Appendix: Tables

Table A. Tables B: Tables C: Tables D: Tables E: Tables F: Tables G: Tables H: Tables I: Tables J: Appendix K: Summary Properties of Lead Geochemistry and Geology Soil, Water, and Plants Chemistry Art Objects Material Science Dispersion and Risk Assessment Waste Disposal Industrial Production Time Lines William Lilie's 1775 Medical Dissertation Translation

599 - Tables

Table A.1 Properties of Elemental Lead Atomic Weight Atomic Number Valences Crystal Structure a dimension Bond Length, Pb, Pb, at 25o C Ionization potentials, Ev Specific Gravity, g/ml 20o C 327o C (solid) 327o C (liquid) Specific Heat, cal/g 0o C 20o C 327o C Vapor Pressure, mm Hg 987o C 1167o C 1417o C Viscosity, cP 441o C 551o C 703o C Surface Tension, dyne/cm, 327.4o C Melting Point, oC Boiling Point, oC Electric Resistivity, microohm/cm, 20o C Thermal Conductivity, cal/sec/sq cm, 20oC Tensile Strength, Kg/sq cm. Modulas of Elasticity, 106 Kg/sq cm Latent Heat of Vaporization, cal/g Latent Heat of Fusion, cal/g Heat of Fusion, cal/atm Heat of Vaporization, cal/atm Entropy at 25o C, cal/atom deg Heat Capacity at 327o C, cal/atom deg 207.2 82 2 and 4 face-centered cubic 4.949 D 3.499D 7.42, 15.03, 32.08, 42.25, 69.7 11.34 11.005 10.686 0.0297 0.0306 0.0320 1.0 10.0 100.0 2.12 1.70 1.35 444 327.4 1751 20.65 0.083 126.55-175.77 0.155 204 5.89 1,225 42,880 15.49 6.80

600 - Tables

Table B.1: Minerals Important in the History of Lead Class Sulfides Galena Altaite Clausthalite Oxides Litharge Massicot Minium Plattnerite Pyrochlore Bindheimite Carbonates Cerrussite Acetates Sulfates αPbO βPbO Pb2+2Pb4+O4 Pb2+2Sn4+O4 PbO2 Orthorhombic Paint Tetragonal Red paint Giallino = Lead Tin Yellow I, non-native Tetragonal Batteries Formula PbS PbTe PbSe Structure Cubic Cubic Cubic Uses Mined, Egyptian Kohl IR Sensors IR Sensors

A1-2B2O6(O,OH,F)-nH2O Cubic Pb2Sb2O6(O,OH) PbSn1-xSixO3 PbCO3 Pb(CH3COO)2 Orthorhombic Trigonal Monoclinic Tetragonal Hexagonal Orthorhombic

=Naples Yellow Lead Tin Yellow II, non- native Silverstone, White Paint Sugar of lead: fungicide, sweetner Batteries, additive to Mined Rare: Yellow chrome Additive to yellow chrome

Anglesite PbSO4 yellow chrome Plumbojarosite PbFe3+6(SO4)4(OH)12 Tungstates, Molybdates and Chromates Crocoite PbCrO4 Wulfenite PbMoO4 Apatite Group: Ca5(PO4, CO3)3(F,Cl,OH) Pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl

Used to stabilize lead in soil

Table B.2: Half Lives of U and Th precursors Reaction U 6 206Pb U 6 207Pb 232 Th 6 208Pb
238 235

Half life (Byr) 4.47 0.704 14.01

Decay Constant, λ, yr-1 1.5512x10-10 1.848x10-10 0.49475x10-10

601 - Tables B: Geochemistry and Geology

34±0.86 7.005 24.97±0.003 52.32 22.05 22. Idaho 1.004 23.06 20.004 21. Australia 1.1 Relative Standard Deviation 7% 21.43 23.52±0.002 52.50±0.26±0.02 Joplin.004 22.94±0.Table B.40±0. Canada 1.1 52.53±0.69±0.) Radioactive Isotopes Shown in Bold Isotope Source 201 204 Half-life >500yr stable stable stable stable 3.73±0.00 51.549±0.34±0.02 52.39±0.5: Electronic configuration of Pb.35±1.Tables B: Geochemistry and Geology . U.8 min % Abundance ~0 1.56±0.002 San Antonio.6 hr 26. Missouri.20±0.07 26.1 ~0 ~0 ~0 ~0 ~0 Pb Pb 206 Pb 207 Pb 208 Pb 209 Pb 210 Pb 211 Pb 212 Pb 214 Pb man Big Bang 238 U 235 U 232 Th 241 Pu 238 U 235 U 232 Th 238 U Table B. Mexico 1.3: Lead Isotopes (Not shown are man made isotopes with very short (< s) life spans. O.438±0.25 Bunker Hill.07 52.52% 1.005 Broken Hill.32 hr 25 yr 25 min 10. Th.1% Table B.001 Bluebell.04 21.34±0. and S.6 4. 1.005 52.005 Average: 1.46±0. Specie Atomic Number Li 4 Be 5 Oxygen 8 Na 12 Mg 13 Sulfur 16 Lead 82 Thorium Uranium Atom Atom Radii In pm 150 180 200 Ion Li+: [He] Be2+: [He] O2-: [Ne] Na+ [He] Mg2+ [He] S2-: [Ar] Pb2+: [Xe]6s24f145d10 Pb4+: [Xe]4f145d10 Th2+: [Rn]7s2 Th4+: [Rn] U4+: [Rn]7s2 U6+: [Rn] Comment Ion Radii In pm 121 -126 170 112 -133 [He]2s1 [He]2s2 [He]2s22p2 [Ne]3s1 [Ne]3s2 [Ne]3s23p4 [Xe]6s24f145d106p2 [Rn]7s 6d 2 2 Filled shell Filled shell Filled d orbital Filled s orbital Filled d orbital Filled s orbital Filled shell Filled s orbital Filled shell [Rn]7s25f36d1 190 108 103 602 .4: Isotope Percents of Major Commercial Lead Ores 204 Pb 206 Pb 207 Pb 208 Pb Con Mine.4 21. Canada 1.10±1 52.03 24.1196±0.02 25.32±0.64±0.63% 23.36 25.31±0.

Os.354 1.600 1.65 2. 10 11 12 13 Table B. Goethite FeO2 Rutile.311 1.23 603 .77 2-3 2.225 1.300 Major host phase Host Formula ZrO2 Al2O3 MgAl2O2 CaTiO3 P Li Au Mn Na K S Pb Bi Tl 1.800 1.Fe)Si3O10(OH.3 4. Ru.Table B.7: Mineral Stability in Earth Surface Mineral Formula Gypsum. enstatie.F)2 Albite (Ca.Fe)3(Al. Mo Mg Si Ni Fe Pd Cr Condensation T (oK) 1. αAl2O3 Density 2.Na.7 4.590 1.750 1.680 1. halite CaSO4 Calcite CaCO3 Olivine-hornblende Mg2SiO4 biotite K(Mg. Corundum TiO2.6: Condensation Temperatures Element Re.225 1.W Zr Al Ti Th Ca Ir.7 3. FeNi metal Olivene Pyroxene Fe3P Enstatite FeNi metal Forsterite Anorthite Anorthite FeS FeS FeS FeS Mg2SiO4 MgSiO3 Cr22+SiO4 Cr2+SiO3 CaAl2Si2O8 Stage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.590 1.Tables B: Geochemistry and Geology .190 970 1000 648 496 451 428 Metal Alloy Zircon Corundum (al oxide) Spinel Perovskite Perovskite Melilite Metal alloy Forsterite Enstatite “ FeNi metal FeNi metal FeNi metal Forsterite.Ca)0.F)7 Quartz SiO2 Illite Hydrous Mica Montmorillonite (Na.267 1.Nb)2(O.Mg)2Si4 O10(OH)2@nH2O Kaolinite Al2Si5O5(OH)4 Gibbsite Al(OH)3@3H2O Hematite.4 3.33(Al.520 1.6 2.336 1.OH.32 2.334 ~1.Fe)2(Ta.275 2.3-4.3 2.340 1.

5 3.Tables B: Geochemistry and Geology .57 4.0 x106 85 x103 0.9 9.1 x106 2.6 x103 4.13 5.09 0.10 0.9 x109 10 x103 9.63 2.75 36.1 7.8: Abundance of Elements Wt % in Wt % in Crust Compound Crust 46.Element O Si Al Fe Ca Na K Mg Ti H P Mn Ba Pb Relative Amt Solar System 23.6 27.9 x106 61 x103 57 x103 3.8 x106 1.73 8.09 0.3 Wt% in Mantle 45.3 15.0 3.14 0.4 5.04 SiO2 Al2O3 FeO CaO MgO 57.44 0.33 604 .4 x103 27.7 8.17 3.8 x108 1.2 Table B.59 2.83 2.

69 0. CO32Borate.27 0.495-0.57-0.52 0.76-0.17 1.68 0.Tables B: Geochemistry and Geology .41-0.44-0.1.61 0.94 0.1.41 0. SiO42Chromate.6 4 4.6 4.82-0.74 0.8 6 8 6.58 0.6 4.726 0.22 N5+ C4+ B3+ P5+ Si4+ Cr+6 S4+ As5+ V5+ Mo+6 W+6 Al3+ Fe3+ Mg2+ Pb4+ Fe2+ Mn2+ Na+ Ca2+ Th4+ U4+ Sr2+ Pb2+ Ba2+ K+ 0.48 0.376-0.915 0.31-0.6 6 4.73 0.0 1.87 0.04 Nitrate.35 1.46 0.9: Structure of oxyanions (O2.83-1.30 0.07 1.73-1.6 4.68 1.56-0. CrO44Sulfate.79-0.97 0.73 0.15-0.25-0.43 0.34-0.8 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 Tetrahedral Octahedral Cubic Dodecahedral 605 .4 4 4 4 4.59-1.49 1.41 Phosphate.52 0.01 1.317-0.8 6.27 0.N.15-0.3412 0. AsO43Vanadate.32 1.15 0.0 0.325 Rc/Roxygen C. WO420.77 0.539 0.71-0.24 1. Predicted Structure Linear Triangular 2 3 3 ~3 3.Table B.343-0.60 0. MoO42Tungstenate.80-0.40-0.08-1.36-0.04 1.46 0.119--0.26D) Ion Ionic Oxyanion Rc/Ra Range <0. NO3Carbonate.36 0.476 0. VO42Molybdate.91 0.6 6 6.2142 0.08-1.31 1. SO42Arsenate.23 0.246-0.63-0.55-0.20-1.68 0.20 1.61-0.10-1.58 0.41 0.77 0.33 >1.03-1.58 0.47-0.54-0.392-0. BO330.43-0.22-0. PO43Silitcate.475-0.

15D 8.95D 7.99D Hexagonal Mg2+ 4.47D 15.97 1.Tables B: Geochemistry and Geology .11 (M22+(CO3)2) Ca2+ 4. # Sulfides fcc cubic 6 8 4 4 8 cation. 4 anion 6 cation.33D Ca2+ 4.170 Ag+ 142 Pb2+ 133 Cu+ 74 Table B. 3 anion PbS Ag2S Cu2S Ion radii S2.8-0.96D 6.96D 5.20 606 .84D Orthorhombic Pb2+ 5.04D 1.08-1.11D 0.Structure sodium chloride cesium chloride zinc blende (ZnS) wurtzite (ZnS) fluorite CaF2 rutile (TiO2) Table B.10: Common Ionic Crystal Unit Cells Unit cell Coor.12-1.73D a b c r (pm) 17.

or BO45SO42WO42-.. Cl-. VO43- 607 . CrO42PO43-. tetragonal OHCO32.12: Common Mineral Classes Mineral Classes Silicates Common Anions SiO44Quartz Orthoclase KalSi3O8 Albite NaAlSi3O8 Clays Comments Framework Feldspar group Alkali Feldspar Plagioclase Fledspars Sheet Chain Sulfides Tetrahedral Group Octahedral Group Halides Oxides Tetrahedral Rutile Hydroxides Carbonates. Vanadates S2- Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2): tetragonal Galena PbS .NO3Gibbsite (Al(OH)3 CaCO3. Chromates Phosphates. hexagonal close pack TiO2. Molybdates.cubic F-.Table B. MoO42-. hexagonal CaMg(CO3)2 CaCO3.Cl. orthorhombic. rare Saltpetre (KNO3) Mostly rare 100 minerals known Rare minerals related to anhydrous sulfates Only apatite: Ca5(PO4)3(F. orthorhombic PbCO3. Arsenates. Nitrates Calcite Group Dolomite Group Aragonite Group Nitrate Group Borates Sulfates Tungstates.Tables B: Geochemistry and Geology .OH) BO33. Br-. IO2ZnO. AsO43-.

native Silverstone. CO3)3(F. additive to yellow chrome Mined Rare: Yellow chrome Additive to yellow chrome Used to stabilize lead in soil αPbO βPbO Orthorhombic Tetragonal Pb2+2Pb4+O4 Pb2+2Sn4+O4 Tetragonal PbO2 A1-2B2O6(O.13: Minerals Important in the History of Lead Formula Structure Uses PbS PbTe PbSe Cubic Cubic Cubic Mined.OH) Hexagonal Pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl 608 . Egyptian Kohl IR Sensors IR Sensors Paint Red paint Giallino = Lead Tin Yellow I.Cl. White Paint Sugar of lead: fungicide. Molybdates and Chromates Monoclinic Crocoite PbCrO4 Tetragonal Wulfenite PbMoO4 Apatite Group: Ca5(PO4. non-native Batteries =Naples Yellow Lead Tin Yellow II. sweetner Batteries.OH.F)-nH2O Pb2Sb2O6(O.Tables B: Geochemistry and Geology .OH) Cubic PbSn1-xSixO3 PbCO3 Orthorhombic Pb(CH3COO)2 Sulfates Orthorhombic Anglesite PbSO4 Trigonal Plumbojarosite PbFe3+6(SO4)4(OH)12 Tungstates.Class Sulfides Galena Altaite Clausthalite Oxides Litharge Massicot Minium Plattnerite Pyrochlore Bindheimite Carbonates Cerrussite Acetates Table B. non.

