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has been produced by Sirdar in the interest of all who wish to know more about knitting. Knitting is known the world over ~ many countries having their own traditional backgrounds which form a strong link with the general history of that particular region. Traditional patterns from Fair Isle show a strong religious influence evident in motifs such as "The Crown of Glory", " The Sacred Heart", and "The Star". From Shetland come.beautiful examples of cobweb-fine lace knitting. Aran knitting is mostly self-coloured and the traditional stitches are based on cables, bobbles and the free use of travelling slipped stitches resulting in a heavily embossed fabric.
So from simple beginnings we hope you will go far enjoying the Intrigue and relaxation of a wonderful craft.
Sirdar Quality For Your Reference What You Will Need Casting-on .. Basic Stitches Casting Off Simple Fabrics Tension Circular Knitting What You Should Know Shaping Knitted Fabric Fancy Fabrics Towards Proficiency Colour Knitting Fitting a Zip Turns
2 5 6
8 9 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 24 25 26 26 27 29 30 32 33 34 38 40 ..
Grafting Twisted Cords To Insert a Pocket To Take Back Stitches Pleats Dropped Stitches Fringes To Divide Knitted Fabric Beaded Knitting
Professional Finish Making-up Sleeve Settings To Line a Skirt Casings for Elastic ContinentalKnitting Continental Embroidery .. To Conclude
ALWAYS CHOOSE THE CORRECT
Here are a few suggestions for the perfect result.
FOR EVERYDAY AND EVERY WEAR SIRDAR DOUBLE KNIITING WOOL, softly spun and speedily knitted give reasons enough for its popularity. Made from pure wool 4-ply yarn it is rioted for its good-wearing qualities and is particularly suitable for all general wear. SIRDAR MAJESTIC WOOL, 4-, 3- AND 2-PL Y, is a pure botany fingering of the finest quality suitable for almost any type of garment. The colour range is extensive and many of the shades in 2-ply and 3-ply are processed to' resist shrinkage. For your convenience this quality is made up in 1 oz. balls. FOR BABY WEAR SIRDAR SUNSHINE BABY WOOL, 3-PLY AND 4-PLY, right in every way for the purpose its name implies, is spun from the softest Australian W00'I, processed to resist shrinkage and dyed in soft pastel shades. It comes to you in attractive cellophane bags containing 1 oz. balls. SIRDAR BABY DOUBLE KNIITING is a pure Botany Wool, shrink resisting and softly twisted. It is ideal for the thicker type of baby garment. Made up in 1 oz. balls.
FOR SPEEDY KNITTING SIRDAR PULLMAN WOOL, a double quick knitting yarn, spun to give a round and even texture, is suitable for adult and children's wear; and GOLDEN PULLMAN, a mixture range based on dark backgrounds of dyed wool, with golden and coloured highlights of special appeal. Made up in 2 oz. balls. FOR SERVICE IN WEAR SIRDAR TALISMAN KNITTING WOOL, 4-PLY. A Family Favourite in the Sirdar range, spun from a blend of good quality Australian and English crossbred wools. It is an ideal all purpose Knitting Wool for Men's, Children's and Women's Wear and is made up in 1 'oz. balls ready for knitting. FOR DISTINCTIVE TEXTURE SIRDAR DOUBLE BOUCLE, a fine crossbred Wool with a fancy twist which when knitted produces a firm fabric with exclusive texture. Will delight the discriminating knitter and is especially suitable for dresses, suits and fashion garments. Made up in 1 oz. balls and a variety of shades. SIRDAR FONTEIN CREPE is a botany Wool subsequently processed into a firm but soft handling crepe which wears well and gives satisfaction for all types of garments. Made up in 1 oz. balls. SIRDAR DOUBLE CREPE is a specially twisted botany Wool, quick to knit and good-wearing but gentle to the touch. It has a distinctive crepe texture and is made up in 1 oz. balls. SIRDAR CAPRINE - containing 75% of the softest Kid Mohair, which has the best wearing qualities of all natural fibres, together with 18% of the finest Botany Wool and 7% fine nylon. Specially brushed for fashion appeal, yet not being too bulky, it is luxuriously soft to handle and is wonderfully warm to wear.
LUXURY NYLON KNITfING SIRDAR SUPER NYLON DOUBLE KNITIING. Made of fine nylon, the basic whiteness enables very clean and bright looking shades to be dyed. It is extremely strong, but feels soft, and can be recommended for a double knitting pattern. SIRDAR BABY-NYLON 3-PLY AND 4-PLY. The beautiful whiteness of fine British nylon makes possible a lovely range of clear, delicate shades which, combined with the qualities of soft handle and shrink resistance, makes it eminently suitable for baby knitting. Truly a luxury Nylon made for Baby. SIRDAR GAIETY LUXURY NYLON, 3-PLY AND 4-PLY. Clear colours, luxurious softness, firm fabric, shrink resistance: these are the outstanding qualities of GAIETY. Made from British nylon and specially spun for softness of handle. Knits delightfully firm, is so easy to wash and equally suitable for luxury knitting and everyday wear.
