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Augmented Sixth Chord --------------------Augmented sixth chord is a chord contains an augmented sixth above its "root" or bass tone.

Function: Altered Predominant Chord or Secondary Dominant Italian Sixth (It+6): 1-3-#6 (Ab, C, F#) French Sixth (Fr+6): 1-3-#4-#6 (Ab, C, D, F#) German Sixth (Gr+6): 1-3-5-#6 (Ab, C, Eb, F#) Australian Sixth : 1-b3-#4-#6 (F, Ab, B, D#) Secondary Dominant (D=1) It+6 = (B, D, G#) Fr+6 = (B, D, E, G#) Gr+6 = (B, D, F, G#) Dominant: Dbaug6 - ( C ) - G Dbaug6 -Cm Predominant: Abaug6 - (C/G) - G Faug6 - C ___________________________________________________ Color Chords --------------------1. Chords with extension notes half-step next to chord notes are usually avoided . (esp: minor 9th, minor 2nd) 2. The thirteenth are usually played as major sixth without playing the seventh. 3. Extended Chords are not equal to added tone chords. Possible Chords: Major Seventh: CM9, CM7#11, CM7sus4, C6 Dominant Seventh: C9, C7b9, C7#9, C7sus4, C13, C7(b13) Minor Seventh: Cm9, Cm11, Cm6 For extended major chords, only the major seventh and the corresponding extensio n is required. For extended minor chords, only the minor seventh and the corresponding extensio n is required. For extended dominant chords, only the minor seventh and the corresponding exten sion is required. ___________________________________________________ Chord Substituion --------------------The chord substitute the standard chord usually has at least 2 common notes. Tritone Substituton refers to a chord substituion by a tritone (six semitone hig her). G7 by Db7 ___________________________________________________ Borrowed Chord from Parallel Minor --------------------Borrowing Chords from Minor Key in a Major Scale Pieces. For C Major, borrowing Chords from C Minor. (Cm, Ddim, E, Fm, G/Gm, A, Bdim/B) ___________________________________________________

Chord Families in Major. -----------------Tonic Family: Contain the major third IM7, iiim7, vim7 (Key C: CM7, Em7, Am7) Subdominant Family: Contain the perfect fourth ii, IVM7, vim7 (Key C: Dm7, FM7, Am7) Dominant Family: Contain the major seventh iiim7 ,V7, vii7b5 (Key C: Em7, G7, Bm7b5) *Whenever a chord has a perfect fourth, it has a moderate tension. *Whenever a chord has a major seventh, it has a strong tension. **CM7 is slightly **G7 is very strong ___________________________________________________ Chord Families in Minor -----------------Tonic Family: Contain the minor third Im7, IIIM7, VIm7 (Key C: Am7, CM7, FM7) Subdominant Family: Contain the perfect fourth iim7b5, ivm7, VIM7 (Key C: Bm7b5, Dm7, FM7) Dominant Family: Contain the major seventh iiiM7 ,Vm7, VII7 (Key C: CM7, Em7, G7) _______________________________ Cadence --------Strong Cadence Two or more notes are different in the last 2 chord in cadence. The greater the different, the stronger the cadence. Weak Cadence Less than two notes are different in the last 2 chord in cadence. Authentic (Perfect) Cadence V- I IV-V-I Plagal Cadence IV-I Imperfect Cadence Any-V Half Cadence (I,ii,IV,V,vi)-V 7-1 Cadence Key C: vii-I Key Am: VII-i Deceptive Cadence (Change in key) Cadence not ending on I or V Common: V-vi, I6, Voice Chord

Candence in Minor v-bVII-i (Em-G-Am) iv-v-i (Dm-Em-Am) I6 Cadence (combine major and minor chord) Key C: ACEG Voice Chord Cadence Candence ended with added tone chord, e.g. CM7, Cadd9 ___________________________________________________ Stepwise Progression ----------------------Tonic/Chromatic Ascending/Descending Diatonic Ascending (C-Dm-Em-F-G7-C) Ascending Augmented Progression (C-C+-C6-C7) Andalusian Descending Progression (Am-G-F-Em) Descending Bass Progression (C-CM7/B-C7/Bb-F/A) (C > G/B > Am > E/G > F > C/E > Dm > G > C ) Canon Progression (C > G/B >Am > Em/G > F > C/E > Dm > G ) Circles of Third, Fifth and Seventh ___________________________________________________ Third: CAFDBGEC Fifth: CFBEADGC Seventh: CDEFGABC ___________________________________________________ LEAD ------Single Notes Chord can be LEADED using 1,3,5,7 approaching notes. E.g. Given Note is A, the Chord designed can be Bdim, Dm, F , Am (in reverse ord er). (1,4,5,6)->(any) (sus)->resolve sus->resolve before chorus tonic chord ___________________________________________________ Modulation Progression --------------------------From C to F: (C-C7-F) From C to G: (C-Dm-D7-G7) From C to Am: (C-E7-F-G7) From C to G: C-Dm-D7-G C-Am7-D7-G C-(Bm7b5/G7)-Bm-G C-F-F#b5-G From C to F: C-C7-F-Bb-C7-F-G7-C

From C to F: C-C7-Gm-C7-D7-G7-A7-Em ___________________________________________________ Common Chord Progression ---------------------------

___________________________________________________ Basic Two-hand Chords --------------------------Left Hand: Single Bass Note / Octave of Bass Note Right Hand: Chords Left Hand Improvisation: Playing Other Chord Notes instead of Bass Note *Major Chords: If third in the bass by left hand, omit the third in the right