# CONTENTS S.No CYCLE-I: 1. PN Junction diode characteristics A. Forward bias. B. Reverse bias. (Cut-in voltage & Resistance calculations) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Zener diode characteristics and Zener as a regulator. Transistor CB characteristics (Input & Output) & h Parameter calculations. Transistor CE characteristics (Input& Output) & h Parameter calculations. Rectifiers without filters (Half Wave & Full Wave). Rectifiers with filters (Half Wave & Full Wave). Name of the experiment

CYCLE-II: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. SCR characteristics. Transistor CE Amplifier. Transistor CC Amplifier (Emitter follower). FET characteristics. UJT characteristics.

1. PN DIODE CHARACTERISTICS AIM 1. To study the V-I characteristics of a given P-N diode in both forward bias and reverse bias. 2. Find the static and dynamic resistance of the given P-N diode. APPARATUS: P-N diode (1N4007), Resistance (100), Regulated power supply (0 to 30V), DC Voltmeter (0 to 1 V), (0 to 30V), DC Ammeter (0 to 200mA), DC Ammeter (0 to 200 A), Bread Board, Connecting wires SYMBOL OF PN DIODE: A K

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Procedure:
a) Forward Bias:
1. 2. 3. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig A. Apply the supply voltage, VIN in steps of 0.2V from 0V to 1V,after then vary VIN in steps of 1v Measure the voltage, V across the diode from voltmeter and current I through the diode from ammeter for different steps of applied voltage, VIN. 4. Draw a graph between the voltage, V and current, I.

5.

At suitable operating-point, calculate the static and dynamic resistances of the diode.

b) Reverse Bias:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig ‘B’. 2. Apply the supply voltage, VIN in steps of 3V from 0V to 30V. 3. Measure the voltage, V across the diode from voltmeter and current, I through the ammeter for different steps of applied voltage, VIN.Draw a graph between the voltage V and current I.

Dynamic reverse resistance = =Vr / Ir = 5. Static reverse resistance. Cut-in voltage of given diode = . Dynamic forward resistance = Vf / If = 4.TABULAR FORMS FORWARD BIAS: REVERSE BIAS: Ir ( A) S NO. Vr (V) CALCULATIONS: 1. VF (V) IF (mA) S NO. Rf = Vf / If= 2. Static forward resistance. MODEL GRAPH: RESULT: . Rr = Vr / Ir= 3.

Ammeter (0-100mA) – 1.TRPS – 1 Symbol of Zener diode: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: REVERSE BIAS: LOAD CHARACTERISTICS: . To study the V-I characteristics and load characteristics of given Zener diode. To determine Zener break down voltage. Resistor 100/5Watts – 1. Rheostat – 1 . 2.Multimeter – 1. ZENER DIODE AIM 1. To find the reverse resistance.2. APPARATUS: Zener diode (12V/3Watts) – 1. 3.

Note that corresponding ammeter reading IR for every increment at value of VR.PROCEDURE: Reverse Bias:       To determine reverse characteristics built up the circuit as shown in the figure. MODEL GRAPH: REVERSE BIAS: VR Vz IL(mA) I min Break Down Region ----------------------------------------------True conduction region I z (max) Iz CALCULATIONS: Dynamic forward resistance = Static forward resistance = Dynamic reverse resistance = Static reverse resistance = VL (v) false conduction region LOAD CHARACTERISTICS: RESULT: . LOAD CHARACTERISTICS: To determine load characteristics built up the circuit as shown in figure. Fix the source voltage V and increase the load resistance in steps. Note the corresponding ammeter reading IL for every increment at value of VL. Increase source voltage Vs so that voltmeter reading advances in steps of 2VV.

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Name of the Equipment/Component Transistor BC107 Resistors 1KΩ. 2. Keep the voltage VCB as constant at 1V by varying VCC. . Connect the circuit as shown in fig 1. To calculate the h-parameters of transistor in CB configuration Apparatus required: S. To plot the input and output static characteristics of transistor in common base configuration. Dual channel Regulated Power Supply(0-30)v Multimeter (0-2)V (0-20)V Ammeters(0-10)mA Bread Board Connecting Wires Quantity 1 1 1 1 2 1 Symbol of npn transistor: Circuit Diagram: Fig A: Transistor Common Base Configuration Procedure: a) Input Characteristics: 1. 2. COMMON BASE TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS Aim: 1.3.

