal/mill meals/mills measles/mizzles meat/mitt meats/mitts Meath/myth meek/Mick mealie/Millie meet/mitt meets/mitts mete/mitt metes/mitts neap/nip neaps/nips neat/knit/ neater/knitter/ neat/nit Neil/nil Parsees/passes peace/piss peach/pitch peached/pitched peaches/pitches peaching/pitching peak/pick peaked/picked peaking/picking peaks/picks peaks/pyx peal/pill peals/pills peat/pit peek/pick peeked/picked peeking/picking peeks/picks peeks/pyx peel/pill peels/pills peeler/pillar peelers/pillars peep/pip peeping/pipping peeped/pipped peeps/pips

peke/pick pekes/picks pekes/pyx penis/pinnace penises/pinnaces Pete/pit pique/pick piqued/picked piquing/picking piques/picks piece/piss pieced/pissed pieces/pisses piecing/pissing peal/pill piques/pyx prima/primmer PT/pity queen/quin queens/quins reach/rich reaches/riches read/rid reading/ridding reads/rids ream/rim reams/rims reap/rip reaped/ripped reaping/ripping reaps/rips reason/risen rebound/rebound rebounds/rebounds reed/rid reeds/rids reef/riff reefed/rift reefs/riffs reek/rick reeks/ricks reeked/ricked reeked/ricked reeking/ricking reek/wrick reeked/wricked

reeking/wricking reeks/wricks reel/Rhyl reel/rill reels/rills refund/refund refunds/refunds reject/reject rejects/rejects re-join/rejoin re-joined/rejoined re-joins/rejoins re-mark/remark re-marks/remarks re-marked/remarked re-marking/remarking re-proof/reproof re-proofs/reproofs reseed/recede reseeded/receded reseeds/recedes reseeding/receding re-sole/rissole re-soles/rissoles Rheims/rims Riga/rigger Riga/rigour scene/sin scenes/sins scenic/cynic/ scenically/cynically/ schema/skimmer schemas/skimmers scheme/skim schemed/skimmed schemer/skimmer schemes/skims scheming/skimming seal/sill seals/sills sealer/Scylla sealers/Scyllas seat/sit seater/sitter seats/sits seating/sitting

seed/Sid seek/sic seek/sick seeking/sicking seeks/sicks seeks/six seen/sin seep/sip seeped/sipped seeping/sipping seeps/sips sheen/shin sheep/ship sheet/shit sheeting/shitting sheets/shits Sikh/sic Sikh/sick Sikhs/sicks Sikhs/six skeet/skit skeets/skits ski'd/skid sleek/slick sleeker/slicker sleekest/slickest sleeks/slicks sleep/slip sleeper/slipper sleepers/slippers sleeping/slipping sleeps/slips sleepy/slippy sleet/slit sleeting/slitting sleets/slits sneak/snick sneaked/snicked sneakers/snickers sneaking/snicking

sneaks/snicks speak/spick steal/still stealing/stilling steals/stills steel/still steeled/stilled steels/stills steely/stilly steeple/stipple steeples/stipples stelae/stilly streaked/strict teak/tic teak/tick teal/till team/Tim teases/tizzies teat/tit teats/tits teem/Tim teen/tin teens/tins teenier/tinnier teeniest/tinniest teeny/tinny teeter/titter teetered/tittered teetering/tittering teeters/titters treacle/trickle trustee/trusty tureen/Turin 'tween/twin tweet/twit tweeted/twitted tweeter/twitter tweeters/twitters tweeting/twitting V's/viz

warrantee/warranty warrantees/warranties we'll/will weak/wick weaker/wicker weal/will weals/wills weald/willed wean/whin wean/win weans/wins weaned/wind weaner/winner weaning/winning week/Wick week/wick weeks/wicks weeny/whinny weep/whip weeping/whipping weeps/whips wees/whiz wheat/whit wheat/wit wheel/will wheeled/willed wheeling/willing wheels/wills wheeze/whizz wheezed/whizzed wheezes/whizzes wheezing/whizzing wield/willed weeny/Winnie wreak/rick wreaked/ricked wreaks/ricks wreak/wrick wreaked/wricked wreaks/wricks

47. /EI Below /ey/ is this vowel. Unlike /ey/ it is not diphthongized.

DIRECTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The tongue DOES NOT touch the bicuspids with pressure. The jaw is lowered from the position for /ey/ Allow the tip of the tongue to relax behind the lower front teeth. Arch the tongue half-high. The lips are in a neutral position.

COMPARE: /I/ it did kin din litter riff rich pistol rip Phoneti c It dId kIn dIn lIt@r rIf rIT pIst@l rIp /E/ tech pep fest left pet bet effort kettle pest Phonetic tEk pEp fEst lEft pEt bEt Ef2t kEt@l pEst /{/ grand gland Dan ban bat lavish crass cat attack Phonetic gr{nd gl{nd d{n b{n b{t l{v@S kr{s c{t @t{k

acetic ascetic beacon beckon ceiling selling

heedless headless meeker Mecca Peking pecking weeding wedding yield yelled acetic/ascetic beacon/beckon /beacons/beckons bead/bed /beading/bedding /beads/beds beak/beck beaks/becks bean/ben/ /beans/bens beast/best /beasts/bests beat/bet /beater/better /beaters/betters /beating/betting /beats/bets beater/bettor /beaters/bettors been/ben beet/bet /beets/bets beta/better /betas/betters beta/bettor /betas/bettors bleed/bled/ breastfeed/breastfed/ breed/bread breed/bred cede/said ceiling/selling cheek/check /cheeked/checked/ /cheeking/checking/ /cheeks/checks cheek/cheque /cheeks/cheques cheek/Czech /cheeks/Czechs cleanly/cleanly cleans/cleanse cleaver/clever crease/cress creased/crest crossbreed/crossbred/ C's/says dea/dell /deals/dells dean/den /deans/dens deceiver/dissever /deceivers/dissevers deed/dead/ deep/dep D's/Des each/etch Easter/Esther eat/ate/ ee/ eels/L's/ e'en/N/ ekes/X/ eland/Elland/ Ely/Ellie/ Eva/ever feed/fed/ fee/fell /feeler/feller /feeling/felling /feels/fells feeler/fellah fees/fez f(o)eta/fettle field/felled fiend/fend/ /fiends/fends/ force-feed/force-fed freed/Fred/ geese/guess gene/gen/ /genes/gens genie/Jenny /genies/jennies glean/glen/ /gleans/glens hea/hell healed/held heals/hells Heanor/henna heap/hep he'd/head heed/head /heeded/headed /heeding/heading/ /heeds/heads heedless/headless/ he'l/hell hee/hell /heels/hells heeled/held interbreed/interbred/ jean/gen /jeans/gens Jeanie/Jenny keen/ken/ /keened/kenned /keening/kenning /keens/kens knead/Ned/ knee/knell knee/Nell lead/lead /leading/leading /leads/leads lead/led leafed/left

league/leg /leagues/legs /leaguing/legging lean/Len/ leaned/lend leans/lens leaped/leapt leas/Les/ lease/less leased/lest least/lest Leeds/leads lees/Les lied/let/ liege/ledge/ /lieges/ledges/ lip-read/lip-read Lisa/lesser litre/letter/ /litres/letters/ mead/Med/ mean/men meanie/many/ meat/Met/ meats/Metz/ meed/Med meeker/Mecca meet/met meets/Metz mete/met metes/Metz mien/men mislead/misled misread/misread neat/net neat/nett neatly/Netley/ need/Ned needy/Neddy/ Nei/knell Nei/Nell Nice/ness niece/ness /nieces/nesses/ overfeed/overfed/ overleaped/overleapt

peak/peck /peaked/pecked /peaking/pecking /peaks/pecks peat/pet peaty/petty /peatier/pettier /peatiest/pettiest Peebles/pebbles peek/peck /peeked/pecked /peeking/pecking /peeks/pecks peep/pep /peeped/pepped /peeping/pepping /peeps/peps peeper/pepper /peepers/peppers peke/peck /pekes/pecks Peking/pecking Pete/pet pieced/pest/ pique/peck/ /piqued/pecked/ /piques/pecks/ /piquing/pecking/ plead/pled priest/pressed/ proofread/proofread reach/retch /reached/retched /reaches/retches /reaching/retching reach/wretch /reaches/wretches read/read read/red /reader/redder /reads/reds reading/Reading/ reap/rep reaps/reps reed/read reed/red

