You are on page 1of 23

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 1

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders

Giorgio Varlaro Saint John Fisher College

Prepared for Dr. John Rosenberry Comm 420Senior Seminar April 15, 2008

Author Contact Information Email: gvv02865@sjfc.edu Cell phone: (315) 794-9117

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 2

Table of Contents
I. Abstract 3

II.

Introduction

4-6

III.

Literature Review

6-13

IV.

Method

13-16

V.

Results/Findings

16-20

VI.

Discussion

20-22

VII.

Conclusion

22

VIII.

Work Cited

22-23

List of Figures
Figure 1 Sales of Digital Video Recorders 2 Digital Video Recorders Survey 3 Information Adoption of DVR 4 Adoption Rate of DVR 10 15-16 17 18

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 3

I.

Abstract
Innovations, specifically technological innovations which pass through stages of adoptions,

relate to the Diffusion Theory by means through time. A recent innovation, the digital video recorder, a device which allows users to fast-forward commercials, is a device in the American culture which has passed through stages of adoption since its inception in the late 1990s. Because research has not yet been done on how, why, and at what rate the digital video recorder spread, evidence is needed on this topic to see what types of stages this technological innovation has gone through since being on the consumer market. To find this specific information a quantitative analysis was done in Rochester, New York. With the Diffusion Theory in mind to cover the correct type of information needed, a survey was distributed thus trying to figure out how, why, and at what rate the digital video recorder spread. The findings from the survey show in relation to Diffusion Theory, there is quantitative evidence which shows percentages of how, why, and at what rate digital video recorders spread. In the Rochester area, the information pertaining to what the digital video recorder is, and what it can do was spread through the word of mouth, television, and the internet. In dealing with the rate digital video recorders spread, the most common years of adoption occurred specifically in the calendar years of 2006 and 2007, where respectively 32% and 27% of individuals chose to purchase a digital video recorder. Why individuals adopted this technology pertained to the convenience the device allowed, and allowing users to not change their lifestyle, thus not having television run their life.

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 4

II.

Introduction
Advertisers and networks have worked closely together on what is portrayed during a

telecast ever since the medium of television has existed. Through the evolution of this medium, viewers from all over the world have learned to trust television as an information source. With consumers trust in this specific medium, it allowed innovators of television to produce new technology which would enhance the consumer device. As the enhanced consumer device made its way into the households of millions through time, some type of research needed to be done on how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread. Everett Rogers, a mass communications theorist in the 1940s and 50s, not convinced by the two-step flow theory realized that the media in general were becoming more and more pervasive as television became more popular (Rogers, 1983). Rogers eventually discovered that people were more likely to receive information from media rather than other sources (Rogers, 1983). The research Rogers would gather trying to disprove the two-step flow theory would eventually lead him to his Diffusion Theory. The Diffusion Theory is described as the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system (Rogers, 1983). As well, the Diffusion Theory demonstrates through research that when new innovations are available to a population, they will pass through a series of stages on their way to becoming adopted (Rogers, 1983). With it known that new technology passes through stages of adoption, an innovation, the digital video recorder has to be researched on how, why, and at what rate this new technology spread. Digital Video Recorders, were released in the United States during 1999, and allow users to choose what they want to see and examine over the television networks with just the click of a button (Sebor, 2006). A Digital Video Recorder, produced as a consumer device which allows

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 5 owners to record television programs, is an example of a new innovation in technology. This product founded by Michael Ramsay and Thomas Rogers, allows media consumers to select more different types of information sources, and watch them in a shorter amount of time, thus potentially giving the user more information than previously allowed (Reading, Bellman, Varan & Winzar, 2006). This feature, allowed only by digital video recorders, gives users more of an active role in choosing and using media since it can be recorded with the click of a button. Because of this convenient invention, the digital video recorder, there is potential research needed to show how and why consumers want to buy digital video recorders, and how long it took this device to circulate through television households. A survey will be administered to owners of digital video recorders located in Rochester, New York, with the hopes of finding quality evidence which will reiterate the point, with the Diffusion Theory in mind, of how, why, and at what rate digital video recorders spread. Digital video recorders allow users to watch live television and record programming simultaneously, fast-forward, rewind, pause, and stop live television, store music and photos, search for programs which interest the user most, decide which shows the users is more attracted to using the thumbs up and thumbs down function, and schedule recordings of shows in the future (Copeland, 2008). These examples of digital video recording services are prime examples to the research question pertaining to why users have increased their use of this technology since its production in 1999. Hopefully though, with the time that has passed since the digital video recorders advent, reasons of how and at what rate it took this technology to spread will be present, thus showing potential research is needed. Since 2001 TiVo, the digital video recorder provided by DirecTV, and most popular brand name in DVR services, subscriptions have risen from just over twelve million subscribers in 2006,

