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25

-13-

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. : Thorie de la littrature. Textes des Formalistes russes
[ (1965)], Mikhail Bakhtine:
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32 (1950) Isaac Asimov (1920-1992), 33
(1968) Ursula Le Guin (1929), 34 (1984)
Michael Ende (1929), 35 (1985) Clive Barker (1952),
36 (1983) Terry Prachett, 37
(1977) Terry Brooks, 38 (1996-2007) Joan K.R. Rowling,
The Green Ride39r (1998-2007) Kristen Britain,
(2001) .

31

The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch.


I, Robot.
33
The Earthsea Quartet: .
34
Der Spiegel Im Spiegel.
35
The Damnation Game.
36
The Colour of Magic: ,
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37
The Sword of Shannara: .
38
The Harry Potter series:
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39
.
32

-16-


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Historical and Theoretical Genres: Todorov on the Fantastic: . 55-71 The Rhetoric of the
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41

-20-

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Horror Fiction
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44

-23-


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Suvin Darko Metamorphosis of Science Fiction (1979)

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-25-


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46, , , .

: Robert Forward, Gregory Benford, Charles
Sheffield Vernor Vinge.
C. J. Cherryh, Hal Clement, Joe Haldeman, Larry Niven, Jerry Pournelle
Stephen Baxter.
(Soft and Social Sci-Fi)
, : ,
, , , .
:

Ursula K. Le Guin, Philip K. Dick Ray Bradbury.


(Time Travels),
(Alternate History), (Cyberpunk), (Military
SF), (Innovation). ,
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: William Gibson, Bruce Sterling, Pat Cadigan, Rudy Rucker, H. G. Wells,
Murray Leinster, David Drake, David Weber, Jerry Pournelle, S. M. Stirling, Lois
McMaster Bujold, Kurt Vonnegutt, Stanislaw Lem, Frank Herbert, Samuel R.
Delany, Roger Zelazny, Harlan Ellison, Arthur C. Clarke, and A. E. Van Vogt, Isaac
Asimov, Damon Knight, Donald A. Wollheim, Frederik Pohl, James Blish, Judith
Merril ..
: What is Speculative Fiction? (2002-2003) N. E. Lilly.

,
: , ,
, . Locus
2005 258

46

-26-

/). ,
, , ,
2516 .
(Asimovs, Analog, The Magazine of Fantasy and
Science Fiction, Interzone, Realms of Fantasy), (Sci Fiction,
Infinite Matrix, Infinity Plus ..), , , fanzin.
Iain M. Banks Culture (Consider Phlebas, 1987,
Excession, 1996, Look to Windward, 2001)

,
. Use of Weapons, 1970, ,
,
,
. Walter Jon Williams
Dread Empires Fall (The Praxis, 2002, The Sundering, 2004, Conventions of
War, 2005) 47
,

. Lois McMaster Bujold
Miles Vorkosigan (The Worriors
Apprentice, 1986, Barrayar, 1991, Memory, 1996),

,
,


.
Greg Elan

(1997),


, ,

,
47

military .

-27-

gamma-burster .
Reasons to be Careful (1997)

. A
Kidnapping (1995)
,
! Dan Simmons (2003)
(2005)
, ,
, , ,
. Stephen Baxter
Xeelee (Timelike Infinity, 1992, Ring, 1994),

,
.


.
(1985)

Greg

Bear,

.
: , 464,
(.98-100)

iii. :
J.R.R. Tolkien
, 1938,

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-28-

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(Alternate History), (Contemporary Fantasy),
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(Comic Fantasy) .. , ,
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,

,
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, ,
, Hans Christian
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, Tolkien
.

-29-

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. 3.
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,

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, Robert Erwin Howard (1906-1936) John Ronald Reul
Tolkien. ,

20 .
, .
:
.
19

20,

Dunsany48 ,
, William Morris
, Eric Edison, James
Campel .
: : ,
. .


. ,
George R.R. Martin,

.
,
. , , 1 Stark
48

Edward Plankett.

