Conic Sections Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

Institute of Mathematics, University of the Philippines Diliman

Mathematics 54–Elementary Analysis 2

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Hyperbola

The set of all points in a plane whose distances from the two fixed points (focuses/foci) have a constant difference.

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Hyperbola

The set of all points in a plane whose distances from the two fixed points (focuses/foci) have a constant difference.

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Hyperbola

The set of all points in a plane whose distances from the two fixed points (focuses/foci) have a constant difference.

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Hyperbola

The set of all points in a plane whose distances from the two fixed points (focuses/foci) have a constant difference.

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola

Foci : F1 = (c, 0) and F2 = (−c, 0)

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola

Foci : F1 = (c, 0) and F2 = (−c, 0) Vertices : V1 = (a, 0) and V2 = (−a, 0)

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola

Foci : F1 = (c, 0) and F2 = (−c, 0) Vertices : V1 = (a, 0) and V2 = (−a, 0) From the above figure and from the definition of the hyperbola we have (x + c)2 + y 2 − (x − c)2 + y 2 = constant

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola

Foci : F1 = (c, 0) and F2 = (−c, 0) Vertices : V1 = (a, 0) and V2 = (−a, 0) From the above figure and from the definition of the hyperbola we have (x + c)2 + y 2 − (x − c)2 + y 2 = 2a

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola
Simplifying, we get y2 − 2 =1 a2 c − a2 x2

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola
Simplifying, we get y2 − 2 =1 a2 c − a2 x2

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola
Simplifying, we get y2 − 2 =1 a2 c − a2 x2

Since a < c

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola
Simplifying, we get y2 − 2 =1 a2 c − a2 x2

Since a < c , we can let b2 = c2 − a2 .

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola
Simplifying, we get y2 − 2 =1 a2 c − a2 x2

Since a < c , we can let b2 = c2 − a2 . Thus x2 a2 y2 − 2 =1 b

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola
Simplifying, we get y2 − 2 =1 a2 c − a2 x2

Since a < c , we can let b2 = c2 − a2 . Thus x2 a2 y2 − 2 =1 b

Note that the rectangle formed above is called the auxillary rectangle of the hyperbola.
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Equation of a Hyperbola
If we solve for y in terms of x we get x2 b2 a2 − b2

y=±

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola
If we solve for y in terms of x we get x2 b2 a2 − b2

y=±
b b Consider the lines y = a x and y = − a x.

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola
If we solve for y in terms of x we get x2 b2 a2 − b2

y=±

b b Consider the lines y = a x and y = − a x. Verify the following:

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola
If we solve for y in terms of x we get x2 b2 a2 − b2

y=±

b b Consider the lines y = a x and y = − a x. Verify the following:

±
x→+∞

x2 b2 a2 b ± x a

− b2 =1

lim

±
x→−∞

x2 b2 a2 b x a

− b2 =1

lim

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola
If we solve for y in terms of x we get x2 b2 a2 − b2

y=±

b b Consider the lines y = a x and y = − a x. Verify the following:

±
x→+∞

x2 b2 a2 b ± x a

− b2 =1

lim

±
x→−∞

x2 b2 a2 b x a

− b2 =1

lim

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola
If we solve for y in terms of x we get x2 b2 a2 − b2

y=±

b b Consider the lines y = a x and y = − a x. Verify the following:

±
x→+∞

x2 b2 a2 b ± x a

− b2 =1

lim

±
x→−∞

x2 b2 a2 b x a

− b2 =1

lim

b Hence, the lines y = ± a x serve as asymptotes of the hyperbola.
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Equation of a Hyperbola
In general a hyperbola centered at the origin has form:

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola
In general a hyperbola centered at the origin has form: x2 a2 y2 − 2 =1 b

Foci (±c, 0) = (± a2 + b2 , 0) Vertices (±a, 0)

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Equation of a Hyperbola
In general a hyperbola centered at the origin has form: y2 − 2 =1 2 a b x2 x2 − 2 =1 b2 a y2

Foci (±c, 0) = (± a2 + b2 , 0) Vertices (±a, 0)

Foci (0, ±c) = (0, ± a2 + b2 ) Vertices (0, ±b)
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Examples
Example 1. Find the foci of the hyperbola given by the equation x2 − y 2 = 4. 9 Then sketch its graph.

