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Avoid breathing it by keeping your head to the side of. which can burn you or start a fire. • The smoke that will form as you melt solder is mostly from the flux and can be quite irritating. • Always return the soldering iron to its stand when it is not in use. • Unplug the iron when it is not in use. so use it carefully. • Solder contains lead. Wash your hands after using solder. • Take great care to avoid touching the tip of the soldering iron on a power line.Safety Precautions • Caution: A soldering iron can heat to around 400°C. which is a poisonous metal. • Keep the power cord away from spots where it can be tripped over. If a power cord is touched by a hot iron. . even for a moment! • Work in a well-ventilated area. there is a serious risk of burns and electric shock. your work. not above. • Never put the soldering iron down on your work bench.
Identify all the parts that you will be using. . note the orientation. note the orientation. less than 1 micro farad Large capacitors. Transistors. The IC will be added later. Very large capacitors above 100uf. LED's. Diodes. note the orientation. resistor #1: 100 ohms). Resistors Capacitors. • Some components. note the orientation. • It is helpful to attach each part to a piece of paper and write what it is and its value (for example. • The following is a suggested order for the installation of various components: – – – – – – – – Integrated circuit (IC) holders (note the orientation). such as LED's. note the orientation.Tips • Plan before you start to solder. 1 micro farad or greater. must be placed the correct way around in order to function.
Make sure all the pins are lined up with the socket. – Many IC's are static sensitive. . • Stranded wire to parts that are connected by wire to the circuit – Stranded wire is more flexible than solid wire. • Integrated circuits – Connect them the correct way around. then push down firmly with your thumb.Tips • Solid wire connections between components on the board – Solid wire is fairly rigid. – Carefully insert IC's in their holders. so it will stay in place once attached. – Leave IC's in their antistatic packaging until you need them. then ground your hands by touching a metal water pipe or window frame before touching the IC's.
wipe the tip off on the wet sponge or cloth to remove all the flux residue. If you leave any part of the tip uncovered it will tend to collect flux residue and will not conduct heat very well. It is very important to cover the entire tip. – Step 3: Thoroughly Coat The Tip In Solder Thoroughly coat the soldering tip in solder. Make sure that it has fully come to temperature because you are about to melt a lot of solder on it. so be ready. You will use a considerable amount of solder during this process and it will drip. prepare a little space to work. Lay down a piece of cardboard in case you drip solder (you probably will) and make sure you have room to work comfortably. so run the solder up and down the tip and completely around it to totally cover it in molten solder. Do this immediately so there is no time for the flux to dry out and solidify.Soldering • Tinning The Soldering Tip – Step 1: Warm Up The Iron Warm up the soldering iron or gun thoroughly. This is especially important if the iron is new because it may have been packed with some kind of coating to prevent corrosion. – Step 4: Clean The Soldering Tip After you are certain that the tip is totally coated in solder. – Step 2: Prepare A Little Space While the soldering iron is warming up. . Moisten a little sponge and place it in the base of your soldering iron stand or in a dish close by.
making it more stable during soldering. etc. you will probably not be placing all the components onto the board and soldering them at once. In general it is best to start with the smallest and flattest components (resistors. This keeps the board relatively flat. . It is also best to save sensitive components (MOSFETs. signal diodes.Soldering • Component Placement – Unless your circuit is simple and only contains a few components. non-socketed ICs) until the end to lessen the chance of damaging them during assembly of the rest of the circuit.) and then work up to the larger components (capacitors. ICs. power transistors. Most likely you will be soldering a few components at a time before turning the board over and placing more. transformers) after the small parts are done.
. – Both parts that are being soldered have to be hot to form a good connection. not the solder. with a solvent. – Remove any oil. • To solder. heat the connection with the tip of the soldering iron for a few seconds. paint. or fine sandpaper. wax. etc.Soldering • Solder needs a clean surface on which to adhere. – Hold the soldering iron like a pen. then apply the solder. – Buff the copper foil of a PC board with steel wool before soldering. near the base of the handle. steel wool. – Heat the connection.
Solder melts when placed in contact with the hot metals to be joined. .Soldering • The tip of the soldering iron heats both the copper pad and the lead from the electronic component.
it should have a volcano shape. – If you are soldering a wire (called the lead) onto a PC board (on the track). • Don't overheat the connection. – Use just enough solder to form a strong connection.Soldering • Keep the soldering tip on the connection as the solder is applied. See Figure in next slide. then the iron. see the troubleshooting section below. A crocodile clip can be used as a heat sink to protect these components. It should look shiny. reheat it and try again. – Solder will flow into and around well-heated connections. • Inspect the joint closely. Remove the solder. • Remove the tip from the connection as soon as the solder has flowed where you want it to be. – If the connection looks bad. • Don't move the connection while the solder is cooling. – Transistors and some other components can be damaged by heat when soldering. – If it is taking longer. as this might damage the electrical component you are soldering. • Soldering a connection should take just a few seconds. .
• Inspect the joint closely. See Figure in next slide.Soldering • Soldering a connection should take just a few seconds. reheat it and try again. – If the connection looks bad. . – If you are soldering a wire (called the lead) onto a PC board (on the track). it should have a volcano shape. It should look shiny.
Quality of join .
• Solder will not flow. Clean the tip of the iron on a damp synthetic sponge as soon as it starts to change from a silver color. clean tip. • There is too much or too little solder. and rigid. To avoid oxidizing the tip. Clean the tip with a damp synthetic sponge while the iron is hot. The connection should be smooth. You may need a larger soldering iron to heat connections adequately. – Parts were moved before the solder was allowed to cool. . – – – – – Soldering is much easier with a shiny. • The tip is oxidized. – Using too little solder might result in poor electrical continuity between the board and component. Common Problems and Troubleshooting – The parts to be joined may be dirty. Do not use the iron at a higher temperature than is necessary to melt solder. shiny. do not leave the iron plugged in when not in use. – Using too much solder can cause a solder bridge. Remove the solder and clean the parts. which means that two adjacent joints are accidentally connected. – Reheat to form a good joint. • The connection looks grainy or crystalline.
org/ .sciencebuddies.Reference • “ Electronics Primer: How to Solder Electronic Components” at website http://www.
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