INTERESTING YARNS SIRDAR CANDY1WIST, a triple knit yarn with complimentary shades laid side by side. A fine blend of Wool and Courtelle which gives lightness, strength and a soft handle. Unsurpassed for washability and economical in knitting it is an all purpose quality for Men, Women and Children, 2 oz. balls. SIRDAR SOUFFLE is a lightweight triple knitting quality made from a blend of Wool, Mohair and a small amount of man-made fibre. This quality is light to wear, quick to knit and easy to wash. 2 oz. balls. SIRDAR MEDALLION combines the best qualities of Wool with those of Courtelle to make a yarn of double knitting thickness. It has a superb handle, clear colours, economy in knitting and great washability.
FOR YOUR REFERENCE
WOOL BOTANY WOOL - from pure bred Merino sheep, is considered the finest of all wool. From such fleeces the softest qualities are spun. CROSSBRED WOOL - from crossbred sheep, has a coarser, tougher fibre suitable for the spinning of the harder wearing qualities. MAN-MADE FIBRES 100% NYLON. Soft but strong and hard-wearing. Clearest and best of colours. Good washing properties. COURTELLE 100%. Nearly all man-made fibres are hardwearing and wash well. This is no exception. The colours obtained are bright and clear. WOOL/COURTELLE. A mixture of English Wool and fine Courtelle to give special colours, warmth and good washing properties. MIXTURES - are spun from a combination of colours dyed and mixed together in an early stage of the spinning process. MARLS - are obtained by twisting different colours together after the spinning. FINGERING - refers to a smoothly twisted quality suitable for fine textured garments. YARN - is any kind of spun thread and the term should not be associated in any way with the quality of the raw or finished material. PLY - denotes the number of single threads twisted together - for example, 2 threads 2 ply, 4 threads 4 ply. The single ply can be of any thickness, therefore the number of ply does not necessarily determine the thickness of the finished yarn. This should be remembered when purchasing your wool.
THE KNIT STITCH - Insert the point of the right-hand needle from front to back INto the first stitch on the lefthand needle then pass the wool OVER the point of the right-hand needle and draw the wool 11IROUGH the stitch. finally slipping the stitch OFF the left-hand needle, repeating IN-OVER-11IROUGH-OFF to the end of the row.
THE PURL STITCH - Insert the point of the right-hand needle from back to front INto the first stitch on the lefthand needle then pass the wool OVER the point of the right-hand needle and draw the wool 11IROUGH the stitch. finaIIy slipping the stitch OFF the left-hand needle. repeating IN-OVER-11IROUGH-OFF to the end of the row.
Work into the first two stitches in the usual way then with the point of the left-hand needle lift the first of these stitches over the second. Work the next stitch and continue in the same manner lifting one stitch over the other until one stitch remains. Break off the wool and pull the end through the last stitch. An understanding of these basic principles will provide sufficient knowledge to produce the majority of simple fabrics.
Working every stitch KNIT for several rows will produce GARTER STITCH fabric. Repeating one row of KNIT stitches then one row of PURL stitches will produce STOCKING STITCH fabric. Working KNIT stitches and PURL stitches alternately will produce RIBBED fabric.
TENSION in knitting refers to the number of stitches in a given measurement - usually one inch - of knitted fabric. It forms the working basis of all reliable knitting patterns. To ensure your knitted garments working out to the correct measurements, the importance of obtaining the correct tension cannot be too strongly emphasized. A tension check should be taken before commencing a piece of work. In order to do this knit a small sample 3 or 4 inches square using needles, wool and stitch as specified. Place the knitted sample fiat on an even surface and mark out one inch with pins as shown in diagram. Count very carefully the number of stitches between the pins and check with the tension given. If your tension is incorrect, use finer needles in order to ~ obtain more stitches to the inch, or coarser needles to obtain fewer ~c;::n;NI\III1'iW!N/tto.yt.'Q V stitches to the inch, altering the size of needles used until the t. correct tension is obtained. When knitting your garment recheck the tension frequently. Few people realize how easily the tension can vary as the work proceeds - re-checking will save much disappointment. The importance of correct tension may be seen from the accompanying illustration, which shows three pieces of stocking stitch worked from the same yarn and from the same number of stitches and rows, but on different sized needles: The top one on No. 12 needles, the middle one on No. lO's and the bottom one on No. 8's. The difference is very noticeable and proves how great a difference could be made in the measurements of a whole garment.