VBE from multimeter by keeping the switch position in (0-2)v range and current. IE through the ammeter for different values of input voltages. Draw input characteristics by taking VEB along X axis and IE along Y axis for tabulated values. 3. 4. VEE in steps of 0. IE at constant value say at 0. 2. Vary the input voltage.3.No Applied Voltage VCC(V) VCB(V) IC(mA) IE = 5mA VCB(V) IC(mA) 1 2 3 4 5 6 . Measure the voltage. VCC in steps of 2V from 0V to 20V. 2 and 3mA respectively. VCB from multimeter by keeping the switch position in (0-20)v range and current. Repeat above steps 2and 3 for various values of different values of IE. 5. Fix input emitter current. IE through the ammeter for different values of VCC. Measure the voltage.No 1 2 3 4 5 VCB = 5V VBE(V) IE mA) Applied Voltage VEE(V) VBE (V) IE(mA) b) Output Characteristics: IE = 1mA S. Tabular Forms: a) Input Characteristics: VCB = 0V S. Repeat the step 3 and 4 for VCE values of 5V 6. b) Output Characteristics: 1. Vary the output voltage. Draw output characteristics by taking VCB along X axis and IC along Y axis for tabulated values. 5. 4.2V from 0V to 1V and then vary VEE in steps of 2v from 2-10v.

Model graphs: Fig B: Input Characteristics Fig C: Output Characteristics Model Calculations: a) Input Characteristics: b) Output Characteristics: .

4. 2. 2) Keep the voltage VCE as constant at 1V by varying VCC. Dual channel Regulated Power Supply(0-30)v Multimeter (0-2)V (0-20)V Ammeters(0-10)mA (0-100)A Bread Board Connecting Wires Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 Symbol of npn transistor: Circuit diagram: (0-20)V Fig A: Transistor Common Emitter Configuration Procedure: b) Input Characteristics: 1) Connect the circuit as shown in fig 1. . COMMON EMITTER TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS Aim: 1. To plot the input and output characteristics of transistor in CE configuration. To calculate the h-parameters of transistor in CE configuration.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Name of the Equipment/Component Transistor BC107 Resistors 1KΩ. Apparatus Required: S.

VCE from multimeter by keeping the switch position in (0-20)v range and current. 5) Repeat the step 3 and 4 for VCE values of 5V 6) Draw input characteristics by taking VBE along X axis and IB along Y axis for tabulated values.2V from 0V to 1V and then vary VBB in steps of 2v from 2-10v. IC through the ammeter for different values of VCC. IB at constant value say at 10A. 4. Fix input base current. VBB in steps of 0. 4) Measure the voltage. Vary the output voltage. No . IB through the ammeter for different values of input voltages.3) Vary the input voltage. 3. Measure the voltage. Repeat above steps 2and 3 for I B=20A 5. VBE from multimeter by keeping the switch position in (0-2)v range and current. VCC in steps of 2V from 0V to 20V. c) Output Characteristics: 1. 2. Draw output characteristics by taking VCE along X axis and IC along Y axis for tabulated values Tabular forms: a) Input Characteristics: Applied S. No Voltage VBB(V) VBE(V) IB(μA) VBE(V) IB(µA) VCE = 0V VCE = 5V b) Output Characteristics: Applied voltage Vcc (V) IB = 10μA VCE(V) IC(mA) IB = 20μA VCE (V) IC(mA) S.

Model graphs: Fig B: Input Characteristics Fig C: Output Characteristics Calculations: a) Input Characteristics: b) Output Characteristics: Result: .

2 F---1. To study the performance of Half-wave rectifier and Full-wave rectifiers without filters.AC Voltmeter---1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: HALFWAVE RECTIFIER: FULLWAVE RECTIFIER: . Rheostat (0-500) ---1. APPARATUS: Step down transformer (30-0-30/500mA)—1. Rectifier diodes (IN4007)—2.30) V—1.5. RECTIFIERS WITHOUT FILTERS (Half wave & Full wave) AIM: 1. Capacitor 2. Digital multimeter (0. To calculate ripple factor and % of regulation of Half-wave rectifier and Full-wave rectifiers without filters. 2. Ammeter (0-500 mA)—1.