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 6 to at most sixty-five million subscribers in 2010 (Ahrens, 2006). The conveniences that the DVR offers the consumer, is incomparable to any other television product produced in the United States. Considering the environment we live in today, millions of messages are sent to demographics with the hopes of retention. The ability of retaining a message and then taking action shows obvious interest on the part of the user. With the incorporation of a digital video recorder, individuals have learned to record interested messages which suit their own informational needs. Because of the innovation of digital video recorders, the Diffusion Theory complies since we are dealing with new technology. With the Diffusion Theory instilled into this research example, the main purpose of this original research is to test the hypothesis of how, why, and at what rate the digital video recorder spread, thus giving valuable research on a topic which has not been archived yet in the communications realm.

III.

Review of the Literature


Acceptance of a product relates to the rate in which something is adopted. Innovations in

technology assume different rates of acceptance, and because of these different acceptance rates, studies are done trying to find some common relationship between technology and adoption rates. In relation to adoption rates, a study on technology acceptance was performed with the diffusion theory to investigate what determines user mobile commerce acceptance. To accomplish this, the researchers used a technology model which would factor relationships. The relationships included: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, personal innovativeness, subjective norms, behavioral control, and intention (Bhatti, 2007). From the mentioned variables in the model, a quantitative analysis was pursued with a survey and revealed results showing that behavioral control and subjective norms influence perceived ease of use which affects then their adoption intention

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 7 (Bhatti, 2007). From this tallied information, its shows that the easier it is to use a product, the faster it will be able to be adopted by society. Investigations of recording devices started with VCRs in the early 1980s (Kitchen & Yorke, 1986). Research was done on timeshifting. A VCR, also known as a video cassette recorder, was the first type of technology in the literature review which showed a conflict of interest from advertisers. The specific problem related to advertisers not being easily convinced that television watching was still occurring at the same rate it was before the invention of the VCR (Kitchen & Yorke, 1986). At that time it was considered to be no loss to TV audiences as they were in effect still watching television, thus did not affect viewing figures or ratings (Kitchen & Yorke, 1986). Advertisers obviously didnt believe this since viewer ratings were in a decline. For advertisers, they wanted to know if consumers edited out commercial breaks by using the fast forward control option associated with the remote control video pad (Kitchen & Yorke, 1986). To figure out if the viewers were skipping commercials which the advertisers paid for, the advertisers dispersed a survey in The Guardian with the main point of figuring out how much users actually edit out commercials during an actual program (Kitchen & Yorke, 1986). The survey would reveal evidence to the advertisers in which forty-seven percent of respondents claimed never to delete commercials (Kitchen & Yorke, 1986). On the other hand, the other fifty-three percent claimed to do so with varying frequency (Kitchen & Yorke, 1986). This did not make the advertisers happy since they realized VCRs were changing consumers behavior during commercial television breaks. More adoption rates can be found when dealing with teachers trying to decide what technologies to use in their classroom. From using observation, interviews, and document collection to gain information on adoption tendencies, the researchers wanted to find which

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 8 technologies advanced learning (Oncu, Delialioglu & Brown, 2008). To do this, 15 to 25 mathematics professionals were used as subjects of the experiment. The results of the experiment would reveal five separate criteria which affected teachers and their adoption rates. They were accessibility, applicability, influence of colleagues, teachers skills, and students skills (Oncu, 2008). The reason why this study was done pertained to very few studies explaining reasons why teachers select the technologies they use. From the study, now there is information on adoption rates of technology in the classroom. More research, specifically from Esther Gal-Or and her group of researchers, explores the extent to which an advertiser should allocate resources to increase the quality of its targeting (GalOr, Gal-Or, May & Spangler, 2006). This group realized that with the technology of a personal video recorder, you could monitor television viewing behavior and build demographic profiles of viewers from data (Gal-Or et al, 2006). To do this, the researchers would use two different measurements. They were accuracy and recognition (Gal-Or et al, 2006). Accuracy would measure the likelihood that any member of the target segment prediction is correct, while recognition conversely measures the likelihood that any member of the target segment is identified (Gal-Or et al, 2006). With the groups evidence tallied through quantitative measures from household profiles, the researchers would find evidence that when facing a competitor that pursues a strategy to improve its recognition of potential customers, an advertiser should choose to reduce its investment in recognition and increase its investment in accuracy (Gal-Or et al, 2006). With a predicted twenty percent decrease in viewing of television commercials, the research gathered would be very important for advertisers in the 21st century (Gal-Or et al, 2006). Since advertisers spend large sums of money on advertisements which they think specific demographics are seeing,