/reeds/reds reedy/ready/ /reedier/readier/ /reediest/readiest/ reef/ref reefed/reft reek/wreck /reeked/wrecked /reeking/wrecking /reeks/wrecks reeks/Rex/ reeve/rev/ /reeves/revs repea/repel /repealed/repelled /repealing/repelling /repeals/repels re-present/represent /represented/represented /representing/representing /re-presents/represents re-read/re-read reseat/reset /reseating/resetting /reseats/resets Riesling/wrestling scenes/sends sea/cel/ /seals/cells/ sea/sell /sealing/selling /seals/sells /sealer/seller /sealers/sellers sealer/cellar/ /sealers/cellars/ seas/says seat/set /seating/setting /seats/sets seat/sett /seats/setts seed/said seek/sec/

seek/sec /seeks/secs seeks/sex seeped/Sept/ sees/says seize/says sheaf/chef/ she'd/shed she'l/shell shield/shelled/ siege/sedge /sieges/sedges/ signor/se~nor Sikh/sec /Sikhs/secs Sikhs/sex speak/spec /speaks/specs speak/speck /speaks/specks speed/sped/ spoonfeed/spoonfed/ steam/stem /steamed/stemmed /steaming/stemming /steams/stems steed/stead/ steely/stele steep/step /steeped/stepped /steeping/stepping /steeps/steps steep/steppe /steeps/steppes suite/sweat /suites/sweats sweet/sweat /sweets/sweats

sweeter/sweater/ sweetie/sweaty/ teak/tec teak/Tech/ tea/tel tea/tell teed/Ted teen/ten/ /teens/tens/ Tina/tenner Tina/tenor treed/tread/ undersea/undersell wea/well /weals/wells weald/weld /wealds/welds weald/welled wean/wen /weans/wens wean/when weaned/wend we'd/wed weed/wed /weeded/wedded/ /weeding/wedding/ /weeds/weds/ we'l/well wheat/wet/ wheat/whet whee/well /wheeled/welled /wheeling/welling /wheels/wells wheeled/weld wheeling/welling/ wield/weld /wielded/welded/

/wielding/welding/ /wields/welds wield/welled wreak/wreck /wreaked/wrecked /wreaking/wrecking /wreaks/wrecks wreaks/Rex yield/yelled

assi st assessed cinder

sender innovate enervate listening lessening livid levied middle medal sickened second symmetry cemetery

agin/again/ assist/assessed/ axis/access/ below/bellow bid/bed /bidding/bedding /bids/beds big/beg bigger/beggar bill/bell /billed/belled /billing/belling /bills/bells bill/belle /bills/belles billow/bellow /billowed/bellowe d /bellowing/billowi ng /billows/bellows billy/belly /billies/bellies bin/ben

/bins/bens bit/bet /bits/bets bitter/better /bitters/betters bitter/bettor /bitters/bettors bliss/bless blithering/blether ing build/belled built/belt chick/check /chicks/checks chick/cheque /chicks/cheques chick/Czech /chicks/Czechs Chris/cress cinder/sender /cinders/senders cliff/clef /cliffs/clefs clinch/clench

/clinched/clenche d /clinches/clenche s /clinching/clenchi ng conviction/conve ction crypt/crept decayed/decade depose/depots descant/descant /descants/descan ts Dick/deck dicker/decker /dickers/deckers did/dead differ/deafer differential/defer ential /differentially/def erentially dill/dell

din/den /dins/dens dint/dent /dints/dents dip/dep disc/desk /discs/desks disparate/desper ate disposition/dispo ssession djinn/gen /djinns/gens escort/escort /escorts/escorts excise/excise exploit/exploit /exploits/exploits export/export /exports/exports expose/expos extract/extract /extracts/extracts fib/Feb fill/fell /filled/felled /filling/felling /fills/fells fin/fen /fins/fens Finn/fen /Finns/fens fitted/fetid fitter/fetter /fitters/fetters fizz/fez /fizzes/fezes flick/fleck /flicked/flecked /flicking/flecking /flicks/flecks flicks/flex gild/geld /gilded/gelded /gilding/gelding /gilds/gelds

gill/gel /gills/gels gill/jell /gills/jells gin/gen /ginned/genned /ginning/genning /gins/gens gist/jest /gists/jests guild/geld /guilds/gelds gym/gem /gyms/gems hick/heck /hicks/hecks hid/head hill/hell /hills/hells him/hem hip/hep hither/heather hymn/hem /hymned/hemme d /hymning/hemmi ng /hymns/hems id/ed if/eff if/f ilk/elk ill/l ills/l's immigrant/emigr ant /immigrants/emig rants immigrate/emigr ate /immigrated/emi grated /immigrates/emig rates /immigrating/emi grating

immigration/emig ration /immigrations/em igrations imminent/eminen t /imminence/emin ence /imminently/emin ently impress/empress /impresses/empr esses in/n /ins/n's infield/Enfield inflict/inflect /inflicted/inflecte d /inflicting/inflecti ng /inflicts/inflects infliction/inflectio n /inflictions/inflect ions inn/n /inns/n's innovate/enervat e /innovated/enerv ated /innovating/everv ating /innovates/enerv ates into/enter it/ate itch/etch /itched/etched /itches/etches /itching/etching Jill/gel Jill/jell Jim/gem jimmy/jemmy

/jimmies/jemmies jinn/gen jinns/gens kilt/Celt /kilts/Celts kin/ken kindle/Kendal kipped/kept kitsch/ketch knit/net /knitted/netted /knitting/netting /knits/nets knit/nett /knits/netts lid/lead /lids/leads lid/led lift/left limning/lemming Linda/lender lint/leant lint/Lent lint/lent lintel/lentil /lintels/lentils Linz/Lents lipped/leapt list/lest listen/lessen /listened/lessene d /listening/lesseni ng /listens/lessens listen/lesson /listens/lessons lit/let litter/letter /littered/lettered /littering/letterin g /litters/letters livid/levied/ Liz/Les Lois/loess

Lynn/Len mid/Med middle/medal /middles/medals middle/meddle /middled/meddle d /middles/meddles /middling/meddli ng/ milt/melt mint/meant miss/mess /missed/messed /missing/messing / /missy/messy/ mist/messed mitt/met mitts/Metz myths/meths nick/neck /nicked/necked /nicking/necking /nicks/necks nil/knell nil/Nell nit/net /nits/nets nit/nett /nits/netts nix/necks Phil/fell pick/peck /picked/pecked /picking/pecking /picks/pecks picker/pecker /pickers/peckers piddle/pedal /piddled/pedalled /piddles/pedals /piddling/pedallin g piddle/peddle /piddled/peddled

/piddles/peddles /piddling/peddlin g pig/peg /pigged/pegged /pigging/pegging /pigs/pegs piggy/Peggy/ pin/pen /pinned/penned /pinning/penning /pins/pens pinny/Penny/ //pinnies/pennies/ pip/pep /pipped/pepped /pipping/pepping /pips/peps pissed/pest pit/pet /pits/pets /pitting/petting/ pity/petty pitied/petted position/possessi on /positions/posses sions primmest/premis ed/ pyx/pecks quill/quell /quills/quells record/record /records/records rich/retch /riches/retches rich/wretch /riches/wretches/ rick/wreck /ricked/wrecked /ricking/wrecking /ricks/wrecks ricks/Rex Ricky/recce rid/read

rid/red /rids/reds ridden/redden ridding/Reading/ ridge/Reg riff/ref rift/reft rip/rep /rips/reps rip/repp Scylla/cellar /Scyllas/cellars Scylla/seller /Scyllas/sellers shilling/shelling sic/sec sick/sec /sicks/secs sicked/sect sickened/second sicks/sex Sid/said signora/senora /signoras/senoras sill/cell /sills/cells sill/sell /sills/sells since/sense sinned/send sinner/senna sins/sends sipped/Sept sit/set /sits/sets /sitting/setting /sittings/settings sit/sett /sits/setts sitter/setter /sitters/setters six/secs six/sex /sixes/sexes skip/skep /skips/skeps

slid/sled slipped/slept spick/spec spick/speck spill/spell /spilled/spelled /spilling/spelling /spills/spells spilt/spelt stiller/Stella stiller/stellar swill/swell /swilled/swelled /swilling/swelling /swills/swells sylph/self symmetry/cemet ery/ tic/tec tic/tech tick/tec /ticks/tecs tick/tech /ticks/techs tics/techs till/tel till/tell /tilling/telling /tills/tells tiller/teller /tillers/tellers tin/ten /tins/tens tinder/tender tinned/tend tint/tent /tints/tents trick/trek /tricked/trekked /tricking/trekking /tricks/treks trimmer/tremor /trimmers/tremor s victor/vector /victors/vectors

vintner/Ventnor whin/wen whin/when whipped/wept whist/west whit/wet /whits/wets whit/whet /whits/whets whither/weather whither/wether whither/whether will/well /willed/welled /willing/welling /wills/wells willed/weld wilt/welt /wilts/welts win/wen /wins/wens win/when /wins/when's wince/whence winch/wench /winched/wenche d /winching/wenchi ng /winches/wenche s wind/wend /winded/wended /winding/wending /winds/wends windy/Wendy/ wit/wet /wits/wets wit/whet /wits/whets wither/weather /withered/weathe red /withering/weath ering

/withers/weather s wither/wether /withers/wethers wither/whether wrick/wreck

/wricked/wrecked /wricking/wreckin g/ /wricks/wrecks wricks/Rex wrist/rest 48. /{/

/wrists/rests wrist/wrest /wrists/wrests writ/ret /writs/rets

This is the last of the front vowels. DIRECTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. Relax and lower the jaw Let the mouth be as wide as possible without forcing it The tongue is practically flat Make a light contact is made between the lower teeth and the tongue

