Module 2

Consumer Learning

Consumer Learning

Marketers teach    

Where to buy? How to use? How to maintain? How to dispose?

Process by which individuals acquire the purchase & consumption knowledge & experience that they apply to future related behavior. Result of  

Newly acquired knowledge Actual experience

Elements of Learning

Motivation  Needs motivate to learn. Cues
 

Serve to direct consumer drives. Consistent with consumer expectations.

Response  Reaction towards a drive or a cue.

Depends heavily on previous learning.

Reinforcement  Future response as a result of particular cues

Behavioral Learning Theories

Classical Conditioning
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Ivan Pavlov, Russian physiologist
   

Certain behaviors could be taught through repetition. Unconditional Stimuli is paired with Conditional Stimuli. Dog > Bell Sound > Meat.

Cognitive Associative Learning Neo-Pavlovian Theory requires:
    

CS should precede the US Repeated pairings of the CS & the US CS & US belong logically together CS is unfamiliar US is symbolical

Behavioral Learning Theories

Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning

Repetition - Aid retention - Frequency is limited - Advertising wearout Stimulus Generalization - “me too” products - Product Line, Form & Category Extensions - Family Branding & Licensing Stimulus Discrimination - Positioning & Product Differentiation

Behavioral Learning Theories

Instrumental Conditioning
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B.F.Skinner, American psychologist  Habits are formed as a result of rewards received.  Stimulus results in the most satisfactory response.  Trial-and-Error process. Reinforcement of Behavior - Positive reinforcement - Negative reinforcement - Forgetting & Extinction

Behavioral Learning Theories

Strategic Applications of Instrumental Conditioning

Customer Satisfaction - Best product performance - Purchase environment - Loyalty > Rewarded Reinforcement Schedules - Occasional - Total reinforcement – continuous – after sales - Systematic reinforcement – fixed ratio – nth item - Random reinforcement – variable ratio – average frequency Massed versus Distributed Learning - ‘Spread out’ or ‘bunched up’

Behavioral Learning Theories

Modeling or Observational Learning
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Vicarious learning  Individuals learn by observing the behavior of  others. others. Imitate

Cognitive Learning Theory
 

Learning based on mental activity. Involves complex mental processing.

Information Processing

Depends on cognitive ability & the complexity of information Depends on terms of imagery – ability to form mental images Structure of Memory
Sensory Store Rehearsal Working Memory Long-term (Short-term Store Encoding Retrieval Store) Forgotten; lost

Sensory Input

Forgotten; lost

Forgotten; unavailable

Retention - Chunking

Retrieval

Cognitive Learning Theory

Involvement Theory
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Based on ‘Hemispheral Lateralization’ or ‘Split-brain’ Theory Left hemisphere : Cognitive Activities (verbal processing) –
rational, active, realistic

Right hemisphere : nonverbal, pictorial – emotional, impulsive,
intuitive

Media Strategy - TV: right brain activity - low involvement -> repetition required Consumer Relevance - High Involvement > narrow categorizers - Low Involvement > broad categorizers

Cognitive Learning Theory

Central & Peripheral Routes of Persuasion - Extensive & Limited problem solving - Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Measures of Involvement

Cognitive Learning Theory
1. Important 2. Interesting 3. Relevant 4. Exciting 5. Meaningful 6. Appealing 7. Fascinating 8. Priceless 9. Involving 10. Necessary
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2 -

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4 -

5 -

6 -

7 -

Unimportant Boring Irrelevant Unexciting Meaningless Unappealing Ordinary Worthless Uninvolving Unnecessary

Measuring Involvement on a Semantic Differential Scale

Measures of Consumer Learning
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Recognition & Recall Measures Cognitive Responses to Advertising Attitudinal & Behavioral Measures of Brand Loyalty Brand Equity