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 9 any quality evidence which shows demographic habits in viewers is essential for knowledge in the future. Adoption and the use of emerging information technologies is a critical issue for researchers. Because of this, research was done with the aims to deepen the understanding of the phenomena of technology adoption and its use between different genders (Llie, Van Slyke, Green & Lou, 2005). To do this, characteristics were studied on the different genders involved in the study. Specifically, the results of the study would reveal that there is a strong distinction between genders in learning how to adopt technology (Llie et al, 2005). The results measured ease of use, visibility, demonstrationability, and intentions to figure out these referenced results. From the results, an adoption advantage with instant messaging was revealed. This was termed very important from the evidence revealed from the research (Llie et al, 2005). Like the VCR example from the 1980s, digital video recorders, a newer form of a VCR, faced the same fear from advertisers that viewers would watch less commercials, which in the end allow television to be as cheap as it is. With industry analysts forecasting a growth in the digital video recorder market, with roughly 28.6 million households in the United States, or twenty-five percent of all households having a digital video recorder by 2008, advertisers could be in for it yet because of the innovation of new technology (Picker, 2004).

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 10

Figure 1

(The chart below, reiterates the point of the growing market of digital video recorders)

According to Randal Picker, eliminating commercials is an attempt to escape the tax that those commercials represent. With decentralized TiVo, the technology threatens a mandatory shift from an advertising-based medium to a fee-based medium (Picker, 2004, pg. 219). If Picker is correct, television viewers in the future could have the choice of paying one fee for advertisement free content or one fee for content with advertisements (Picker, 2004). Obviously, the choice of content with advertisements will be cheaper than content without advertisements. To not change the format of television, Picker suggests advertisement personalization (Picker, 2004). Personalization, with information from digital video recorders, will allow advertisers to send messages to specific demographics watching specific programs rather than rough demographic segments (Picker, 2004). The mentioning of personal video recorders as information sources was one of the technologies included capabilities. To Nicholas Reading, Steven Bellman, Duane Varan, and Hume Winzer, the personal video recorder explores the potential for a new broadcasting model (Reading et al, 2006). A sample of 154 students from West Australian University participated in the experiment where all the participants viewed a 30-minute television presentation with four

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 11 advertisement breaks (Reading et al, 2006). Each advertising break consisted of a group of filler advertisements followed by one experimental advertisement shown in the last position of the break (World Vision charity organization, Total Gym exercise equipment, Power Bar snack foods, and BMW, a prestigious car) (Reading et al, 2006). The results would yield that telescope advertisements have significantly positive effects on attitude toward the advertisement, attitude toward the brand, and behavioral intentions, compared to traditional 30-second advertisements and long-form infomercials (Reading et al, 2006). The discovery of this research would introduce new models of advertising which may potentially enhance the television landscape because of personal video recorders (Reading et al, 2006). Advertising Delivery System, or ADS, is another data mining viewer profiling system which is used to predict a households characteristics, and customize advertising relevant to that household through the personal video recorder (Spangler, Mordechai & May, 2003). ADS not only tries to identify demographics of a household, but it also identifies psychographic characteristics of viewers based on their viewing patterns (Spangler et al, 2003). With the ADS, William Spangler, Mordechai Gal-Or, and Jerrold May have a research premise based on the saying you are what you watch, or individuals viewing habits tend to reveal their most personal characteristics, tastes, and desires (Spangler et al, 2003, pg. 67). With ADS, the researchers maintained up-to-date profiles and complete broadcast viewing records of more than 11,000 viewers in more than 5,000 households (Spangler et al, 2003). With the research calibrated, the scholars found evidence which shows that with the use of a digital video recorder, the viewing patterns of households could be gathered (Spangler et al, 2003). True numbers were not given by the group because of privacy, legal, and ethical considerations, but the innovation of a digital video recorder, which was supposed to hurt advertisers, essentially might in the long run help advertising messages reach the