Ag)2Bi6S17 Nuffieldite Pb2cu(Pb.Cu)(Bi.As)2S4 Gustavite PbAgBi3S6 Heyrovskyite Pb10AgBi5S18 Jamesonite PbrFeSb6S14 Jordanite Pb14(As. Bi)30S69 Treasurite Ag7Pb6Bi15S32 Vikingite Ag5Pb8Bi13S20 Zinkenite Pb6(Sb.Bi)8S20 Pavonite (Ag.Ag + S + Sb.Pb)3S5 Sartorite PbAs2S4 Schirmerite Ag3Pb3Bi9S18 to Ag3Pb6Bi7S18 Semseyite Pb9Sb8S21 Tintinaite Pb22Cu4(Sb.Table B. Bi aikinite PbCuBiS3 andorite PbAgSb3S6 Berryite Pb3(AgCu)5Bi7S16 Baumhauerite Pb3As4S9 Boulangerite Pb5Sb4S11 Bournonite PbCuSbS3 Buckhornite AuPb2BiTe2S3 Cosalite Pb2Bi2S5 cuproparonite AgPbCu5Bi5S10 Eskimoite Ag7Pb10Bi15S36 Fizelyite Pb14Ag5Sb21S48 Freieslebenite PbAgSbS3 Friedrichite Pb5Cu5Bi7S18 Fülöppite Pb3Sb8S15 Galenobismutite PbBi2S4 Geocronite Pb5(Sb.14 Lead Minerals.Cu. As.Sb)30S69 Krupkaite PbCuBi3S6 Lillianite Pb3Bi2S6 Nagyagite Pb5Au(Te.Sb)6S23 Kobellite Pb22Cu4(Bi. Part I Silicates Iranite Kasolite Sulfides Pb10Cu(CrO4)6(SO4)(OH)6 Pb(UO2)SiO4@H2O Triclinic Monoclinic Cubic Cubic Cubic orthorhombic orthorhombic monoclinic monoclinic orthorhombic orthorhombic orthorhombic monoclinic Monoclinic Monoclinic Monoclinic Orthorhombic Monoclinic Orthorhombic Monoclinic Monoclinic Orthorhombic Orthorhombic Monoclinic Monoclinic Orthorhombic Orthorhombic Orthorhombic $320 million (1858-1958 US) Galena PbS Altaite PbTe Clausthalite PbSe Sulfosalts = Pb.Sb)4S5-8 Neyite Pb7(Cu.Tables B: Geochemistry and Geology .As)S8 Guettardite Pb(Sb.As)12S24 Brittle Feather Ore Monoclinie Orthorhombic Orthorhombic Orthorhombic Monoclinic Monoclinic Monoclinic Orthorhombic Monoclinic Monoclinic Hexagonal 609 .Bi)Bi2S7 Ourayite Ag25Pb30Bi41S104 Owyheeite Ag2Pb7(Sb.

Part II Halides Oxides and Hydroxides Coronadite Curite Fourmarierite Massicot Minium Molybdomenite Plattnerite Pb(Mn4+.Fe. BaSO46PbCO3 Anglesite PbSO4 Beaverite Pb(Cu.14: List of Lead Minerals.OH) Monoclinic Mimetite Pb5(AsO4)3Cl Hexagonal Pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl Hexagonal Vanadinite Pb5(VO4)3Cl 610 .F)@nH2O Cubic Cubic Bindheimite Pb2Sb2O6(O. and Sr/cerrussite Phosgenite Pb2(CO3)Cl2 Borates Sulfates Barite group PbS6PbSO4.Cl.Y.Ca)U2O7@2H2O Pyrochlore Group (A1-2B2O6(O. and Vanadates Corkite PbFe3+3(PO4)(SO4)(OH) Trigonal Dumontite Pb2(UO2)3O2(PO4)2@5H2O Monoclinic psuedohexagonal Grayite (Th. Molybdates and Chromates Ural Mountains Crocoite PbCrO4 Tetragonal Wulfenite PbMoO4 Phosphates.Fe2+)(VO4)2@H2O Orthorhombic Descloizite PbZn(VO4)OH Apatite Group: Ca5(PO4. Arsenates.OH.U.OH) Cubic Plumbopyrochlore (Pb.Mn2+)8O16 Pb3U8O24(OH)6@3H2O Pb(UO2)4O3(OH)4@4H2O PbO Pb2+2Pb4+O4 PbSeO3 PbO2 Monoclinic orthrorhombic Orthorhombic Orthorhombic Tetragonal Monoclinic Tetragonal (Common. CO3)3(F. found with galena Monoclinic Leadhillite Pb4(SO4)(CO3)2(OH)2 Found with cerrussite.Ca)2-xNb2O6(OH) Lead/Tin Yellow Not a “native” mineral Carbonates and Nitrates Caledonite Pb5Cu5(CO3)(SO4)3(OH)6 Cerrussite PbCO3 Orthorhombic Silverstone.Ca)PO4@H2O Trigonal Hinsdalite (PbSr)Al3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6 Plumbogummite PbAl3(PO4)2(OH)5@H2O Trigonal Bayldodnite PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2@ H2O Monoclinic Orthorhombic carminite PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2 Orthorhombic Duftite PbCu(AsO4)OH Brackebuschite Pb2(Mn2+.Tables B: Geochemistry and Geology .Table B.Pb. but inconspicuous in mine tailings derives from photooxidation) Vandendriesscheite orthorhombic PbU76+O22@12H2O Orthorhombic Wölsendorfite (Pb.Al)3(SO4)2(OH)6 Trigonal Monoclinic Lanarkite Pb2(SO4)O Monoclinic Linarite PbCu(SO4)(OH)2 Trigonal Fracture filling of galena/sphalerite Osurizawaite PbCuAl2(SO4)2(OH)6 Trigonal Plumbojarosite PbFe3+6(SO4)4(OH)12 Tungstates.

1 Belgium 2.15 Lead Content of Rocks Average lead content µg/g Rock Type Igneous gabbro 1.1 24.6 Table C.Table B. 1970 Washington State 15.3: Input of Minerals From Atmospheric Dust Kg/ha-yr Location K Ca Mg Wisconsin 1-4 2-7 0.3 Gleason clay loam California 31.9 Grundy silt loam Illinois 26.0 8.1 Cation Exchange Parameters for Soils and soil components Location meq/100g Material Sand 1-5 Silt loams 15-30 Kaolinite clay 3-15 Illite clay 25-40 Montmorillonite clay 60-100 Humus 100-300 Location meq/100g Surface Soil charlotte fine sand Florida 1. 1967 Table C.6-2.2 17.Tables B: Geochemistry and Geology .7 11.7 6.9 0.7 2.0 Likens et al.0 Ruston fine Sandy loam Texas 1.3 Germany 4.8 6.2: Input of Minerals From Rock Weathering kg/ha-yr K Ca Mg Na Source Location Long Island 11.1 Great Britain 2.3 8.7 Woodwell and Whittaker.9 0.4 Cole et al.3 0.3 Granite 22.6 N.6-13.6 19 Nigeria 17.5-1. Carolina 0.1 2.5 12.9 Andesite 8.7 Sedimentary Shales 23 Sandstones 10 Limestones 7 Table C.6-3.9 9.7 611 . 1967 New Hampshire 4.0 8.3 6.3 Mississippi 4 5 1 Sweden 0.9 Gloucester loam New Jersey 11.

000 17500 54 390 120 15 409 >150 16 5 2290 1400 450 102 8 Ancient Solution Utah ppm 29500 152000 4. and Plants .9 160 Cl 2.Table C.0x10-2 1.4x10-2 7x105 Average River M 2.7 220 - Table C.8x10-2 0.01 0.55 0.15 0.0x10-2 5.000 8.001-0.3x10-6 11.000 2.5 Ionic Composition of Sea and Average River in ppm or Molarity Ion ClNa+ Ca2+ K+ Mg2+ B Br FNH4+ HCO3H2S SO42Fe Mn Zn Pb Cu Salton Sea Geothermal Brine Ppm 155.7x10-4 3.005 1.9x10-5 3.400 28.000 50.001-0.47 1. Water.2x108 km2) Sediment Soluble Element x1012 moles/ year moles/ha-yr moles/ha-yr Na 3.021 0.400 67.Tables C: Soil.6 300 130 K 1.0003-0.4 Weathering losses from continents to the Sea (continental land area = 1.2x10-4 2.000 Present Ocean ppm M 0.8 150 120 Mg 5.4x10-4 5.8x10-4 5.0007-0.2x10-4 612 .5 460 110 Ca 13 1100 130 Si 9 750 3300 Al 930 Fe 300 S 1.

Cd2+ 0. and Plants .Element As Bi Cd Hg Pb Sb Se Table C.052-0.7 HAsO42-.2-230 anionic 3.1 0.5-3.4 CdCl2.7 0.02 0.3 0.2 0.0001-2.8 0.02? 0. Water.2 0.18-5.01-9.1 3 0. HgCl42.7. H2AsO40.06-120 0.03 0.02 BiO+ 0. PbCl30.01-3 organic 0.02-1 Table C.01-5 0.6: Concentration of Metals in Ocean and Freshwater Ocean FreshWater Concentration Range Species Concentration Range Species µg/L µg/L µg/L µf/L 0.Tables C: Soil.2 0.01-0.5 0.03-13 PbCl+.22 HgCl2. Typical Groundwater concentrations ppm Species Ca2+ 2130 1900 Na+ 61 Mg2+ 14 K+ 6086 Cl1040 SO4268 HCO3- 613 .0.0157-0.03 0.2 0.6 0.11 0.

7 Springfield. AL 1976 28.1 Mobile. KA 1975 67.8 Milwaukee.8 Cheyenne.0 Miami. MI 1976 27. IL 1987 1987 1987 276 156 82 Table C.5 Waterbury. WY 1976 82. FL 1975 150.5 Gary.4 Charleston.0 Evansville.1 Sikeston. MS 1976 98. ME 1976 31. Chicago Downstate.9 Portland. SC 1976 415.9 Houston. SC 1973 28. IA 1976 80. WI 1975 150. CA 1975 147.9: Lead Content of Select Soils Location Remote Canada Rural Canada New Brunswick UK uncontaminated Ontario. IL Suburbs.6 Wilmington.400 614 .3 Camden NJ 1975 536. CA 1974 179.2 San Francisco.5 Sioux City.Tables C: Soil.6 Greenville.6 Pittsfield MA 1973 156. IN 1974 132. ppm Location Durham. and Plants .5 Grand Rapids. WA 1973 202. DE 1976 250.8 Chicago. TN 1976 154. NC 1974 19.4 Pine Bluff. CT 1976 136. AK 1974 21. rural UK London Inner-city. IL 1974 96. PA 1976 306. Canada US Missouri lead belt ppm 5-20 10-50 0-100 10-150 5-360 671 150-3000 3800 1.9 Augusta. HA 1976 67.6 Manhattan. IN 1973 53.Table C. Water.9 Salt Lake City.000 21200 30. Canada UK 18th mining area Homes Near Smelter Toronto secondary smelter Smelter.8 Philadelphia.8 Washington DC 1973 206. TX 1975 76. VA 1976 256.9 Richmond.1 Honolulu.8: Lead Content of Urban Soils date arithmetic mean.000 30.000-6.1 Tacoma.8 Greenville. UT 1975 120.6 Memphis. MO 1976 27. OR 1976 98.4 Bakersfield.

Table C.11: Potash (KCO3) production by tree species Pounds of Potash 5 Tons of: Pine 8 Maple 18. Water.6 16 7. and Plants .1 Elm 39 Table C.6 13 rock/plant 1 soil/plant 1 4.Tables C: Soil.12: Biological Selectivity for Calcium: Ca/M M Ca Sr Ba Pb rock/soil 1 2.7 16 plant/herb ivore 615 .1 7.10: Amount of Minerals Removed by Species kg/ha Ca Mg K Northern Hardwood (45-50 yr) 60 241 24 Oak (47 yr) 118 173 23 Beech (37 yr) 96 117 Loblolly pine (16 yr) 89 112 29 Spruce-fir 47 150 14 Table C.

