ERUPTION AND SHEDDING

ERUPTION -Process during w/c the crown of developing tooth move from its plane w in the alveolar process to the occlusal plane PERIODS OF ERUPTION 1.) Active eruption -Actual movement of the tooth towards the occusal plane 2.) Passive eruption -Gradual exposure of the crown and later of the root by gradual recession of gingival *PHASES OF DISPLACEMENT 1.) Phase of pre eruptive tooth movement 2.) Eruptive of tooth movement A.) Phase of pre functional tooth movement 1.) Migration of the tooth towards oral epi. 2.) Emergence of crown tip into oral cavity 3.) First occlusal contact B.) Phase of functional tooth movement 3.) Post eruptive tooth movement 1.) Accmodation of growth 2.) Compensation of occlusal wear 3.) Accommodation of interproximal wear 1. Pre eruptive tooth movement -Phase where there is a change in position that a tooth germ undergoes during the bell stage of tooth development of the deciduous and permanent, w/ in the tissues of the jaw before they begin to erupt -Is characterized by bodily displacement of the entire tooth germ. Displacement occurs before the germ is enclosed w/in its bony crypt. -The pre eruptive stage of tooth development is that time before the initial formation of the root. During root development the tooth germ begins to erupt. -Pre eruptive movements of teeth are combinations of two factors: st 1 -total bodily movement of the tooth germ nd 2 -growth in w/c one part of the tooth germ remain fixed while the rest continuous to grow. 2. Eruptive tooth movement -Made by a tooth to move from its position w in the bone of the jaw to its functional position in occlusion.

1.) Migration of the tooth towards oral epithelium a.) The tooth moves toward the oral epithelium because the tooth becomes longer b.) Horizontal bone trabeculae undergo reconstruction c.) Dental follicles rearrange into 3 layers d.) At the fundus, adjacent to the growing end of the tooth, there is differentiation of dental sac into strong bundles of fibers called CUSHION HAMMOCK LIGAMENT e.) Permanent tooth germ develops at first in the same bony crypt w/ that of the deciduous. f.) Next, the crown of tooth travels toward the oral epi as the sub epithelial zone of connective tissue becomes thinner g.) Reduced enamel epi unites w the epi of the oral cavity *GUBERNACULAR CORD OR GUBERNACULAR DENTIS -A strand of fibrous tissue containing remnants of the dental lamina that remains the connection of the successional tooth w/ the lamina propria of oral mucosa *GUBERNACULAR CANALS -Holes w/c once contains the gubernacular cords. *REDUCED ENAMEL EPITHELIUM -During eruption much mitotic activity occurs in the basal layers of reduced enamel epithelium and oral mucosa. Upon tooth penetration into the oral cavity these two layers fuse and provide cells for the epithelium facing the tooth -During the eruption the reduced enamel epithelium is transformed into stratified squamous epithelium. 2. Emergence of the crown tip into the oral cavity a.) Inflammation of the gingival (gingivitis) begins in the marginal gingival b.) Tooth is subjected to environmental factors that help determine its final position in dental arch. CLINICAL ERUPTION -Penetration of the tooth through reduced enamel epi and oral mucosa. 3.) First occlusal contact a.) Most of the teeth meet their antagonist and this helps in assuming the normal alignment of teeth b.) At this stage about 1/3 of the anatomical crown of the permanent teeth is exposed c.) Once the tooth erupts into the oral cavity, it continuous to erupt at the same time. (1mm every 3mos) d.) There is reconstruction of bone by lamellated bone at the fundus e.) Attachment becomes stronger because of increased function f.) Childhood habit of thumb-sucking B. PHASE OF FUNCTIONAL TOOTH MOVEMENT a.) As tooth meet the antagonist there are forces applied that stimulate bone formation and strengthening of PDL b.) There is continuous vertical eruption of teeth in the oral cavity. The movement is mesially and occlusally

A.PHASE OF PRE FUNCTIONAL TOOTH MOVEMENT -Is the phase where occlusally directed eruption that begins w/ root formation and ends when the tooth reaches the occlusal plane breaks through gingiva. - During this stage the root forms and the tooth results until it reaches functional occlusion, (it meets the opposing tooth)

-During root resorption period of resrption alternated by period of cementum repair.) PDL traction e. *For secondary dentition: .) Inherent tendency of teeth erupt SEQUENCE AND CHRONOLOGY OF TOOTH ERUPTION 1.) Determined by general body growth and the corresponding dimensional relationships of both jaws to facial bones. SHED INCISOR (DENTIN) -Shedding of teeth usually entails complete destruction of the root. -Resoption lacuna can be seen in cervical region of the shed root.) Pressure from vascular beds in the pulp and periapical tissues during constriction of pulp c.) Gradual working of tooth tissues is compensated by continuous vertical eruption and mesial drift Four possible mechanisms of eruptive tooth movement 1.) Control of endocrine glands g. *For primary dentition: -Tooth requires about 2-4 yrs to complete its development from tooth germ to complete of its root apex. CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS *Early eruption *Delayed eruption *Impacted teeth *Remnants of deciduous tooth *Retained deciduous tooth *Retained deciduous tooth CAUSES OF TOOTH ERUPTION: a. MECHANISMS OF SHEDDING -Actual resoption of the roots of deciduous teeth is preceded by the resoption of their alveolar bone and PDL -Hard tissue is resorbed by osteoclast and odontoclast -Connective tissue of PDL is resorbed ny fibroblast and macrophages -They begin first apical and lingual to the roots of deciduous incisors and canines and bet roots of deciduous molars -Path of eruption of succeedaneous tooth is lingual to the axis of the deciduous tooth throughout the entire course.) Pressure from muscular action f. *ODONTOCLASTS -Cells directly involved during shedding -Are capable of resorbing all dental hard tissues.) Effect of nutrition h. POST ERUPTIVE TOOTH MOVEMENT -Are those made by the tooth after it has reached its functional postion in the occlusal plane a. Hydrostatic pressure 3.) Accomodation for growth b. Bone remodeling 4. approx 12 yrs -Replacement of primary is completed bet 10-13 yrs of age 2. PDL 3. The apical foramen does not reach its final diameter until its functional occlusion.) Apposition and resorption of bone d.) Growth of root b. ERUPTION OF PERMANENT INCISOR -Its positon may shift bucally.From tooth germ to apex formation lasts on the average.c.) Accomodation for interproximal wear SHEDDING (EXFOLIATION) -Physiologic elimination of deciduous teeth prior to their replacement by permanent teeth -Humans are considered DIPHYDONT (2 sets of dentition) -Resorption lacuna can be seen in cervical region of the shed tooth. Root formation 2. containing enamel -Osteolast-like cells are stimulated by the pressure from erupting permanent teeth and resorb the root.) The chronological sequence of tooth dvlp and eruption is dictated by jaw growth .) Process of eruption decrease because its supposed by occlusal contact d.) Compensation for occlusal wear c.

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