-30-

, 2 John Snow Stark, 3


Cersei ...
. ,
, : ,
, .
49 Steven
Erikson The Malazan Book of the Fallen.
: Randall Garrett, Keith
Roberts, Poul Anderson, Gregory Keyes, Neil Gaiman, J. K. Rowling, China Mieville,
Charles de Lint, Megan Lindholm, Emma Bull, Jim Butcher, Charles de Lint,
Hideyuki Kikuchi, Kentaro Miura, Jacqueline Carey, George MacDonald, James
Thurber, Robin McKinley, Tanith Lee, Patricia Wrede, Shannon Hale, E. R. Eddison,
C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Stephen R. Donaldson, Terry Brooks, Robert Jordan,
Lloyd Alexander, Christopher Paolini, Susan Cooper, Guy Gavriel Kay, George R. R.
Martin, Terry Pratchett ..
,

, ,
.
20

.

49

Naratologie: 1969.

-31-

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1997

.
. 17 ,

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. 2001
50 (. . ),
to 2005.
1998 51 (),

.
2003
.
5 2002,
: he Prancing Pony52.

.

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien,
,
.
-
,

(), ,
() .. ,

50

http://www.nikostheodorou.gr/lesxi1gr.html
http://www.alef.gr/greek/various/20070404_alef_id.pdf
52
Prancing Pony
.
51

-32-


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53
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2003, ).

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( ) Altfactor54,
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(1929) ,
(1933) , (1936) ,
(1943) . , (1960)
, , , (1973)
, (1987) ,
(2000) ..
,
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53
54

http://www.iconotopia.org/?show=bio
http://altfactor.ath.cx/publications

-33-

Cube Solaris . Anubis,


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(1960-2007)

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1993):

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20.50 x 27.50
(1989-1990)
14.00 x 20.40
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:
:
21.00 x 27.20

-36-

(1995-1997):

: Alien
:
14.60 x 20.50 .

ASIMOVS SCIENCE FICTION (1997)


:
12.50 x 19.00 .


(2000-2005):
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(2005-2007)
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QUARK (1985)
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-37-

18.00 x 25.40 .


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-38-


(2003-2007):
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2012 (2007): Fanzin Cube.


*** 50 .

FANTASY HEROES (2006-2007):


Anubis.
: Anubis Comics,
: , , ,
, .



(1960-2007)

UNIVERSE PATHWAYS (2006-2007):


(. .).
:
:
: 244 pages, 6" x 9", perfect binding, black and white interior ink


(1960-2007)

(19751981):

: " " -
.
:
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20.50 x 27.50

UFO: UFO

!: -:
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21.50 x 27.60

-39-

PIXEL (1984): Home-Users.


. ..

Asimov
Electronic Arts,
,

: Compupress ...
:
:
20.80 x 27.50

(1989)
:
: 5
Fanzine

TREK NEWS (1992-1995): fanzine


57.
:
21.00 x 29.70
Fanzine

(1985-1986): .
: ARS LONGA,
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(1996-1997):
NEWSLETTER58
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Fanzine

9 (2001-2007): &
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Star Trek
.
58
Newsletter .
: Digest.

-40-

: (
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NEWS OF BREE (2004-2007):


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: .
Fanzine

MYSTERY: ..
:
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2007

: , .

-41-

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)



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Howard Philips Lovecraft
Clark Ashton Smith:
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Lovecraft.
,
,

-42-

, Steven King
(1947) (National
Book Award). ,
, Nebula Hugo. ,
,
.
59

,
,
. :
, ,
, .

.
. 1984
George Orwell, .

. ,
, Raymond Chandler, ,
Agatha Christi ,
. ,
Edgar Allan Poe 19 .
,
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,
60.
59

,

( 2003).
60
Thriller: .
, .

-43-

,

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Gabe Chouinard, ,
:

Minor Futurism: Where SFF (Science Fiction and Fantasy) is


Headed
An essay by Gabe Chouinard

As a society, weve passed through our era of technological progress,


and have moved into an era of technological refinement. Weve abandoned
looking outward toward the stars, and have turned our gazes inward. From
self-help pop psychology to biotechnology, our focus has undeniably
changed. Gone is the halcyon dream of Progress, with its shiny chrome
futurism. Instead, our future looks grimy and slimy, dominated by terrorist
splinter cells and stem cells. Its a world of mass commercialism, AOL
Future 8.0.