MEASURING KNITTING should be done on the fiat, but when comparing lengths it is better to count rows.
FOUR NEEDLES. Knitting with four needles is worked in rounds, three needles holding the stitches and the fourth needle to work the stitches. When working with four needles always draw the first stitch of every needle tightly to avoid a loose stitch.
CIRCULAR KNITTING NEEDLE. Worked round and round as for four needles, the right side of the work will always be facing. Draw the first stitch tightly when commencing each round to avoid a loose stitch. These needles come in a number of sizes and various lengths and can be used for neckbands, yokes and circular skirts.
KN ITTI NG INSTRUCTIONS
WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW
ABBREVIATIONS should be read and understood before commencing a piece of knitting, because different publishers use various abbreviations to describe the same detail. Below are listed some of the abbreviations in common use.k knit. p purl. st stitch. sts stitches. tog together.. sl slip one stitch knitways. tbl through back of loop(s). st-st stocking stitch (Irow knit, 1 psso pass the slipped stitch over. wlfwd wool forward. wlfrt wool to front. wlbk wool to back. won wool over needle. wrn wool round needle. inc increase(ing). row purl). dec decrease(ing).
() When a PARENTHESIS is used, the instructions inside the parenthesis are repeated the number of times stated after the parenthesis. [ ] When BRACKETS are used, the instructions inside the brackets are repeated the number of times stated after the brackets. Sometimes parentheses and brackets are used in the same row to condense detailed instructions. These are also used for various sizes and as the majority of leaflets are now published in a number of sizes it will be of help to the knitter if all figures and measurements relating to the size required are ringed in ink.
* ASTERISKS - are used in two ways. (A) On pattern rows to indicate the place from which instructions should be repeated. (B) Indicating a section of work to be repeated, i.e., repeat from ** to ** 4 times.
WORKING FROM A CHART, each square represents 1 stitch and 1 row of knitting. Odd numbered rows, 1, 3, 5 etc., are usually knit rows and are worked from right to left, even numbered rows, 2, 4, 6 are usually purl rows 6 I I -- - I - 1- - - I and are worked from left 4 I I -- 1- - - I - - I 5 5X XX 55 55 5X XX to right. X5 XX 55 X5 5X X5 3 If knitting is being worked 2 XX XX X XX X X on a circular needle all X X X 1 rows will be knit rows.
WOOL should, whenever possible, be done at the beginning of a row, the ends being darned in before making up or, where it is practical, used for stitching the seams. If the supply of wool is very limited the join may then occur in any part of the row by splicing the ends. To do this, untwist a few inches of wool from both ends, take half the plys (strands) out of each and overlaying the remaining strands in opposite directions, twist together until they hold. (The twisted wool should be equivalent to the original thickness.) Knit carefully over the newly twisted strands for several stitches before trimming the surplus ends.
KNITtING-UP STITCHES for collars, bands, sleeves, etc., is preferable to working separate pieces to be stitched on. To knit-up stitches hold the work with the right side facing and using a knitting needle work through the ends of the rows, knitting up stitches through the centre of the knots where a pip-edge has been used, or through the loops of the edge stitches where there is not a pip-edge. It is important that the knitted-up stitches should be evenly spaced.
SHAPING KNITTED FABRIC
INCREASING STITCHES - four methods in general use. Increasing by knitting twice into a stitch. One stitch has already been knitted into the front, and the point of the needle is now in position to knit into the back of the stitch.
Increasing by picking up the thread between the stitches and knitting into the back of it, thus twisting the stitch.
Increasing by knitting into the row below the next stitch, before knitting into the stitch itself.
Increasing by purling twice into the one stitch. One stitch has already been purled and the point of the needle is now in position to purl into the back of the stitch.
DECREASING STITCHES - two methods in general use.
K2tog - Decreasing by knitting two stitches together.
Sl, kl, psso - Decreasing by the slip stitch method - one stitch has been slipped and the next is being knitted (sl, kl). Lifting the slipped stitch over the knitted one (psso).
MATCHING DECREASES . Matching decreasings by using the k2tog method on the left-hand edge and the slip stitch method on the righthand edge.
AND LACE STITCHES
Each of the methods below has the effect of making an open stitch or hole, the difference arises from the position of the wool when commencing and the ultimate position when finishing - before working the next stitch.
wlfwd - Between two knit stitches.
wrn - Between two purl stitches.
won - Between purl and knit stitches.
CABLE STITCH - Method of working cable stitch patterns. Stitches are slipped on to a spare needle with points at both ends, and left either at the front (diagram 1) or the back of the work. From the left hand needle work the corresponding number of stitches then work the stitches from the spare needle, thus completing the cable. (diagram 2).