COMPARE:

/I/ it did kin din litter riff rich pistol rip

Phoneti c It dId kIn dIn lIt@r rIf rIT pIst@l rIp

/a/ pot father box calm pa fob ma hot dot

Phonetic pat faD@r baks cam pa fab ma hat dat

/{/ grand gland Dan ban bat lavish crass cat attack

Phonetic gr{nd gl{nd d{n b{n b{t l{v@S kr{s k{t @t{k

breezier brassi`ere diesels dazzles greenery granary keyless callous seaman salmon seedling saddling

beach/batch beaches/batches bead/bad/ bead/bade beak/back/ beaks/backs/ beaker/backer/ beakers/backers/ bean/ban beans/bans beans/banns/ beast/bast/ beat/bat/ beating/batting/ beats/bats beaten/batten/ beater/batter/

beaters/batters/ beech/batch beeches/batches been/ban beet/bat beets/bats beetle/battle/ beetled/battled/ beetles/battles/ beetling/battling/ beta/batter betas/batters betel/battle betels/battles bleak/black/ bleaker/blacker/ bleakest/blackest/

breed/brad breeds/brads breezier/brassi`ere cedar/sadder cede/sad cheap/chap/ cheat/chat/ cheated/chatted/ cheating/chatting/ cheats/chats/ cheap/chap cheep/chap cheeped/chapped/ cheeping/chapping/ cheeps/chaps/ cheese/Chas/ cheetah/chatter

cheetahs/chatters chic/shack clean/clan cleans/clans/ clique/clack/ cliques/clacks/ creak/crack creaked/cracked creaking/cracking creaks/cracks cream/cram/ creamed/crammed/ creaming/cramming/ creams/crams/ crease/crass creek/crack creeks/cracks creep/crap/ creeping/crapping/ creeps/craps/ dean/Dan deed/dad deeds/dads deem/dam deeming/damming deeming/damming deems/dams deem/damn deemed/dammed deeming/damming deems/damns deeper/dapper diesel/dazzle diesels/dazzles dream/drachm dreams/drachms dream/dram dreams/drams ease/as eastern/Aston/ Easter/aster Easters/asters eat/at/ eater/attar/ edict/addict/ edicts/addicts/

eel/Al/ e'en/Ann/ e'en/an eked/act/ ekes/ax/ Ely/Ali/ Ely/alley E's/as Eve/Ave/ feat/fat feats/fats feed/fad feeds/fads feet/fat fiend/fanned fleet/flat fleetly/flatly fleetness/flatness fleets/flats fleeter/flatter fleetest/flattest geese/gas gene/Jan gleaned/gland grebe/grab grebes/grabs greenery/granary G's/jazz greenery/granary he'd/had he'll/Hal heal/Hal heap/hap heaped/happed heaping/happing heaps/haps he's/has heat/hat heats/hats heater/hatter heaters/hatters heath/hath heave/have heaves/haves heaving/having heed/had

heel/Hal Jean/Jan keen/can keened/canned/ keening/canning/ keens/cans/ keen/Cannes keener/canna keep/cap/ keeping/capping/ keeps/caps/ Keith/Cath/ keyed/cad/ keyless/callous/ keyless/callus kilo/callow/ leach/latch leached/latched leaches/latches leaching/latching lead/lad leads/lads leader/ladder leaders/ladders league/lag leagued/lagged leagues/lags leaguing/lagging leak/lack leaked/lacked leaking/lacking leaks/lacks leaks/lax leaky/lackey leaned/land leap/lap leaped/lapped leaping/lapping leaps/laps leaps/lapse lease/lass leases/lasses leash/lash leashes/lashes leave/lav leaves/lavs

leech/latch leeches/latches Leeds/lads leek/lack leeks/lacks leeks/lax Leix/lash lied/lat lieder/ladder litre/latter mead/mad mean/man meanly/manly meaning/manning means/mans meaner/manna meaner/manner meaner/manor meat/mat meats/mats meat/matt meed/mad meek/mac meet/mat meeting/matting meets/mats meet/matt mete/mat meted/matted metes/mats meting/matting mete/matt meter/matter meters/matters meeting/matting metre/matter metres/matters mien/man miens/mans neap/knap neaps/knaps neap/nap neaps/naps neat/Nat neat/gnat neater/natter

overleap/overlap overleaped/overlapped overleaping/overlapping overleaps/overlaps peach/patch peached/patched peaches/patches peaching/patching peak/pack peaked/packed peaking/packing peaks/packs peaked/pact peaks/pax peal/pal peals/pals pealed/palled pealing/palling peat/pat peaty/Patty peed/pad peek/pack peeked/packed peeking/packing peeks/packs peeked/pact peeks/pax peel/pal peeled/palled peeling/palling peels/pals peeler/pallor peke/pack pekes/packs pekes/pax Peking/packing penal/panel peep/pap Pete/Pat Peter/patter peter/patter petered/pattered petering/pattering peters/patters pique/pack piqued/packed

piques/packs piquing/packing piqued/pact piques/pax plead/plaid pleads/plaids pleat/plait pleated/plaited pleating/plaiting pleats/plaits quiche/cache quiches/caches/ quiche/cash quiches/cashes reach/ratch reaches/ratches ream/ram reams/rams reap/rap reaped/rapped reaping/rapping reaps/raps reaped/rapt reap/wrap reaping/wrapping reaped/wrapped reaps/wraps reaper/wrapper reapers/wrappers reek/rack reeked/racked reeking/racking reeks/racks reek/wrack Rheims/rams Rita/ratter scenes/sans scream/scram screamed/scrammed screaming/scramming screams/scrams screech/scratch screeched/scratched screeches/scratches screeching/scratching seaman/salmon

seam/Sam seaman/salmon seamen/salmon seamy/Sammy seat/sat seed/sad seedling/saddling seek/sac seeks/sacs seeks/sax seek/sack seeking/sacking seeks/sacks seem/Sam seep/sap seeped/sapped seeping/sapping seeps/saps semen/salmon sepia/sappier she'd/shad she'll/shall sheet/shat Sikh/sac Sikhs/sacs Sikh/sack Sikhs/sacks Sikhs/sax skeet/scat sleek/slack sleeked/slacked sleeker/slacker sleekest/slackest sleeking/slacking sleekly/slackly sleekness/slackness sleeks/slacks sleep/slap sleeping/slapping sleeps/slaps sleet/slat sleets/slats sleeted/slatted sneak/snack sneaks/snacks steamer/stammer

steamers/stammers teak/tack teat/tat teats/tats teen/tan teens/tans teeter/tatter teetered/tattered teeters/tatters Tina/tanner treed/trad weak/whack weaker/whacker week/whack weeks/whacks weeks/wax/ wreak/rack wreaked/racked wreaks/racks wreaking/racking wreak/wrack

49. /a/ This is the lowest vowel in English. DIRECTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. Lower the jaw below a normal relaxed position Make the lips wide open The tongue touches the floor of the mouth. The back of the tongue arches up a bit towards the throat.

COMPARE:

/@/ alive sofa telephone possible oppose

Phoneti c @laiv sOf@ tEl@fow n pas@b @l @powz

/a/ pot father box calm pa

Phonetic pat faD@r baks cam pa

/{/ grand gland Dan ban bat

Phonetic gr{nd gl{nd d{n b{n b{t

Confucius labyrinth national chorus

k@nfyu S@s l{b@rIn T n{S@n @l kOr@s

fob ma hot dot

fab ma hat dat

lavish crass cat attack

l{v@S kr{s c{t @t{k

50. /uw/ While /i/ is the highest vowel possible at the front of the mouth, /u/ is the highest vowel at the back of the mouth. After the sound begins, there is an upward and backward glide of the tongue. DIRECTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. Round and protrude the lips as much as possible Draw back the tongue as far as comfortable keeping it high. Touch the tongue along the back upper teeth Tense the muscle under the jaw

COMPARE

/i/ deed teams keen green glean clean demeaned

Phonetic diyd tiymz kiyn griyn gliyn kliyn d@miyn

/uw/ rude blew fruit ooze do soup shoe

Phonetic ruwd bluw fruwt uwz duw suwp Suw

leave bean

@d liyv biyn

threw chew

Truw Tuw

51. /U/ DIRECTIONS 1. The lips are rounded but less than for the vowel /u/ 2. The tips of the lower teeth are close to the upper teeth. 3. The back of the tongue is slightly arched but not as high as /u/ 4. The back of the tongue may just touch the upper tooth ridge 5. The muscle under the jaw is relaxed

COMPARE

/uw/ rude blew do ooze soup shoe threw shampoo kangaroo

Phoneti c ruwd bluw duw uwz suwp Suw Truw Sampu w kaÎ@ru w

/U/ book wolf could pull cook sugar Brooklyn hood spook

Phonetic bUk wUf cUd pUl cUk sUg@r brUklIn hUd spUk

Phoneti c alive @laiv sofa sOf@ telephone tEl@fow n possible pas@b @l oppose @powz Confucius k@nfyu S@s labyrinth l{b@rIn T national n{S@n @l chorus kOr@s

/@/

51. /ow/ This vowel consists of two sounds: an initial “o” sound and a “w” sound at the end. DIRECTIONS

1. 2. 3. 4.