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 12 correct households (Spangler et al, 2003). With the ability to reach specific demographics, the message sent through the television set is more than likely to have some type of affiliation with the consumer. The internet, a form of technology like the digital video recorder has ways of measuring adoption so numbers can be recorded. To advertisers this evidence is very important since they want to spend their advertising budget as wisely as possible. Basically, advertisers are looking to reach as many demographics as they can using the least amount of the general operating budget. Click-through rates or hits are the measurements used to identify the traffic of an associated web site (Xavier & Hussherr, 2003). With this known, a study was done on if banner ads were affective on the World Wide Web. The study found that banner ads were not effective because internet users would avoid the advertisements. The research did reveal though that advertisements have an impact on traditional memory (Xavier & Hussherr, 2003). Based on the findings, there was a claim that advertisers should rely more on traditional brand equity such as brand awareness and advertising recall (Xavier & Hussherr, 2003). The recommendation of using traditional brand equity relates to the hypothesis in the associated research project since is reveals evidence of how ideas spread through a culture. The information remitted from the source reveals logical research which promotes the idea of using brand equity measures. In relation to technology, the information can be thoroughly examined to find out if traditional brand equity measures work in the context of a digital video recorder. Zapping, another word used for fast-forwarding, again is usually associated with the digital video recorder. In relation to digital video recorders and zapping, there was a study done which divulged descriptive information on consumer zapping habits during commercial breaks (Siddath & Chattopadhyay, 1998). Since there is only a small amount of information pertaining to the

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 13 zapping phenomenon in consumers, new evidence on the topic is considered very valuable. The study found several different results in relation to the zapping epidemic. The results showed that households which have at least fourteen exposures to a specific commercial start to fast-forward more frequently as the amount of exposures accumulate (Siddath & Chattopadhyay, 1998). The research also reveal that zapping probabilities for advertisements aired around the hour and halfhour marks to be significantly higher than any other type of location since syndicated shows usually end during this associated time, and users know this (Siddath & Chattopadhyay, 1998). Finally, the research found evidence that brand differentiating of messages, or displaying more different types of advertisements significantly causes a statistical drop in zapping probabilities (Siddath & Chattopadhyay, 1998). With the documented scholarly research shown in the previous paragraphs, there is evidence pertaining to the Diffusion Theory which needs to be satisfied in relation to the adoption of the digital video recorder. As VCRs posed problems for advertiser in the 1980s, to quantitative evidence which explores the extent to which an advertiser should allocate resources to increase quality, to research of adoption rates, the hypothesis of how, why, and at what rate the digital video recorder spread needs to be built upon.

IV.

Methodology
A quantitative analysis is considered research which is based in numerals that state values

of observed data (Rosenberry & Vicker, 2007). An example of a quantitative resource is a survey. A survey is defined as a research technique for collecting information from people by asking them a structured series of questions (Rosenberry & Vicker, 2007). From the structured series of questions a researcher can gather any type of relevant information which pertains to their interest of study. The downfall associated with surveys relates to the quantity of surveys taken. Data from

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 14 surveys can only be accurate if large numbers of a specific segment take the survey. This type of quantitative analysis obviously takes time. With the appropriate amount of time taken though, the numbers revealed from the survey can be accurate, thus the information can be deemed credible. With this known, a survey was used in the research analysis with the hopes of finding how, why, and at what rate digital video recorders spread. The one-page quantitative survey was distributed to individuals who inhabit Rochester, New York and students/faculty of Saint John Fisher College. The sample would consist of participants who have owned a digital video recorder at some point in time after 1999, when digital video recorders were invented. In all, sixty-one participants would take the survey related to the hypothesis of the research project. The answers from the 45 males and 16 females who participated in the quantitative analysis were all based on information of their own from their own personal use of a digital video recorder. The survey in this study contained nine statements which pertained to information that would help prove the Diffusion Theory in relation to the stated hypothesis. The options for answering ranged from checking answers, which applied to the associated segment, and short-hand answers from two separate questions. The associated nine statements were questions which would reveal accurate information on the Diffusion Theory and how, why, and at what rate digital video recorders spread. The only real challenge of the survey occurred during the collection stage of the research project. Again, a sufficient number of participants who owned a digital video recorder had to be questioned for the survey to be accurate. This would not be easy since the student body of Saint John Fisher, like most other colleges and universities, has two sets of students, campus residents and commuters. The ideal candidate for this survey, in regards to students, would more than likely be commuters since they live off of campus where digital video recorders have more of a