14: Lead in Mexico City Vegetation Lead.Tables C: Soil.0 Reinferia 120 6. and Plants . ppm Site Unwashed leaves Washed Aeropuerto 564 19.2 Viaducto 188 11.0 Centro 37.0 0.0 Insurgentes-Reforma 48.5 - 616 .2 Milpa Alta 2.7 Xochimilco 7.0 Carr.1 1-2 Table C.6 Tlalpan-Ermita 65.0 Tlalpan-Centro 164 12.0 Gustavo Madero 171 0. Critical Concen.13 Transfer of Soil Lead to Plants Element Transfer Coef.5 0.7 Iztacalco 123 2. Plant/Soil for plant growth Cd 1-10 5-10 Tl 1-10 20-30 Pb 0.6 5.1-1 15-20 Ni 0.5 0.1 10-20 Zn 1-10 150-200 Cu 0. Mex.7 Azcapotzalco 280 13.6 0.01-0. Water.5 1.1-1 20-30 Cr 0.0 Desierto de los Leones 1.01-0.0 Churubusco-Ermita 34 1.0 Estadio Azteca 35 0. Toluca 38.7 Periferico Norte 87.Table C.6 1.

36 24.55 17. 1978 617 .Tables C: Soil.66 20.00 46.5 48.7 25.51 MJ/kg = 7533 Btu/lb Klass.7 59.20 49.44 MJ/dry kg 12..86 19.Table C.24 22.07 20.4 20.28 30. and Chemicals Academic Press.03 20.47 36. D. Biomass for Renewable Energy.15 Fuel Content of Various Materials Material Municipal Waste Cellulose White Birch Red Maple Eastern White Cedar Beech Primary Biosolids (Sewage Sludge) Oak Poplar Birch Beech Sawdust Eastern Hemlock White Spruce Jack Pine Peat Pine Wood Douglas Fir Bark Sub Bituminous Coal Lignin Charcoal Charcoal Bituminous coal Bituminous Coal Anthracite coal Isooctane Gas Crude Oil Natural Gas conversions: C (wt%) 44.7 17.75 51.8 21.33 30.51 19.9 63 69 73. Fuels. and Plants . 1998 Tillman.5 19. Donald L.20 20.1 28.84 20.A.65 20.2 28.01 2.37 19.68 20.65 19. Water.5 19.5 %K2O 43.8 55. Wood as an Energy Source.47 29.

3 29 42..7 not applicable 0. S2- Table D. ClAcetate.8 150/0.6 -76.175 nm Ca2+ -3.) 3.2 NH4+ Salt MCl2 MSO4 MCO3 M(OH)2 MCrO3 MO (yellow) MS M3(PO4)2 MO2 ionic radius Table D.4 80/0. NH4+.1 insoluble 0.07 Exceptions AgCl.5 -71. NH4+ Group 1.3: Solubility of Soil Lead Minerals Ppm in stomach Formula logKsp fasting/fed PbO 12. CH3COOInsoluble Carbonate.1 -99.Anion Soluble Nitrate. paint.48x10-7 1.158 3.49 ppm -27. Sr. NO3Sulfate.8 -78.6 Comments paint derived ore. Pb insoluble Group 1. OHSulfide.Tables D: Chemistry .64 4. Hg2Cl2.21(est.) 8.14 2.7 PbSO4 -12.64 2.5 15.Ba Group 1.6 5.11 (est.3 -112.08 4.75 13. gasoline 618 . CO32Hydroxide.197 nm PbCO3 PbS Pb5(PO4)3F Pb5(PO4)3OH Pb5(PO4)3Br Pb5(PO4)3Cl Hinsdalite PbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6 Plumbogummite PbAl3(PO4)2(OH)5@H2O Corkite PbFe(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6 Mineral Litharge Anglesite derived Cerrusite Galena Pyromorphites Table D.2: Solubility of Pb2+ and Ca2+ -Log Ksp Pb2+ 3. PbCl2 Sr.74 7. SO42Chloride.1: Solubility Rules Radius Charge Charge/r3 pm 189 230 167 159 185 140 170 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1.3 5.gasoline ore.2 13. Ba.9 100%/100% -7.) 28.037 (est.3 -0.01 ppm -99.1 -84.48 3.75 15.

002 0.16 125 266 121.3 44. Solubility Most Bone Mineral Ca(HPO4)2H2O Ca4H(PO4)3 Ca9(PO4)6(var) Ca3(PO4)2 Least Ca5(PO4)4OH Table D.4.3-1.98 4.00 density 2.5: Solubility (g/100 mL) of Various Salts Salt Hot Water Cold Water 89.04 2.13 0.8 92.5 3.tetragonal a (D) 10. cubic hexagonal f.49 3.9 8.306 1.33 1.5 619 .Table D.Tables D: Chemistry .214 4.p.6 1.c.14 1.1 13.67 LiNO3 NaNO3 (soda niter) KNO3 247 RbNO3 CsNO3 Mg(NO3)2 Ca(NO3)2@4H2O 660 376 Ca(NO3)2 Sr(NO3)2 Ba(NO3)2 K2CO3 CaCO3 156 0.00153 Table D.00190 112 0.6 70.6: Solubility of Metals in Mercury Metal Au Ag Cu Sn Pb phase γ ε γ γ Formula Au3Hg3 Ag5Hg8 AgHg3 Cu5Hg8 Sn12Hg Pb2Hg2 Structure γbrass h.5 1.c.03 0.7 Molar Ca/P dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) Brushite octacalcium phosphate (OCP) amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) Whitlockite hydroxyapatite (HAP) 1.28 9.972 solubility (wt%) 0.

62 17.45 Table D.02 5.796 23.9 7.5 69 91 149 0 198 214 32 206 431 248 205 93 33 50 179.52 11.5 66.96 34.114 7.6 17.5 0 -21 102 -297 0 -170 0 -945 485 -174 34 - J/mol ∆Gof 0 -24.6 20.9 12.7 17.3 11.Tables D: Chemistry .9 -217 -99 -813 0 -137 -394 0 -34 50 -300 0 -148 0 So 0 10.7 -219 -277 -100 -920 0 -110.0 5.4 -188. graphite) CO(g) CO2(g) S(s.76 17.7 Heat of Formation Compound Pb(s) Pb2+(aq) PbO(s) PbO2(s) PbS(s) PbSO4(s) C(s.4 49.3 kJ/mol 6.rhombic) H2S(g) S8(g) SO2(g) O2(g) Cu2O(s) Cu(s) TiO2(solid) Ti HNO3(l) NO2(g) H2O(l) kJ/mol ∆Hof 0 -1.729 13.Table D.8 Heat of Fusion of Several Materials Material Sn Cu Pb PbF2 PbCl2 PbBr2 PbI2 PbO PbS cal/g 14.31 620 .5 -393.

+ 2e 6 PbSO4 + 2h2O Au3+ + 3e 6 Au PbO2 + 4H+ + 2e 6 Pb2+ + 2H2O Cr2O72.+ 14H+ + 62 6 2Cr3+ + 7H2O O2(g) +4H+ + 4e W 2H2O AuCl4.22 0.35 -0.126 -0.229 0.52 0.+ 3e 6 Au + 4ClAg+ + e 6 Ag Fe3+ + e W Fe2+ O2(g) + 2H+ + 2e W H20 Cu+ + e 6 Cu O2 + 2H2O + 4e 6 4OHCu2+ + 2e 6 Cu AgCl + e 6 Ag + ClCu2+ + e 6 Cu+ 2H+ + 2e 6 H2 Pb2+ + 2e 6 Pb Sn2+ + 2e 6 Sn Pb2+citrate +2e X Pb + citrate Ni2+ + 2e W Ni PbSO4 + 2e 6 Pb + SO4 Fe2+ + 2e P Fe V 1.50 1.1428 -0.80 0.8: Reduction Potentials Reaction PbO2 + 4H+ + SO42.136 -0.46 1.246 -0.Table D.440 621 .99 0.69 1.337 0.682 0.16 0 -0.40 0.Tables D: Chemistry .33 1.771 0.

0 0.5 -0.9x1011 2.0 1.74 6.1x103 K M2L 4.7 1.16x1018 7.70 3.8x1021 4.Tables D: Chemistry .92 0.9 Complexation of Metals with Chloride.9 1.4x102 622 .2 Fulvic acid 4.70 1.2x104 2.5 0.6 1.3 2.4 -0.7 6.74 -0. CllogKf1 logKf2 logKf3 logKf4 3.01x108 6.11 Formation Constants DMSA K (ML) K (ML2) 4.16x1016 5.2 -0.30 6.5 EDTA 18.43 0.6 -0.6x1027 1.1 Citric acid 6.6 -0.55 0.51 0.9x1017 2.9x1017 3.3 MSA 27 Metal In2+ Cu2+ Ni2+ Cd2+ Pb2+ Zn2+ Ca2+ Mg2+ Ba2+ EDTA K ML 6.8 -0.25 -0.30 0.10 Chelation Constants with Lead Structure logK Complex acetic Acid C3COOH 2.31x1018 3.98 0.3x107 Table D.98x1018 3.0 7.01x1010 5.70 1.3 Table D.Metal Ag+ Cu+ Cd2+ Hg22+ Hg2+ Pb2+ Sn2+ Zn2+ Table D.6x104 1.48 0.

56 18.8 10.8 Mg 86 4.96 9.16 0.5 12.19 9.5 10.44 10.3 10 0.43 6.38 6.52 18.01x103 1.9 5.96 5.13 7.02 8.52 11 12-14 28.23 11.18x102 2.25x1036 1.53 12.86 3.54 <3 8.98 7.2 12.09 14.3 Table: D.2 6.99x107 5.3x10-18 Eo (vs NHE) 0.82x10-10 1.3 10.75 11.96 10.84 8.61 9.73 7.62 10.96 5.3 8.7 10.42 6.8 3.62 12.95 12.25 11.69 5.501 3. O N.9 8.49x106 K2 K3 K4 1.83 8. O N.49 12.80 0.46 9.1 13.94 18.12 Lead Chelation Data log K(ML) or K(MHL) Pb Ca Cd Zn Cu 114 109 88 87 133 13.1 5.18 5.79 10.4 16.5 11.52 9.75 13.36 7.99x103 83.4 11.5 7.47 14.69 10.3 11.5 5.96 16.32 8.35 9.5 6.98 5.41 10.75 10.852 K1 2.69 7.8 11.94 10 Ag2Hg amalgam 623 .16 10.79 12.5 7.Tables D: Chemistry .1 11.2x10-6 6x10-50 1.04 6.8 10.42 12.3 9. O N.05 Ni 83 9.80 14.19 16.95 8.0x106 1 6.6 8.34 18.84 9.13: Chemical Equilibrium Constants Important in the Patio Process Compound CuS CuSO4 CuCl2 CuCl Ag2S AgCl HgCl2 Hg2Cl2 Ag + e X Ag Cu2+ + e X Cu+ Hg2+ + 2e X Hgliquid + Ksp 1.23 10.5 501 5. O N. O N. O N.67 9. O N.19 9. O N SN S Table D.46 3.Metal cation ionic radii/pm Chelate Name pyrocatechol Tiron Betadiketones AA Betadiketones BzA Betadiketones Dbm Sulfarsazen PAR TAR EDTA MTB Alizarin 8-hydroxyquinoline nitrosnaphtaline dioxime thioxine diethyldithiocarbamate Ligands O O O O O N.0x106 3.

13 Vapor Pressure: Lead.85 PbBr2 513 610 686 745 856 914 367 916 6.1 51.5 100 11.34 H2O -17. 9973 1162 1302 1421 1630 1744 327.p.66 PbI2 479 571 644 701 897 872 T (oC) PbO 943 1085 1189 1265 1402 1472 PbS 975s 975s 1048s 1108s 1221 1281 Pb 973 1162 1309 1421 1630 1744 327.5 1492 1703 1855 1968 2168 2270 231.6 83 100 0 1 400 890 1114 860-950 1740 6.1 7.3s 11.9 624 .0-9.5 373 501 855 402 890 1114 1 973 513 547 solid 479 943 852(s) 10 1162 610 648 904 571 1085 975(s) 40 1309 686 725 1003 644 1189 1048(s) 100 1421 745 784 1080 701 1265 1108(s) 400 1631 856 893 1219 807 1402 1221 760 1744 914 954 1293 872 1472 1281 Table D.13 Vapor Pressure Over Pb and Sn Compared o C mm Hg Pb Sn 1 10 40 100 400 760 m.Tables D: Chemistry . C 327. (OC) b.p.Table D.2 8.13: Temperature (oC) Required to Reach a Variety of Vapor Pressures Species Pb PbBr2 PbCl2 PbF2 PbI2 PbO PbS mm: m. (OC) density(g/cm3) 904 1003 1080 1219 1293 818 1290 8. and Water torr PbF2 1 10 40 100 400 760 m. Lead Compounds.3 34.p.p.24 PbCl2 547 648 725 784 893 954 500 953 5.5 Table D.

