‫بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم‬ ‫يا رب لك الحمد كما ينبغي لجلل وجهك وعظيم سلطانك‬ ‫يعجز لساني عن شكر

ربي الذي هدانا لهذا وما كنا لنهتدي لول أن هدانا‬ ‫الله‬ ‫الحمد لله رب العالمين‬

‫النهاردة هناخد ‪Insecticides‬‬ ‫وتشمل‬ ‫1-‪organphosphorous compound‬‬ ‫2- ‪Carbamates‬‬ ‫3- ‪Hydrocarbons‬‬ ‫4-‪Naphtalene‬‬ ‫5-‪weed killer‬‬ ‫6-‪(Rodenticide (warfarine‬‬ ‫وقبل ما ننقل من هنا بمناسبة ‪rodenticide‬‬ ‫مشروح ال ‪ warfarine‬باعتباره من المجموعة دي‬ ‫لكن لو جالك سؤال اتكلم عن ‪ rodenticide‬مش هنكتفي بالوارفرين‬ ‫بس لن فيه حاجات تانية أخدناه والمفروض إننا نجمعها زي‬ ‫‪*Inorganic arsenic‬‬ ‫*‪Yellow phosphorous‬‬ ‫*‪Cyanide gas‬‬ ‫‪*warfarine‬‬ ‫نبدأ بال ‪organophosphorous compounds‬‬ ‫‪Examples parathion ,malathione,DFP‬‬ ‫‪fatal dose‬‬ ‫04-02 ‪mg‬‬ ‫‪mechanism of action &C/P‬‬ ‫معروفة‬ ‫وال ‪ttt‬‬ ‫معروفة من سنة 3‬

‫بعد كده ‪Carbamates‬‬ ‫وهنعمل جدول‬

Carbamate *Reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase *Degree of toxicity is less sever *Rapid reversal of inhibition within 6 hrs

Organophoshate Irreversible* inhibitor of cholinestrase Degree of* toxicity is more sever Delayed reversal* 24-48 hrs if delay occurs to give antidote

‫سؤال شفوي فزوة‬ ‫ طب امتى نديه بقه‬PAM ‫مش احنا بنقول إن مش مهم‬ ‫الجابة في حالتين‬ 1-If the given insecticide is unknown 2-combination of 2 poisons ==carbamte &organophosphate clinical picture: 1-CNS:Headache 2-Eye :blurred vision ,miosis,lacrimation 3-Mouth :salivation,nausea ,vomiting 4-Skin:sweating 5-Chest :pain or tightness 6-Muscle :Weakness 7-Abdomen:Abdominal cramps 8- Excretory system :urination .diarrhea More sever exposure  Muscle cramps,fasciculations,pulmonary edema ,areflexia &convulsions Ttt as parathion

Chlorinated hydrocarbons

Examples :DDT ,Toxaphene Absorption Rapidly absorbed produce CNS manifestations NB : DDT is poorly absorbed from dermal exposure Because of halogenated nature of these organic* compounds Hepatotoxicity ,Renal toxicity&Myocardial toxicity may occur

Site &Mechanism of action
1-On sensory &motor nerve fibers &motor cotexit is capable of altering the transport of Na &K ions across the membranes of the nerve axons 2-It sensitize myocardium to adrenaline

Signs &Symptoms
Parathesia of the tongue ,lips &face +apprehension +hypersensitivity to stimuli ,irritability ,dizziness ,disturbed equilibrium ,tremors &chronic convulsions

3- irritant effect on GIT,lungs &eyes 4- It induce liver damage

Vomiting ,GIT upset ,Abd .pain Inhalation of the dust  irritation in the lung With large dose  centrilobular necrosis of the liver

NBs: *Emesis is indicated except if comatosed, convulsing,absent gag reflex *Activated charcoal +saline cathartics I said SALINE NOT OIL based Oil based is contraindicated because it increase absorption of the hydrocarbons *Control convulsions by Diazepam

*supportive measures for hepatic & renal failure ‫النفتالين بتاع العتة شائع التسمم بيه في الطفال يقول ايه ماما مخبية‬ ‫مني اللبان في الدولب ويروح واكل قرصين تلتة‬ Fatal dose 1-2 gm Clinical picture GIT irritation CNS manifestations Hemolysis in big dose Ttt Gastric lavage with activated charcoal Bicarbonate IV Blood transfusion if there is hemolysis Warfarin coagulopathy &Haemorrhage ttt :Vit K 1:20 mg IV Fresh blood transfusion Weed killer Divided into 1- Dinitrophenol &dinitro –ortho cresol 2- Paraquate 1-Dinitrophenol & dinitro – ortho cresol *absorbed by all routes *cause hypemetabolic state resemble heat stroke *With hot climate symptoms increase symptoms include Weakness,malaise ,headache,diaphoresis ,fever ,tachycardia ,dyspnea Ttt GL Alkaline diuresis Cold compresses for high temperature with IV fluide therapy Care for liver &kidney functions 2-Paraquate Oral route is the usual route C/P

Local effect
*Local ulceration of epithelial surface

Systemic effect
Following massive ingestion greter than 30 mg/kg In the form of pulmonary edema ,cardiac failure ,renal failure ,hepatic failure &convulsions ==due to CNS involvement Progressive pulmonary fibrosis ,hypoxia &Death

*Burning &ulceration of lips ,tongue &pharynx

Ttt GL Skin decontamination Forced diuresis or charcoal haemoperfusion Care of kidneys ,liver &lungs corticosteroids ‫باقي الكيروسن وسموم العقارب والتعابين‬ ‫أستأذن علشان أروح الكلية وأكمل لما أرجع‬