LOOP STITCH - The loop stitch is formed by winding the wool round the needle and the forefinger of the left hand as follows: insert the point of the right hand needle into the first stitch on the left hand needle, wind the wool 3 times round the needle point and the first finger by taking the wool over, round and under (keeping the finger in the loops until the loops are knitted together) then put the wool round the needle as if to knit and draw all four loops through the stitch, making 4 loops on the right hand needle. Remove the left hand needle then insert it into the four loops and with the needles in the knit position - knit all four loops together. Continue in this manner to end of row.
FISHERMAN'S RIB - Fisherman's rib is similar to a kl , pl rib but is formed by working the knit stitch into the back of the stitch and working the purl stitch through the purl stitch of the previous (instead of the same) row.
TOWARDS PROFICI ENCY
HORIZONTAL HEMS may be turned up and slip stitched in position on the wrong side or knitted up. In either case work twice the depth of the hem. If the hem is to be knitted up - with the right side facing fold the east-on edge back on to the wrong side so that it lies level with the stitches on the needle. Proceed along the next row working through each stitch on the needle, together with the corresponding stitch from the cast-on edge. If the hem is to be slip stitched, the extra depth will not be turned up until the garment is being made up. A very successful finish is obtained if one size finer needle is used for the underneath part of hem. Hems in stocking stitch by either of these methods will be neater and less inclined to twist if one row of reverse stocking stitch (i.e., one row knit where it should have been purl or vice versa), is worked exactly mid-way across the depth of the hem. The hem is then folded up with this row lying along the edge. VERTICAL HEMS in stocking stitch may be used very successfully for Front Bands. In this case the centre stitch of the hem should be slipped on every alternate row and the hem folded back (along the line of slipped stitches) on the wrong side and slip stitched in position.
- Vee Neck. When working neckbands on two needles always work I stitch plain at the centre of the front, decrease each side of this centre stitch in every row or every alternate row according to pattern being used. When NECKBANDS
working on four needles there should be one plain stitch at the centre of front and decreasings worked as for two needles, except all knitting will be done on the right side and worked in rounds. FRONT BANDS may be worked separately and stitched on, knitted up, or knitted in. The neatest method is, of course, the knitted in, where the band is included and knitted during the working of the main part, but in an adult garment a front band worked in this way is sometimes found to frill slightly. If knitted separately the band may be worked on finer needles, or fewer rows knitted, in which case the band is stretched slightly to fit when stitched to the main part of the work. BUTTONHOLES. Small buttonhole (suitable for small buttons and baby garments). These are easily made by bringing the wool forward between two needles then knitting together the next two stitches (wlfwd, k2tog). Other buttonholes are usually made by casting off a number of stitches on one row and replacing by casting on a similar number on the next row immediately over the cast off stitches. If a knitter has difficulty in obtaining a neat buttonhole by the above methods the following alternative may be used cast off three stitches, pull the remaining stitch on the right hand needle as tightly as possible, and work to end of row. On the next row work in pattern until one stitch immediately before the cast off stitches, increase in this stitch and cast on two stitches (thus replacing three cast off stitches by an increase stitch and two cast on stitches). This method can be used for all horizontal buttonholes allowing for the stitch increased. For uneven edges - neatly buttonhole stitch round the opening, but it is important that this should be done with the same yarn as the main fabric. For a double front band the buttonholes will be worked in pairs (side by side) so that when the front band is folded back the two sets of buttonholes will lie one over the other. Buttonhole stitch together the double buttonholes. If facing ribbon is used for the front band it is advisable to pre-shrink the ribbon before stitching on to the garment. Stitch the ribbon to the wrong side of the band by hem stitching along either side, buttonhole stitch around the buttonhole and the ribbon before cutting. When stitching buttons on-always stitch the centre of the button opposite the outside corner of your buttonhole, this prevents pulling at the front.
VERTICALLY. In order to join vertical sections of colour. the colours must be twisted on the wrong side of the work where they meet - the colour to be used being twisted round the colour to be dropped. See diagram-
HORIZONTALLY. When changing colour horizontally (as in Fair Isle) the change may be made by stranding or weaving. In STRANDING, whilst working with one colour the colour not in use is carried across the back of the work until required. The colour in use is then dropped and the new colour taken up and proceeded with. See diagram-
In WEA VING, the colour in use is passed alternately under and over the colour not in use on the back of the work. See diagramEither of these horizontal methods used alone may produce an imperfect fabric where large areas of colour are required. STRANDING used over large repeats of pattern produces long strands between the change of colour. These easily catch and pull when in wear. thus spoiling the appearance of the fabric and causing annoyance to the wearer. WEAVING used throughout is apt to restrict the natural tension of the fabric. break the evenness and allow the contrasting shade to shadow through. By combining the two methods, the disadvantage in both cases will be overcome that is, stranding over not more than three or four stitches then weaving in the colour not in use when working the next stitch.