7 Ni(NO3)2-6H2O Cu2+ d 993 to CuCl (1326) -HNO2.8 Mg Ca Sr Ba 1. subl= sublimes Metal.88 6.N.0 3.6 8.0 5.9 0.0 0.17 %covalent bond 100 75 50 25 0 625 . 105-131 Zn(NO3)2-6H2O Pb2+ 950 (886) d (470) Cd2+ 960 sub 1559 132 Cd(NO3)2-4H2O Table D.Table D.9 Table D.0 1.0 0.p.0 O S 3.9 3.5 ∆E.2 1.1 25 1.16 Electronegativities C 2.Tables D: Chemistry .8 Sn Pb 1..4 Mn(NO3)3-4H2O Fe3+ d 315 (1565) d 125 Fe(NO3)3-9H2O Co2+ 1049 (1795) 55 Co(NO3)2-6H2O Ni2+ subl 973 (1984) 136.5 100 Table D.) nitrates K+ subl 1500 d 350 d 400 Ca2+ >1600 2850 d 132 Cr3+ subl 1300 4000 d 100 Cr(NO3)3-9H2O Zn2+ 1190 129.92 melting pto C boiling pto C Decomposes 200 Decomposes 220 1235 1800 1100 . Row 4 chlorides oxides (m.7 50 2.8 1.5 N Si 1. 170 Zn2+ 732 (1975) -6H2O. 1083 2567 Li Na K 1..5 2.15 Ore malachite azurite Cuprite chalcocite Cu formula CuCO3@Cu(OH)2 2CuCO3@Cu(OH)2 Cu2O Cu2S Cu density (g/cm3) 4.4 75 3.14: Boiling Points d=decompose. %ionic bond 0 0 1.

19 X-ray Transitions Observed with Lead D From/To D From/To LIINIII .872 NIVNVI 42.24385 MIV.076 2. Bi Calcium.384 sLIIIMIII 1.8200 MII.076 LIIINII 1.04 54.675 1.5 0.vV 4.98 1.96133 MV.715 .00016 NaCl [Ne]3s1 801 [Kr]5s24d105p3 73.NI 626 .NV 4.VII 0. Sn Titanium.93 Sb2O5 (cervantite) 656 Sb2O3 (Valentinite) [[Xe]6s2 962 BaCl2 1740 BaCO3 (witherite) BaO 1918 [Xe]6s24f145d106p3 Bi2O2CO3 230 BiCl3 860 Bi2O3 [Xe]6s24f145d106p2 315 PbCO3 501 PbCl2 PbOx range in colors yellow to red [Ne]3s2 d MgCO3 714 MgCl2 [Kr]5s24d10 5p2 -33 SnCl4 1630 SnO2 Cassiterite [Ar]4s23d2 TiCl2 TiCl4 yellow TiO2 Anatase -300 ZnCO3 Smithsonite [[Ar]4s23d10 283 ZnCl2 ZnO 1975 refractive index 1.VII 45.00011 .004 LIIINIII 0.4 SbCl3 -0.244 υLIINVI .NVII 5.818 1.00 2.740 uLIIINVI.2 MIII.PII.674 LIINV .069 LIIOIII 1.299 LIIIOII 0.655 NVNVI.01040 βMIV.82327 MIII.67 1.997 2.704 NVIOV 100.5442 2.168 LIII. Sb Barium.NII 5.4 MII.008 Table D. Ba Bismuth.NIV 5. Pb Magnesium.NIII 6.18 1.NII.NIII 4.NVI 5.95118 MVOIII 5. 6.30767 MIV.NIV 4.OI. Ti Zinc.18 electrons melting point sol(g/100cc) 35.III 3.85192 MIII.25 s i Decomposes I 0.554 1.802 tLIIIMII 1.Element Sodium Antimony.286 LIIIOIII 0.OI 4.8382 γMIII.91 2.26 1.512 1.7 601.0005 MIV.48 i d to BiOCl i 0.73 1.001 432 .9586 MV.3 MI.NIII 6. Mg Tin.0 MII.002 3.Tables D: Chemistry .OII 5. Zn Compound Table D.9578 MV.681 2. Ca Lead.527 1.6 v sl s v sl s 37.99 0.NI 3.968 NVIOIV 102.

454wm. 613w. 513wm Table D. 444w(br) 76s. Pb2Sb2O7 464m. 58w. 291wm. 524w.20 vibrational spectra 35wm. 138vs (lattice Pb-O stretch mode) 324wm(br). 147vs (lattice Pb-O stretch mode). 80m.5 Lead Antimonate.Tables D: Chemistry .Compound Lead Tin II Pb2SnO4 Lead Tin I.5 514. 40m. 343s. 379w. 129vs (lattice Pb-O stretch mode). 85sh. PbSn1-xSixO3 Wavelength Absorbed 514.5 nm 514. 66m. 627 . 274w.

89 Sn 0.15 6.43 0.1 2.6 15.00 15.11 5.28 1.33 Zn 0.01 0.12 45 B.2: Elemental Composition of Some Chinese Bronzes Element.03 0.11 28.D.1 1.D.35 Ch'in 255-207 B.66 16.23 1.12 Buckle 73.01 5.39 1.01 0.7 11.36 10.60 trace 0. % Period Object Cu Sn Pb Fe Shang-Yin1760-1120 B.24 trace Sb 0.24 52. 0. Chisel 94.52 5.13 A.-220 A.97 1.36 AD 254-255 16.76 86.50 26.48 0.C.C.09 4.92 trace Dish 56.2 81.25 AD 310 1.2 3.9 7.59 0.C.9 40.89 0.90 6.78 AD 318 2..67 trace trace Chou 1120-256 B.05 40.74 0.87 tr 0.52 7.11 87.Tables E: Art and Archaeology .C.01 Pb 0. 79 81.54 4. 71. Axe head 79.37 0.96 AD 14-37 99.40 1st century B. 161-162 88.65 0.4 Vase 84.18 tr 0.C.39 14. 0.60 trace Han 206 B.03 2.79 Pan 88.65 AD 244-=249 98.25 80.6 3.78 27.C.68 1.36 3. Buckle 69.C.D Basin 82.36 0.34 - 628 .57 Table E.24 Mirror 70.1: Roman Coin Metal Content Date %Composition Au Ag Cu 150 B.65 AD 238-244 0.09 2.45 5.51 40.Type Roman Denaris Ptolemaic tetradrachm Ptolemaic copper Brass Brass Brass As Antoninianus Denarius Antonianus Carthage London London Table E.22 0.53 Statue 70.34 4.53 94.1 A.51 0.94 25.79 AD 307 1.45 169-146 65.13 58.39 11.33 11.

7 11.7 11.9 82.84 Macedonia 87.1 5.3 0.68 0.12 87.Table E.46 13.54 Ptolemaic Egypt 75 Roman statue 78.3: Metal Content of Various Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Objects Source Cu Mycenae 90.4 CoO <0.2 <0.3 33 22.4 Elemental Composition of Objects from Harappa Fe Pb Cu Sn Ni Sample# 94497 9514 9531 9722 9366 9442 0.1 Sicily (600 B.32 0.9 CaO 12.86 6.75 Table E.) 90.3 90.C.16 As Sb 0.2 45.15 Table E.6 0.2 0.6 2.2 629 .4 Trace Trace 1.5 11.) 88.9 22.1 Trace 1.3 1.0 K2O 4.1 MgO 7.9 6.7 63 15 12.4 10.42 12.3 14.3 0.3 1.76 Nineveh 86.54 trace 0.3 Element % Pb Fe 0.24 trace 0.7 8.1 0.2 1.0 2.7 Athens (520 B.8 16.5 Composition of Northern European Medieval Glass Colorless Green Blue Westminster Cluny Westminster Element SiO2 53.15 10.1 76.3 Sn 8.4 6.2 4.2 <0.8 0.87 86.7 7.76 1.3 Britain 89.2 PbO <0.9 MnO 1.3 17.1 15.9 2.72 Early Greek 88.0 4.0 3.6 53.28 trace 11.4 0.C.Tables E: Art and Archaeology .9 1.6 1.27 trace 0.4 P2O5 CuO <0.37 3.4 2.6 0.0 Al2O3 FeO 0.14 0.6 Na2O 17.99 9.2 0.

9 4.7 Tarsus 3.) CaO TiO2 Fe2O3 CuO PbO SnO2 Clear Glaze Colchester 4.30 0.65 0.17 1.0568 Saxon 95.2 0.8 0.0 0.7: River Meuse Enamels Compared to Roman Enamels Roman Mosan Roman Mosan Turquoise Turquoise Blue Blue Material SiO2 66.8 0.20 17.1 3. to 100 A.C. T.0 4.21 0.1 59 0.42 0.70 0.70 4.20 <0.3 0.02 0.06 1.1 2.8 3.2 Clazomenae 3.59 0.36 2.2 2.3 Green (Copper) Glaze Smyrna 4.20 0.5 CaO 4.4 Table.83 3.80 3.9 15.28 <0.3 17.02 Smyrna 3.4 0. 1995: Early Metallurgy Rio Tinto Huelva PbO CuO S Sb As2O2 Fe Al2O3 CaO MgO SiO2 Au Ag 68.6 Roman Glazes (100 B.1 0.1 2.23 0.4 0.2 MnO 0.16 2.42 0.2 2.1 0.1 0.33 2.00 58 0.8 6.1 1.9 0.21 0.6 0. P.17 630 .7 MgO 0.4 2.0 Clazomenae 2.59 1.02 56 0.2 0.10 <0.7 53 0.8 3.1 0.5 0.05 <0.1 SnO2 Table E.30 2.5 0.0 3.57 0.6 1.9 0.2 Tarsus 2.14 15.8 1925 England 85.2 0.89 1.3 PbO 0.89 4.Source Table E.5 K2O CuO 2.45 0.60 0.Tables E: Art and Archaeology .7 0.42 2.0205 73..9 – – – 6.60 6.4 0.5 Sb2O3 CoO ND <0.8 5.02 0.00184 0.10 1.45 6.24 0.00034 0.9 66. E.4 _ – – – – 0.8 Litharge Composition % Data source: Craddock.2 0.6 0.D.0 0.02 62 0.72 1.2 0.00 54 0.36 64.5 2.3 0.60 66.2 Al2O3 FeO 0.5 Na2O 0.2 53 1.

) PbS PbCO3 Sample Galena Cerussite 1 100 2 50 13 3 28 48 4 43 27 5 12 6 62 28 7 24 25 source: Nature.00632 0.9: Roman lead and silver slags Source: Tylecote.Tables E: Art and Archaeology .3 58.2 0.5 26.06 5.8 15.0004 Silver Slag Laurion 10.4 3.2 58. 397.Table E. % PbO SiO2 CaO FeO Ag Zn Al2O3 CuO Lead smelting Slags Ffwrndan 32.70 33. 11 Feb.C..8 13.04 Table E.10 Composition of Egyptian Makeup (2000-1200 B.8 0.9 Rio Tinto 1.5 0. 1976: A History of Metallurgy. 1999 Pb2Cl2CO3 Phosgenite 37 24 29 72 16 PbOHCl Lairionite 1 16 10 35 631 .0 0.2 8.

45 0.55 79.Table F.5 10-20 4-30 %P %Bi %Sb %Au %Ag Table F.05 <0.1: Some Typical Alloys Alloy Brass Bronze Pewter Pewter Plumbers Solder Sterling Silver 18 Carat Gold 14 Carat Gold %Cu 20-97 50-98 7 33 7.0 density Brinell Hardness melting point o at 100oC C g/cn3 9.05 10.73 10.5 1-3 %Pb 0.45 1.5-3 1.55 82 %Cu trace %As 0.2.5 13.25-2 1.5 9.5 5-15 12-28 %Zn 2-80 0-29 85 %Sn 0-14 0-35 70-95 67 %Pb 0-12 0-50 0-15 %Mn 0-25 0-3 6 2 5-15 75 58 92. White Metals and Solders Pewter %Sn 67-95 Modern Pewter casting sheet all purpose Typeset %Sn 15 %Sb 25 %Pb 60 %Pb 74.05 %Sb 5-15 %Pb 0-15 %Cu 0-3 Babbitt Metals: Alloy %Sn %Sb #7 #8 #15 10 5 1 15 15 16 632 .05 <0.Tables F: Material Science .0 %Cu <0.04 10.0 240 237 248 Complete Pouring liquification C o C 268 338 272 341 281 350 %Sn 90-93 90-93 95-98 %Sb 6-8 5-7.0-2.