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 15 possibility to be. The least worthy candidate would be an on campus resident since they live in a dorm room where a digital video recorder is rarely found. Unless a student has enough money to cover the charges associated with installing a digital video recorder, the likelihood of finding this machine in a dorm room is again unlikely. Other than students, faculty of Saint John Fisher College, and other residents of Rochester are the best considerations for the quantitative survey analysis. Because these segments have a steady income and live in a resident of their own, the probability of them having a digital video recorder is higher than a student who has a part-time job or no job at all. To figure out how digital video recorders made their way into our society, the participants of the survey were asked how they learned of the product, and as well, which type of digital video recorder they have at their household. To amass accurate figures on why the participants of the survey purchased a digital video recorder, questions relating to the features of the technology and a question asking why the participants purchased a digital video recorder was asked in the quantitative analysis. Finally, to figure out the rate at which digital video recorders spread, a question pertaining to what year the survey member purchased a digital video recorder was asked, and also how many digital video recorders inhabited their specific household.

Figure 2
Gender:________________________ Age:________________________ Year of Study:________________________ What type of DVR do you own? How did you first learn of a digital video recorder (Check all which apply)? Word of Mouth__________ Magazine__________ Television__________ Other__________ Newspaper__________ Radio__________ Internet__________

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 16 What year did you purchase your first digital video recorder? How many digital video recorders do you have in the household which you live in? 1-2__________ 3-4__________ 5-6__________ What was the price of your digital video recorder? $100-199__________ $300-399__________ $500-599__________
Recording live television________ Showcases__________ Thumbs up/down function__________

$200-299__________ $400-499__________ $600- and up__________


Store Music and Photos__________ Search program function______ Schedule recordings of shows_____

What are your four favorite features of the digital video recorder?

Fast-Forward, Rewind, Pause and Stop live television__________

Why did you purchase your digital video recorder? Do you remember any specific DVR advertisements or commercials? If so, which ones.

V.

Results/Findings
In comparing the results of this study to previous research completed regarding Diffusion

Theory, there was sufficient evidence which would reiterate what the Diffusion Theory predicts, specifically pertaining to how, why, and at what rate innovative technology spreads. Again, the Diffusion Theory deals with innovations in technology, and in this specific research the associated technology pertained to a digital video recorder, which is a consumer device. In relation to how digital video recorders spread, the most common practice among individuals in the Rochester area pertained to media use, specifically the use of television, word of mouth, and the internet. These examples, which reach the most amounts of consumers, were used at a high rate, in relation to percentages, by the participants who answered the surveys. In revealing

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 17 the percentages of the top three mediums which informed the Rochester community on the digital video recorder, television was used 71% of the time, word of mouth was used 54% of the time, and finally, the internet was used 24% of the time. These top three medias hands down, were the most influential resources in spreading the information which dealt with the adoption of the digital video recorder. The other mediums referred to in the survey were magazines, newspapers, and radio. These associated resources never peaked over 10%, and could be viewed as secondary information.

Figure 3
Inform ation Adoption of D ital V ig ideo R ecorders
8 0 Percenta e g 6 5 0 4 4 0 2 0 0 2 0 Media 1 0 2 4 7 7 1

Wordof Mouth Ma azines g T elevision Newspa per R dio a Internet Other

The adoption rate for digital video recorders can be seen through a nine year span, from when the digital video recorder was first produced (1999) to the current year in which digital video recorders are being sold (2008). The evidence from the survey yields interesting information which would prove that digital video recorders did not consistently make their way into Rochester households until midway through the 2000 decade. Before 2005, the adoption rate of the digital video recorder into a household never went above 10%. In contrast to this information, the digital video recorder made its way into Rochester households in the 2006 and 2007 calendar years. In 2006, the adoption rate of digital video recorders reached its highest percentage with 32% of community residents purchasing at least one digital video recorder. In 2008, the adoption rate would see a 5% decrease in consumption, yielding a 27% purchase rate from interested consumers.

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 18 Being only a few months into the current calendar year of 2008, purchasers of digital video recorders have already reach 10% with nine month still to go before the calendar year changes.