Full Wave Rectifier: 1.PROCEDURE: Half Wave Rectifier: Construct the circuit diagram as shown in the figure. Note down the Vdc and Vac at different values of Idc (in steps) by varying Rheostat. 2. 5. Ripple factor (r) = Vac/ Vdc. 3. 1. TABULAR FORM: VdcNL = Idc(mA) Vdc (v) OUTPUT WAVEFORMS: RESULT: Output waveforms of half wave rectifier and Full wave rectifier are observed. Find the No-load voltage (VdcNL) by not connecting the load 2. 4.VdcFL/VdcFL) * 100. Note down the Vdc and Vac at different values of Idc (in steps) by varying Rheostat. volts Vac (v) r = Vac/Vdc %Regulation %Regulation = (VdcNL. Ripple factor (r) = Vac/ Vdc. TABULAR FORM: VdcNL = Idc(mA) Vdc(v) volts Vac (v) r =Vac/Vdc %Regulation %Regulation = (VdcNL. VdcNL = Vmax/.VdcFL/VdcFL) * 100. Construct the circuit diagram as shown in the diagram. Connect the Rheostat. VdcNL = 2Vmax/. Connect the Rheostat. 4. Find the No-load voltage (VdcNL) . 3. Ripple factor of Half wave rectifier = % Regulation of Half wave rectifier = Ripple factor of Full wave rectifier = % Regulation of Full wave rectifier = .

Capacitor 2. RECTIFIERS WITH FILTERS (Half wave & Full wave) AIM: 1. APPARATUS: Step down transformer (30-0-30/500mA)—1. Rectifier diodes (IN4007)—2. To study the performance of Full wave and half wave rectifiers with filters. Electrolytic capacitance-47F. To calculate ripple factor and % of regulation. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: HALFWAVE RECTIFIER: FULLWAVE RECTIFIER: .30) V—1. Digital multimeter (0. Rheostat (0-500) ---1. 2. Ammeter (0-500 mA)—1.6.2 F---1.

2. 3. Note down Vac and Vdc for different values of Idc by varying Rheostat. TABULARFORMS: Idc (mA) Vdc (V) Vac (V) r= Vac / V dc %Regulation OUTPUT WAVEFORMS: RESULT: Output waveforms of Half wave rectifier and Full wave rectifier with filter are observed. Connect the Capacitor filter and Rheostat. TABULARFORMS: Idc (mA) Vdc (V) Vac (V) r= Vac / V dc %Regulation Full wave rectifier: 1. Notedown the noload voltage. 3. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.PROCEDURE: Half wave rectifier: 1. 2. Note down the no-load voltage. Connect the Capacitor filter and Rheostat. 4. Note down Vac and Vdc for different values of Idc by varying Rheostat. Connect the circuit as shown in figure. . 4.

2.Connecting wires CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: PROCEDURE: 1. 3 for different values of VGS at 0. To plot the transfer characteristics. Vary VGG and observe the values of VGS and ID. 6. Repeat the above steps 2. To plot the drain characteristics. b). To draw the drain and transfer characteristics of a give FET. . 4. 3.Ammeter (050mA)---1.All the readings are tabulated. To find the drain resistance (rd) amplification factor (μ) and Tran conductance (gm) of the given FET. Regulated power supply (0-30V) ----2. Voltmeter (0-20V) ---2. All the connections are made as per the circuit diagram. FET CHARACTERISTICS AIM: a). keep VDS constant at 1V. APPARATUS: FET (BFW-11)—1.2V. keep VGS constant at 0V.1V and 0. 5. Vary the VDD and observe the values of VDS and ID.Ripple factor of Half wave rectifier = % Regulation of Half wave rectifier = Ripple factor of Full wave rectifier = % Regulation of Full wave rectifier = 7.