485 89.5 63.5 0.485 35.485 67.5 0.Tables F: Material Science .485 77.Table F.985 64.5 0.5 2 0.015 2.015 0. but not on galvanized iron Plumber’s solder with no antimony Plumber’s solder Autobody Autobody dent filling autobody autobody dent filling coatings and joiningg metals Automotive electronics Automotive electronics Automotive Radiators Automotive Radiators Table F.5 0.5 % Zn 36.5 0.5 2 0.4 2.0 2.4 0.5 63.015 0.3: Types of Industrial Solder Designation %Sn Sn70 Sn63 Sn62 Sn60 Sn50 Sn45 Sn40A Sn40B Sn35A Sn35B Sn30A Sn30B Sn25A Sn25B Sn20A Sn20B Sn15 Sn10A Sn10B Sn5 Sn2 70 63 62 60 50 45 40 40 35 35 30 30 25 25 20 20 15 10 10 5 2 %Pb 29.015 0.5 94.015 0.0 1.485 36.015 0.5 2 0.5 0.5 0.985 79.02 0.485 59.485 67.485 49.015 0. sheet metals all purpose wiping solder for joining lead pipe Same.0 35.015 0.015 0.0 62.6 36.5 36.5 1.5 %Ag 0.015 0.48 %Sb 0.0 % Pb 0.94 39.4 34.485 54.06 0.5 0.985 69.015 0.1 2.015 Solidus T (C) 183 183 179 183 183 183 185 185 183 185 183 185 183 185 183 184 225 268 268 308 316 Liquidus T (C) 193 183 189 190 216 227 238 231 247 243 253 250 266 263 277 270 290 302 299 312 322 Use on Zn metals Sn/Pb eutectic.485 57.015 0.485 62.5 2 0.015 0.015 0.5 2 0.015 0.48 97.48 87.015 2 0.985 84. circuit boards on Ag electric connections all purpose: electrical.4Leaded Brass Compositions (ASTM) Designation C33500 C34000 C34500 C35000 C35300 C35600 % Cu 63.0 61.985 69.015 0.015 0.5 62.5 633 .0 36.

Ti.96 31.7 31 Q/RT 21.8 15 16 9. Na.Table F.3 5.4 15.4 15.99 1.Tables F: Material Science .7: Enthalpy to Melt by Structure Type Structure type hcp Metal Cd Zn Mg Rb K Na Li melting pt. Ag Ni Fe.9 bcc 634 .3 18. 4 anion 6 cation.98 Cd.2 14. K 594 692 922 312 337 371 454 Q/RTm 15. Mg.5: Self Diffusion of Pure Metals: FCC Structure Metal Pb Al Ag Au Cu Melting Point oK 601 933 1234 1336 1356 D (mm2/s) 137 170 40 10.2 14. W Structure sodium chloride cesium chloride zinc blende (ZnS) wurtzite (ZnS) fluorite CaF2 rutile (TiO2) Table F.8 Table F.9 17.9 17.96 25.6A Some Close-Packed Structures of Metals Crystal Coordination Number 12 12 8 Atoms per unit cell 2 4 2 Unit cell vs atomic radius 4r = s%2 4r = s%3 Structure Hexagonal closest packed (hcp) Face-centered cubic (fcc) Body-centered cubic (bcc) Void % Examples 25. Cu. # Sulfides fcc cubic 6 8 4 4 8 cation. Pb.8 18.6 14. K.6 2.170 Ag+ 142 Pb2+ 133 Cu+ 74 Table F.6 15.7 D µm2/s at melting point 0. 3 anion PbS Ag2S Cu2S Ion radii S2.6BCommon Ionic Crystal Unit Cells Unit cell Coor. Zn Al.

p.302 10.15480 850 Solid Lead: face centered cubic.6 700 Theophilus 55.7 440-640 Eutectic 25 35 39 440 Table F.34 11. C Author Pliny 53. at 25oC.9 ppm Niello Origin Augsberg Persian Thailand Russian (Tula) Bolas Wilson Fike Silver 1 1 1 1.0 430-560 Eraclius 32.5 3.078 349.11: Contemporary Niello Composition Cu Pb Other 1 2 5 7 ammonium chloride 5 5 3 2.10: Historical Recipes for Niello %Ag2S %Cu2S %PbS Melt range. Table F.5 excess 12 excess 10 >10 635 . bond length Pb-Pb.Table F.8 Melting Points for Several Metal Mixtures: oC % 1st Metal 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Cu+Sn Cu+Pb Sn+Pb %2nd Metal 1084 1005 890 755 725 680 630 580 530 440 232 1084 1020 1005 985 985 950 945 925 920 870 325 232 216 200 185 190 220 240 262 276 295 326 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Table F.5 4 1 antimony 1 2 1 2 2 borax 1-2 11.7 30.12803 327 (solid) 100 0.12426 20 20 0.16317 650 500 0.9: Heat Capacity and Specific Gravity of Pure Lead Specific Gravity Specific Heat Capacity T (oC) s (J/g-oC) T (oC) d (g/cm3) 0 0.Tables F: Material Science .2 35.2 32.3 35.3 14.5 440-460 Cellini 16.) 0.5 2 6 6 S excess 24.4 46.005 10.686 10.2 48.13388 327 (liquid) 327 (m.

3 636 .Type of Glass Table F.5 poise 1013 poise 107.5 Table F.18 cristobalite 7.15: Molar Refractive Index of oxides Name Molar Refractive Index quartz 7.14: Lead Chromate Color Can be Tuned Mineral Anglesite Color white or colorless Primrose Pale Primrose Lemon Middle Orange Scarlet Orange % % % PbCrO4 PbSO4 PbMoO4 0 45 65 70 100 80 0 100 55 35 30 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 8-40 100 Structure orthorhombic monoclinic orthorhombic monoclinic monoclinic psuedo-tetragonal tetragonal lattice distortion tetragonal Crocoite Wulfenite Oxide SiO2 TiO2 Al2O3 Table F.4 rutile 12.5 poise Silica glass 820 910 1500 Soda-lime silicate glass 505 548 730 Low lead silicate glass 395 430 626 High lead silicate glass 390 430 580 Potter Sn Lawrence Harrison Liverpool Benjamin Tomkinson Liverpool Thomas Lakin 1.13: Yellow Glaze Recipes Location Date Litharge 1707 1820 9 lbs 1824 6 lbs 3 4 Sb Pb Pb&Sn ashes (3) 3 3 3 Table F.Tables F: Material Science .7 β form 11.12: Temperature Used in Glassmaking oC strain Annealing Softening 1014.82 α form 10.

8 to 3 µm PbSe cubic 6.18: Lead Semi-conducting materials used as IR detectors Compound Form cell D.06 1-6 µm PbSnTe 5-13 µm PbSnTe (cooled) 6.740 3.401 2. n molar Modifier Density refractive MgO-SiO2 SrOBaO MgO CaO SrO BaO MgO CaO SrO BaO 2.32 45. Table F.42 45.552 1.4606±0.601 2.425 2.13(solid) Tin 1.84±0.5355 1.5385 1.5 µm PbTe cubic 6.73 49. of metals nr Group Ivb 0.99 49.71 K (K2O) Group IIb Cadmium Mercury Table F.45 42.6-18µm 637 .0005 269.Tables F: Material Science .1(liq) 2.466 2.87 41.Group I Modifier index Li (Li2O) Na (Na2O) Table F.9360±0.81 51.4990 1. 10-24cm3 Wavelength Range Absorbing PbS cubic 5.80 43.05 0.06 1-6.565 1.421 2.16 on Effect of Modifiers on Molar Refraction Group II Molecular refractive index.150 2.832 3.82(liq)/1.5735 1.79 44.815 3.005 209.6(sol).17: Refractive index.035 2.011 1.5400 1.5340 1. n. cell vol.6(liq) Lead nr 2.599 1.16±0.50 49.5528 41.1255±0.4995 1.0005 229.66±0.

17 580.5 7.09 CuBr ZnSe Semi.65 12 8.7 490. nm 98.91 2.Conductors Crystal with Bandgap NaF NaCl NaBr TiO2 Type of Solid Ionic Solid 350.24 1.19: Development of Color and BandGaps Spectral Region Ultra-Violet Observed Color Colorless Absorbed Color/λ.9 700-1000 1-50µm 1.41 0. y-green 2.53 570.Table F. b-green 2.77-1. blue 2.13 600.06 650-700. none Visible Light Greenishyellow yellow red violet dark blue blue green Near IR IR Black Black 400.5 3. yellow 2. violet 450.Tables F: Material Science . orange 2.0247 0 GaAs Ge PbS Metal 638 .75 2.66 0.42 0. red 1. none λ in eV 12.54 3.

370 1 ZnPO4 1.502 2 ZnPO4 + Lots BaSO4 1.Pigment Cadmium Yellow Vermillion Orpiment Massicot (yellow) Litharge (red) Minium Lead tin yellow I Lead tin yellow II Naples yellow Table F.3H2O) Main Constituent SaltSpray 4 5 2-3 2 2 5 SO2 5 0 0 0 0 5 639 .331 1 Fe2O3 1.P2 Alk.20 Charge Transfer Pigments Mineral Formula greenockite CdS cinnabar HgS AsS3 orthorhombic PbO tetragonal PbO Pb3O4 Pb2SnO4 PbSn1-xSixO3 Pb3(SbO4)2 Pb2Sb2O7 PbCrO4 Pb2O(CrO4) PbMoO4 Fe2O3 Fe3O4 Process Lπp 6 metal 5s Lπp 6 metal 6s Lπp 6 metal 6s Pb2+ 6 Pb4+ Lπp 6 metal 5s or 5p Lπp 6 metal 3d (Cr) L6M L6M Lπp 6 metal 3d (Fe) Fe2+ 6 Fe3+ Chrome yellow crocoite dark red Phoenicocroite yellow wulfenite Red and yellow ochres hematite King’s Yellow (opriment).463 2 ZnPO4 + BaSO4 1.K2O.21: Anticorrosive Paints Density Humidty G/cm3 Pb3O4 2.4CrO3.Pb Alk.P3 Alk.Cr Table F.198 5 (4ZnO. Jeweler’s rouge Name Alk.Tables F: Material Science .Fe Alk.239 5 1.P1 Alk.

164 1.6 Cs 8.71 1.55 6.58 αPb 1.51 0.20 4.25: Bandgap and Exciton Energies for Azides Bandgap (eV) Exciton (eV) Compound NaN3` 8.22 0.91 0.1) highest 179.35 3.186 N-N-N (deg) impact sensitivity 176.146 1.24 Lattice Energies of Azides U (kJ/mole) Ca 2166 αPb 2162 Sr 2067 Ba 1962 Table F.7 (2) Least Table F.30 0.199 1.186 1.5 8.20 β Pb 2.Tables F: Material Science .23: Bond lengths in Azides Cu(N3)2 α Pb Ba K N1-N2 (D) orthorhombic orthorhombic monclinic N2-N3 (D) 1.60 4.5 KN3 Rb 8.57 Table F.Table F.5 (6) 179.34 1.3 Table F.26: Velocity of Expanding Gases From Lead Azide velocity (km/s) density g/cm3 3.164 1.164 1.46 6. compression Compressibility 10-6 bar-1 1/ao 1/bo 1/co Ba(N3)2 0.63 3.82 6.61 6.78 4.7 (1.22: Lead Azide.04 640 .168 1.

3 Correlation between lead based paint and soil: % exceeding % within soil guidelines guidelines No Lead Based Paint 94 6 Lead Based Paint.815 128 235 65 90 Table G.5 (SSE) 0. unintact 52 48 exterior Lead Based Paint 73 27 Table G.Table G.2 Soil Lead Near a Home (100 years old) Distance Depth Side of House (m) (Cm) A B C 0-1 0-5 1050 44700 7330 5-10 1060 20600 4680 10-15 940 7270 3300 5 0-5 431 110 298 5-10 404 2020 366 10-15 400 2110 286 10 0-5 194 1940 730 5-10 162 374 686 10-15 248 2175 452 Table G.4 (WSW) 2.700 2.1: Soil Lead as a Function of Distance from A Smelter.4 Dust/Soil Lead in Un-renovated homes Lead Content Site window channel dust 2150 ug/g air duct dust 875 ug/g window stool dust 245 Foundation soil 109 ppm floor dust 106 Entryway dust 96.1 cm 8.2 (W) 0.742 375 300 5.2 cm 840 138 205 68 175 10.6 641 .3 Entryway soil 65 Boundary soil 53.Tables G: Dispersion and Risk Assessment . intact 79 21 Lead Based Paint.8 (E) 1.1-10.2 cm 1.4 (SE) 0-5.573 2. ppm Distance from stack in km 0.2-15.

2 5-7 Exterior Steel 2.4 3/1 33-6 Exterior pine wood 3.4 Lead from solder (ug/day) 11.1-2.Tables: Dispersion and Risk Assesment Table G.6: Modeling Parameters for Equation 10.8-4.2 2/1 2-5 Table G.4 Parameter C A T Quality good good Fair Fair Poor Fair Fair Poor Fair good good good 642 .1.0 4/1.0 4/1.2.4 8-10 Aluminum soffit vents 2.Tables G: Dispersion and Risk Assessment .0 Lead from drinking water (ug/day) 1.2-4. Range Time spent outdoors (hrs/day) 2-4 4-5 Volume of air respired (m3/day) Natural lead of atmosphere (ug/day) 2.2 Atmospheric lead in food (ug/day) 11.2 dirt/dust (mg/day) 100 Deposition/absorption in lungs (%) 35-60 Absorption in gut (%) 42-53 dirt lead absorption (%) 30 Transformation 0.2 5-7 Pine wood window frame 4.3 Undetermined in f food mg/day 1.5 Paint Materials and Characterization XRF Pb mg/cm2 total layers/lead layers total thickness Sample (mil) Interior particle board for shelving 4.5 2/1 3/5 Galvanized steel drip cap 2.9 8/1.