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Examples
Example 1. Find the foci of the hyperbola given by the equation x2 − y 2 = 4. 9 Then sketch its graph. Solution: The hyperbola can be expressed as x2 y 2 − =1 36 4

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Examples
Example 1. Find the foci of the hyperbola given by the equation x2 − y 2 = 4. 9 Then sketch its graph. Solution: The hyperbola can be expressed as x2 y 2 − =1 36 4 So a = 6 and b = 2.

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Examples
Example 1. Find the foci of the hyperbola given by the equation x2 − y 2 = 4. 9 Then sketch its graph. Solution: The hyperbola can be expressed as x2 y 2 − =1 36 4 So a = 6 and b = 2. Then c = a2 + b2 = 36 + 4 = 2 10.

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Examples
Example 1. Find the foci of the hyperbola given by the equation x2 − y 2 = 4. 9 Then sketch its graph. Solution: The hyperbola can be expressed as x2 y 2 − =1 36 4 So a = 6 and b = 2. Then c = a2 + b2 = 36 + 4 = 2 10. Hence, F : (±2 10, 0) insert graph here

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Examples

Example 2. Find the equation of the vertical hyperbola centered at the origin with a vertex at (0, 3) and a focus at (0, 4). Then sketch its graph.

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Examples

Example 2. Find the equation of the vertical hyperbola centered at the origin with a vertex at (0, 3) and a focus at (0, 4). Then sketch its graph. Solution: ⇒ b = 3 and c = 4.

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Examples

Example 2. Find the equation of the vertical hyperbola centered at the origin with a vertex at (0, 3) and a focus at (0, 4). Then sketch its graph. Solution: ⇒ b = 3 and c = 4. So a = c2 − b2

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Examples

Example 2. Find the equation of the vertical hyperbola centered at the origin with a vertex at (0, 3) and a focus at (0, 4). Then sketch its graph. Solution: ⇒ b = 3 and c = 4. So a = c2 − b2 = 16 − 9 =

7.

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Examples

Example 2. Find the equation of the vertical hyperbola centered at the origin with a vertex at (0, 3) and a focus at (0, 4). Then sketch its graph. Solution: ⇒ b = 3 and c = 4. So a = c2 − b2 = 16 − 9 = 7. Thus, the hyperbola has the equation y 2 x2 − =1 9 7 insert graph here

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Equation of a Hyperbola
In general, we may consider a hyperbola with either a vertical or a horizontal transverse axis centered at the point (h, k).

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola
In general, we may consider a hyperbola with either a vertical or a horizontal transverse axis centered at the point (h, k). Then, the hyperbola has the form

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola
In general, we may consider a hyperbola with either a vertical or a horizontal transverse axis centered at the point (h, k). Then, the hyperbola has the form

(x − h)2 a2

(y − k)2 b2

=1

Foci (h ± a2 + b2 , k)

Vertices (h ± a, k)

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Equation of a Hyperbola
In general, we may consider a hyperbola with either a vertical or a horizontal transverse axis centered at the point (h, k). Then, the hyperbola has the form (y − k)2 (x − h)2 a2 − (y − k)2 b2 =1 b2 (x − h)2 a2

=1

a<b Foci Foci (h ± a2 + b2 , k) Vertices (h ± a, k) (h, k ± c) = (h, k ± Vertices (h, k ± b)
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a2 + b2 )

Equation of a Hyperbola

Example Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and (3, 1).

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola

Example Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and (3, 1). Solution:

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola

Example Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and (3, 1). Solution:
3 The desired hyperbola is centered at ( 2 , 1) so h = 3 and k = 1. 2

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola

Example Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and (3, 1). Solution:
3 The desired hyperbola is centered at ( 2 , 1) so h = 3 and k = 1. 2 3 The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is 2 .

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola

Example Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and (3, 1). Solution:
3 The desired hyperbola is centered at ( 2 , 1) so h = 3 and k = 1. 2 3 The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is 2 .

The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is 5 . 2

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola

Example Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and (3, 1). Solution:
3 The desired hyperbola is centered at ( 2 , 1) so h = 3 and k = 1. 2 3 The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is 2 .

The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is 5 . 2 Now, b2 = c2 + a2 = 16 = 4. 4

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola

Example Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and (3, 1). Solution:
3 The desired hyperbola is centered at ( 2 , 1) so h = 3 and k = 1. 2 3 The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is 2 .