-44-

So where does that leave the SFF community? Where does that leave
literary SFF?
As we drift along in post-9/11 publishing torpor, such questions seem
not only inconsequential, but almost pointless. Few want to ask the
questions; fewer still want to explore the answers.
And yet....
There is definite motion in SFF these days. Not a Movement, or even
a pseudo-movement. It isnt coming from the publishers, who continue to
cast aimlessly about in search of the Next Big Thing. Nor is it coming from
the writers, who still do their own things, putting out work theyve always
been interested in creating. Critics certainly arent doing it; while there are
some good critics out there, the vast majority of criticism is still
meaningless pap. (On a positive note, 4 out of 5 readers found this
paragraph helpful....)
And yet...
If youd visited Tokyo recently, its possible that you would have
noticed the oyayubisoku, or thumb tribe, staring intently at their mobile
phones instead of talking into them. If youd been there, you would know
that they werent crazy they were text messaging. This fad, this
phenomenon, is an example of what Howard Rheingold refers to as smart
mobs. Total strangers, completely mobile, completely in touch with one
another. Information passed with blinding speed, whole blocks of people
simultaneously informed of... well, whatever. Theres a sale on Adidas shirts
in a boutique. Mizuku is having an off day brewing sake, stay away. Shoto
Riders just hit the newsstand. Theres a riot on Kyoto Street... get over
there ASAP.
Its an amazing phenomenon, and indicative of strange new social
trends that are just getting started. How would you like it if your phone
buzzed to let you know that someone sexually compatible with you is two
tables away in a restaurant? Hell, you even know what he looks like, since

-45-

your phone sent you a picture, along with a list of his hobbies, physical
traits, favorite positions, underwear size...
Which has nothing to do with literary SFF.
Except it does. In fact, it has everything to do with literary SFF.
But lets get something clear right now, before we even really get
started. Science fiction, as a branch of literature, hasnt been about
technology since Hugo Gernsback was still calling it scientifiction. Modern
SF has never been about the tech.
We live in a glossy, tabloid-style SF future. SF so permeates our
society, most people dont even recognize it as SF. To most, our sexy
iBooks, mobile phones and Handspring Visors are just things, omnipresent
objects. Theres nothing science fictional about it. In fact, looking to the
horizon, theres nothing even vaguely SFnal on its way. No going off to
hang out on the moon, no humanoid robots trudging to work in the
factories so we can all play golf, no genetic Armageddon on its way. The
magical, mystical power of Progress is gone.
With it goes science fiction.
SF as a literary genre has been dying a slow death for a decade. It
trundles doggedly on, terminally ill, brave face forward; but that doesnt
disguise the fact that there havent been any real, noteworthy strides no
injections of innovative life since the brief flare of Cyberpunk in the
Eighties. There have been multitudes of glorious, well-written, extremely
good SF stories and novels in the last decade. But theyve all been works of
art sinking into a stagnant pool.
There, I said it. Are you surprised?
Recently, there has been plenty of crossfire conversation on where
SFF is going. Some have proclaimed the radical hard SF or new space
opera as the new face of science fiction. Others, bolstered by projects like
Peter Straubs recent Conjunctions issue, are proclaiming an era of crossgenre interstitial mainstream-fantasy hybrid fantastica as the latest-andgreatest.
-46-