Site Table G.Tables G: Dispersion and Risk Assessment .2 0.1 1.10: Andrew Jackson’s Hair Concentration in parts per million (ppm) Lead Mercury 6.7: Correlation between predicted and observed blood lead Soil Indoor Predicted Observed Ratio Lead Dust predicted/observed ppm ppm µg Pb/dL µg Pb/dL 720 183 5000 1800 3474 1588 1030 5000 1800 3933 15 19 41 17 31 14 19 35 16.5 ug/m3 3.0 105 not detected 68 5.1 ug/g 100 ug/day 50% 500-2400 ug/g 20-500 ug/day mean Lead uptake 1.0 1.2 1.01-1.1 1.002-20 643 .6 70 0.9 Allowable Limits for Lead Normal Exposure Daily source Food/Beverages 100 ug/day (HHS) Drinking Water <15 ug/L (1985) Air 150 ug/m3/8 hr (ACGIH 50ug/m3/8 hr (OSHA) Abated Dust floors: 200 ug/ft2 (HUD) Sills 500 ug/ft2 (HUD) Uncontam.06% (HHS) Uncontam. Paint <0.5 East Helena Herculaneum Toronto 1974-1975 Toronto 1984-1985 Kellogg Source Air (urban) Water Food Dust Table G. Soil 10-50 ug/g = 10-50 ppm contaminated soil >50-100 ppm action level soil >500 ppm Hair Sample 1815 1839 normal range Table:G.3 ug/day 40% 20 ug/L 20 ug/day 50% 0. Sources of Lead Uptake by Children Level in Source Total Intake Absorbed 0.8.0 156 6.5 21 1.3 ug/day 10 ug/day 50 ug/day 100 Table G.

0 1960-1979 1940-1959 before 1940 Exterior 1960-1979 1940-1959 before 1940 60 70 73 55 82 83 41 59 60 42 76 79 28 44 57 31 69 69 7 20 50 12 46 66 644 .2 >2.11: Amount of Lead on Children’s Hands Mean/Median range comments 20-436 ug/hand near a smelter 2400 ug/g 650-4100 ug/g used sticky tape 12-43 ug/child city schools 5 ug/towel <5-20 ug/towel suburbs 20 ug/towel <5-15 ug/towel city 49 ug/sample High blood lead group 21 ug/sample Low blood lead group USA.9 20.2 22.7 20-29 51.Tables G: Dispersion and Risk Assessment .7 >70 56.12: Blood Lead concentration in towns with Pottery works in Mexico µg/100 mL Lead Glaze producing town Non-lead glaze workers Age 0-9 81 19.8 21.6 19. Belgium 5-142 ug/hand Location Belgium Connectict London Rochester Table G.8 50-59 57.3 40-49 56.2 60-69 69 13.8 20.0 >1.13 Percentage of homes Paint lead concentration (mg/cm2) >0.7 >1.5 Location Interior G.5 10-19 48.3 30-39 52.2 23.Table G.

5-10.75 Slag 25 fine ash 22.6 15 corrugated board 3.6 Leather/rubber 3..8 Sewage Sludge 10.8 4. mg/L 1500 140 Sulfide.5 51.5 aluminum 1.7 Textiles 2 1. mg/ 6.1 1.5 Table H.2 41.4 0.6 2.9 10.2 0.8 Fine glass.8 12.4 Total 1012 lbs/year Table H.76-5.2 0.6-53.6 Medical Waste 4. Vol.7 5. grit.3 Lead.Tables H . 58. 1993.5-24.2: US Production of Waste 1991 Million tons/year Material Municipal Solid Waste 180 Industrial Hazardous Waste 250 Organic Waste 3.0 Wood 4.Table H.4-15. Feb. mg/L Not Detectable 0.7 Yard 17.8 Not Detectable 645 .5 30 Plastics 5.1: Allowed Metal Content in Sewage Sludges USEPA Regulatory Limit (1993) Federal Register.75 Zinc & copper 0. dirt 10 iron metals 7.4: Lead Speciation Under Anaerobic Conditions (Landfilling) Acid Phase Methane Phase Sulfate. Ceiling Limits to land apply Concentration limit to land apply monthly average concentration Annual Loading rate Cumulative loading 840 mg/dry kg 300 mg/dry kg 15 kg/ha-yr 300 kg/ha Table H.3: Common Components of Municipal Wastes Bache Bagghi Sullivan and Makar Law and Gordon Weight% Weight% Weight% Recoverable Weight % Material paper 50. 32.Waste Disposal .4 Glass 6.3 4. 19.2 Food 16.

H.5 Magnesium 18.Table H.6 Source: Nakamura et.6 3.Tables H .6 Sulfur 3. 516. Env.6 2.4 Iron 40.47±0.7 15. 822 Triplesuperphosphate 8.223±0.8 g/kg Calcium 91.1 2.5 121. Qual.4 16.5: Energy of Different Waste Streams GigaJoule/Ton %National Need Material Coal 26-29 Industrial Waste 16 2-3 European Community MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) 10 5.4±0. 23.1 kg/t 0.Waste Disposal .17 mg/mL _ 0. 509-517. 646 .2kg/t 35±7.3 ceiling conditions mg/kg EPA (1993)mg/kg Barium 1736 Boron _ 42 Cadmium 85 128 Chromium 3000 1888 Copper 4300 3846 Lead 850 710 Manganese _ 2353 Molybdenum 75 45 Nickel 420 530 Zinc 7500 7213 source: Bierman et al. 16.3 g/kg 145.6 Metals in Chicago Sewage Ash Elements Sewage-sludge incinerator ash acid digestable (nitric-perchloric acid) Aluminum 63.4 38. 1994.6 Phosphorus 74 Potassium 4.6 ND mg/kg ND 44 7 78 7 39 294 ND 29 79 Material Bottom ash Electrostatically Precipitated ash Ash quenching water Scrubber water Exhaust gas Total amount g/t Table.3 mg/m3N % 59.7: Total Ash Produced 108 ±25.014 m3/t _ 7480±965m3N/t Incinerator output of Lead 666±336 mg/kg 1320±449 mg/kg 1. 1996. Netherlands 5-10 Germany Scrap Tires 32 Dry Sewage ~32 Total Waste 10 England Table H. Waste Management. J.7 213. Al.8 Sodium 2.

Table H.8: Distribution of Lead in Incinerator Ashes Law and Gordon Davison Reimann Brunner Material Bottom Ash 110 0.89 g/kg Fly Ash 140 3870 7% 25g/kg Scrubbed Ash 370 8450 93% 6.2 g/kg emitted particles 620 <1% 1.4g/m3 Table H.9 Lead Leaching From Incinerator Ash mg Pb/L Time 1 min 13 30 min 13 5h 15 9h 17 24 h 7 48h 8 source Belevi, Waste Management Research: 1992, 10, 153-167.

Table H.10: Silica Terminology Kg, cal Term NMR Mineral Heat of Formation Nesosilicate Olivine 18,852 Silanetriol Q1 Sorosilicate Melilite 21,511 Singe Chain pyroxenes Diopside Cyclosilicate Beryl, Tourmaline Silanediol Q2 Inosilicate Amphibole Hornblende 27,290 Silanol Q3 Phyllosilicate Sheet Kaolin 29,981 Tectosilicate Quartz 37,320 Siloxanes Q4 Table H.11: Reactions and Solubilities of Silicates and Alumintes LogK Reaction SiO2(amorphous) + 2H2O X H4SiO4 -2.7 -3.7 SiO2(quartz) + 2H2O X Si(OH)4 -9.46 Si(OH)4 X SiO(OH)3- + H+ -9.4 Al2Si2O5(OH)4(kaolinite) + 5H2O X Al2O3@3H2P(gibbsite) + 2H4SiO4 -34 ½ Al2O3@3H2O X Al3+ + 3OH -38.7 ½ Al2Si2O5(OH)4 + 1/2H2O + OH- X H4SiO4 + 3OH-

647 - Tables H - Waste Disposal

Mineral Alite β-Belite Aluminate Ferrite Lime Gypsum

Table H.12: Cement Clinker Composition Chemical Name Chem. Comp. Clinker Acronym tricalcium silicate Ca3SiO4 C3S C2S dicalcium silicate Ca2SiO4 C3A tricalcium aluminate Ca3Al2O6 tetracalcium aluminoferrite C4AF calcium oxide CaO CaO calcium sulfate CaSO4

Wt% 50-70 15-30 5-10 5-15 1

Table H.13: Some Minerals Found in Set Cement Density g/cm3 Mineral Name Chemical Forumula Tobermoite Ca5Si6O17@5H2O 2.42 2.32 Jennite Na2Ca5(SiO3)3Si2O7(OH)6@3H2O 1.77 Ettringite [Ca3(Al(OH)6@12H2O]2(SO4)3@2H2O

648 - Tables H - Waste Disposal

Table I.1: Imports of Lead Pigment to U.S. Haynes, Vol. 1 White Short Ton Year 1821 1831 1841 1851 1857 1858 977,323 1861 1,467,949 1872 7.033,499 1881 1,048,622 1891 628,414 1901 379,388 1911 659,915 Haynes, Vol. 1, p. 413 $ Red Short Ton $ Total Short Ton 3,978,649 111,178 532,122 1,105,852 1,793,377 $ 6,762 31,617 52,631 113,075

58,774 93,036 415,589 59,082 43,041 21,993 38,878

808,528 736,423 1,295,616 212,423 519,613 524,935 1,035,254

50,652 41,518 78,411 10,009 20,950 23,933 40,225

Table I.2: Production in the U.S. (Haynes, American Chemical Industry, Vol. 1, p. 406) White Lead Zinc Oxide Short tons $ Short tons $ Year 1810 369 1830 3,000 1840 5,000 1850 9,000 $5,242,213 1860 15,000 $5,380,347 226,860 1870 35,000 1880 61,739 $8,770,699 10,061 766,337 1890 8,824 695,920 1900 58,051 $4,211,181 1910 43,617 $3,921,803

649 - Tables I - Industrial Production of Lead

671 4.624 $6.419 2.000 30. and Nev.000 1855 15.437 1890 31.500 1830 8.171 Date 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 650 .841 2.000 13.740 3.725 5.331 40. Mo.754 213. Enters production Smelters in Helena.581 4.792.000 1840 17.000 1850 22.4: Lead Soap Production Lead Naphthenate Production Shipments Value (Metric Tons) $ (U.403 1891 1892 31.697 3.975 107.600 14.000 15. Open 1870 17.678 181.500 8.000 1875 24.640 97.584 1893 1894 37.000 22.595 2. Mon.366 3.000 1845 30.885 $3. Co.000 1878 Leadville.560.110 4.800 15.754 2.769 3.S.709 2.059 2.804 6.079 2.Table I.Tables I .830 1873 Utah 15.700 1867 St.830 59.909 1877 Utah 27.794 3. goes into production (6-20 oz Ag/ton) 1880 27.996 5.600 1865 14.658 $2.679.222 5.731 34.602 2.000 1835 13.653.876 Imported Lead Total 1.351 130.Industrial Production of Lead .262 159.412 161.825 129.53 5.690 70.000 pounds $657.700 17.800 1860 15.645 Table I.000 17.3 (Thompson and Haynes) Domestic Lead Production Date Source pounds Total Silverless Ore Silver Ore 1825 1.266 3.604 3.135 1885 21.209 1.858 5.224 3.) Thousand (Metric Tons) 4. Joe.000 17.471 6.686 121.302 2.378 $5.551 2.

Year 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1970 1971 Table I.8 29.4 22.5 29.2 21.0 22.S) metric tons metric tons million 22.0 17.7 28.2 15.Industrial Production of Lead .8 23.6 15.9 18.0 24.S. Production Shipment Value thousand thousand $(U.9 27.0 24.5: Chrome Yellow Consumption.1 Table I.0 18. U.5 25.5 27.0 20.2 21.Tables I .7 Gasoline Sales Event 37x103 tons of leaded gasoline sold in US 75x103 tons leaded gasoline sold in US 165x103 tons of leaded gasoline sold in US 225x103 tons of leaded gasoline sold in US 279x103 tons of leaded gasoline sold in US 175x103 tons of leaded gasoline sold in US Date 1935 1944 1955 1965 1970 1975 651 .5 28.4 28.1 22.0 26.1 25.5 29.6 Estimated Lbs White Lead/Housing Unit 1914-23 1920-29 1930-39 1940-49 1950-59 1960-69 1970-79 110 87 42 22 7 3 1 Table I.7 22.