The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is 5 . 2 Now, b2 = c2 + a2 = 16 = 4. Hence, the desired equation is 4

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Equation of a Hyperbola

Example Find the equation of the hyperbola with foci (−1, 1) and (4, 1) and vertices (0, 1) and (3, 1). Solution:
3 The desired hyperbola is centered at ( 2 , 1) so h = 3 and k = 1. 2 3 The value of a is the distance from the center to a vertex, which in this case is 2 .

The value of c is the distance of a focus to the center which is inthis case is 5 . 2 Now, b2 = c2 + a2 = 16 = 4. Hence, the desired equation is 4 (x − 3 )2 2
3 2 2

(y − 1)2 (2)2

=1

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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For the parabola, we define the eccentricity e to be e = 1.

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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For the parabola, we define the eccentricity e to be e = 1. For the ellipse and hyperbola, we define eccentricity to be e= distance between foci distance between vertices

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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For the parabola, we define the eccentricity e to be e = 1. For the ellipse and hyperbola, we define eccentricity to be e= distance between foci distance between vertices

Hence, we have

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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For the parabola, we define the eccentricity e to be e = 1. For the ellipse and hyperbola, we define eccentricity to be e= distance between foci distance between vertices

Hence, we have 0<e<1 ellipse

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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For the parabola, we define the eccentricity e to be e = 1. For the ellipse and hyperbola, we define eccentricity to be e= distance between foci distance between vertices

Hence, we have 0<e<1 e=1 ellipse parabola

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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For the parabola, we define the eccentricity e to be e = 1. For the ellipse and hyperbola, we define eccentricity to be e= distance between foci distance between vertices

Hence, we have 0<e<1 e=1 e>1 ellipse parabola hyperbola

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Consider the ellipse

(x − h)2 a2

+

(y − k)2 b2

= 1.

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Consider the ellipse

(x − h)2 a2

+

(y − k)2 b2

= 1.

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Consider the ellipse

(x − h)2 a2

+

(y − k)2 b2

= 1.

The lines perpendicular to the major axis of this ellipse at distances ± a from the e center are the directrices of this ellipse.

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Consider the ellipse

(x − h)2 a2

+

(y − k)2 b2

= 1.

The lines perpendicular to the major axis of this ellipse at distances ± a from the e center are the directrices of this ellipse. Let D1 be the directrix nearest the focus F1 and let D2 be the directrix nearest the focus F2 .

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Consider the ellipse

(x − h)2 a2

+

(y − k)2 b2

= 1.

The lines perpendicular to the major axis of this ellipse at distances ± a from the e center are the directrices of this ellipse. Let D1 be the directrix nearest the focus F1 and let D2 be the directrix nearest the focus F2 .

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Consider the ellipse

(x − h)2 a2

+

(y − k)2 b2

= 1.

The lines perpendicular to the major axis of this ellipse at distances ± a from the e center are the directrices of this ellipse. Let D1 be the directrix nearest the focus F1 and let D2 be the directrix nearest the focus F2 . This pairing of the foci and the directrices will be refered to as the focus-directrix pairing.
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PF1

=

(x + c)2 + y 2

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PF1

= =

(x + c)2 + y 2 b2 (x + ae)2 + b2 − 2 x2 a

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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PF1

= =

(x + c)2 + y 2 b2 (x + ae)2 + b2 − 2 x2 a a2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 − b2 x2 a2

=

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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PF1

= =

(x + c)2 + y 2 b2 (x + ae)2 + b2 − 2 x2 a a2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 − b2 x2 a2 c2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 a2

=

=

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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PF1

= =

(x + c)2 + y 2 b2 (x + ae)2 + b2 − 2 x2 a a2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 − b2 x2 a2 c2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 a2 a2 e2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 a2

=

=

=

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PF1

= =

(x + c)2 + y 2 b2 (x + ae)2 + b2 − 2 x2 a a2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 − b2 x2 a2 c2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 a2 a2 e2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 a2 e2 x2 + 2aex + a2 e2 + b2

=

=

= =

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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PF1

= =

(x + c)2 + y 2 b2 (x + ae)2 + b2 − 2 x2 a a2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 − b2 x2 a2 c2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 a2 a2 e2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 a2 e2 x2 + 2aex + a2 e2 + b2 e2 x2 + 2aex + c2 + b2

=

=

= = =

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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PF1