Form the lips in the shape of the letter O Relax the jaw Bunch or arch the tongue in the back of the mouth Purse the lips more as the second sound of the diphthong is produced.

COMPARISON

/uw/ rude blew do ooze soup shoe threw shampoo kangaroo

Phoneti c ruwd bluw duw uwz suwp Suw Truw Sampu w kaÎ@ru w

/O/ all draw flaunt ball ought awe jawed thought sausage

Phonetic Ol drO flOnt bOl Ot O DOd TOt sOs@D

/ow/ bethroth drove bowl tone gnome vogue abode woe toe

Phoneti c b@TrOT drOv bOwl tOn nOm vOg abOd wO tO

53. /O/

This back vowel is second lowest back vowel. The lowest is /a/. However, the lip position for /a/ entails more widening of the lips. DIRECTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. Relax the lower jaw. Relax the tongue tip behind the lower teeth. Open the mouth an inch or less across and half an inch high. Bunch the tongue a little in the back of the mouth. Arch the back of the tongue half low toward the soft palate.

COMPARISON

/a/ pot father box calm

Phonetic pat faD@r baks cam

/ow/ bethroth drove bowl tone

Phonetic b@TrOT drOv bOwl tOn

/@/ alive sofa telephon e possible

Phonetic @laiv

/O/ audition

sOf@ autumn tEl@fow austere n pas@b alright

Phonetic OdIS@ n Ot@m OstIr Owrait

pa fob ma hot dot

pa fab ma hat dat

gnome vogue abode woe toe

nOm VoG abOd wO tO

oppose Confuciu s labyrinth national chorus

@l @powz

nautical

k@nfyu applaud S@s l{b@rIn awe T n{S@n awkward @l kOr@s call

nOt@k @l Oplad O OkwIrd cOà

54. /ay/ This diphthong begins as the /a/ vowel and moves upward towards /iy/. DIRECTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Relax the lower jaw. Place the tip of the tongue behind the lower front teeth. Arch the front of the tongue forward and low for the first sound /a/ Glide the tongue towards the weak second element /i/ During this this glide move the jaw from open to half open

COMPARISON

/ay/ eyes despise alibis surmise thighs shies rise surprised white

Phonetic ayz dIspayz {lIbayz sIrmayz Tayz Sayz rayz s@prayz@ d ÷ait

/aw/ now prow gown house owl vow Tao Mao mouths

Phonetic naw praw gawn haws awl vaw taw maw mawTs

/Oy/ boy voice oyster Freud buoyant oil toys joys Goya

Phonetic bOy voys Oyst@r frOyd bOy@nt Oyl tOys Doyz gOy@

55.

/aw/

This diphthong begins as the /a/ vowel and moves upward and backward toward /U/. DIRECTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Relax the lower jaw. Place the tip of the tongue behind the lower front teeth. Arch the front of the tongue forward and low for the first sound /a/ Glide the tongue towards the weak second element /U/ During this this glide move the jaw from open to half open Move the lips from a relaxed position to a round position

COMPARISON

/ay/ eyes despise alibis surmise thighs shies rise surprised white

Phonetic ayz dIspayz {lIbayz sIrmayz Tayz Sayz rayz s@prayz@ d ÷ayt

/aw/ now prow gown house owl vow Tao Mao mouths

Phonetic naw praw gawn haws awl vaw taw maw mawTs

/Oy/ boy voice oyster Freud buoyant oil toys joys Goya

Phonetic bOy voys Oyst@r frOyd bOy@nt Oyl tOys Doyz gOy@

56. /Oy/ This vowel begins as /O/ and glides toward /iy/. Directions: 1. Relax the lower jaw. 2. Place the tip of the tongue behind the lower front teeth. 3. Arch the front of the tongue forward and low for the first sound /O/ 4. Glide the tongue towards the weak second element /iy/ 5. During this glide move the jaw from open to almost closed. 6. Move the lips from a relaxed position to a round position

COMPARISON

/ay/ eyes despise alibis surmise thighs shies rise surprised

Phonetic ayz dIspayz {lIbayz sIrmayz Tayz Sayz rayz s@prayz@

/aw/ now prow gown house owl vow Tao Mao

Phonetic naw praw gawn haws awl vaw taw maw

/Oy/ boy voice oyster Freud buoyant oil toys joys

Phonetic bOy voys Oyst@r frOyd bOy@nt Oyl tOys Doyz

white

d ÷ayt

mouths

mawTs

Goya

gOy@

57.

/@/

This vowel is neither a front or back vowel, but it is produced centrally. This is the most common vowel in spoken English and is referred to as “schwa”. DIRECTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. Relax the jaw . Slightly spread the lips Place the tongue behind the lower front teeth but do not touch anything. Make sure that all muscles are relaxed.

COMPARISON

/a/ pot father box calm pa fob ma hot dot

Phonetic pat faD@r baks cam pa fab ma hat dat

/U/ book wolf could pull cook sugar Brooklyn hood would

Phonetic bUk wUf cUd pUl cUk sUg@r brUklIn hUd wUd

/@/ alive sofa telephon e possible oppose Confuciu s labyrinth national chorus

Phonetic @laiv sOf@ tEl@fow n pas@b @l @powz

/O/ audition autumn austere alright nautical

Phonetic OdIS@ n Ot@m OstIr Owrait nOt@k @l Oplad O OkwIrd cOà

k@nfyu applaud S@s l{b@rIn awe T n{S@n awkward @l kOr@s call

58. /@r/ This vowel is the combination of two sounds. The initial sound is very short and barely heard. Nonphonemic variants of this sound occur in spoken English: [bÅd] stressed and followed by r, and [faD2] unstressed and followed by r. DIRECTIONS 1 5. 6. 7. 8. Relax the jaw . Slightly spread the lips Place the tongue behind the lower front teeth but do not touch anything. Make sure that all muscles are relaxed Quickly move to the r sound by either: (a) turning the tip of the tongue toward the back of the mouth without touching anything. (b) slide the tongue back on the upper teeth bunching the back of the tongue.

COMPARISON

/@r/ worm word star were burn lurk

WORD w@rm w@rd st@r w@r b@rn l@rk

r- sounds warm ward steer wear barn lark

WORD wOrm wOrd stI@r wE@r barn lark

59. /ö/ This vowel is a nonphonemic variant of schwa. It is usually in stressed syllables. DIRECTIONS:

1. Relax the jaw . 2. .Slightly spread the lips 3. Place the tongue behind the lower front teeth but do not touch anything. 4. Make sure that all muscles are relaxed COMPARE

/@/ suppose sofa bazooka Tacoma soda until cocoon uh

PHONETIC s@powz s@f@ b@zuwk@ t@kowm@ sowd@ @ntIl k@kuwn @

/ ö/ sup fun buzz tuck duck untilled cuckold up

PHONETIC s öp f ön b öz t ök d ök öntIl@d k ökOld öp

STRESS

Stress results when a syllable is given extra energy. The extra energy may be from a change in pitch or energy or both. The extra emphasis makes the syllable stand out. Stress is sometimes called accent. Generally, English tries to avoid having stresses too close together. There is a tendency in English for the stresses to occur at regular intervals even if this “violates” the stress pattern of a certain word said in isolation. This tendency to keep regular intervals is called rhythm. Primary stress is indicated by /2/ (AIGU) and secondary stress is shown by /1/.(GRAVE) 28. ONE SYLLABLE The ten most frequent words ( 25%) in written and spoken English include: the, of, and, to, a, in, that, it, is, and I. These words are usually unstressed, unless said in citation form or in isolation. These common words tend to be reduced and pronounced as the weak forms-- /@/ , / I/ , or / U/. Word A An And Are Can Had Has Have Of Or That The To was Stressed Form /ey/ /{n/ /{nd/ /ar/ /k{n/ /h{d/ /h{z/ /h{v/ /av/ /Or/ /D{t/ /Diy/ /tuw/ /waz/ Weak Form /@/ /@n/ /@n/ /@r/ /k@n/ /@d/ /@z/ /@v/ /@v/ /@r/ /D@t/ /D@/ or /Di/ /t@/ or /tU/ /w@z/ Example In a train. Shoot an arrow You and I Who are you? She can go. They had to leave. She has to speak. You have to come. Two of us Win or lose I saw that. On the shelf Ten to two It was fun

29. TWO SYLLABLE (STRESS ON FIRST SYLLABLE) About 75% of two-syllable words are accented on the first syllable. For words derived from German, many are stressed on the first syllable. Of the 1,000 most frequent words in English, about 83% are of Germanic origin. Primary stress is indicated by /2/ (AIGU) and secondary stress is shown by /1/.(GRAVE) Word NEver BREAkfast MONday FAther Phonetic spelling nE2v@r brE2kf@st m@2ndI fa2D@r