Figure 4

Adoption Rate of D ital Video Recorder ig


40 Percentag e 30 20 10 0 2001 2002 2003 20 04 2005 2006 2007 2008

C alendar Y ear For reasons as to why individuals purchased digital video recorders, or why digital video recorders spread, there are a number of different reasons. The most common reason a digital video recorder was purchased related to the technologies convenience. Again a digital video recorder has seven different features which entice customers. The most liked feature to DVR users was the ability to fast-forward, rewind, pause, and stop live television. 88% of survey participants viewed this ability as the most convenient. Second, totaling 81% was the ability to record live television shows. Third, totaling 80% was the ability to schedule recordings. Finally, the last major convenience associated with the digital video recorder was the ability to search for specific programs. This feature received 32% of the overall responses. Other reasons why digital video recorders spread pertained to being able to watch two television shows simultaneously, being able to record a season of a specific show, replacing your old VCR and not dealing with VHS tapes, archiving television shows, not wanting to watch

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 19 commercials, and allowing users to not change their lifestyle, thus not having television run their life. Extra Information, which doesnt involve the Diffusion Theory, was also revealed from the survey. Time Warner was found to be the most purchased digital video recorder over DirecTV. In percentages, Time Warner holds 75% of DVR households in Rochester. As well, the research shows that in one average household, the most common number of digital video recorders is 1-2 units. Pertaining to the common price of a digital video recorder, on average a consumer can look to spend between $100-$199 dollars on a digital video recorder, unless they subscribe with Time Warner, where they have a promotional deal where the digital video recorder is free, and so is installation. Finally, in relation to remembered advertisements of digital video recorders, 65% of the time, individuals did not remember commercial messages relayed by companies. Of the 35% which remembered associated commercials with the technology, most could not describe the specific commercial, but could describe the associated deal or package offered by the company. With the information from the surveys revealed, there is certain credible evidence in the adoption of the digital video recorder. In relation to Diffusion Theory, there is quantitative evidence which shows percentages of how, why, and at what rate digital video recorders spread. In the Rochester area, the information about what the digital video recorder is, and what it can do was spread through the word of mouth, television, and the internet. In dealing with the rate digital video recorders spread, the most common years of adoption occurred specifically in the calendar years of 2006 and 2007, where respectively 32% and 27% of individuals chose to purchase a digital video recorder. Why individuals adopted this technology pertained to the convenience the device allowed, and as well, allowing users to not change their lifestyle.

VI.

Discussion

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 20 Through the survey which was distributed to Rochester inhabitants, information pertaining to how, why, and at what rate digital video recorders spread was revealed. In relation to the Diffusion Theory, which demonstrates through research that when new innovations are available to a population they pass through a series of stages on their way to becoming adopted, information was revealed which would prove Everett Rogers theory to be valid in dealing with this relatively new innovation. The results to this theory have to be taken in a three step approach since three different variables were asked. In dealing with how digital video recorders spread, the information yields medias as the most influential. Specifically, the use of television, the internet, and the word of mouth proved to be the highest used among the DVR owners. This should not be staggering evidence since most people know and use these three examples the most in there every day lives. It should also be noted that the medias which proved to be the best in sending a message, also prove to be able to reach the most amount of DVR owners. Since television, internet, and the word of mouth can reach more individuals, it gives these medias a distinct advantage over magazines, newspapers, and radios which were considered secondary resources since individuals rarely used these examples in determining how they learned about the spread of the digital video recorder. In proving the rate at which digital video recorders took to become staples in households, the survey revealed information proving the years of 2006 and 2007 to be the most influential. A reason for this late adoption of the product could relate to price. Usually when technology is first sold to consumers as a new product, the product is in demand, so the price can be set high. The early adopters are usually the individuals who will spend this amount of money on the new product, thus fulfilling their need as an early adopter. After time goes by though, the company will not see the product being sold enough to where a profit is being yielded. Because of this decrease