FITTING A ZIP
The zip should fit easily in the opening into which it is to be inserted - it is in fact an advantage if there is a little allowance for easing the edge of the opening on to the zip when stitching. On no account should the edge be stretched to fit the zip - this will cause the zip to buckle. Mitre the zip tapes at the top, folding them back on to the right side. Place the zip - closed - at the back of the opening, right side of zip to wrong side of opening, so that the slider is just below the top edge and the end of the zip teeth exactly level with the point of the opening. Tack in position, using soft cotton thread. Neatly oversew the edge of the opening - on the right side - to the tape of the zip, just clear of the zip teeth. Finally, on the wrong side lightly oversew the outer edges of the zip tape - see diagram.
CONCEALED METHOD. With thin binding tape neatly face the wrong side of the opening to which the zip is to be sewn. Mitre the zip tapes at the top, folding them back on to the right side. Place the zip and tack in position as described for the Visible Method - the bound edges of the opening meeting along the centre of the zip. Finally - on the wrong side - lightly oversew the edges of the zip tape - see diagram. This method is very neat and facilitates easy running of the zip.
To avoid making a hole when turning, wool can be carried one stitch further along and slipped round this stitch before turning, for example:KNIT ROWS: 51, k14, wlfwd, slip the next stitch purlways, wlbk, slip the last stitch back onto the left hand needle, turn. PURL ROWS: 51, p14, wlbk, slip the next stitch purlways, wlfwd, slip the last stitch back onto the left hand needle, turn.
Grafting is the joining together - horizontally - of two pieces of knitted fabric so that the join is invisible. Diagrams below show this method employed for the joining of two pieces of stocking stitch fabric. Having mastered the principles, experience and practice will enable knitters to apply this method of joining to various fabrics. .
THE MEmOD OF WORKING. The two pieces to be joined (each containing the same number of stitches) should be arranged on knitting needles the same size - or finer - than those used for working the fabric, so that the needles containing the stitches may be placed together with the wrong sides of the work facing in and the needles pointing to the right. Using a blunt pointed needle (a tapestry needle is ideal), threaded with a length of matching wool sufficient to work across the row, proceed as follows :* Insert wool needle into first stitch on front needle as if to knit, draw wool through and slip stitch off needle. Insert wool needle into next stitch on front needle as if to purl, see diagram 1, draw wool through and leave stitch on needle. Insert wool needle into first stitch on back needle as if to' purl, draw wool through and slip stitch off needle. Insert wO'O'I needle into next stitch on back needle as if to knit, see diagram 2, draw wool through and leave stitch on needle. Repeat from * until all the stitches are joined.
To make a successful cord two people are required. Take the number of strands of wool necessary for the required thickness. The length of the strands should be 3 times the required length of the finished cord. Each person takes one end and keeping the wool taut twists towards the right until a firm twist has been obtained. Fold wool in half lengthways and knot together the loose ends. Smooth to an even cord. These can then be trimmed with tassels or pompons. TO MAKE A TASSEL FOR THE CORD. Wind wool several times around a piece of cardboard. Cut along one edge of the cardboard, thread strands through ends of cord, tie by wrapping the wool round tassel and finish off approximately half inch down from the top or in proportion with size of tassel.
POM-PONS. Cut 2 circular pieces of cardboard the same size as required for finished ball, place together and cut a hole through the centre, the larger the hole the thicker the finished ball will be. Wind wool evenly round cardboard passing through hole each time (see diagram) until cardboard is covered. Continue to wind wool round until hole is almost completely full. Break off wool and cut through wool and outer rim of cardboard. Tie wool around centre between cards to secure and slip cardboard discs off. Shake well and trim if necessary.
TO INSERT A POCKET
Pocket linings are worked separately and left on a spare needle or stitch holder. On the main fabric work the required depth until the pocket position. is reached then stitches are cast off to correspond in number to the lining stitches. These cast off stitches are replaced on the next row by working across the stitches left on a spare needle. The sides and bottom of pocket linings are then stitched with a flat seam on the wrong side of the work.
TO TAKE BACK STITCHES
For either knit or purl insert the left hand needle from front to back into the stitch below that on the right hand needle and withdraw right hand needle from loop above, pull the wool with the right hand to straighten the loop. All stitches must be slipped on to the left hand needle correctly, otherwise the stitches will fall in the wrong direction and be twisted when knitted.
METHOD OF WORKING PLEATS. Using a number of stitches divisible by 18 plus 2 proceed as follows :Ist Row. SI, * kl0, sl purlways, k6, wlfwd, sl purlways, wlbk, repeat from * to the last st, kl. 2nd Row. SI, purl to the last st, kl. Repeats of these 2 rows form the foundation of the pleat. On completion fold the widest panel over the narrow panel with the slip stitches forming the edges of the pleats. Tack or pin in position and press lightly to set pleats.