SISter FROLic WISdom YELlow OFten TWENty FIFty FINger ELbow HAMmer WATer

sI2st@r fra2l@k wI2zd@m YE2low a2f@n twE2ntI fI2fti fI2Î@r E2lbow h{2m@r wa2t@r

30. TWO SYLLABLE ( STRESS ON SECOND SYLLABLE) Approximately 25% of English words are stressed on the second syllable. Most of these words begin with a prefix. Most of these words are accented on the second syllable. Nouns aWard surPRISE proPOSal ComPLAInt Phonetic @wO2rd s@paI2z pr@pow 2z@l k@mplei 2’nt Adjectives unHEALthy berREAVed ASLEEP inCREDible Phonetic @nhE2lTi b@ri2v@ d @sli2p InkrE2d @bl Verbs deCLARe exPLAIN forGET obTAIN Phonetic D@klE2r Ekspley2 n f@rgE2t Abtey2n

31. COMPOUND NOUNS Compound nouns usually have primary accent on the first part and a secondary accent on the second portion. Compound Noun BLACkbird BIRD’s –nest DRUGstore THOROUghfare WEATHerman AIRplane COWboy Phonetic Spelling bl{2kb@1rd b@2rdznE1st dr@2gstO1r T@2r@fE@1r wE2D@rm{1n E2rpley1n kow2bOy2

HOTdog 32. COMPOUND VERBS

ha1tdO1g

Unlike compound nouns, compound verbs usually receive secondary stress on the first element and primary stress on the second component. COMPOUND VERB underSTAND overLOOK outRUN 33. PRONOUNS Reflexive pronouns receive the stronger accent on the second element. REFLEXIVE PRONOUN mySELF yourSELF himSELF themSELVES PHONETIC SPELLING ma1ysE2lf yU1rsE2lf hI1sE2lf DE1msE2lvz PHONETIC SPELLING @1 nd@rst{2and o1wverlU2k a1wtr@2n

34. NUMBERS Numbers which end in –teen may receive stress on either syllable. However, for clarity it is recommended to place the stress on the last syllable. NUMBER thirTEEN THIRty fourTEEN FOURty fifTEEN FIFty sixTEEN SIXty PHONETIC SPELLING D@1rti2yn D@2rtI fO1ti2yn fO2rtI fI1fti2yn fI2ftI si1ksti2yn si2kstI

sevenTEEN SEVenty eightTEEN EIGHTy nineTEEN NINEty 35. NOUN VERB PAIRS.

sE1v@nti2yn sE2v@ntI a1yti2yn a2ytI na1yti2yn na2yntI

There is a large group of words which may be used as either nouns or verbs. A difference in stress indicates a difference in usage. NOUN ka2ns@rt ka2nd@kt ka2nflIkt ka2ntEst ka2ntr{1kt ka2ntr{1st ka2nv2@rt dE2z@rt I2nkla1yn I2krI1ys I2ns@rt I2ns@lt a2bDIIkt o2wv@rflo1w p@2rmIt prE2z@nt pra2grIs pra2DE1kt pro2wtE2st rE2b@l rE2k@rd s@2rve1y WORD Concert Conduct Conflict Contest Contract Contrast Convert Desert Incline Increase Insert Insult Object Overflow Permit Present Progress Project Protest Rebel Record Survey VERB k@ns@2rt k@nd@2kt k@nflI2kt k@ntE2st k@ntr{2kt k@ntr{2st k@nv@2rt dIz@2rt Inkla2yn IkrI2ys Ins@2rt Ins@2lt @bDE2kt o1wv@rflo2w p@rmI2t prIzE2nt pr@grE2s pr@DE1kt pr@wtE2st r@b@2l rIkO2rd s@rve2y

36. POLYSYLLABIC WORDS Many polysyllabic words in English ending in –ate can be used as an adjective, noun, or verb. If these words are used as an adjective or a noun, the vowel of the ending is left unstressed and pronounced as /I/ or /@/ . If they are used as a verb, the ending is given secondary stress and pronounced as the vowel /ey/.

ADJECTIVE OR NOUN {2dv@kIt {2gr@gIt O2lt@rnIt {2nImIt @pro2prIIt @pra2ksImIt dIlI2b@rIt dE2s@lIt Il{2b@rIt E2stImIt gr{2 DUIt I2ntImIt ma2d@rIt prIsI2pItIt sE2p@rIt sE2prIt 37. PHRASAL VERBS

WORD advocate aggregate alternate animate appropriate approximate deliberate desolate elaborate estimate graduate intimate moderate precipitate separate

VERB {2dv@ke1yt {2gr@ge1yt O2lt@rne1yt {2nIme1yt @pro2prIe1yt @pra2ksIme1yt dIlI2b@re1yt dE2s@le1yt Il{2b@re1yt E2stIme1yt gr{2 Due1yt I2ntIme1yt ma2d@re2yt prIsI2pIte2yt sE2p@re1yt

Phrasal verbs consist of two or three words. They are composed of verbs followed by adverbial particles and/ or prepositions. Prepositions in phrasal verbs are unstressed. The verb is always stressed. However, the particles following the verb are stressed while the prepositions are unstressed. PATTERN ONE VERB STRESS PHONETIC PREPOSTION SPELLING LOOK at lU2k{t TALK about tO2k@bowt DisPENSE with dIspE2nswIT ApPROVE of @1pru2v@v PATTERN TWO FIGure OUT fI2gy@row2t DROP OFF dra2pa2f TAKE Over tey2kow2v@r LOOK BACK lU2kb{2k PATTERN THREE RUN aWAY with r@2n@we2I WALK OUT on wO2kow2t TALK DOWN to tO2kdaw2n GET aHEAD of gE2t@hE2d 38. ADDED SUFFIX

When a suffix is added to a word, the new form is generally stressed on the same syllable as the basic word. BASIC WORD abandon happy reason NEW FORM abandonment happiness reasonable PHONETIC SPELLING @b{2nd@n  ab{2nd@nm@nt h{2pI  h{2pInIs rI2yz@n  rI2z@n@b@l

39. SPECIAL ENDINGS Words ending in : --ition --ical --sion -- ity --ic ---graphy usually have stress on the syllable preceding the ending. BASIC WORD contribute biology public photograph NEW FORM contribution biological publicity photograph PHONETIC SPELLING k@ntrI2byUt  ka1ntrIbyu2S@n ba1ya2l@DI  ba1y@la1DIk@l p@2blIk  p@blI2sItI fo2wt@gr{1f  f@ta2fr@fI

40. Sentence Stress Word stress and sentence stress combine to create rhythm in English. Rhythm is the regular beat of stressed syllables, unstressed syllables and pauses. The length of an utterance depends not on the number of syllables but on the number of stresses.The following sentences differ in their number of actual syllables, but are equivalent in the number of stresses. Even though the sentences are getting longer, the time that it takes to say each one is about the same. SENTENCE dogs eat bones the dogs eat bones PHONETIC SPELLING dO2gzi2tbo2wnz D@dO2gzi2tbo2wnz

the dogs will eat bones the dogs will eat the bones the dogs will have eaten the bones

D@dO2gili2tbo2wnz D@dO2gili’2tD@bo2wnz D@dO2gil@vi2t@nD@bo2wn z

41. CONTENT WORDS Content words are words that usually carry information and have a meaning in themselves. Content words are usually stressed. CATEGORY Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Demonstratives Interrogatives 42. FUNCTION WORDS Function words signify grammatical relationships and have little or no meaning by themselves. They are usually unstessed unless the speaker wants to give them some special emphasis. CATEGORY Articles Simple Prepositions Personal Pronouns Possessive Adjectives Relative Pronouns Common Conjunctions “One” used as a noun substitute Verbs used with auxiliaries WORD the of I my that but one The blue one be,have,do,will,would, shall,should,can,could, may, might, must. PHONETIC SPELLING D@ @v aI maI D{t b@t D@blu2w@n bi,h{v,du,wIl,wUd,S{l ,Sud,k{n,kUd,maI,ma It,m@st WORD cat run brown differently this who PHONETIC SPELLING k{2t r@2n bra2wn dIfr@ntlI2 TI2s ÷u2

43. THOUGHT GROUPS

Rhythm consists of the alternation of stressed syllables, unstressed syllables, and pauses. Almost every sentence has a pause in it when spoken. So a thought group is a portion of a sentence set off by pauses. Usually, the pauses are indicated by a “/”. TO CLARIFY When the wind blows / the cradle will rock TO EMPHASIZE Truthfully, / I’m not sure I believe you. TO BREAK UP A LONG SENTENCE The professor wrote a very long paper that involved / some intricacies of pronunciation.