= =

(x + c)2 + y 2 b2 (x + ae)2 + b2 − 2 x2 a a2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 − b2 x2 a2 c2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 a2 a2 e2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 a2 e2 x2 + 2aex + a2 e2 + b2 e2 x2 + 2aex + c2 + b2 e2 x2 + 2aex + a2

=

=

= = = =

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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PF1

= =

(x + c)2 + y 2 b2 (x + ae)2 + b2 − 2 x2 a a2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 − b2 x2 a2 c2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 a2 a2 e2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 a2 e2 x2 + 2aex + a2 e2 + b2 e2 x2 + 2aex + c2 + b2 e2 x2 + 2aex + a2 e a a 2 x2 + 2 x + e e

=

=

= = = = =

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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PF1

= =

(x + c)2 + y 2 b2 (x + ae)2 + b2 − 2 x2 a a2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 − b2 x2 a2 c2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 a2 a2 e2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 a2 e2 x2 + 2aex + a2 e2 + b2 e2 x2 + 2aex + c2 + b2 e2 x2 + 2aex + a2 e a a 2 x2 + 2 x + =e e e x− − a 2 e

=

=

= = = = =

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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PF1

= =

(x + c)2 + y 2 b2 (x + ae)2 + b2 − 2 x2 a a2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 − b2 x2 a2 c2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 a2 a2 e2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 a2 e2 x2 + 2aex + a2 e2 + b2 e2 x2 + 2aex + c2 + b2 e2 x2 + 2aex + a2 e a a 2 x2 + 2 x + =e e e x− − a 2 a =e x− − e e

=

=

= = = = =

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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PF1

= =

(x + c)2 + y 2 b2 (x + ae)2 + b2 − 2 x2 a a2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 − b2 x2 a2 c2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 a2 a2 e2 x2 + 2a3 ex + a4 e2 + a2 b2 a2 e2 x2 + 2aex + a2 e2 + b2 e2 x2 + 2aex + c2 + b2 e2 x2 + 2aex + a2 e a a 2 x2 + 2 x + =e e e x− − a 2 a =e x− − e e = e · PD1

=

=

= = = = =

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Thus, if P is a point on the ellipse

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Thus, if P is a point on the ellipse then PF1 = e · PD1

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Thus, if P is a point on the ellipse then PF1 = e · PD1 PF2 = e · PD2

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Consider the hyperbola

(x − h)2 a2

(y − k)2 b2

= 1.

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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= 1. a2 b2 The lines perpendicular to the transverse axis of this hyperbola at distances ± a e from the center are the directrices of this ellipse. −

Consider the hyperbola

(x − h)2

(y − k)2

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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= 1. a2 b2 The lines perpendicular to the transverse axis of this hyperbola at distances ± a e from the center are the directrices of this ellipse. − Let D1 be the directrix nearest the focus F1 and let D2 be the directrix nearest the focus F2 .

Consider the hyperbola

(x − h)2

(y − k)2

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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= 1. a2 b2 The lines perpendicular to the transverse axis of this hyperbola at distances ± a e from the center are the directrices of this ellipse. − Let D1 be the directrix nearest the focus F1 and let D2 be the directrix nearest the focus F2 . This pairing of the foci and the directrices will be refered to as the focus-directrix pairing.

Consider the hyperbola

(x − h)2

(y − k)2

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Similarly, if P is a point on the ellipse

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Similarly, if P is a point on the ellipse then PF1 = e · PD1 PF2 = e · PD2

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Hence, for any focus-directrix pair in an ellipse, hyperbola or parabola we have the following equation

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Hence, for any focus-directrix pair in an ellipse, hyperbola or parabola we have the following equation PF = e · PD

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Hence, for any focus-directrix pair in an ellipse, hyperbola or parabola we have the following equation PF = e · PD this equation is refered to as the focus-directrix equation.

Hyperbola and Focus-Directrix Equation

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Exercises

1

Identify the following conic sections and determine their eccentricity:
a. b. c. d. e. 2x2 − 3y 2 + 4x + 6y − 1 = 0 2x2 + 3y 2 + 16x − 18y − 53 = 0 9x + y 2 + 4y − 5 = 0 4x2 − x = y 2 + 1 7y − y 2 − x = 0

2

Determine the equation of the parabola whose focus and vertex are the vertex and focus, respectively of the parabola with equation x + 4y 2 − y = 0. Let M = 3. Determine the equations of the hyperbola and ellipse having (±2, 1) as the foci and M as the length of the conjugate axis and minor axis, respectively.

3

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