Module 2

Consumer Perception

Meaning
-

Process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets stimuli into a meaningful & coherent picture of the world.
Depends on individual’s needs, values, & expectations.

-

Elements of Perception
Sensation
• • •

Immediate & direct response of the sensory organs to simple stimuli. Sensory input > Stimulus Sensory receptors > Human organs

-

Absolute Threshold
• •

Lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation. Difference between ‘something’ & ‘nothing’.

-

Sensory Adaptation Differential Threshold or j.n.d.
• •

So that negative changes are not noticeable easily. So that product improvements are given prominence.

Elements of Perception
Subliminal Perception
• • •

Stimulated below conscious level Stimuli are too weak or too brief No proof of being influential in persuading consumer to purchase

-

Supraliminal Perception

Stimulated above conscious level

Dynamics of Perception

Two types of inputs
1. 1.

Physical stimuli – external environment Predispositions – previous experience

Perceptual Selection

Depends on: i. Previous experience
i.

Important concepts
a. a. a. a.

Selective Exposure Selective Attention Perceptual Defense Perceptual Blocking

Motives at time

• • •

Nature of the Stimulus Expectations Motives

Dynamics of Perception

Perceptual Organization
1. 1. 1.

Figure & Ground Grouping Closure

Zeigernik effect

Perceptual Interpretation

Distorting Influences
a. a. a. a. a. a.

Physical Appearances Stereotypes Irrelevant Cues First Impressions Jumping to Conclusions Halo Effect

Consumer Imagery

Product Positioning & Repositioning
1. 1. 1.

Perceptual Repositioning Perceptual mapping

 

Positioning of Services Perceived Price
1. 1.

Reference Price Tensile & objective Price Price / Quality Relationship

Perceived Quality
1.

 

Retail Store Image Manufacturers’ Image

Consumer Imagery

Perceived Risk

The uncertainty that consumers face when they cannot foresee the consequences of their purchase decisions. Types of Perceived Risk
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1.

Functional Risk Physical Risk Financial Risk Social Risk Psychological Risk Time Risk High-risk perceivers – ‘narrow categorizers’ Low-risk perceivers – ‘broad categorizers’

Perception of Risk Varies
• •

Consumer Imagery

How Consumers Handle Risk
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1.

Consumers seek Information Consumers are Brand Loyal Consumers select by Brand Image Consumers rely on Store Image Consumers buy the Most Expensive Model Consumers seek Reassurance