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 21 in demand, the products price will be lowered. At this point, the price becomes manageable to where more individuals can purchase the digital video recorder. From 1999-2003, the price of the digital video recorder only created a want from early adopters. From 2004-2008, when the price was put at a reasonable figure, it created a want from the late majority. This synopsis reveals the digital video recorder to adopt at a slower rate, until the products price was reduced. Why digital video recorders spread more or less referred to a convenience factor which the device allowed. Again, of the seven features presented in the survey, the four most appreciated were the ability to record live television, search for a specific program, schedule recordings in the future, and having the ability to fast-forward, rewind, stop, and pause live television. These four favorite features yield important information in what makes the digital video recorder special from other innovations. Since this technology allows owners to watch television at their leisure, this opens time up during the day which permits the owner to do something else. The digital video recorder again is mainly purchased because of the convenience it allows the owner. No other product on the market today makes watching live television faster or recording television easier. This is vital information because the innovation allows individuals an easier way manage their daily schedules. This innovation takes a complication out of your daily routine. Being able to watch two television shows simultaneously, recording a season of a specific show, replacing your old VCR and not dealing with VHS tapes, achieving television shows, and not wanting to watch commercials were other examples found from the survey which extend the convenience factor. Consumers do not purchase products on the market if they do not think there is something beneficial from the purchase. Saving time throughout your day, even minutes, is something individuals look to do every day. The digital video recorder does this, and more. In

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 22 dealing with the Diffusion Theory and the digital video recorder, this innovation spread because of the time it allows the user to save.

VII. Conclusion
The Diffusion Theory is applicable today and holds valuable insight about effects on innovations in technology. As proven by this quantitative study there is information on how, why, and at what rate the digital video recorder spread. In the future though, there should be a quantitative study like the one done in this research project, but the survey should try to reach all DVR owners throughout the United States. With a larger scale of participants, the results can be deemed more credible. Until that occurs the word of mouth, television, and the internet prove to be the most resourceful in how the digital video recorder spread. Convenience of the product proves to be the reason as to why the digital video recorder spread. Finally, the rate at which the digital video recorder seemed to spread occurred in the calendar years after 2003.

VIII. Work Cited


Ahrens, F. Washington Post Staff Writer (2006). Pausing the panic; dvrs were expected to turn tv upside down, but weve stayed tuned. The Washington Post, F.1. National Newspapers (27). Retrieved Feb. 5, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. Bhatti T. (2007). Exploring factors influencing the adoption of mobile commerce. The Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 12(3), 1-13. Retrieved April 1, 2008, from ABI/ INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1454507201). Copeland, M. (2008). Despite new technologies, advertisers still have faith in tv. McClatchy Tribune Business News, 1-3. Retrieved Feb. 5, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. Gal-Or E., Gal-Or M., May J.H., Spangler W.E. (2006). Targeted advertising strategies on television. Management Science, 52(5) 713-725. Retrieved Feb. 5, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1038097391). Kitchen, P.J. & Yorke, D.A. (1986). Commercial television breaks, consumer behaviour, and new technology: an initial analysis. European Journal of Marketing 20(2), 40. Retrieved March 9, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document .ID: 1068402). Llie V., Van Slyke C., Green G., Lou H. (2005). Gender differences in perceptions and use of

Diffusion Theory and Digital Video Recorders 23 communication technologies: a diffusion of innovations approach. Information Resources Management Journal, 1893), 13-31. Retrieved April 1, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global Database. (Document ID: 852217921). Oncu S., Delialioglu O., Broown C.A. (2008). Critical components for technology integration: how do instructors make decisions? The Journal of Computer in Mathematics and Science, 27(1), 19-46. Retrieved April 1, 2008, from Wilson Education Abstracts Database. (Document ID: 1433243671). Picker, R.C. (2004). The digital video recorder: unbundling advertising and content. The University of Chicago Law Review, 71(1) 205-222. Retrieved Feb. 5, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 611732571). Reading N., Bellman S., Varan, D., Winzar H. (2006). Effectiveness of telescopic advertisements delivered via personal video recorders. Journal of Advertising Research 46(2), 217-227. Retrieved March 9, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1237279461). Rogers, E.M. (1983). Diffusion of Innovations. 3rd Ed. The Free Press, NY: Macmillan Publishing. Rosenberry, J. & Vicker, L. (2007). Applied mass communication theory: a guide for media practitioners. Rochester, NY: Pearson Education. Sebor, J. (2006). Will dvr kill the tv adsters? Customer Relationship Management. Retrieved Feb. 5 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. Siddath, S. & Chattopadhyay, A. (1998). To zap or not to zap: a study of the determinants of channel switching during commercials. Marketing Science, 17(2) 124-138. Spangler W.E., Mordechai Gal-Or, May J.H. (2003). Using data mining to profile tv viewers. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 46(12), 6672. Retrieved March 9, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 530764691). Xavier, D. & Hussherr, F.A. (2003). Internet advertising: is anybody watching? Journal of Interactive Marketing, 17(4), 8-23. Retrieved March 25, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database.