Tables J: Time Lines .1: Metals in Mesopotamia Bold Indicates First Appearance Year 50.D. Mercury known as pure element 50-200 A.Timeline J. Palestine: Cereals 5300 Native Gold and Copper Ornaments 5000 Bone sickles with inset flint teeth 4500 Pottery 4000 Fired Pottery (Jericho) _____________________________________________________ 3800 Smelted copper 3500 Lead known 3100 Tumblers of lead in graves 2650 Tin as a separate element known 2500 Pure silver objects (from lead+silver ore) 2500 Accidental iron objects 2400 Copper + tin impurities = Sumerian bronze.000 B. Event Duration 44.C. Brass (Cu + ZnCO3) 1789 Titanium discovered _____________________________________________________ 1907 Bakelite Polymer manufacturing = Plastics 2000 years 1800 years 600 years 3000 years 652 .C.C. hunters & gatherers Fired clay figures (Czechoslovakia) _____________________________________________________ 6000 Persia.000 B. 30. Trade routes established to Saxon Tin mines 2100 SnO found in Lesbos _____________________________________________________ 2000 True bronzes 1800 Bronze arts and swords 1600 Tin smelting 1377 Iron dagger for Amenhotep III _____________________________________________________ 1200 Iron at Troy. not accidental 700 Iron tools in Egypt 200 B.000 years Stones.

000.000 Paleozoic Life in sea 570-500.000.000.Tables J: Time Lines .000-2.000-1.000.000. 90% of life decimated 65.000 Jurassic Brontosaurus 180.000.400.000--present Quaternary Development of hominids (Australopithecines) 3.000-3.000.000 Permian 225.000.000 Homo sapiens (another large brain increase) ~10.000 2.000 Homo habilis 2.000.000.000 Cretaceous Pteranodan 65.000.000 4.500.000.000.Timeline J.000.000.000 Carboniferous Coral beds.500.000 Homo erectus ~2.000.000 Triassic First dinosaurs 190.000.000.000.000.000 Tertiary 55.000.000 3.000.000.000.000 Mesozoic 225.500.500..000 Devonian Meggen.000-225.000.000.000 Cambrian Life emerges to land 500-430.000 First use of fire ~400. Rockies develop 23.000 Ice Age ~5.000.500.000-190.000 Humans Leave Africa 10.800.000.000 Pangaea splits 136.000 Geologic Age Origin of Universe Planetary Formation Event Big Bang Earth condenses First life on Earth Oldest dated rocks Archaean or early Pre-Cambrian Pre-Cambrian Single continent present Complex single cells Free oxygen in atmosphere Broken Hill Lead Ores 570.000.000 Cenozoic 65.500 Lead discovered 653 .000 Giant meteor impact on yucatan Lasted 45 minutes.000.000-65. Canada.000 First apes 5.000.000 to 2.500.2: Biological and Ore Evolution Material in bold indicate important events in the evolution of lead ores Years Ago 15.000.000 3. Lead ore 395-345. Ireland.000.000-136.000 3.000.000.000-570.000 1.500.000.000.000. Navan Mines (Mississippian/Pennsylvanian) 280-225.000 Ordovician 430-395.000.000 Life decimated by catastrophic event 225.000.000 First primates evolve Laurasia split into North America/Eurasia Gondwana split into South America/Africa (Nigerian lead ores) 40.000.000 North and South America join Andes.000 First monkeys 30.000 Silurian Howard’s Pass.000. Germany Lead ore 345-280.000 4.

Location Table J. squash turkry domesticated Copper/Tin co-melting Migration to New World Andes and Amazonia Mesoamerica Peru/Chili Chavin.C.C. 1500 B. 100-300 A.3: Timeline for South and Middle America Group Event Potato. 654 .D. Paraca Valley of Mexico Tlatilco+ Zacateno Valley of Mexico Teotihuacan Yucatan Mayan.D.4: South Coast of West Africa Time 800 B.Time 10. 200 B.C.D.D. beans.-200 A. Palm oil. Nigeria City of Benin Benin Portugal Benin Event or Person Nok Culture at height Yoruba Culture at height Edo people King Euware First European nation imports African slaves for labor King Ozolua establishes diplomatic ties with Portugal and trades in ivory.000 B.D.C. manioc.C. 1440-75 1440 1480-1540 Location Bauchi Plateau.D. guinea pig domesticated Corn. Miraflores Colombia Moche/Tolima Late Paraca Peru/Chili Alloys Mexico Copper/Gold casting Importation of Cu/Sn/Ag alloy technology Timeline J. 3500 B. Nigeria Ife. and slaves. 1300 A. 900-1000 A.C.D. Nigeria Igbo-Ukwu. 493 B. 3500 B. 850 A.C. llama. pepper. 1455-569 B.C. 800 A. 1200 A.C. 800-100 B.Tables J: Time Lines .

millet. court described by Marco Polo Ming Dynasty 655 . Tatric and Uguan origin spread across the Caspian Steppes.C.C. Five Dynasties (Civil War) Song (Sung) Dynasty Yuan Dynasty of Mongol Genghis Khan.C. 138 B. 481-221 B.5: Chinese Timeline Period Event %Lead Neolithic rice..8 A.D. 1766-1111 B.C.Date 7500 B.C.D.D. 771-481 B. 907-960 A. 206 B.D. 618-906 A. Buddhism moves across silk road to China Northern and Southern Dynasty T’ang Dynasty Nestorian Christians. pig.D.2% Middle Chou 12% WesternChou (Zhou) 21.C. 1st Yellow Emporer (Shi Huangdi of Qin). 100 A. 960-1270 A.C. Timeline J. 50.C. starts Great Wall Huns.5% Eastern Chou (Zhou) Spring and Autumn Period Warring States Qin Dynasty.2% Late Shang/Early Chou 4. 1260-1368 A. emissisaries from Japan and Persia. 1100 B.000 families move south to western China.C.C. 1368-1644 A. 950 B. 221-206 B. silkworm domesticated Neolithic Shang 7. nomadic Asians of Turkish. 5000-1700 B.D. Islamic Arabs.D.C. 219-580 A.D. 1050-950 B. Remainder move west and northwest to Volga/Don Rivers Emporer Han Wudi sends General Zhang Qian sent west to make allies against the Huns (The SILK ROAD).Tables J: Time Lines . Split under pressure from Mongols.

Patron of scholarship and invites foreign scholars. Lindsay. tries to kill all asslmilated Danes provoking intervention of King Sweyn of Denmark who places his own son Canute II over England Edmund. His grandson is Alfred the Great. Mercia. Ethelred II. Wessex. After 14 years of internal politics (capture of London) becomes King of unified England.6: Timeline of Events in England Event Roman withdrawal Saxon mercenaries hired by remaining romans to guard against Picts/Scots. including Welsh monk Asser (885-909) and Irish philosopher and theologian John Scotus Erigena.D. son of Ethelred becomes king. of Normandy. Invasion of the Normans 656 . Essex. East Anglia. Alfred the Great.Tables J: Time Lines . Athelstan son of Alfred wields enough power to exact tribute from the Danes. King of the West Saxons. Bernicia. Emperor of “Germany” Egbert of Essex is predominate. Warlords take over Migration Period of Europe Polytheistic German Kingdoms of Northumbria. Kent Gregory I sends Augustine to Kent where King Ethelbert is converted Augustine becomes first Archbishop of Canterbery Northumbria’s King Oswy choses Roman Christians over Irish missionaries Confluence of mediterrean scholars and northumbria produces a flowering of scholarship Predominant Kingdom is that of Mercia Charlemagne. the unready. is overthrown by Harold Harefoot. Sussex. only European country to do so. 450 400-600 600s 596 612-671 700s 800 800s 871-997 1066 Timeline J.Date 410 A. Dera. defeats returning Danes in 878 (creates Danelaw). Made peace with Danes.

. Library at Nineva 600-529 B. King of Persia 521 Darius captures Babylon 519-465 Xerxes I. Oxus to India Ocean (derivative of the Parthian shot. Parthia. a first time that archers manuever on horseback to shoot backwards) 657 .C. Sumerian settlements 3800 Semites arrive .2360-2230 B. King of Persia.C. Assyrian King. empire from Euphrates to Indus River.7: Timeline for Mesopotamia Events Time 4000 B..... Timple of Nippur constructed 1792-1750 Hammurabis 1700-600 Babylonia 1125-1103 Nebuchadnezzar --------------------------------DARK AGES---------------------------------721-705 Sagor Assyrian 668-627 Ashurbanipal.-Historical Record Begins .. invades Greece 323 Alexander the Great of Macedonia invades General is Ptolomy 250 B.. City of Seleucia = Seleucids. III Ur Empire..C.C...Tables J: Time Lines . Empire of Agade 2112-2004 B..Timeline J.C.. Cyrus of Media 546 Cyrus captures Lydia 539 Babylonia defeated by Cyrus the Great 558-486 Darius I.

reunification 11th dynasty Mentuhotep II. Romans conquer 658 . architect Imhotep (Step Pyramid) 4th dynasty (Cheops) 5th and 6th dynasties gradually decline 1st Intermediate Period of 7-10th dynasties.Timeline J. country is split 1570-1070 New Kingdom.C. Northern Cities Chalcolithic (copper) age Gerzean Period. 7000-5500 4000 3200 3100 3100-2755 2686-2181 2737-2717 2680 To-2260 2260 2134-1668 Event Nile begins periodic flooding Predynastic. priests and northern kings vie for power 25th (Nubian) dynasty 671 B.Tables J: Time Lines .C. Assyrians conquer 367-283 Ptolemy (Alexander’s General) 51 Cleopatra (sister of Ptloemy XV 30 B. development of hieroglyphic writing End of 0th dynasty 1st and 2nd dynasty (17 kings) Old Kingdom (Memphis is capital) 3rd Dynasty.8: Timeline for Egypt Date 60. in which Egypt is split Middle Kingdom. capital at Thebes 12th dynasty Amenemhet I 1668-1570 2nd intermediate period 13th dynasty (65 kings!) invaders from Palestine cause loss of Nubia 15th -17th dynasty. 18th dynasty Ahmose I of Thebes reunites country 1551-1524 Amenhotep I expands empire to Palestine Thutmose I first tomb in the Valley of the Kings Thutmose II Thutmose III 1453-1419 Amenhotep II Thutmose IV 1386-1349 Amenhotep III: Art and Architecture flourish Amenhotep IV (son-in-law is Tutankhamen) 19th dynasty (Ramses I) Ramses II 20th dynasty (Ramses III) ------------------DARK AGES-------------1070-671 3rd Intermediate Period 21-24th dynasty.C.000 B.

1100 B..... Mycenaen civilization rises.Timeline J.... Ceaser conquers Egypt 659 .C.. Carthage (North Africa across from Sicily) founded by Phoenicians 10th century Phoenicians (Lebanon)..-DARK AGES...C..C. Minoan (Crete) decays 1193-1184 Conquest and destruction of Troy 1100-750 Homeric Age in Greece -----.. main city is Tyre 657 Greeks found Byzantium 600-500 Etruscans rule Italy 510 Democracy established in Athens 509 Roman treaty with Carthage (North Africa) 490 Darius (Persia) defeated by Greeks at Marathon/Greece 481 Xerxes (Persia) destroys Athens Rome defeats Carthage 479 Persian fleet destroyed 477 Sparta assumes control of the war 461 Pericles lived 457-455 Sparta wars with Athens 446-404 Peloponesian Wars 387 Greek Asian cities pay tribute to Persia 334 Alexander of Macedonia invades Persia 335 Alexander the Great (Macedonia) conquers Greeks 332 Egypt conquered by Alexander 327 Alexander invades India 232 Ptolemy I. Alexander’s general..C.9 Timeline of Events in the “Classical” World Event Date 3000 B..Tables J: Time Lines . restores independence of Egypt 266 Rome rules all of Italy 219 Hannibal crosses the Alps 206 Carthaginians driven out of Spain 146 Greece becomes Roman province 133 Spain becomes a Roman province 55 Ceaser conquers England 47 B. Minoan Civilization on Crete 1600-1100 Height of Minoan civilization 1200 B.

D.Date 48? 206 B. 409 A.10: Events in Spain Event Rome defeats Carthage Carthaginians driven out of Spain by Romans Spain a Roman province. 570-632 711 711-714 718-37 to 905-25 970-1035 1027-31 1035 1212 1469 1492 1512 1521 Timeline J. Arabs Rule from N. Christian kingdom of Navarre under Sancho I Sancho III captures parts of Muslim Aragon Fall of the dynasty of Hisham III. Active working of the Rio Tinto silver mines. Moors (from Morrocco = Mauretania of Rome) conquer Spain Ommiad dynasty established Pelayo. eventually a caliphate is set at Cordoba.Tables J: Time Lines . his son-in-law conquers Galicia become King of Leon and Asturia. Independent.C. Moors restricted to ports around Cadiz and Kingdom of Granada Ferdinand II of Aragon marries Isabella Queen Castille Columbus sent off All of Spain united under Ferdinand Conquest of Mexico 660 . 206-409 A. declares himself emperor of Spain. Africa by emirship. Visigoth chieftan rules Asturia.D. Muslim Ferdinand takes Moorish Galicia. Visigoths on the move Library of Alexandria absorbed by the Islamic world Mohammed Berber army under Tariq ibn-Ziyad (died 720) crosses Gilbralter and defeats Roderick last of Visigoth Kings. Toledo conquered by Christians.