5V VGS (V) ID(mA) VGS (V) VDS=1V ID(mA) VDS =1. 8.The readings are tabulated. calculate the values of dynamic resistance (rd) by using the formula rd = ∆VDS/∆ID 9.7.1V VDS(V) ID(mA) VGS=0. From transfer characteristics. Tran conductance μ = ∆VDS/∆VGS OBSERVATIONS: DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS VGS=0V VDS(V) ID(mA) VGS=0.5 V and 2V.2V VDS(V) ID(mA) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS: VDS =0. From drain characteristics. Repeat steps 6 and 7 for different values of VDS at 1. Amplification factor (μ) = dynamic resistance. calculate the value of transconductace (gm) By using the formula Gm=∆ID/∆VDS 10.5V VGS (V) ID(mA) MODEL GRAPH: TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS: DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS: .

8. Voltmeter (0-10V). SILICON-CONTROLLED RECTIFIER (SCR) CHARACTERISTICS AIM: To draw the V-I Characteristics of SCR APPARATUS: SCR (TYN410) Regulated Power Supply (0-300V). Regulated Power Supply (030V). Vary the anode to cathode supply voltage and note down the readings of voltmeter and ammeter. Keep the gate supply voltage at some constant value 3. OBSERVATION VAK(V) IAK ( µA) . The drain and transfer characteristics of a given FET are drawn 2. amplification factor (μ) and Tran conductance (gm) of the given FET are calculated. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are made as per circuit diagram. A graph is drawn between VAK and IAK. Resistors 10kΩ. 1kΩ Ammeter (0-50) mA. 2.RESULT: 1. The dynamic resistance (rd). Keep the gate voltage at standard value. Connecting Wires. 4.

MODEL WAVEFORM: RESULT: SCR Characteristics are observed. .

3. . APPARATUS: Regulated Power Supply (0-30V.9. Connection is made as per circuit diagram. This procedure is repeated for different values of output voltages. 47Ω. 2. 330Ω Multimeters Breadboard Connecting Wires . All readings are tabulated and Intrinsic Stand-Off ratio is calculated using η = (Vp-VD) / VBB 5. Output voltage is fixed at a constant level and by varying input voltage corresponding emitter current values are noted down.2Nos . A graph is plotted between VEE and IE for different values of VBE. 1A) UJT 2N2646 Resistors 10kΩ. 4. UJT CHARACTERISTICS AIM: To observe the characteristics of UJT and to calculate the Intrinsic Stand-Off Ratio (η).2Nos CIRCUIT DIAGRAM PROCEDURE: 1.

.MODEL GRAPH: OBSEVATIONS: VBB=1V VEB(V) IE(mA) VBB=2V VEB(V) IE(mA) VBB=3V VEB(V) IE(mA) CALCULATIONS: VP = ηVBB + VD η = (VP-VD) / VBB η = (η1 + η2 + η3) / 3 RESULT: The characteristics of UJT are observed and the values of Intrinsic Stand-Off Ratio are calculated.

2K RE 1K CE 100μF 1k-100k DRB CRO PROCEDURE: A) Keep Vs = 20mv.find frequency response of a given circuit diagram. COMPONENTS: 1. CRO 4. 2. Find the bandwidth. Calculate Gain= Vo/Vi and Gain in db=20log (Vo/Vi) TABULAR FORMS: Frequency Vs = 20mv Output (volts) Gain =Vo/Vi Gain in db . TRANSISTOR CE AMPLIFIER AIM: 1.10.7K Cc 10μF + Vs 20mv R2 8. s is closed vary input frequency and note down output voltage in the tabular form as shown. Decade resistance box CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Vcc +12V 10μF R1 33K Rc 4.CE amplifier kit 2. Function generator 3.

Band width = fh Frequency .MODEL GRAPH: Gain in dB Amax 3dB fl Bandwidth = fh-fl RESULT: 1.

s is open vary input frequency and note down output voltage in the tabular form as shown. Function generator 3. COMPONENTS: 1. To find the frequency response of CC amplifier. Find the bandwidth of CC amplifier. 2. CRO CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: Vcc =12v 10μF R1 33K 10μF + Vs 20mv - R2 K 8.CC amplifier kit 2.11. Calculate Gain = Vo/Vi TABULAR FORMS: Vs = 1v Frequency Output (volts) Gain =Vo/Vi Gain in db . TRANSISTOR CC AMPLIFIER AIM: 1.2 RE 10K S2 CRO DRB PROCEDURE: a) Keep Vs = 1v.

Band width = 2.MODEL GRAPH: Gain in dB Amax 3dB fl RESULT: 1. O/P Resistance = fh frequency .

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