Not true.
Radical hard SF is interesting and (no bones about it) trs cool. Peter
F. Hamiltons Fallen Dragon is one of my favorite novels of the year, and
Alastair Reynolds ranks high on my list of favorite writers. Yet, radical hard
SF/new space opera displays all the worst traits of modern SF. Its written
primarily by fans, for fans. While soaked in widescreen skiffy imagery
pulled straight from the movies, radical SF, by embracing hardness,
instead alienates itself from the average reader. Have engineering degree,
will travel. This intellectual elitism is what made modern SF stagnant in the
first place, so its no wonder radical hard SF hasnt gained much outside
attention unlike the media circus surrounding the stars of the Cyberpunk
movement.
On the other hand, we have the vague cross-genre fiction. Again,
there are hordes of talented writers in this substratum of SFF. Some of the
writers I admire most dwell out here on the fringes: Jonathan Carroll, Kelly
Link, Graham Joyce, M. John Harrison, etc. But the gnawing in my gut
refuses to believe that cross-genre work will ever be the norm, or the
dominant force in SFF. Cross-genre literary fantasy appeals only to a finite
audience. Does anyone think many readers will drop David Drake in favor
of Jeff VanderMeer? For most readers, these writers are too hard to nail
down, too difficult to consolidate in one hand as a genre. So while crossgenre literary fantastic fiction is impressive, its generally beyond all but a
portion of the existing audience.
And yet....
Now new in paperback, Al Sarrantonios Redshift: Extreme Visions of
Speculative Fiction attempted to define SFs new direction, post-millennial
changeover. With a lot of unnecessary sturm und drang, this original
anthology pretended to be a Dangerous Visions for our era. Aside from the
fact that most of (maybe even all of) the stories in Redshift were excellent,
the anthology fails miserably in defining any sort of direction for
contemporary SFF. Theres no focus, no face-forward for the genre within
Redshift. In other words, no direction.

-47-

And yet....
Everyone is all thrill-a-go-go over SFF at the moment. Dont believe
me? Then dont go see The Two Towers. Dont look for updates on X-Men 2,
Spiderman 2, The Matrix sequels, or Alex Proyas I, Robot project. Stop
watching Buffy, and quit talking about Farscape. No more clamoring for the
return of Firefly.
Do Movie Execs Dream of PKD?
So why is SFF as a literary genre doomed to failure?
Quite simply, its the Fans.
If youve been to a convention lately, youve seen it. Fandom runs
amok; but its the wrong kind of fandom. The majority of convention goers
could give a shit about literary SFF. Theyre out to claim allegiance to
whatever skiffy project has caught their fancies, be it Star Trek, Star Wars,
Farscape or what-have-you. Fandom has evolved so radically, most SFF
writers, editors and publishers cant even comprehend them, much less
appeal to them. Theirs is a world of video game systems, movies, TV series.
All non-literary.
In his essay Paradise Charted, Algis Budrys mentioned (way back in
1980) that Fandom ...could probably exist and even prosper independently
of science fiction, so intertwined and vociferous are its interpersonal
concerns. It would appear that Budrys hit that one on the head.
Any genre requires readers/consumers. Horror fiction, for instance,
exploded in popularity in the wake of Stephen King... and quickly died out
as a genre when the vast majority of it became unreadable. Ditto for
westerns, which have been reduced to Max Brand, Louis LAmour, and the
erotic westerns like the Longarm series. And whens the last time you saw
a case in a bookstore overflowing with military adventure novels like the
Don Pendleton/Mack Bolan Gold Phoenix editions that featured such groovy
titles as AbleTeam, Navy SEALS, Phoenix Force, et al?
The omnivore fan (as David Hartwell so aptly named him in his essay
The Golden Age of Science Fiction is Twelve) has fallen away, lured from
-48-