Stitches dropped whilst knitting can easily be picked up again with the aid of a crochet hook. Insert the crochet hook from the right side of the work into the loose stitch and catch the first strand above the stitch (see diagram), draw through, thus re-forming the stitch. Continue in this manner (taking care not to cross the strands) until the stitch is on a level with the top row of knitting.
A fringe can be used as a of adding length to scarves will be determined by the should be an even number, knotted fringe is required. decorative edging or as a means or stoles. The number of strands thickness of the wool but these particularly if a double or triple
SINGLE KNOTTED FRINGE. Insert a crochet hook into the edge of the work, take the required number of strands 8 inches in length and holding both ends in the left hand so as to form a loop, slip over hook and draw loop through, place hook behind all strands and draw through loop. Continue in this manner making a knot every half inch along until edge is completed. Trim the edge of the fringe.
DOUBLE KNOTTED FRINGE. Using 10 inches of wool make a single knot into the edge of the work as given for the single knot fringe, make a second knot half inch along as follows :Taking half the number of strands from each of two knots and using the fingers tie a second knot half inch (or as desired) below the first two knots. Continue in this manner making the single knots with the crochet hook and tying the second row of knots until fringe is completed. Trim the edge of the fringe. TRIPLE KNOTTED FRINGE. Using 12 inches of wool make a double knot then make a third knot by tying the strands of wool which formed the single knot.
TO DIVIDE KNITTED FABRIC
Dividing the fabric by pulling a thread gives a perfectly even break. Insert needle into a stitch and draw stitch up allowing the knitting to gather, break the tightly drawn thread near the edge of the work and pull through (see diagram). Repeat this until all the stitches across the row have divided. This division enables the knitter to lengthen a garment by knitting in extra rows or shorten by casting off at the division row. To rejoin divided fabric using grafting methodsee page 22.
There are various methods of working in beads but for each method all beads must be threaded on to a ball of wool before commencing a garment. When required knit the beads in any of the following ways. A. SLIP STITCH. wlfrt, slip the next st purlways from the left hand needle to the right hand needle, pass a bead as close as possible to the front of the work, wlbk. B. KNIT tbl. Place the point of the right hand needle through the back of the next stitch, move along one bead close to the needle, wind the wool round the right hand needle as if to knit and draw the loop through, bringing the bead on to the right side of the work.
C. PURL ROW. Wlfrt, pass a bead as close as possible· to the right hand needle and purl the next stitch taking care the bead does not slip through to the other side of the work. 26
PROFESSIONAL FI N ISH
plays a very important part in the appearance of a well-finished garment. Each piece of the garment should be pinned out to the correct shape and size right side downwards on a thick pressing blanket, care being taken to keep the stitches and rows of the knitted fabric running in straight lines. This will ensure that no part of the fabric is: unduly stretched. Plenty of pins should be used and these should be inserted from the outer edge towards the centre of the work. The closer the pins the straighter the pressed edge will be. First, omitting all ribbed portions, press the main part of the work using a damp cloth and a warm iron. Wait a few moments until the steam has settled then remove the pins from the edges of the main part and close the ribbed portions until the knit stitches only are showing. Pin the ribbing closely, inserting the pins downwards from the top of the ribbing and upwards Correct Incorrect from the lower edge - see diagram. Press lightly but firmly and after allowing the steam to settle, remove the pins.
For man-made fibres it is advisable to check the knitting leaflet as there may be special pressing instructions. Care should be taken not to overpress the main part of the work, especially where a fancy stitch has been used. Overpressing will flatten the fabric and may destroy the character of the stitch.
One of the greatest assets towards good making-up is a neat firm edge throughout and as the first edge of any knitting is, of course, the cast-on edge this should be borne in mind from the beginning until the last stitch is cast off. NEAT FIRM SIDE EDGES create a difficulty for some knitters, but this can be overcome by slipping the first stitch and knitting the last stitch of every row, thus producing what is known as a pip-edge. SHAPED EDGES - unless detailed instructions state otherwise - should maintain the pip-edge described above, all increases and decreases being worked inside this edge. CAST-OFF EDGES - unless otherwise stated - should be worked at the same tension as the remainder of the knitted fabric in order to allow the same amount of stretch and it should also be done in pattern - that is, casting off knitways over knit stitches, and purlways over purl stitches. This is particularly important when casting off over rib, which if unduly stretched in wear may break at the edge. Where a cast-off edge is likely to receive a fair amount of stretching, such as the neck edge of a garment, a needle two sizes larger than those used for the remainder of the work may be used for the actual casting off in order to produce extra elasticity.
