# PART 1 (a

)

PART 1 (b) In geometry a polygon is a flat shape consisting of straight lines that are joined to form a closed chain or circuit. The word "polygon" derives from the Greek πολύς (polús) "much", "many" and γωνία (gōnía) "corner" or "angle". (The word γόνυ gónu, with a short o, is unrelated and means "knee".) Today a polygon is more usually understood in terms of sides. A polygon is traditionally a plane figure that is bounded by a closed path, composed of a finite sequence of straight line segments (i.e., by a closed polygonal chain). These segments are called its edges or sides, and the points where two edges meet are the polygon's vertices (singular: vertex) or corners. An n-gon is a polygon with n sides. The interior of the polygon is sometimes called its body. A polygon is a 2-dimensional example of the more general polytope in any number of dimensions. History Polygons have been known since ancient times. The regular polygons were known to the ancient Greeks, and the pentagram, a non-convex regular polygon (star polygon), appears on the vase of Aristophonus, Caere, dated to the 7th century B.C Non-convex polygons in general were not systematically studied until the 14th century by Thomas Bredwardine. In 1952, Shephard generalized the idea of polygons to the complex plane, where each real dimension is accompanied by an imaginary one, to create complex polygons.

PART 1 (c)
Suggested answers to calculate the area of a triangle : 1. Area 

1  base  height 2

2. Area 

1  a  b  sin C 2
s( s  a)(s  b)(s  c) , where s  1 (a  b  c) , or the semi-perimeter. 2

3. Area 

4. Area 

1 x1 2 y1

x2 y2

x3 y3

x1 y1

PART 2 (a) Cost = RM 20 × 300 = RM 6000.
(b) a m θº b m mm 100 m c Diagram 1

By using cosine rule, cos    area of the herb garden.

a2  b2  c2 1 and Area = ab  sin  , we can find the 2ab 2

p ( m) 50 60 65 70 80 85 90 95 99 100

q ( m) 150 140 135 130 120 115 110 105 101 100

θo 0 38.2145 44.8137 49.5826 55.7711 57.6881 58.9924 59.7510 59.9901 60

Area (m2 ) 0 2598.15 3092.33 3464.10 3968.63 4130.68 4242.64 4308.42 4329.26 4330.13

(c)

The herb garden is an equilateral triangle of sides 100 m with a maximum area

of 4330.13 m 2 .

(d)(i) 50 < p < 150, 50 < q < 150 (ii) p + q ˃ 100 (iii) The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the length of the third side. Triangle Inequality Theorem.

2x + 2y = 300 m2 ym x + y = 150 m2 Area = x y

xm

x 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 75

y 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 75

Area = x y 1400 2600 3600 4400 5000 5400 5600 5625

Maximum area is 5625 m2.

(b)

A Semicircle

rm

(c) A Regular Hexagon
a a 60º 50 m a

6a = 300 a = 50 Area =

a

a

a

(d)Regular Pentagon
a a

5a = 300 a = 60
t 30 t  30 tan 54   41 .2915 m tan 54  
a 54o a 72o t 54o a

1 Area  (41.2915  60)  5  6193.73 m 2 2

(e)

A Circle

• rm

Conclusion: A circle produces a maximum area.

FURTHER EXPLORATION (a) Tongkat Ali

Eurycoma longifolia (commonly called tongkat ali or pasak bumi) is a flowering plant in the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, and, to a lesser extent, Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos. It is also known under the names penawar pahit, penawar bias, bedara merah, bedara putih, lempedu pahit, payong ali, tongkat baginda, muntah bumi, petala bumi (all the above Malay); bidara laut (Indonesian); babi kurus (Javanese); cay ba binh (Vietnamese) and tho nan (Laotian). Many of the common names refer to the plant's medicinal use and extreme bitterness. "Penawar pahit" translates simply as "bitter charm" or "bitter medicine". Older literature, such as a 1953 article in the Journal of Ecology, may cite only "penawar pahit" as the plant's common Malay name.

(b) Mas Cotek (Ficus deltoidea)

Mas Cotek (Ficus deltoidea) is a tree species native to Malaysia.Malaysia's tropical rainforest is unique, with a large biodiversity of valuable plants and animals. The discovery of herbal plants in these jungles, and in particular Mas Cotek (Ficus deltoidea), is slowly receiving international recognition for its medicinal values and health benefits. Based on traditional knowledge, the leaves, fruits, stems and roots of Mas Cotek display healing, palliative and preventative properties. Mas Cotek, also known as "mistletoe fig", has been scientifically researched by various institutions, including University of Malaya, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, the Malaysian Agriculture Research And Development Institute (MARDI). Research results show that Mas Cotek possesses triterpenoids and natural phenols (flavonoids and proanthocyanins, a type of condensed tannins). Traditionally used as a postpartum depression treatment to help in contracting the muscles of the uterus and in the healing of the uterus and vaginal canal, it is also used as a libido booster by both men and women. The leaves of male and female plants are mixed in specific proportions to be taken as an aphrodisiac. Among the traditional practices, Mas Cotek has been used for regulating blood pressure, increasing and recovering sexual desire, womb contraction after delivery, reducing cholesterol, reducing blood sugar level, treatment of migraines, toxin removal, delay menopause, nausea, joints pains, piles pain and improving blood circulation.Mas Cotek products are formulated and sold in the form of extracts, herbal drinks, coffee drinks, capsules, and massage oil.

(c) Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon stamineus)

Orthosiphon stamineus is a traditional herb that is widely grown in tropical areas. The two general species, Orthosiphon stamineus "purple" and Orthosiphon stamineus "white" are traditionally used to treat diabetes, kidney and urinary disorders, high blood pressure and bone or muscular pain. Also known as Java tea, it was possibly introduced to the west in the early 20th century. Misai Kucing is popularly consumed as a herbal tea. The brewing of Java tea is similar to that for other teas. It is soaked in hot boiling water for about three minutes, and honey or milk is then added. It can be easily prepared as garden tea from the dried leaves. There are quite a number of commercial products derived from Misai Kucing.