Intonation Type 1. STATEMENT 2. WH-QUESTION 3. YES-NO QUESTION 4. ECHO QUESTION 5. COMPARISON 6. SUSPENSE 7. SERIES (AND) 8. ALTERNATIVE QUESTION (OR) 9. DOUBLE YES-NO QUESTION (OR) 10. DIRECT ADDRESS 11. TAG QUESTION--REAL 12. TAG QUESTION--RHETORICAL 13. FOCUS 14. PERFUNCTORY 15. ENTHUSIASM 16. COAXING 17. IRONY 18. SHOCK 19. SURPRISE 20. APPROVAL 21. PLACE NAMES 22. NEW INFORMATION 23. MEANING SHIFT 24. DETERMINED

Intonationof Intonation Pattern Description Patterns in English
STATEMENTS or declarative sentences have FALLING Intonation. Questions that begin with WH- (What, Who, etc.) have a FALLING pattern. General Questions that can be answered with a Yes or No usually rise HIGH. WH- Questions that rise HIGH mean “Is that really what you said” or “Repeat that.” Both items of a Comparison rise HIGH. One may rise Higher than the other. If the first part of a sentence end in a rising HIGH pattern, this creates SUSPENSE A SERIES of items with AND has the first two items rise HIGH, and the last item FALLS. ALTERNATIVE Questions with OR that have one item HIGHER than the other require a choice between the items by the listener. DOUBLE YES-NO questions have equally rising HIGH notes on the two items. The speaker does not necessarily want the listener to choose between the two items. In DIRECT ADDRESS, the speaker starts off on a LOW note and the goes up to a HIGH note. REAL TAG QUESTIONS end with rising HIGH intonation and words such as “Aren’t you?” and should be answered. RHETORICAL TAG QUESTIONS end with falling LOW intonation and words such as “Aren’t you?” and should NOT be answered. FOCUS on a particular word in a sentence is indicated by a HIGHER pitch on the word. PERFUNCTORY intonation barely rises HIGH before it FALLS and indicates a lack of Enthusiasm. ENTHUSIASTIC intonation rises very HIGH before FALLING. It indicates genuine excitement. COAXING begins on a HIGH note, comes down to a LOW note, then rises to a NORMAL note. IRONY can be indicated when a Yes-No question begins on a NORMAL note, rises to a HIGH note, then returns to a NORMAL note. SHOCK is indicated by an EXTRA HIGH note on the adjective or adverb that makes the sentence more intensive. SURPRISE is indicated by an EXTRA HIGH note on the adjective or adverb that makes the sentence more intensive. APPROVAL is indicated by an EXTRA HIGH note on the adjective or adverb that makes the sentence more intensive. PLACE NAMES have HIGH notes on both items. NEW INFORMATION is usually highlighted by a HIGH note. MEANING SHIFT can be indicated by the placement of the HIGH intonation in the word or words. DETERMINATION can be indicated by a series of downward FALLING intonation slides.

INTONATION: Intonation involves pitch: stretched vocal cords make for higher pitch; relaxed vocal cords for lower. Pitch can convey additional meaning to speech. Some of these additional

Meanings may simply reflect the lexical information or personal characteristics of the speaker such as surprise or anger. Others can signal grammatical information: a question, a rhetorical question, or a statement that is final. Pitch can change during an utterance and produce different tones. If the change in these tones takes place between syllables, it is called a shift. If it takes place within a syllable, it is called a slide. Intonation patterns are not necessarily fixed, but can vary from speaker to speaker. 1. STATEMENTS

Simple statements of facts or Declarative sentences usually have falling intonation at the end of the sentence.

2.

WH- QUESTIONS

Questions that begin with interrogative words such as what, who, which, why , when , where, and how have a falling pattern at the end of the word.

3. YES-NO QUESTIONS

General questions that may be answered with a yes or no usually rise at the end of the utterance.

4.

ECHO QUESTIONS

Pronouncing a Wh-question with a rising intonation creates an Echo Question. An echo question seems to ask: “Is that really what you said?” or “Could you repeat that?”

5. COMPARISONS AND CONTRASTS With this intonation pattern, two ideas are being compared and receive a higher pitch.

Usually, one item is given an extra high note. It does not seem to matter which item gets the extra emphasis.

.

6.IMPLICIT CONTRASTS Implicit contrasts do not mention the second item to be compared with.

7.NON FINAL INTONATION When a sentence is divided into two thought groups (or more), each thought group has its own intonation pattern. If the end of the group is a rising-falling pattern—up to a high note on the final stress, then down to a low note—then the two sentences are distant or almost separate thoughts.

DISTANT

CLOSE If the group ends on a high note on its final stress, then returns to normal, there is more of a connection between the two sentences.

SUSPENSE If the beginning group ends with a rising pattern, this will create suspense.

8. SERIES WITH AND There is a rising pattern of intonation on all members except the last. On the last item there is rising-falling intonation.

9. ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS Alternative questions require a choice. One of the items must be on an extra high note. It does not seem to matter which one.

10. ALTERNATIVES WITH OR The first and second items of the utterance have rising intonation. The last item has rising –falling intonation. This indicates that the items are intended to be heard as a sequence of items.

11. DOUBLE YES-NO With this type of intonation pattern, the speaker does not necessarily want the listener to make a choice between the two items mentioned. The pattern can either have rising intonation at the end or can have a series of rising intonations.

12. DIRECT ADDRESS Direct address requires starting off on a low note and then rising. Direct address may also come at the end of a sentence.

13. TAG QUESTION REAL. Tag questions begin with words such as aren’t you and will he or she. If the tag is pronounced with a rising pattern, it is a genuine question.

14. TAG QUESTIONS—RHETORICAL Tag questions begin with words such as aren’t you and will he or she. If the tag is pronounced with a rising-falling pattern, it is not a genuine question.

Your’re hungry, aren’t you?

I can speak well, can’t I? 15. FOCUS Attention is focused on the word in a thought group by singling it out with a higher pitch note occurring on the syllable of that word.

Was it you who baked the cake? I took the new course. (Who took the course?) I took the new course. (Did you take the course, or skip it?)

I took the new course. (Did you take the old course or the new one?) 16. PERFUNCTORY Perfunctory intonation indicates no genuine feeling. It is slightly rising-falling intonation.

17. ENTHUSIASM Enthusiastic intonation starts off at a extra-high point and falls.

18. COAXING Coaxing or Persuading intonation begins on a high note, comes down to a low note, and then rises to normal at the end of a sentence.

19. IRONY When a Yes-No question begins on a normal note, then rises to high on the last sentence stress, and returns to normal usually indicates irony.

20. SHOCK Shock can be indicated by an extra high note that seems to intensify the force of the adjective or adverb.

21. SURPRISE Surprise, like shock puts an extra high note on the word that is important.

22. APPROVAL Approval is signalled by an extra high note on the adjective or adverb.

23. PLACE-NAMES To signal an important name of a city or state the following pattern is used.

24. NEW INFORMATION New information tends to take special intonation attention. In English, the new information tends to have higher pitch and is located at the end of the sentence.

25. MEANING SHIFT Nominal compounds and sequences of individual words can be distinguished with the high note that falls on the last sentence-stress.

26. SLIDE If the last sentence-stress and the high note come on the very last syllable, the intonation pattern is a slide or glide rather than a shift.

25. DETRMINED With Determination, a separate stress and a downward slide is given to every word.

LINKING Linking is the connecting of a final sound of one word or syllable to the initial sound of the next word. 90. Linking and /y/ glides

If a word ends in a tense vowel or a diphthong and the next word or syllable begins with a vowel, a /y/ may be inserted.

WORD or PHRASE be able create say it layette my own naïve toy airplane boyish see evil 91. Linking and /w/glides

PHONETIC biyÙeyb@l kriyÙeyt seyÙyIt leyÙyEt mayÙyown nayÙYiyv tOyÙyErpleyn bOyÙyish siyÙyiyv@l

If a word ends in a tense vowel or a diphthong and the next word or syllable begins with a vowel, a /w/ may be inserted.

WORD or PHRASE blue ink Stuart no art Noel How is it? flour tower 144

PHONETIC bluwÙwInk stuwÙwart nowÙwart nowÙwel hawÙwIzIt flawÙw@r tawÙw@r

tour

tuwÙwOr

92.

Glottal stop linking--/?/

If two low tense vowels that do not end in a glide occur, a glottal stop may be inserted between them. WORD or PHRASE spa owners saw Al Pa Adams PHONETIC spa?own@rs saw?n pa?d@mz

93.

Linking and /r/ insertion

If two low tense vowels that do not end in a glide or after /@/, some speaker add an intrusive /r/ sound. WORD or PHRASE spa owners saw Ann vanilla ice cream media event law enforcement lawyer PHONETIC sparown@rs sawr{n v@nIl@raiskriym miyd@r@vEnt lawrEnfOrsm@nt lawryer

145

94.

Linking and Intervocalic Consonants

If a word or syllable ends in a single consonant and is followed by a word with a vowel, the consonant is produced as if it belonged to both words. WORD or PHRASE dog eat dog black and grey Dean Avenue red apple great abs fake air 95. Linking and Resyllabification PHONETIC dOgÙiytdOg bl{kÙ@ndgrey diynÙ{v@nuw redÙ{p@l greyÙt{bz feykÙeyr

If a word ends in a consonant cluster and the next word begins with a vowel, the final cluster is sometimes pronounced as part of the following syllable.