Making-up depends a great deal on the individual requirements of the particular garment in hand, but generally speaking the flat seam is preferable for side seams because it maintains the line of the shaped fabric and allows the garment to softly follow the lines of the body.
If the pip-edge - see note on edges - has been maintained
throughout, the flat seam will prove to be a simple method of joining. With the right sides of the work facing and using an overcasting stitch, the two edges are drawn together over the tinger. While the finger remains underneath the seam will be drawn together - flat. Move the finger along as the work proceeds - see diagram 1. For armholes and shoulder seams or where there is extra pull the back-stitch seam is very satisfactory. This is also a good method to use when joining edges which are heavily shaped and jagged or where colour knitting has been employed. With the right sides of the work together, the seam should be, backstitched as close to the edges as possible - see diagram 2. All seams should be pressed flat to finish.
SLEEVE SETTI NGS
RAGLAN SLEEVES ensure a comfortable fit. These can be worked by decreasing stitches at each end of the row, or by working decreasings two or three stitches in from the edge to give a fully fashioned shaping. Decreasings are continued until the required number of stitches remain.
SET IN SLEEVE or round armhole as it is sometimes called are shaped in the first 2-21- inches of the armhole. The shapings are worked by casting off a number of stitches followed by decreasing a number of stitches. The work continues without shaping until the shoulder level is reached.
THE DOLMAN SLEEVE is usually worked by commencing at the right sleeve and working right across, ending with the left sleeve. Using this method avoids a seam down the centre of the sleeve and reduces making up to a minimum. Sew the side and sleeve seams.
SQUARE SET IN SLEEVES. This simple method is useful for lacy patterns. It consists of casting off a number of stitches at the commencement of the armhole and continuing to work without shaping until shoulder shapings are reached. When knitting the sleeve extra length is added to correspond to the cast off edge. The sides of the extra length are stitched to the cast off stitches at armhole and the cast off stitches at the tQP of the sleeve stitched to the armhole.
When working main part of garment, instead of working armhole shapings as for a set in sleeve stitches are slipped on to a safety pin. To knit the sleeves work across the stitches left on a safety pin and using the same needle pick up stitches from the straight edge of the armhole then work across the stitches at the other side.
TO LINE A SKIRT
Using the knitted pieces of the skirt as a guide for shape, cut two pieces of lining material allowing for seams. Stitch the side seams. Make a small hem at the bottom of the skirt lining and place inside the skirt. Hem stitch the waistband of the lining to the waistband of skirt. Do not hem the bottom of lining and skirt together.
CASINGS FOR ELASTIC
Shirring elastic can be used for the tops of skirts by running the elastic through every knit stitch on every alternate row. Two other methods frequently used to make casings are, working a herringbone stitch the depth of the waistband or crocheting a chain and connecting to skirt waistband as follows: Using a medium sized crochet hook and with the wrong side of the work facing, commence at the side seam and work 1 single crochet into the top edge of the waist ribbing * 6 chain (or number of chains required to take the width of elastic), 1 single crochet into a stitch just above the bottom of the waist ribbing i inch along, 6 chain, 1 single crochet into the top edge of the ribbing ! inch along, repeat from * until the elastic casing is complete. Thread elastic through the casing.
THE METHOD OF WORKING. The Continental method differs chiefly in the fact that both hands play an equally active part in the manipulation of wool and needles. The left hand controls and guides the wool with a quick rotary movement of the wrist, whilst the right hand controls the transference of the stitch with a rotary movement in the opposite direction. The needles should not be placed under the arms but held in an almost perpendicular position in front of the body. Position wool over the left hand by passing the wool over the little finger, across the two middle fingers and twice round the first finger. (Diagram 1).
Position of hands when grasping the work. The first finger of the left hand is held free, the left-hand needle being lightly grasped by the thumb and second finger (Diagram 2).
Always keep the hands relaxed when working and hold needles in front (as Diagram 3). Insert the point of the right-hand needle into the front of the first stitch on the left-hand needle slightly stretching this stitch to the right.
At the same time give a quick turn of the wrist so that the first finger of the left hand is brought sharply towards you making the wool lie between the two needles. Using the right-hand needle and with a circular movement catch the strand of wool (Diagram 4).
Draw the wool through and at the same time allow the first finger of the left hand to fall back into its original position. (Diagram 5).
Slip the stitch off the left-hand needle leaving the newly formed stitch on the right-hand needle. (Diagram 6). Actions illustrated in diagrams 3 to 6 completes the working of one knit stitch. Consecutive rows worked in this stitch will produce garter stitch.
TIlE PURL STITCH The position of the hands is exactly as shown in Diagrams 1 and 2 for the knit stitch but the wool should be brought to the front of the work and remain there when working all purl stitches. Insert the right-hand needle from right to left into the first stitch on the left-hand needle (Diagram 7).