SFF literature by ubiquitous tech toys and faddish games. Bright kids today
may still start out reading comics, but they graduate to playing Grand Theft
Auto III and HALO, not to reading. Reading demands far too much time and
effort for our speedy, flashy modern world. Were losing our potential
omnivores too quickly.
On the fantasy side, J.K. Rowling was the Great White Hope. With the
phenomenal success of her Harry Potter series, it was assumed that all
those kids (and adults) would screech for more more more, thereby
opening the floodgates on fantastic fiction. And yes, more people started
picking up books... but it was mostly already voracious readers who were
quite simply picking up stuff from the shelves where they normally wouldnt
browse; the Young Adult section. So yes, a minor increase in sales.
Pottermania is another fine example of the smart mob in action. Buzz
manufactured interest. Interest sparked communication. Communication
fueled sales, primarily via word-of-mouth and the Internet. Layer upon
layer, building a bestseller, an intricate framework of factors that no one
person controlled. Certainly the publisher had very little to do with it, at
first, until they began feeding the fire. Certainly J.K. Rowling had very little
to do with it, until the stories of her success started flowing. This was pure
fandom at work.
These smart mobs work the other way as well. This year, Del Rey
released Robert Newcombs debut novel, The Fifth Sorceress, with all sorts
of accompanying manufactured buzz. Newcomb was touted as the Next
Terry Goodkind. The novel had all the essential ingredients for success; a
pastoral secondary world, magic galore, a pissy young Prince holding the
fate of the world in his unwilling paws... all the Epic Fantasy tropes that
scream for bestsellerdom.
By all accounts, that never happened.
The smart mobs quickly spread the word Newcomb was quite less
than hed been touted as. The book, while not exactly horrible, was nothing
spectacular. There were hints of misogyny. Newcomb wasnt worth buying

-49-

in hardcover, the mob decided. And the fans heeded the decision... and
spread it on.
And yet....
Most people agree that SFF has been adrift, directionless and
Movement-less since the Cyberpunks. Most people agree that modern SFF
is insular, and even impenetrable to non-genre readers (which, if true,
only serves to underscore the fact that sooner or later, well just run out of
appreciative readers). And most people agree that we dont know what the
fuck to do about it.
Before we look forward, though, lets dip back into the past for a bit.
Oddly enough, writers have never been the driving force in SFF
publishing. Every frisson that led to change in the genre, every Movement
that trotted through to remake the line-up on the shelves, surrounded an
editor.
Good ol Uncle Hugo with his scientifiction. John W. Campbell, Jr. and
his insistence on idea as story, remaking the pulps in his own wildly
idiosyncratic image. J. Francis McComas and Anthony Boucher bringing lit
value to the genre via F&SF magazine. H.L. Gold and Galaxy, followed by
Frederik Pohl and the Futurians. On and on! Michael Moorcock at New
Worlds. Terry Carr helming the Ace Specials. Damon Knight and his Orbit
series of anthologies. Judith Merrill and her Years Greatest Science Fiction
and Fantasy anthologies. Harlan Ellison and Dangerous Visions. On and on!
All with their unique foibles, each with their idiosyncratic personality tics,
each with their individual tastes and guiding voices.
Where are those editors now? Where are our idiosyncratic madfolk,
pushing and shaping and molding writers into coherent pieces of a whole?
Everyone recognizes a Campbell story when they see one. Do we similarly
recognize a Gardner Dozois story? A David Pringle story? An Ellen Datlow or
Terri Windling story? A David Hartwell story?
And yet...

-50-

Is this a bad thing? Is the industry harmed by its lack of forceful


editors shaping the field? Certainly, the time of Movements is past. Science
fiction has grown beyond the need for guiding Movements, grown into a
morass of styles and types. The market no longer demands a particular
form of SFF; rather, those readers that are still devoted to speculative
fiction are willing to move about, dipping into various pools and subgenres.
SFF readers have grown much more flexible over time. Our overarching
need for a definitive answer on what science fiction is has passed, swept
away by the mainstreams incorporation of SFnal tropes and styles. SF is no
longer a ghetto, and the need to crawl from the wreckage of our genre is
gone. And while people in the field still resist this idea, it would appear the
fans have made the decision on their own.
And yet...
Questions, so many questions.
Whats the future of SFF?
There are two answers.
a) fragmented
b) fantasy
Im certain there will always be science fiction, even of the hard
variety. But it wont dominate the field, for a variety of reasons. Its
inaccessible to all but an elite few, and trends in publishing continue to
push for the widest possible audience available. Its rife with clichs, which
modern readers have no time for; this is an age of creativity and innovation
that were living in, where Idea reigns supreme. For hard SF to continue in
the mode of idea as story, wed have to find a generation of writers that
werent using all of their ideas on corporate consulting and trend-watching.
Who can spend precious ideas on SF stories when they can be milked for
megabucks on a groupware blog?
What we call science fiction will be a fragmented, niche-oriented
market. There will be no coherent, overriding style that will guide what we
consider to be real science fiction. The modern marketplace has evolved
-51-