WORD or PHRASE right arm wept over find out pushed up lasting adaptable sprint over

PHONETIC ray/t{rm wEp/towv@r fayn/dawt pUS/t@p l{s/tIÎ @d{p/t@b@l sprIn/tOv@r

96.

Linking and Consonant Elongation

146

If two identical consonants are next to each other, the single consonant is elongated and not just produced twice.

WORD or PHRASE stop pushing short time quick cure classroom management rob Bill bad dog big gap less cereal 97. Linking and Unreleased

PHONETIC stap:USI Î Sort:aym kwIk:y@r kl{sruwm:{n@Dm@nt rab:Il b{d:Og bIg:{p lEs:@riy@l

If a stop consonant is followed by a stop or an affricate, the first stop is unreleased.

WORD or PHRASE pet cat black board good jury soap dish big dipper big church piture

PHONETIC pet§k{t bl{k §bOrd gUd§D@riy sowp§dIS bIg§dIp@r bIg§ T@rT pIt§tSUr

DELETION In this form of adjustment in speech, sounds are omitted.

147

98. Deletion in Medial Position • • If a word has /nt/ between two vowels or before syllabic /l/ ,it can be deleted. If a word has /t/ or /d/ as the second members of a triple cluster, it can be deleted. WORD or PHRASE winter Toronto enter mantle restless exactly windmill hands PHONETIC wIn@r t@ranow En@r m{n@l rEsl@s egs{liy wInmIl h{nz

99.

Deletion in Final Position

148

If a word ends with /t/ or /d/ in a cluster, and the following word begins in a consonant, /t/ or /d/ may be deleted. WORD or PHRASE east side blind man wild boar told Steve Exceptions: 1. If the second word begins with a /w/, /h/, /y/, or /r/ there is no deletion. WORD or PHRASE east hill blind youth wild ride the west won PHONETIC iysthIl blayndyuwT wayldrayd D@wEstw@n PHONETIC iysayd blaynm{n waylbOr tOlstiyv

2. In some consonant cluster ending with /nt/ ,/lt/, /rt/, or /rd/ there is no deletion. WORD or PHRASE plant food felt pen bird feeder shortstop fast food PHONETIC pl{ntfuwd fEltpEn b@rdfiyd@r Sortstap f{stfuwd

100.Deletion and Syncope If a multisyllabic word has an unstressed medial vowel /@/ or /I/ following a stressed syllable, they can optionally drop out.

149

WORD or PHRASE chocolate every history vegetable laboratory different beverage emerald 101. Deletion of initial syllable

PHONETIC tSa2wkl@t E2vriy hI2striy vE2gt@b@l la2br@tOriy dI2frEnt bE2vr@dZ E2mr@ld

If a word begins with an unstressed vowel or syllable, it may be deleted in informal speech.. This is also called aphesis. WORD or PHRASE because about around esquire PHONETIC k@z bawt rawnd skwayr

102.

Deletion of noninitial /r/

If a word contains two /r/ sounds, the second /r/ is sometimes deleted.

WORD or PHRASE February governor surprise temperature

PHONETIC fEbyuwEriy g@vnOr s@prayz tEmp@tSUr

150

103.

Deletion of Final /v/

Before words with initial consonants, /v/ may be reduced to /@/. WORD or PHRASE lots of luck waste of time hearts of palm ace of spades PHONETIC lats@l@k weyst@taym harts@palm eys@speydz

104.

Deletion of initial /h/

In connected speech, /h/ when in a pronominal form.

WORD or PHRASE ask her ask him help her help him get her get him

PHONET IC {sk@r {skIm hElp@r hElpIm get@r gEtIm

105.

Deletion and /D/ 151

In connected speech, /D/ may be deleted in pronominal forms. WORD or PHRASE ask them tell them help them get them PHONETIC {skEm tElEm hElpEm gEtEm

Assimilation If one sound causes changes in a neighboring sound, this is called assimilation. It can occur in words or between words. 106. Progressive Assimilation

If the first sound affects the following sound, this is known as progressive assimilation. WORD or PHRASE 1.guessed 2.bags 3.backs 4.moved 5.fished 6.it is  it’s 7.had to  had a PHONETIC gEst b{gZ b{ks mUvd fISt It Iz  Its h{d tuw  h{d@

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

/d/ is devoiced to/ t/ by the / s/ /s/ is voiced to /z/ by the /g/ /s/ is devoiced to /s/ by the /k/ /d/ is voiced to /d/ by the /v/ /t/ is devoiced to /t/ by the /S/ /s/ is voiced to /t/ by vowel /I/ /d/ affects /t/

107.

Regressive Assimilation

In regressive assimilation, the second sound influences the characteristics of the first sound. WORD or PHRASE 1. have to 2. has to 3. used to 4. impossible 5. horseshoe 6. his shirt 7. good boy 8. pet kitten 9. He’s in pain 10. Be on guard 11. give me a call 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. /t/ causes /v/ to devoice to /f/ /t/ causes /z/ to devoice to /s/ /t/ causes /d/ to devoice to /t/ /p/ makes negation take /m/ /s/ becomes /S/ 153 PHONETIC h{vtuw  h{ft@ h{z tuw  h{st@ yuwzdtuw yuwst@ Impas@b@l hOrSuw hISIrt gUbOy pEkIt@N hiyzImpeyn biyaÎ@rd gImiy@kOl

6. /z/ becomes /S/ 7. /d/ becomes /b/ 8. /t/ becomes /k/ 9. /n/ becomes /p/ 10. /n/ becomes /Î/

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Palatalization Assimilation

In coalescent assimilation( or palatalization), two sounds come together to create a third sound. WORD or PHRASE 1. issue 2. pleasure 3.stature 4. He lets you talk 5. procedure 6. She needs your advice PHONETIC ISuw plEZy@r st{tSy@r hiylEtSyuwtOk prowsiydZy@r SiyniydZy@r{dvays

EPENTHESIS This adjustment involves insertion of a vowel or consonant into an existing word 109. Epenthesis

WORD or PHRASE 1.places buzzes 154

PHONETIC pleys@z buz@z

2.planted handed 3.prince 4.tense 5.since 6.comfort 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. schwa inserted schwa inserted /t/ inserted /t/ inserted /t/ inserted /p/ inserted Dissimilation

pl{nt@d h{nd@d prInts tEnts sints compfort

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Dissimilation occurs when two adjacent sounds become more different from one another. WORD or PHRASE fifths sixths Fifth Steet PHONETIC fIfTs  fIfts sIksTs  sIks fIfTstriyt fiStriyt

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Perfect Pronunciation Through Poetry Steven Donahue Teachers have all lamented the crazy arbitrariness of English spelling and pronunciation. In “My Fair Lady,” George Bernard Shaw pled for spelling reform with the word 'GHOTI" arguing GH as in "rough" + O as in "women" +TI as in "nation" = GHOTI = "fish." In the same vein, here are some poems which can be used in the language classroom to understand the spoken patterns of English.

The New Colossus Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor, that twin cities frame. "Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-post to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!" Emma Lazarus, New York City, 1883 Cough and Dough I take it you already know Of tough and bough and cough and dough. Others may stumble but not you, On hiccough, through, lough and through. Well done! And now you wish, perhaps, To learn of less familiar traps. Beware of heard, a dreadful word That looks like beard and sounds like bird, And dead--it's said like bed, not bead. For goodness's sake, don't call it deed!

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Watch out for meat and great and threat: They rhyme with suite and straight and debt. A moth is not a moth in mother, Nor both in bother, broth in brother, And here is not a match for there, Nor dear and fear for bear and pear, And then there's dose and rose and lose-Just look them up--and goose and choose, And cork and work and card and ward, And font and front and word and sword, And do and go and thwart and cart. Come, come, I've hardly made a start. A dreadful language? Man alive, I'd mastered it when I was five.

THE CHAOS

Dearest creature in creation, Study English pronunciation. I will teach you in my verse Sounds like corpse, corps, horse, and worse. I will keep you, Suzy, busy, Make your head with heat grow dizzy. Tear in eye, your dress will tear. So shall I! Oh hear my prayer. Pray console your loving poet, Make my coat look new, dear sew it. Just compare heart, beard, and heard, Dies and diet, lord and word, Sword and sward, retain and Britain. (Mind the latter, how it's written.) Now I surely will not plague you With such words as plaque and ague. But be careful how you speak: Say break and steak, but bleak and streak;

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Cloven, oven, how and low, Script, receipt, show, poem, and toe. Hear me say, devoid of trickery, Daughter, laughter, and Terpsichore, Typhoid, measles, topsails, aisles, Exiles, similes, and reviles; Scholar, vicar, and cigar, Solar, mica, war and far; One, anemone, Balmoral, Kitchen, lichen, laundry, laurel; Gertrude, German, wind and mind, Scene, Melpomene, mankind. Billet does not rhyme with ballet, Bouquet, wallet, mallet, chalet. Blood and flood are not like food, Nor is mould like should and would. Viscous, viscount, load and broad, Toward, to forward, to reward. And your pronunciation's OK When you correctly say croquet, Rounded, wounded, grieve and sieve, Friend and fiend, alive and live. Ivy, privy, famous; clamour And enamour rhyme with hammer. River, rival, tomb, bomb, comb, Doll and roll and some and home. Stranger does not rhyme with anger, Neither does devour with clangour. Souls but foul, haunt but aunt, Font, front, wont, want, grand, and grant, Shoes, goes, does. Now first say finger, And then singer, ginger, linger, Real, zeal, mauve, gauze, gouge and gauge, Marriage, foliage, mirage, and age. Query does not rhyme with very, Nor does fury sound like bury. Dost, lost, post and doth, cloth, loth. Job, nob, bosom, transom, oath. Though the differences seem little, We say actual but victual. Refer does not rhyme with deafer. Feoffer does, and zephyr, heifer.