Give a quick turn of the wrist bringing the first finger of the left hand sharply towards you at the same time turning the right-hand needle round and down so that the wool encircles the right-hand needle (Diagram 8), allowing the first finger to fall back into its original position.
Place the right thumb over the strand on the right-hand needle to prevent it slipping and draw this needle towards the right. (Diagram 9).
Press back and away through the stitch on the left-hand needle. stretching the stitch slightly so as to enable the righthand needle to pass through easily. (Diagram 10).
Slip the stitch off the left-hand needle leaving the newly formed stitch on the right-hand needle. Actions illustrated in Diagrams 7 to 11 complete the working of one purl stitch. Consecutive rows worked in this stitch will again form a garter stitch fabric.
Alternate rows of knit and purl stitch will produce stocking stitch fabric. The working of alternate stitches of knit and purl will produce a rib. In Continental Knitting it is usual to knit the first stitch through the back of the loop and slip the last stitch off the needle knitways (be sure that the wool is at the back of the work before slipping off the last stitch). The whole secret of Continental Knitting is rhythm of movement and if each of the illustrated actions is followed correctly throughout. the rhythm will soon be recognised and speed acquired.
sometimes known as Swiss Darning or Duplicating Stitch, is the method by which a design may be superimposed upon stocking stitch fabric. The stitch is worked with a tapestry needle over the actual stitches of the knitted fabric, thus retaining the texture, elasticity and character of the knitting. The finished pattern or motif has the appearance of having been knitted in. has been used for the knitted fabric. Thinner wool will result in the stitches of the background fabric not being entirely covered and the work will be patchy. If thicker wool is used the result will be clumsy. THE METHOD OF WORKING. Thread a tapestry needle (or any needle with a blunt end would do) with wool required and with the right side of the work facing insert the needle from back to front through the centre of the stitch immediately below the stitch to be worked over and draw through. (Diagram 1).
It is essential to use the same thickness of wool as that which
Follow this stitch by moving up the right hand side and slipping the needle under the two strands of the stitch above (Diagram 2) draw the wool through taking care not to pull the wool too tightly.
Move down the left-hand side of """""rr-TnT"-.oT"""1OT"--m'l"1 the stitch being covered back into the centre of the stitch and out again through the centre of the next stitch to be worked as
Draw the wool through, again taking care not to pull the wool too tightly, thus completing the first stitch in continental embroidery (Diagram 4). Continue in this manner changing the colours when necessary according to chart or design being worked. Stitches can be covered by working across, up or down, but for a really professional finish it is advisable to follow the knitting by working one row from right to left then one row from left to right, when working left to right commence at the centre and move up the left-hand side of the stitch instead of the right.
DO NOT leave your work in the middle of a row. The stitches will loosen at the needle point and cause a break in the evenness of the fabric when the work is resumed. DO NOT handle knitting with rough hands, this might cause the wool to fluff and could spoil the fabric. DO NOT push your knitting needles through the ball of wool - this tends to split the wool. DO NOT rush your work - it only leads to trouble. Knitting should be a relaxation and the people who enjoy knitting treat it as such. DO keep your hands cool and your work clean. Frequent washing and a little talcum powder applied to the hands helps tremendously. DO keep at least one ball band from your quantity of wool. These ball bands show the shade number and dye number and are a helpful reference if you should require a further supply. DO use needles that are smooth with well-graduated points, slightly blunted at the tips. Rigid needles are more likely to produce an even tension than pliable needles, but if made of metal they should have a cellulose or composition covering to prevent the wool from soiling. Needles should also be washed from time to time to prevent soiled stripes occurring across the work. For knitting that has been left on the needles for a time it helps to prevent lines across the knitting if one or two rows are pulled back before starting again.
- denotes the number of single threads twisted together r example, 2 threads 2 ply, 4 threads 4 ply. The single can be of any thickness, therefore the number of ply does ---";-'not necessarily determine the thickness of the finished yarn. This should be remembered when purchasing your wool. Although ages are given for children's garments these should be used as a guide only. Children of the same age group differ considerably in size so to ensure a good fit it is advisable to check by measurement as well as age. DO NOT be too ambitious in your choice of elaborate patterns until you have perfected simple fabrics, thus progressing easily into the exciting intricacies of this rewarding craft.
ABOVE ALL· ENJOY YOUR KNITTING
Sirdar Wools publish a continuous flow of instruction leaflets covering Women's wear, Men's wear and all knitting needs. In addition the Sirdar Sunshine Series is devoted to designs for Babies and Toddlers, Growing Up in Sirdar caters for the school years, and Teenage in Sirdar for the young adult. Sirdar advertisements appear regularly in Women's magazines but further information about Sirdar products may be obtained from ;-
SI'RDAR WOOLS· (AUSTRALIA) PTY. LIMITED,
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