D. Roman Historia Naturalis Commentary Pliny. 300 A.D. 1437 A. 1395-1415 1431 A.D.D. 1552-1600s 1568 A.D. 500 A. 384 B.D. 1493-1541 A.D.Tables J: Time Lines . 100 A.D. 700-800 A.D. 1400s A.D. Location/Author Mesopotamia: Babylon Metallurgy Chinese Alexandrian Greek Papyri Chemical Theory Aristotle Chapter of Powerful Nation Metallurgy Chinese De Architectura Architecture/Materials Vitruvias.D.D. 1144 A.C.D.C. Roman De Materia Medici Pedanius Dioscorides Peak Production of Rio Tinto Silver Mines Chemistry/Distillation School founded in Alexandria Arthasatra Sugar/Mining Indian Treatise Buddhagosa.D. 1100s A. 721 A. 980-1036 A.D. De Anima Alchemy/Medicine Avicenna On Bookbinding Al-Muizz ibn Badis De Coloribus et Artibus Romanorum Eraclius Book of the Composition of Alchemy Robert of Chester De Diversis Artibis Experimental Compilations Theophilus Speculum Naturale.D.D.D. 1317 A. 1524-1579 A. A. 1335. Italy Mappae Clavicula Compilations Lake Constance Monastery Classified Essentials of the Tao of the True Origins of Things Cheng Yin De Aluminibis et Salibus Medical/Chemical Ar-razi (Rhazes). 100-300 A.D. 1380 A. To Arts of Alchemy Petrus Bonus Barcelona Friars studying alchemy are excommunicated King of France Bans Alchemy European Economic Crisis Peaked Le Begue Bolognese Manuscribt The Craftsman’s Handbook Lab Book Cennino Cennini De la Pirotechnia Lab Book Vanoccio Biringuccio Probierbuchlein Metallurgy Paracelsus (Theophrastus von Hohenheim) De Re Metallica Metallurgy Agricola (George Bauer) Bernard Palissy The Alchemist Emperor Rudolf Duetrattati. Speculum Majus Encyclopedia Vincent of Beauvais Opus Majus Gunpowder described Roger Bacon De Secretis Natural sive Quinta Essentia Raymond Lull De Metallicus Et Mineralibus Albertus Magnus A Lexicon of Alchemy Martin Ruland the Elder Pope John XII bans alchemy De Investigatione Perfectionis False Geber Summa Perfectionis Magisterii De Inventione Veritatis Liber Fornacum Physicus Intro.D.D.11: Alchemy Date 1000 B. 1214-1292 A.D.D. 50-41 B. 1250 A. 1260 A. 880-909 A. 1509 A.D. 23-79 A. S.D.Table J. uno torn alle otto principali arti del l’oreficeria Cellini Benvenuto Li tre libri dell’arte del vasio Cipriano Michele di Piccolpasso Arts Vetraria Lab Book Antonio Neri Natural Philosophy of Metals Economic Theory+Alchemy Johan Becher Book Cuneform Tablets Six Receipts of Ch’in Leyden X Type 1330 A.C.D.D. 1025 A.D. and Hg Salts Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) Compoistiones Variae Compilations Lucca Codex 190. 300 B. 1300 A. 700-800 A.D.D. Discourse on Moral Consciousness Indian Treatise As. Persia Canon.C. 1480-1538 A.D. 1330 A.D.D.D. 1494-1555A. 1234-1315 A. 500 A. 850-859 A. 1612 1661 661 .

” Pi Sheng invents the movable type Library of Fatimids in Cairo sacked First Crusade Mongols sack library of Abbasids in Baghdad Colored printing used by Chinese to prevent counterfeiting Earliest sample of European paper. Gall Kinks. the Pens.000 books Mu izz ibn Badis: treatise on bookbinding “Book of the Staff of the Scribes and Implements of the Discerning with a Description of the Line. Liq. and Details of Bookbinding.C. Paper manufacturing transferred to Islamic world through capture of chinese papermakers al-Muqaddasi receives 2 dinars for bookbinding in Yemen Library at Cordova contains 250.Date 140-131 B. Paper mill established in Montefano Paper mill established in Nuremberg Ink chemistry established by printer Peter Schoeffer who begins printing with colored inks in Europe Fall of Constantiople (and its library) to the Turks Johann Gutenberg invents the movable type in Europe Paper mill established in England 662 .D. Soot Inks. Dyeing. 110-119A.12: Timeline for Paper Event Chinese make paper for packaging material Chinese paper is usedfor printing Chinese use wood block printing Prophet Mohammed dies Hellenistic city of Alexandria (site of first chemical school) captured by Islams First newspaper (Chinese Kao Hsien-chih defeated in Samarkand.Tables J: Time Lines . 600-609 632 625-650 748 751 987/8 1025 1041-1048 1068 1096 1107 1109 1276 1391 1420-1429 1435 1440 1494 Table J.

C.D. 1000-850 B.D. 1450-1350 B. <1300 1300-1650 1450-1750 1700-1850 >1804 Table J.Tables J: Time Lines .Date 1500 B.13: Time Line for Lead Based Yellows Location Object Pigment Tell al-Rimah Glass Pb2Sb2O7 Lead Antimonate/Naples Yellow Nuzi Glass Hasanlu Glass Nimrud Glass Rhodes Glass Caerleon Glass Sardis Glass Kenchreai Glass PbSnO3 Lead Tin Yellow II Shavei Zion Glass PbSnO3 Europe Paints Orpiment Europe Paints PbO Massicot Lead Tin YellowII/Venetian Yellow Europe Paints PbSn1-xSixO3 Lead Tin Yellow I/ Gial’lolino Europe Paints Pb2SnO4 Lead Antimonate/Naples Yellow Europe Paints Pb2Sb2O7 Glazes Chrome Yellow Europe Paints PrCrO4 PbCrO4-PbSO4 Light fast chrome yellow 663 . 600 300-200 140-260A. 200-300 300-500 300-400 <1300 A.C.C.

D. himself Explusion of the Muslims From Spain 1609 30 years War 1618-1648 Mayflower (Puritans and Hugenots) 1620 English Civil War (Cromwell) 1642 Becher Publishes First Alchemy Book 1656 In Emporer Ferdinand III’s court.Tables J: Time Lines . Charles II 1660 664 . Vienna English Restoration of Monarchy. Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne Crowned Emporer 800 First Crusade 1096 Invention of the Western printing press 1450 Fall of Contstantiople to the Turks 1453 Explusion of the Jews From Spain 1491 Columbus 1492 Luther pens his Diatribe against Rome 1517 Conquest of Mexico by Catholic Spain 1519-1521 (Economic instability as Gold/silver flood Europe) Henry VIII declares himself head of Anglican Church 1531 Massacre of the Hugenots (Protestants) in France 1572 Galileo 1564-1642 Elizabeth I. Queen of England 1558-1603 Spanish campaigns in the Holland Lowlands 1566-1579 Spanish Armada 1588 Emporer Rudolf II of Holy RomanEmpire. Prague 1587 An alchemist.14: Events of the Reformation Christianity established in Roman Empire 324 A.Table J. Division of Roman Empire into East and West 364 “re-establishment” of Western Empire.

Mark Antony.D.C. Austria added to Empire Romans abandon Germany ~5 B. Lepidu) Defeat of Brutus and Cassius 38-31 Debasement of Anthony's silver Defeat of Pompey Defeat of Anthony and Cleopatra Octavian (Augustus) ~23 Reform of bronze coinage Conquest of Spain completed. Coinage in the Roman World.C. granted equal rights. end of bronze.Tables J: Time Lines . Titus Trajan ~107 Debasement and withdrawal of earlier silver Hadrian emperor Marcus Aurelius emperor Civil War 195 Debasement of silver Persian War Trajan Decius Withdrawal of denarii Goths appear Collapse of silver. 162-163 665 . Greece. sack of Corinth ~141 Sulla Civil War Syria becomes a Roman province Caesar's Gallic command Ceasar dictator Denarius retariffed No bronze minted in Rome Romano-Syrian tetradachms Introduction of Denarius First Silver Coinage ~46 Start of regular gold coinage Second oligargy (Octavius Caesar. first Christian emperor Founding of Constantinople 355-400 Plentiful silver Empire divided Goths burn Rome Vandals take Spain Vandals plunder Italy Vandals plunder Rome Franks conquer Paris Visigoths establish king under Eric Source on Coinage: Burnett. 37 41 47 54-68 64 68-117 79 98-117 117 161 193-197 232 249-251 253-268 284 324 337 364 410 412 439 455 458 466 Event Tarquins expelled from Rome Carthaginians defeated Rome destroyed by Gauls Patricians/Plebes war. silver and bronze Constantine. 480 390 376-367 348 312 281-275 266 264-241 225 219 206 146 83-82 64 58-49 49 43 42 36 31 31BC-14AD 19-14 6 A. Treaty with Carthage War with Etruscans ~300 Pyrrhic War Rome mistress of all Italy First Punic War Gauls repulsed in Italy Hannibal crosses the Alps ~212 Carthaginians driven out of Spain Conquest of Carthage. Reform of silver/bronze at Antioch Caligula emperor Claudius emperor ~40 End of Civic coinage in west Rome conquers Britain Nero emperor 64 Nero's reforms and debasements Nero sets fire to Rome 8 emperors Vesuvius erupts.Timeline J. Andrew. 1987.15 Time line for Roman Republic and Empire Date 509 B. debasement of gold Diocletian emperor Reforms of gold. p.

666 .Tables J: Time Lines .

Theophrastus.Date: 300 A. M.D.16 Timeline for Mineral Acids Event Leyden papyrus X Describes false Ag/Au recipe Seventy Books Jabir ibn Hayyan Abu-Bakr Muhammed ibnZakariya al Razi (Rhazes). 722-815 865-925 980-1037 1214-1292 1250 A. Plato.Persia Persian medicine Abu Ali al-Hussin ibn Abdallah ibn Sina (Avicenna) Opus Majus Roger Bacon Speculum Naturale Vincentius Bellovacensis. Aristotal. 667 . General of the Dominican Friars Physicus: Intro. 1st description of mineral acids Geber Alchemies prohibited PopeJohn XXII excommunication of friars HerveNedelic. 1300 1317 1323 1330 1380 1404 1418 1500 1530 1561-1626 1685-1761 1794 Timeline J.Tables J: Time Lines . and Rhazes.D. vitruvius. To the Artsof Alchemy Petrus Bonus Alchemical tools forbidden Charles V of France Alchemy forbidden Henry IV Alchemy forbidden Venice Assayers descriptions of acid Anonymous Agricola applies mineral acids systematically to gold Francis Bacon describes reactions of acids with gold and silver Paracelsus English process for oil of vitriol Joshua Ward Lead acid chamber process Johen Roebuck.D. compendium of Pliny.

Timeline J.S. Congress Protection of Children from Environmental Health and Safety Risks President Clinton EPA & HUD Paint 200 µg/ft2 interior floor 500 ug/ft2 interior window sill 800 µg/ft2 exterior window sill Soil Universal Ban of any chemical Denmark T1/2 > 8 weeks 2000x accumulation fish/ocean US Public Health Goal: Elimination of Childhood Lead Poisoning 668 .5% 1974 Water Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) 1975 ZPP >250 ppb (20-25 µg/dL) Blood 30 µg/dL Work 100 µg/m3` 1976 TEL phase out 1978 Work 50 µg/m3 Paint Residential Paint<0.Tables J: Time Lines . no interior TEL introduced ILO Bureau of Mines US Public Health CDC President Nixon ACGIH U.S. Congress Minnesota (no National Standard) Blood 25 µg/dL CDC Water 5µg/L (Proposed Under SDWA) Blood 10 µg/dL CDC Cans Solder Banned in Canned Food U. 17 : Date Analytical Technique Limit of Detection Co developments in Analysis and Regulation Media Goal or Regulatory Limit Agency 1921 Paint 1923 Gas 1925 Dithizone 20 ppb-5 ppm 1933 Work 150 µg/m3 (Goal) 1957 Work 500-200 µg/m3 mid 1960s Blood 40 µg/dL acceptable 1960s AAS 20-50 ppb ASV 20-50 ppb 1970s GFAA 0. Congress Paint Title X Lead Paint Disclosure Act U. Congress CDC OSHA EPA OSHA U.2 to 9 ppt ICP-AES 20 ppt ICP-MS 1-10 ppt 1985 Soil 1000 µg/g 1985 1988 1991 1991 1992 1997 1997 2000 2000 2010 2% metallic lead in paint.05-50 ppb Keppler Report recommends proficiency testing 1971 Paint LBPPPA (Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act) Work 150 µg/m3 (Goal) 1973 Paint Residential Paint <0.S.06% 1980s LEAF 0.S.

Tables J: Time Lines .669 .

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