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Mint, pint, senate and sedate; Dull, bull, and George ate late. Scenic, Arabic, Pacific, Science, conscience, scientific. Liberty, library, heave and heaven, Rachel, ache, moustache, eleven. We say hallowed, but allowed, People, leopard, towed, but vowed. Mark the differences, moreover, Between mover, cover, clover; Leeches, breeches, wise, precise, Chalice, but police and lice; Camel, constable, unstable, Principle, disciple, label. Petal, panel, and canal, Wait, surprise, plait, promise, pal. Worm and storm, chaise, chaos, chair, Senator, spectator, mayor. Tour, but our and succour, four. Gas, alas, and Arkansas. Sea, idea, Korea, area, Psalm, Maria, but malaria. Youth, south, southern, cleanse and clean. Doctrine, turpentine, marine. Compare alien with Italian, Dandelion and battalion. Sally with ally, yea, ye, Eye, I, ay, aye, whey, and key. Say aver, but ever, fever, Neither, leisure, skein, deceiver. Heron, granary, canary. Crevice and device and aerie. Face, but preface, not efface. Phlegm, phlegmatic, ass, glass, bass. Large, but target, gin, give, verging, Ought, out, joust and scour, scourging. Ear, but earn and wear and tear Do not rhyme with here but ere. Seven is right, but so is even, Hyphen, roughen, nephew Stephen, Monkey, donkey, Turk and jerk, Ask, grasp, wasp, and cork and work.

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Pronunciation -- think of Psyche! Is a paling stout and spikey? Won't it make you lose your wits, Writing groats and saying grits? It's a dark abyss or tunnel: Strewn with stones, stowed, solace, gunwale, Islington and Isle of Wight, Housewife, verdict and indict. Finally, which rhymes with enough -Though, through, plough, or dough, or cough? Hiccough has the sound of cup. My advice is to give up!!! OUGH

I'm taught p-l-o-u-g-h Shall be pronounced "Plow." "Zat's easy when you know," I say, "Mon Anglais I'll get through." My teacher say zat in zat case O-u-g-h is "oo." And zen I laugh and say to him "Zees Anglais make me cough." He say, "Not coo, but in zat word O-u-g-h is `off.'" O sacre bleu! Such varied sound Of words make me hiccough. He says, "Again my friend is wrong; O-u-g-h is `uff.'" I say, "I try to spik your words, I can't pronounce them, though." "In time you'll learn, but now you're wrong; O-u-g-h is `owe'!" "I'll try no more, I shall go mad, I'll drown me in ze lough." Teaching Pronunciation with Mother Goose Rhymes

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By Steven Donahue Story and verse are a primary way that English children absorb the linguistic lessons of their first language. Embedded in the seemingly simple rhymes are complex language patterns about intonation, rhythm, stress, and individual vowels and consonants. In this paper, the various ways that Mother Goose Rhymes can be used in the English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom are explored. By pointing out these linguistic phenomena to ESL learners, they will be better able to sort out the seeming inconsistencies of what they are hearing in the real English speaking world.

Practice of P, T, K [rule: difference between voiced and voiceless stops and aspiration of initial voiceless stops] Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake, baker’s man! So I will, master, as fast as I can; Pat it, and prick it, and mark it with T, Put it in the oven for Tommy and me. With Pat-a-Cake, the student is told to focus on pronouncing the voiceless stop series : P, T, K. The student is shown how P is pronounced fully in the front of the mouth with both lips ; T is pronounced with the tip of the tongue touching just behind the front teeth; and K is pronounced with the back of the tongue touching the roof of the mouth. For most students it is not necessary to invoke the precise terminology such as bilabial, alveolar, or velar. The student is told to focus on the voiceless pattern of the sounds P, T, K as compared to their twin voiced sounds B, D, G. A second pattern that can be demonstrated with this rhyme is the aspiration that occurs after the voiced stops P, T, K. Students can hold a piece of paper close to their lips while reciting the poem and watch the paper move from the aspirated air. Linking [ rule: If a word or syllable ends in a single consonant and is followed by a word with a vowel, the consonant is produced as if it belonged to both words] Jack be nimble,

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And Jack be quick; And Jack jump over The candlestick. Linking is a linguistic phenomena where the end of one word starts the beginning of a second word. In this Mother Goose Rhyme, “jump over” actually sounds like “JUM” and “POVER”. This is no small issue for second language learners who may run to the dictionary trying to look up a non-existent “Pover”. Here, the linking rule is gone over so that the student understands that it occurs with words that end in other consonants. Examples include “gone over” GO NOVER; “stop it” STO PIT, and “bug off”  BU GOFF.

Tapped T [ rule: when double “t” comes in the middle of a word, it sounds somewhat like a quickly tapped “d”] [rule: if a word has /t/ or /d/ as a second member of a triple cluster, it can be deleted] Come, butter, come Come, butter, come! Peter stands at the gate, Waiting for a buttered cake; Come, butter, come. The accent of many foreigners is partly exhibited by the hypercorrect pronunciation of certain words. Here the word “butter” sounds like “budder” and the word “waiting” sounds like “wading”. Few native speakers would pronounce the “t” sound in the middle of this word. At times it is revelatory for the ESL student to realize that they are correctly hearing the “d” sound and not the spelling convention “t”. A second pronunciation point in this short poem is the line “Peter stands at the gate”. Here, native speakers will delete the “d” sound so that it sounds like “Stan’s”. This is is a common adjustment that native speakers use to more easily handle challenging consonant clusters such as “n-d-s”. Other common examples of this occur with the words “winter” as “winner” , “printer” as “prinner” and “ Atlanta” as “Adlana”.

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TH [T] and TH [D] [ rule: differentiate between voiced and voiceless TH] [ rule: function words are unstressed, unless at the end of a sentence] One misty, moisty morning, When cloudy was the weather, There I met an old man Clothed all in leather; Clothed all in leather, With cap under his chin— How do you do, and how do you do, And how do you do again? Have students count the voiced and voiceless occurrences of TH. There are six voiced TH sounds and one voiceless TH sound. A second point in this short rhyme is the difference between the two “do’s” in “how do you do” . The stress falls on the second “do” not the first. Have students recite the rhyme reversing the stress to see if it sounds funny to them. Point out that the vowel in the first “do” is reduced to schwa @ sounds like “duh”. Here the first “do” is an unstressed auxiliary while the second “do” is stressed because it falls at the end of a sentence. This is a basic rule in English: Content Words that have a meaning in and of themselves are stressed (dog, run, December) ; Function Words with mostly grammatical meanings are unstressed (for, a, who). Double Consonants [ rule: If two identical consonants are next to each other, the single consonant is elongated and not just produced twice] Star bright, starlight, First star I’ve seen tonight. Wish I may, wish I might, Have the wish I wish tonight.

The mainpoint about this wonderful rhyme is that “first star” is not produced as two

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separate sounds “first” and then “star” . The sounds run together as “firsstar”. The consonant is almost imperceptibly lengthened. This happens frequently in English when the final consonant is the same as the beginning consonant of the next word. For example: “bad dog” is “baddog” or “ less serious” is “lesserious”. Intonation in a Series [rule: the first two items of a series rise and the last falls] [rule: Wh-questions fall ; Yes-No questions rise at the end] Bow, wow, wow! Whose dog art thou? Little Tom Tinker’s dog. Bow, wow, wow! This rhyme exhibits two patterns. First, the fun-to-say series “bow, wow, wow” has a rise on the first two items and a fall on the last “wow”. Second, the question, “ Whose dog art thou? follows the falling pattern of Wh-questions. Only Yes-No questions rise at the end. So the falling pattern of the final “wow” parallels the falling pattern after “thou.”

Intonation Hush-a-bye, baby, on the treetop, When the wind blows, the cradle will rock; When the bough bends, the cradle will fall. Down will come baby, bough, cradle, and all. ESL classes are sometimes pleasantly startled to hear this rhyme sung, as if to a baby. It’s important to really get into it and demonstrate the uninhibited sound patterns. The lengthening on “baby” , “blows” “bends” contrasts nicely with the relative shortness of “treetop”, “rock”, and “fall”. The intonation falls at the end of the sentences which fits with the meaning of the words. In the final line “baby” is again long while “bough, cradle, and all” is crushed together and reduced to “bowcrdlnall” so that it is virtually the same length as the endings of the previous three stanzas. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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