over the course of the past decade, to the point where its become a series
of Hydra-like heads squiggling about in a tangled mass. Theyre all beneath
the umbrella of science fiction, but there are no clear-cut delineations of
segments. This isnt necessarily a bad thing, as it encourages the branching
out of ideas to incorporate pieces from all aspects of literature. Nor is it a
good thing, as a fragmented market leads to specialization, with less
chance of any single author making an impact on the field... or sales.
But hard SF will remain, even if the only outlets are two highlytargeted e-zines aimed at tech geeks and engineers. There will always be
readers who enjoy the rigorous use of hard scientific fact over literary
devices. There will simply be fewer of them.
Most likely, though, is this: there will be a multitude of independent
presses that will produce works that appeal to specific audiences. With
many of the independent presses currently producing works, there is an
attitude that accompanies a publishing house, which isnt genre-specific;
its house specific. Its happened with publishers like Four Walls Eight
Windows. Its happened with publishers like The Ministry of Whimsy. Its
happened with publishers like Golden Gryphon. The attitude becomes the
guiding principle of the publisher, much like the attitude that has
accompanied Baen for years.
And yet...
There will be a dominant form of commercial SFF, however.
The younger generations of writers who are slogging their ways up
through the mines of publishing are unlike most of the old guard in one
vital detail: unlike our aging practitioners, these writers grew up on a
steady diet of both science fiction and fantasy, whereas most SF writers
today grew up solely on SF. This is producing an interesting cohesion within
contemporary speculative fiction, where aspects of both sides of the
fantastic fence appear in a single work.
Science fantasy.

-52-

Yes, science fantasy has always been the bastard stepchild of both SF
and fantasy. But more and more, were seeing writers like China Miville,
Matthew Stover, Greg Keyes, John Marco, Steven Erikson and a host of
others who straddle the genre lines with ease and excellence. Not
especially cross-genre, since none of them has turned their nose to SFF
traditions. Rather, these writers embrace both sides, melding them into a
coherent science fantasy result. Theyre fantasy writers, plain as day... but
with the rigorous demands of science fiction underlying their work.
Science fantasy also allows its writers much more freedom than
either hard SF or straight fantasy, and this is an age of freedom as well.
More and more, were embracing individualism, and lauding the taking of
chances in our art. In our genuinely no-brow culture, high art resides next
to popular culture, intermingled and cross-pollinated. Its the era of no
limits, a DIY-society that demands more than empty calories from its
entertainment. It shows in the music industry, in film, in every aspect of our
artistic culture. And the evolution of SFF literature requires those same
standards that are applied to everything else.
Yet, it is important to bear in mind that the Lowest Common
Denominator is still a terrible thing. As artists of all sorts, it is our
responsibility to challenge established notions of taste, and to bolster our
culture from within. Without embracing that credo, science fantasy runs the
same risk of stagnation and inbreeding that straight genre fiction suffers
from.
Is this the shape of things to come?
Our current cultural shift is one that requires fantasy. Weve grown
tired of the future, have grown tired of the promise of Progress that never
really comes. Were tired of looking outward, and have turned our gazes
inward. Its time to stop exploring the Outer Rim, and time to start
exploring the Inner Being. Science fantasy allows that; hard SF does not.
Likewise, science fantasy is more accessible to a generation of potential
fans that have grown up on media sci-fi, such as the Star Wars movies.
Science fantasy is a freewheeling almost-anything-goes subgenre that

-53-

fulfills the needs of a culture that has developed a half-imagination over


the years.
It isnt a Movement, but it is movement a progression of thought
and the development of a pair of genres that have been mired in tradition
and rigid, unblinking coda. This is where the excitement is.
And the fans are helping it along. If you visit the message boards,
everyone is talking about the above-mentioned writers. No one is talking
about the same-old, same-old stuff coming down the pipe. Its all old news
to the fans, and theyre itching for something new. The smart mobs are
watching, braced for impact... and theyre looking for something good to
read in the meantime.

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